2005/3 PAGES 30 – 38 RECEIVED 14. 2. 2005 ACCEPTED 18. 4.

2005

A. RAHMAN, M. TAHA

GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS FOR DEEP EXCAVATIONS
ABSTRACT
An underground multi–story garage has been constructed in El Tahreer Square near Omar Makram mosque, Cairo. The performance of a 13.2 m deep multi- propped excavation in medium dense to very dense sand layers is investigated. The vertical side walls of the excavation were supported by cast-in-place fully reinforced concrete diaphragm walls (27.0 m depth and 0.8 m thick). Field measurements of any wall movements and groundwater levels were compiled using inclinometers, deep settlement points, and peizometers. The results of the in-situ monitoring are compared with those obtained from the numerical analysis. The case history presented herein focuses on the behavior of the soil interaction of the diaphragm wall and the general ground deformation regimes in the vicinity of the site. Deep inclinometers are good tools to measure and follow the lateral deformation of any construction activities at the site. They must be deep enough to obtain reliable results. The mathematical results show that the measured soil movements tend to be less than the predicted values by about 20%.

Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Taha
Assoc.Prof.Eng. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed, Taha, PhD., Ain shams University, Faculty of Engineering, Structural Engineering Dept., Cairo, Egypt. Tel.:0020 123131348, E-mail: abderahman_m_t@yahoo.com. Research field: soil mechanics, foundation engineering

KEY WORDS
• • • • diaphragm wall, deep excavation, field monitoring, numerical modeling

1. INTRODUCTION
Economic growth in Egypt during recent decades has forced the construction industry to improve the quality of our urban environment, including moving services below the ground surface. Several large projects involving underground structures have been executed during the past 20 years. Most of these projects represent elements of an overall plan to implement the first two lines of the Greater Cairo Metro or replace the existing wastewater networks for the largest urban areas of Greater Cairo and Greater Alexandria (El–Nahhas, 1999). More active utilization of the underground spaces has started recently in order to solve traffic problems through the construction of road tunnels along with several underground car parking projects within the congested urban areas of Greater Cairo (El–Nahhas, 2003). This paper is concerned with the case history of an underground multi–story garage, referred to as El-Tahreer Garage No. 2. This

garage was constructed in El Tahreer Square near Omar Makram mosque, Cairo, over an area of about 5000 m2 with four underground floors. The northern boundary of the garage faces the El-Sadat station of the First Line of the Cairo Metro. The nearest point of the El-Sadat station is about 6.2 m as depicted on the El-Sadat station drawings. This project represents one of two underground garages to be constructed at the El-Tahreer Square. Figure 1 shows the general layout of El-Tahreer Garage No. 2, while Fig. 2 shows the cross section of the El- Sadat Metro station. The analysis and design of the supported deep excavations is considered one of the most difficult tasks facing geotechnical engineers. The effects of the construction procedure and the characteristics of the soil layers and groundwater should all be taken into consideration. A very important task is to address the structural effects of the garage construction on the El-Sadat Station. The first phase of the study was based on the results of a two-dimensional

