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STEPS TO AN ECOLOGY OF MIND

COLLECTED ESSAYS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, PSYCHIATRY, EVOLUTION, AND EPISTEMOLOGY

Gregory Bateson

Jason Aronson Inc. Northvale, New Jersey London

Balinese Painting ( Ida Bagus Djati Sura; Batuan, 1937 ) [Analysis, p. 147]

Copyright 1972, 1987 by Jason Aronson Inc. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A rights r!s!r"!#. $rint!# in th! %nit!# &tat!s o' A(!rica. )o part o' this boo* (ay b! +s!# or r!pro#+c!# in any (ann!r ,hatso!"!r ,itho+t ,ritt!n p!r(ission 'ro( Jason Aronson Inc. !-c!pt in th! cas! o' bri!' .+otations in r!"i!,s 'or inc +sion in a (aga/in!, n!,spap!r, or broa#cast. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 0at!son, 1r!gory. &t!ps to an !co ogy o' (in#. 2Chan# !r p+b ications 'or h!a th sci!nc!s3 4!print. 5rigina y p+b ish!#6 &an 7ranciso 6 Chan# !r $+b. Co., 1972. 8ith n!, pr!'. Co !ction o' artic !s r!print!# 'ro( "ario+s p!rio#ica s. 9:h! p+b ish!# ,or* o' 1r!gory 0at!son96 p. Inc +#!s in#!-. 1. Anthropo ogy, C+ t+ra ;Co !ct!# ,or*s. 2. <no, !#g!, :h!ory o';Co !ct!# ,or*s. 3. $sychiatry ; Co !ct!# ,or*s. 4. ="o +tion ; Co !ct!# ,or*s. I. :it !. II. &!ri!s. >?)@A6 1. Anthropo ogy, C+ t+ra ; co !ct!# ,or*s. 2. =co ogy ; co !ct!# ,or*s. ="o +tion ; co !ct!# ,or*s. 4. &chi/ophr!nic $sycho ogy;co !ct!# ,or*s. 5. :hin*ing;co !ct!# ,or*s. 1) 6 0329s 1972aB 1)6.03 1987 306 87C24133 I&0) 0C87668C950C0

CONTENTS 1971 $4=7AC= 1987 $4=7AC= 754=854? I):45?%C:I5) A!ta o.+!6 8hy ?o :hings 1!t in a A+## !D A!ta og+!6 8hy ?o 7r!nch(!nD A!ta og+!6 Abo+t 1a(!s an# 0!ing &!rio+s A!ta og+!6 Eo, A+ch ?o Fo+ <no,D A!ta og+!6 8hy ?o :hings Ea"! 5+t in!sD A!ta og+!6 8hy a &,anD A!ta o.+!6 8hat Is an InstinctD C+ t+r! Contact an# &chis(og!n!sis =-p!ri(!nts in :hin*ing Abo+t =thno ogica Aat!ria Aora ! an# )ationa Charact!r 0a i6 :h! Ga +! &yst!( o' a &t!a#y &tat! &ty !, 1rac!, an# In'or(ation in $ri(iti"! Art Co((!nt on $art II "i "iii -i 1 13 19 24 31 37 43 48 71 5bs!r"!# 83 98 116 137 162

Part I: Metalogues.................................................12

Part II: Form and Pattern in Anthropology......70

Part III: Form and Pathology in Relationship ................................................................................165 o!ial Planning and the "on!ept o# $eutero%&earning...............................................166
A :h!ory o' $ ay an# 7antasy =pi#!(io ogy o' a &chi/ophr!nia :o,ar# a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia :h! 1ro+p ?yna(ics o' &chi/ophr!nia Aini(a 4!.+ir!(!nts 'or a :h!ory &chi/ophr!nia ?o+b ! 0in#, 1969 :h! @ogica Cat!gori!s o' @!arning an# Co((+nication :h! Cyb!rn!tics o' 9&! '96 A :h!ory o' A coho is( Co((!nt on $art III 183 199 205 233 o' 249 276 284 315 345