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Boone. Sakurai. and peizometers.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 finite element analysis conducted to model the interaction between the underground garage and the metro station. deep settlement points. 50 cm Thickness Diaphragm wall Thickness = 80 cm Length = 30 m Raft Foundation (7.6 m below ground level. Di Biango.. El-Nahhas.0 m in all the boreholes sunk at the garage.50 m).87 El-Tahreer Garage (2) M Omar Makram Mosque M Platform of Tahreer Mogama’a (Burland & Hancock. 2. Without in-situ monitoring and feed-back analysis.. 2. The particle size of the sand is fine to medium. GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . 1987. The stability of the earth-retaining structures and the associated ground movements. 1989. 1. Location and general layout of El-Tahreer Garage No. et al. the in-situ geotechnical performance of a 13. 1991. (21. et al.2 m deep multi-propped excavation in medium dense to very dense sand layers is investigated. The investigation was comprised of 12 boreholes of a depth ranging between 48 and 50 m below the existing ground surface with field testing. 2001. Finno. with a relative density ranging between medium to very dense. El-Nahhas. 100 cm Thickness Second Slab (14.50 m). it is not qualitatively possible to assess how conservative the design of the supported deep excavation is. Schematic diagram of the El-Sadat Metro station’s cross section. Four boreholes were drilled at the site selected for this paper. The results of the in-situ monitoring are compared with those obtained from the finite element analysis. Kovari. The thickness of this clay layer ranged between 1. El-Nahhas.0 to 6. including Standard Penetration Tests. 1. The challenging aspects of this project that required special attention were: 1. 2006 12:28:46 . especially during construction. In this paper. 120 cm Thickness Diaphragm wall Thickness = 80 cm Length = 30 m 10. 5.. Fig. 3 illustrates the average subsurface condition at the site and the results of the Standard Penetration Tests..12 6.0 m. et al. particularly the effect of the ground movement on the nearby Metro Station.. The high permeability of the soil and the nearby source of groundwater flow from the Nile. 1992. Hansmire. et al.indd 31 2. 1987.14 Fig. 1999).43 6.50 m) Top Slab (18. The soil formation at the site consists of surface man-made clayey fill (3. Implementation of in-situ monitoring programs during the construction of the supported deep excavations was necessary to verify the design assumptions and assure the safety requirements N Tahreer Street El-Sadat Metro Station 6. 2. Field measurements of the lateral wall deformations and groundwater levels were compiled using inclinometers.. which is currently under construction adjacent to the Nile Hilton Hotel.0 to 39. The geotechnical condition at the project site was determined from subsurface investigations prepared by (Ardaman Ace. The case history presented herein focuses on the behavior of the soil interaction with the diaphragm wall and the general ground deformation regimes in the vicinity of the site. THE SITE´S SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS Fig. 1992.. et al. 2. Sharma.0 to 4. and eight boreholes were located at the site of Garage No. 1989. The water table within the site is located at about 3. A clay layer appeared at depths ranging between 30.0 m thick) followed by a sand layer which extends to the end of all the boreholes. 2002). El-Nahhas & Morsy. 1989. Urlich. 1989. 1984. 31 rahman. 1977.63 m).

32 GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . Traces of Silt. 4.MEDIUM GRADED SAND.00 Top Slabs 20.80 m) to control the groundwater level outside the deep excavation.00 Depth (m) -25 -30 Top Slabs 34. Sandy Silty Clay.00 m Second Slab 2.S.00 m Top Slabs 10. Stage 3: Installation of The Third Slab and Excavation to Depth 9.. CONSTRUCTION STAGES OF THE GARAGE The garage was constructed following the cut-and cover technique. Lime Stone Fragments 0 0 20 N30 40 60 80 100 Stage 1: Excavation to Depth 3. 5.00 30.80 -5 Yellow.00 m Second Slab 2.50 m 50. Intercalations with Silty Clay.70 m Third Slab Fourth Slab 45. A schematic presentation of the construction stages of Garage No.70 m Third Slab 2.20 m From G.00 5. Traces of Silt and Calcareous Materials 0.00 20. The excavation depth within the garage reaches a maximum of 13. the slabs act as internal lateral supports to the main diaphragm walls during excavation to the finish level (Elevation +8. utilizing the laterally supported diaphragm wall to retain earth and water pressures. 5 shows a schematic cross section of the constructed garage (2).00 37. 3.8 m thick).e. Excavation and strutting sequences to reach the finish level of the garage with simultaneous lowering of the groundwater levels within the deep excavation. The diaphragm walls designed for the outer perimeter of the garage are 27..0 m). 3.00 Grey. casting slabs and then excavating underneath them to reach the level of the following slabs. 2. i. 3.00 -20 Yellow.2 m from the ground surface. Medium dense.70 m 40.2 m deep excavations were supported using fully reinforced cast-inplace concrete diaphragm walls (27.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 End of Stratum Legend Soil Description FILL.S.00 -40 2.8 m in thickness and are fully reinforced from top to bottom. Fig. 4 shows a schematic presentation of the construction stages that was followed at the El.MEDIUM GRADED SAND.. The average subsurface condition at the site and the SPT results Fig. 2006 12:28:50 . After installing the diaphragm walls.. Traces of Silt. 3.00 35. A grouted plug was injected between the diaphragm walls from the elevation (-5. 3. Traces of Sand Yellow.indd 32 2. 3.65 m 25.SILTY CLAY. With this technique.00 5. Very Stiff.S.Tahreer garage (2). The hydro-phrase machines used for drilling panels of the diaphragm walls utilized bentonite slurry.65 m 0. The vertical sides of the 13.05 m From G.65 m 15. Excavation of panels using these machines induces fewer ground movements compared with the grab bucket technique of excavation.00 -10 Second Slab 2.00 -45 4.0 m deep and 0.0 m in depth and 0.00 -50 Fig.65 m 3. 2. -35 Stage 4: Installation of Fourth Slab and Excavation to Depth 13.35 m From G.70 m -15 0.65 m Stage 2: Installation of Top Two Slabs and Excavation to Depth 6. namely: 1. rahman. The construction of the garage passed through 3 main stages.70 m 0.80 m) to (-1. Dense to Very Dense. Fig. MEDIUM GRADED SAND. Dense to Very Dense. the sequence of excavation and construction within the garage structure was carried out in a top-down sequence of work. Diaphragm wall installation.

A schematic cross section of the constructed garage (2).0 m long) for measuring lateral displacement.70 m) 50 cm Thickness Inclinometer Deep Settlment Piezometer PZ6 I(5) DS(1) 1. This model combines the merits of plasticity theory with the logic of the Duncan-Chang model (El-Nahhas & Morsy. FIELD MONITORING In order to monitor the performance of the supported deep excavation of the El-Tahreer (2) multistory underground garage project.00 m) 30 cm Thickness 2.60 m) PZ4 PZ5 2. 2006 12:28:55 . Fig.0 to 24.40 m PZ2 Fourth Slab (12.25 m DS(3) PZ8 Second Slab (17. Six-node triangular isoparametric elements were used with a total of 2331 nodes and 1019 elements to model the soil strata and the grouting.45 m I(4) 3.. and piezometers Elev. was used to conduct this C-type prediction.S.80 m) Grouted Plug Elev. Also. an in-situ instrumentation program was implemented as shown in Fig. These instruments were used to monitor the groundwater levels inside and outside the excavation. PLAXISTM.80 m) Periodical readings were taken for each instrument during all stages of the construction from September 2001 to April 2003.20 m) Top Slab (20.. a commercially available finite element program. 5. 5. 2002). Six node interface elements were utilized to model the interface between the soil and the diaphragm walls.0 m long).70 m) 30 cm Thickness Third Slab (15. 5. (–1.47 m I(6) I(2) 8.31 m 4. 5. The two-dimensional mesh of the El-Tahreer garage (2) and the adjacent Metro station is shown in Fig. 6. There was no change in the elevations of the groundwater table around the station itself. 2.0 m long). Six inclinometers (21. It consisted of the following: 1. 33 rahman. (21.53 m PZ9 PZ10 I(1) Excavation Level (+8.30 m) 30 cm Thickness PZ1 PZ3 Raft Foundation (9.0 m El-Sadat Metro Station PZ7 DS(2) I(3) 4. 3. Ten piezometers. (–5. Three-node beam elements were used to model the diaphragm wall.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 Tahreer Street G. The readings of these inclinometers are used in this study for comparing the field measurements and the numerical modeling results.0 to 23. 6. Six deep settlement points were also installed surrounding the garage to measure the settlement at different levels. 4. settlement points.1 Soil Modeling The hardening soil model developed by Schanz & Vermeer (1997) was implemented in the analysis to model the soil strata. and Metro station.70 m 10. five of them located within the excavation and five installed outside the diaphragm wall near the El Sadat Metro Station. 7. Five of them were installed adjacent to the diaphragm wall near the El-Sadat Metro station (21. The sixth was installed inside the diaphragm wall (24.00 m) Fig. Some basic characteristics of the model are: GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . surface settlement measurements were conducted using precise level surveying equipment.indd 33 2. NUMERICAL MODELING Finite element analysis was utilized to model the excavation sequences and calculate the lateral movement of the diaphragm walls as well as the vertical displacement of the soil surface. basement floors. Location of the inclinometers.