Part I': (iology and )*olution........................+,7


5n =(ptyCE!a#!#n!ss A(ong &tat! 0oar#s o' =#+cation :h! 4o ! o' &o(atic Chang! in ="o +tion $rob !(s in C!tac!an Aa((a ian Co((+nicationH A 4!C!-a(ination o' 90at!sonIs 4+ !9 Co((!nt on $art IG 0io ogists an# an# 348 351 5th!r 369 384 404 407 419 434 447 455 472 475 484 494 499 57 512

Part ': )pistemology and )!ology..................,06


Cyb!rn!tic =-p anation 4!#+n#ancy an# Co#ing Conscio+s $+rpos! "!rs+s )at+r! =''!cts o' Conscio+s $+rpos! on E+(an A#aptation 7or(, &+bstanc!, an# ?i''!r!nc! Co((!nt on $art G 7ro( G!rsai !s to Cyb!rn!tics $atho ogi!s o' =pist!(o ogy :h! 4oots o' =co ogica Crisis =co ogy an# 7 !-ibi ity in %rban Ci"i i/ation :E= $%0@I&E=? 854< 14=154F 0A:=&5)

Part 'I: "risis in the )!ology o# Mind...........,7,

1971 PREFACE
I ha"! b!!n on! o' 1r!gory 0at!sonIs st+#!nts 'or thr!! y!ars an# I ,as ab ! to h! p hi( s! !ct th! !ssays ,hich ar! h!r! bro+ght tog!th!r 'or th! 'irst ti(! in on! "o +(!. I b! i!"! that this is a "!ry i(portant boo*, not on y 'or thos! ,ho ar! pro'!ssiona y conc!rn!# ,ith th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s, bio ogy, an# phi osophy, b+t a so an# !sp!cia y 'or thos! o' (y g!n!ration ; th! g!n!ration born sinc! Eiroshi(a;,ho ar! s!arching 'or a b!tt!r +n#!rstan#ing o' th!(s! "!s an# th!ir ,or #. :h! c!ntra i#!a in this boo* is that ,! cr!at! th! ,or # that ,! p!rc!i"!, not b!ca+s! th!r! is no r!a ity o+tsi#! o+r h!a#s 2th! In#ochin!s! ,ar is ,rong, ,! are #!stroying o+r !cosyst!( an# th!r!'or! o+rs! "!s, ,h!th!r ,! b! i!"! it or not3, b+t b!ca+s! ,! s! !ct an# !#it th! r!a ity ,! s!! to con'or( to o+r b! i!'s abo+t ,hat sort o' ,or # ,! i"! in. :h! (an ,ho b! i!"!s that th! r!C so+rc!s o' th! ,or # ar! in'init!, 'or !-a(p !, or that i' so(!thing is goo# 'or yo+ th!n th! (or! o' it th! b!tt!r, ,i not b! ab ! to s!! his !rrors, b!ca+s! h! ,i not oo* 'or !"i#!nc! o' th!(. 7or a (an to chang! his basic, p!rc!ptionC#!t!r(ining b! i!'s ; ,hat 0at!son ca s his !pist!(o ogica pr!(is!s;h! (+st 'irst b!Cco(! a,ar! that r!a ity is not n!c!ssari y as h! b! i!"!s it to b!. :his is not an !asy or co('ortab ! thing to !arn, an# (ost (!n in history ha"! probab y b!!n ab ! to a"oi# thin*ing abo+t it. An# I a( not con"inc!# that th! +n!-a(in!# i'! is n!"!r ,orth !a#ing. 0+t so(!ti(!s th! #issonanc! b!t,!!n r!a ity an# 'a s! b! i!'s r!ach!s a point ,h!n it b!co(!s i(possib ! to a"oi# th! a,ar!n!ss that th! ,or # no ong!r (a*!s s!ns!. 5n y th!n is it possib ! 'or th! (in# to consi#!r ra#ica y #i''!r!nt i#!as an# p!rc!ptions. &p!ci'ica y, it is c !ar that o+r c+ t+ra (in# has co(! to s+ch a point. 0+t th!r! is #ang!r as ,! as possibi ity in o+r sit+ation. :h!r! is no g+arant!! that th! n!, i#!as ,i b! an i(pro"!(!nt o"!r th! o #. )or can ,! hop! that th! chang! ,i b! s(ooth.