rahman. = plastic volume strain. = elastic axial strain = plastic axial strain. Fig.indd 34 2. The hyperbolic relationship between the strain and deviator stress: (2) where where q = deviatoric stress in primary triaxial loading. and this leads to the approximation = 0.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 qa qf Rf ε1 = = = = asymptote deviatoric stress (= qf/Rf). 5. Eunref = Eiref. (4) (5) γ P = strain hardening parameter. The total strain variant. 7. Eiref = reference to Young’s modulus corresponding to reference pressure Pref = 100kPa. Eun = unloading and reloading of Young’s modulus.. In the case of sand. 2006 12:28:57 . m = power presents the stress depending (= 0. φ = angle of internal friction. where Stress dependent stiffness according to the power law for the primary loading: (1) where C = cohesion. Failure behavior according to the Mohr-Coloumb failure criteria: The yield function of the hard soil model.0. the plastic volumetric strain tends to be relatively small. failure ratio vertical strain. Ei = initial stress dependent on Young’s modulus. σ3' = effective preliminary stresses. The distinction between the primary deviatoric loading and unloading/reloading stress path: (3) where C = cohesion. Finite element idealization of the diaphragm wall and the El-Sadat Metro station..50 for sand). = plastic axial strain. (6) (7) (8) (9) 34 GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . failure deviatoric stress.

Table (2) Parameters used for FEM simulation Stratum Identification No.0 (kN/m2) 1. The properties of the reinforced diaphragm walls. the measured displacement by the inclinometers is considered to be a relative displacement between the upper point and the lower point of the inclinometer.0 1. The negative sign in the lateral deformation indicates displacement towards the excavation. (4). 1 2 3 Fill Medium dense Sand Very dense sand Type Drained Drained Drained ψ (°) 2 3 8 νυρ (°) 0. while the maximum measured lateral displacement did not exceed 1. c. Thus.5 γwet (kN/m3) 16. and I(5) are shown in Figs 8a.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 The stress dilatancy theory: The essential feature of the stress dilatancy theory is that the material compacts for small stress ratios (φm<φcv).5 18. The measured values of the lateral movement of the inclinometers I(4) and I(5) were less than the computed ones by about 20% to 50% from 5. especially those of inclinometer I(3).0 85000. raft foundation.0 1. Table (2) summarizes the parameters for the fill and the two main soil strata used for the finite element simulation. 1 2 3 Fill Medium dense Sand Very dense sand Type Drained Drained Drained γdry (kN/m3) 16.0 1.. 35 rahman. I(4). 5. ψm = mobilized dilatancy angle.0 19.0 1.3 (kN/m2) 45000.0 (kN/m2) 45000. 8 to 10 show a comparison between the measured and calculated lateral deflections of the diaphragm walls. The corresponding volumetric strain ratio to the mobilized dilatancy (ψm) is described by: (10) (11) 6.0 m (12) (13) where γ P = rate of plastic shear strain.2 0.0 85000. Figure 8 reveals that: During the first and second stages of construction. 5. the field and the computed lateral movement had similar trends and close values.0 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The compiled field measurements of the three inclinometers at the locations I(3).0E5 GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . I(4). The limit depth of the inclinometers used allowed the toe of the pipe to move laterally. 2006 12:29:00 .0 m from the ground surface).0 Pref (kN/m2) 100 100 100 Ky (m/day) 1. It should be noted that the data reduction of the inclinometer readings is based on assuming the fixed lower end of the casing. and I(5) were selected to represent the measured lateral displacement of the soil.0 Cref (kN/m3) 1.2 0.0 kx (m/day) 1.0 m up to 5. Readings were recorded throughout the excavation and construction of the diaphragm walls and throughout the different construction stages that are shown in Fig.0 1.0 m from the El-Sadat Metro station. A detailed comparison between the predicted and observed lateral displacement during the actual construction sequences at the inclinometers I(3).0 φ (°) 15 33 38 Stratum Identification No.2 mm.2 Modeling the Supporting Elements The components of the laterally supported diaphragm walls were simulated using the capabilities of the Plaxis program.. and d.0 17. b. horizontal reinforced slabs.0 to 23. where φm is the mobilized angle of the internal friction and φcv is the critical state of the internal friction angle.85 mm. Figs. ψ = failure of the dilatancy angle. Inclinometer I(3) is about 2.0 1. while the dilatancy occurs for high stress ratios (φm>φcv). and Metro station were simulated using beam elements.35E5 2.indd 35 2. The maximum lateral displacement during the construction of the diaphragm wall was predicted to be 8. This can be attributed to the limited depth of the inclinometers used (21.