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A r!a#y th!r! ar! psychic cas+a ti!s o' th! c+ t+r! chang!. :h! psych!#! ics ar! a po,!r'+ !#+cationa too . :h!y ar! th! s+r!st ,ay to !arn th! arbitrarin!ss o' o+r or#inary p!rc!ption. Aany o' +s ha"! ha# to +s! th!( to 'in# o+t ho, itt ! ,! *n!,. :oo (any o' +s ha"! b!co(! ost in th! abyrinth, ha"! #!ci#!# that i' r!a ity #o!snIt (!an ,hat ,! tho+ght it #i# th!n th!r! is no (!aning in it at a . I *no, that p ac!. I ha"! b!!n ost th!r! (ys! '. As 'ar as I *no,, th!r! ar! on y t,o ,ays o+t. 5n! is r! igio+s con"!rsion. 2I tri!# :aois(. 5th!rs ar! choosing "ario+s "!rsions o' Ein#+is(, 0+##his(, an# !"!n Christianity. An# s+ch ti(!s a ,ays pro#+c! a host o' s! 'C proc ai(!# (!ssiahs. A so, a '!, o' thos! ,ho st+#y ra#ica i#!o ogi!s #o so 'or r! igio+s rath!r than po itica r!asons.3 :his so +tion (ay satis'y so(!, a Ctho+gh th!r! is a ,ays th! #ang!r o' satanis(. 0+t I thin* that thos! ,ho choos! r!a#yC(a#! syst!(s o' b! i!' os! th! chanc! to #o so(! tr+ y cr!ati"! thin*ing, an# p!rhaps nothing !ss ,i sa"! +s. :his s!con# ,ay o+t;thin*ing things thro+gh an# ta*ing as itC t ! as possib ! on 'aith; is th! (or! #i''ic+ t. Int! !ct+a acti"ity ; 'ro( sci!nc! to po!try;has a ba# r!p+tation in (y g!n!ration. :h! b a(! 'a s on o+r soCca !# !#+cationa syst!(, ,hich s!!(s #!sign!# to pr!"!nt its "icti(s 'ro( !arning to thin*, ,hi ! t! ing th!( that thin*ing is ,hat yo+ #o ,h!n yo+ st+#y a t!-tboo*. A so, to !arn to thin*, yo+ (+st ha"! a t!ach!r ,ho can thin*. :h! o, !"! o' ,hat pass!s 'or thin*ing a(ong (ost o' th! A(!rican aca#!(ic co((+nity can p!rhaps on y b! appr!ciat!# by contrast ,ith a (an i*! 1r!gory 0at!son, b+t itIs ba# !no+gh to ca+s! (any o' o+r b!st (in#s to gi"! +p oo*ing 'or b!tt!r. 0+t th! !ss!nc! o' a o+r prob !(s is ba# thin*ing, an# th!I on y (!#icin! 'or that is b!tt!r thin*ing. :his boo* is a sa(p ! o' th! b!st thin*ing II"! 'o+n#. I co((!n# it to yo+, (y broth!rs an# sist!rs o' th! n!, c+ t+r!, in th! hop! that it ,i h! p +s on o+r Jo+rn!y. ;Aar* =ng! Eono + +, Ea,aii Ap r i 1 6 , 1 9 7 1