5. During the third and fourth stages of construction. The limited depth of the inclinometers used allowed the toe of the pipe to move laterally. 8.indd 36 Depth (m) 2. 2006 12:29:03 . The modified predicted. the field and the computed lateral movement were completely different. rahman. 36 Depth (m) GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS .2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -8 0 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 0 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -8 0 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 0 Stage1 Stage2 Stage3 Stage4 -5 -5 -5 -5 -10 -10 -10 -10 Depth (m) Depth (m) Depth (m) Depth (m) Predicted Deformation Predicted Deformation -15 -15 Predicted Deformation Predicted Deformation I(3) Average Measurements -15 I(3) Average Measurements -15 I(3) Average Measurements I(4) Average Measurements -20 I(3) Average Measurements I(4) Average Measurements I(5) Average Measurements -20 I(4) Average Measurements I(5) Average Measurements -20 I(5) Average Measurements I(4) Average Measurements -20 Modified Predicted Deformation I(5) Average Measurements Modified Predicted Deformation -25 -25 -25 -25 Fig. The deeper measured values approximately coincide with the predicted values. The measured lateral displacements subsequently better matched the modified calculated deformation of these two stages. This evaluation is shown in Fig. the measured displacements by the inclinometers are considered to be the relative displacement between the different points and the lower point of the inclinometer. 10.Sadat Metro station Horizontal Displacement (mm) -15 0 -10 -5 0 5 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -15 0 -10 -5 0 5 Stage1 Stage4 -5 -5 -10 -10 -15 Predicted Deformation -15 Predicted Deformation -20 I(6) Average Measurements -20 I(6) Average Measurements Modified Predicted Deformation -25 -25 Fig 9 Predicted and measured lateral movements for the first and fourth stages in the diaphragm wall of garage (2). This is due to the limited depth of the inclinometers used. which represents the first and fourth stages of construction as an example of the results obtained.0 from the El. deformation was obtained by subtracting the calculated movement at the end of the inclinometer casing from all the upper calculated values. Fig. which represents the lateral deformation of the soil near the garage diaphragm walls. Predicted and measured lateral movements for different stages in the soil 2. 9 shows a comparison between the predicted and observed lateral displacements during the first and fourth construction stages as an example of the obtained values. but is relatively far from the Metro tunnel. Thus. Also an evaluation was carried out for the calculated and field-measured lateral deformation for inclinometer I(1). below the surface...

Inclinometers are good tools to measure and investigate the lateral deformation of soil due to earthwork. 2006 12:29:07 . The author heavily participated in this in-situ monitoring program. 11. & El-Said. For this reason inclinometers inside the diaphragm walls have to be installed at least to the end of the walls or even deeper. but matched Thompson (1991). 2. away from the El-Sadat Metro Station. This result agrees with Abdel-Rahman. 10. (2002). GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . A. The field measurements are compared with the predicted soil movements calculated using a two-dimensional finite element analysis. Predicted and measured lateral movements for the first and fourth stages in the soil.. This can be attributed to the difference between the physical and analytical modeling. M.0 m from the El-Sadat Metro Station. 7. more than the field-measured values. The author wishes to thank the Arab Contractor Company. 37 rahman. 5. at some points.. The predicted settlement was 100%.indd 37 2. The measured and predicted surface and subsurface settlement profiles do not match. However the casing utilized must be deep enough to obtain reliable results. 11. -20 The predicted settlement at point DS(2) and the measured surface and subsurface settlements are shown in Fig. The measured surface settlement was also less than that proposed by Clough and O’Rourke (1990).2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -6 0 -4 -2 0 2 Horizontal Displacement (mm) -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0 Settlement (mm) -20 -15 -10 -5 0 0 5 10 Stage1 Stage4 Stage4 -5 -5 -5 -10 -10 Depth (m) Depth (m) -15 Predicted Deformation -15 Predicted Deformation -10 Depth (m) Predicted Settlement -20 I(1) Average Measurements -20 I(1) Average Measurements DS(2) Average Measurements Modified Predicted Deformation -15 Thompson. for their sincere cooperation while conducting the field monitoring program and their permission to use the results obtained in this paper. It is recommended to install the inclinometers in a similarly important project to develop feedback analysis for performing more accurate analytical models of soil parameters for the lateral deformation of diaphragm walls or for better design criteria. but the field-measured settlements or vertical movements were generally less than the predicted values. Predicted and measured vertical movements for the fourth stage in the soil. the general project contractor. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The inclinometer readings described in this paper were performed by the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Unit of Ain Shams University. a reasonable concordance is achieved. S. CONCLUSIONS This paper discusses the performance of the diaphragm wall of an underground multi-story garage constructed in downtown Cairo based on the geotechnical instrumentation.1990 Fig. -25 Fig. Although the measured soil movements were less than the predicted values. 1991 -25 -25 Clough and O'Rourke.

W. Faculty of Eng.. Thompson. 285-291. N. Norway. pp579-586. 14. 115(8). Vol. and Perkins S.indd 38 2. H. „Observed performance of a deep exca-vation in clay“.. A. J. 7. 87-100. and Shalaby. Canadian Geotechnical Journal..G. (1990) „Constructioninduced movements of in-situ walls“. ASCE. P.Vol. Twelfth Int. Schanz.Nahhas. J. „Comparison of a measured and computed diaphragm re-taining wall in Egypt“. R. England. El. Di Biagio. 55(2). (1991) „Third International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geome-chanics“.J.Nahhas. 1045-1064.Y. A. M.. (2002) „Building subsidence associated with cut-and-cover excavation in alluvial soils“. Cornell University. 5. and Nusink. Fansmire. E. Tun-neling and Underground Space Technology. Balkema. Russell. „A review of retaining wall behavior in over-consolidated clay during early stages of construction“.J. „First International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechan-ics“. and Chan . No. (1984). Rome. Nigeria.K. „Soft ground tunneling in Egypt: geotechnical challenges and expecta-tions“. Vol. „On the stiffness of sand“. 55-71... (1989) „Internally braced cuts in over-consolidated soils“. T. F. (1987). Oslo. April 2002. Ain Shams Uni. Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics. 425-439.2005/3 PAGES 30 — 38 REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • Abdel-Rahman. Geotechnique Symposium on pre-failure deformation behaviour of geomaterials.R. No. Ithaca.B.. 953-959. 115(4) 504520. Vol.(2002). E. Of 9th African Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engi-neering. 210-223. Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. Hefny. F. Atmatzidis. (1999). (1992). (1989). Burland. pp. W. (1989) „Behavior of diaphragm walls during con-struction of the Cairo Metro“ Proc. ASCE Conference on Design and Performance of Earth-Retaining Structures. Conf.. and Vermeer. and Hancock. F. 16. Keynote lecture 4/1-4/21. Balkema. Clough. El-Nahhas. (1989). 4. Schanz. Kobe. Pergamon Press.. J. F. „Verification of a soil model with predicted behaviour of sheet pile wall“. Boone. Proc.A.. ed. A. M. 1483-1486. El. P.D.. London. Proc. and Abbott. J. Geotechnical Special Publication. rahman. P. Structural Engineering. R. El-Nahhas. London: Geotechnical aspects“. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering..L. Finno. 1. Zhao.M. R. 2006 12:29:09 . „Second International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geome-chanics. Ulrich. A. (1997). 141-156. 3.h. Vol. Zurich. ed. Rotterdam: A. 25. (1997).J.A. Eisenstein.4. 36.B.. Z. Japan. Proc. Kovari. and O‘Rourke. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. El-Nahhas. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology. Rio de Janeiro. Rotterdam: A. T. R.. 38 GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF EMBEDDED CAST-IN-SITU DIAPHRAGM WALLS . No. 37. 439-470. „Geotechnical Aspects of Controlling Groundwater Levels in Urban Ar-eas“. on Soil Mechanical and Foundation Engineering. S. M. April 2003. S.. Balkema. (1977) „Underground car park at the House of Commons.. 115(2). ASCE.. (1991). (1999) „Comparative evaluation of the building re-sponses to an adjacent braced excavation“. Pergamon Press. D. 2. F.. 93-98.S. „Prediction of ground movement adjacent to a supported deep excava-tion“.. pp. C. Sakurai. T. No. of London. and Bonnies. 245-256. F. Univ. (2001) „Effect of large excavation on de-formation of adjacent MRT tunnels“. • • • • • • • • • • Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics. ed.....A.C.No. Rotterdam: A. Proceedings. Rawnsley. El-Nahhas. ASCE. of Int. Vol. A. of Tenth Int. Pergamon Press. Westland. J. Mphil Thesis. Journal.2. „Field performance of structural slurry wall“. E. Morsy. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. K. Sharma. Italy. Brazil. (2003). (1987). El-Said S. „Construction monitoring of urban tunnels and subway stations“.

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