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1987 PREFACE
1r!gory 0at!son ,as 'on# o' .+oting E!rac !it+s6 9Into th! sa(! ri"!r no (an can st!p t,ic!,9 partic+ ar y in his at!r ,or*, in ,hich h! ,as trying to #!'in! th! nat+r! o' th! int!r'ac! b!t,!!n th! r!a ( o' (in# an# physica r!a ity, an# to #isc+ss th! ,ay in ,hich (!nta proc!ss !stab ish!s an#(ar*s or thr!sho #s, (!anings an# #!'initions in th! ,or # o' ' +-. 0+t a boo* is i*! a ri"!r, not in th! si(p ! s!ns! o' ,at!r ' o,ing by, b+t b!ca+s! th! int! !ct+a cont!-t, i*! th! r!a#!r, chang!s st!a#i y. 8h!th!r on! is r!a#ing it 'or th! 'irst ti(! or r!t+rning a't!r a aps! o' y!ars, &t!ps to an =co ogy o' Ain# is to#ay not th! sa(! boo* as it ,as ,h!n 'irst p+b ish!# so(! 'i't!!n y!ars ago, an# 'or (ost r!a#!rs its i(pact sho+ # b! gr!at!r. 8! ha"! chang!# an# th! broa# int! !ct+a c i(at! has chang!#. It ,o+ # not b! 'air to say that this is th! (or! i(portant p+b ication, b+t it is c!rtain y (or! acc!ssib !. :h! incr!as!# acc!ssibi ity o' 1r!goryIs tho+ght to#ay has co(! abo+t arg! y b!ca+s! o' th! st!a#y in' +!nc! o' th!s! !ssays an# oth!r ,rit!rs #ra,ing on th!( in th! int!r"a , an# b!ca+s!, a't!r r!cogni/ing th! +nity o' this co !ction, 1r!gory hi(s! ' ,as ab ! to ,rit! at a (or! g!n!ra !"! . :h! ,or* o' 1r!gory 0at!son has b!!n ,i#! y r!a# #+ring this int!r"!ning p!rio#. ="!r y!ar no, I h!ar o' t,o or thr!! con'!r!nc!s 'oc+s!# on so(! asp!ct o' his tho+ght, so(!ti(!s ,ithin a sing ! #iscip in!, so(!ti(!s across a ,i#!r rang!, an# his na(! crops +p (or! an# (or! o't!n. ="!n (or! signi'icant y, (any o' th! i#!as that ,!r! (ost i(portant to hi( ha"! b!co(! 'a(i iar notions that ,! '!! at ho(! ,ith. E! ,as on! o' a gro+p o' thin*!rs ,or*ing to,ar# an +n#!rstan#ing o' co((+nications, o' th! i(portanc! o' s! 'Cr!g+ ating syst!(s, an# th! ca+sa ro ! o' i#!as, (!ssag!s, #i''!r!nc!s. :his has (a#! hi( a c!ntra 'ig+r! in th! gro,ing appr!ciation o' th! i(portanc! o' oo*ing at !"!nts an# (!ssag!s in cont!-t an# oo*ing at syst!(s ho istica y, ,h!th!r ,! ar! conc!rn!# ,ith th! h!a th o' th! h+(an bo#yK(in# or th! biosph!r!. :h! i(portanc! o' !pist!(o ogy is (or! an# (or! ,i#! y +n#!rstoo#. At th! sa(! ti(!, (+ch o' this 'a(i iarity is i +sory. &trang! or

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+ns!tt ing i#!as ar! #!a t ,ith as th! oyst!r #!a s ,ith th! bit o' grit, pac*ag!# in soothing ,ays, s(ooth!# o"!r. :h! ris* 'or a r!a#!r o' 1r!gory 0at!son in 1972 ,as that h! or sh! ,o+ # too r!a#i y say, 9:his #o!snIt (a*! s!ns!. ItIs too obsc+r! 'or (!.9 :h! ris* to#ay is th! pr!(at+r! c ai( o' +n#!rstan#ing, th! pr!(at+r! app ication. I ha"! ha# t,o s+rprising !-p!ri!nc!s going bac* o"!r th!s! artiC c !s6 :h! 'irst ,as th! #isco"!ry o' ho, (any o' th! i#!as that s!!(!# i(portant in his at!r ,or* ,!r! a r!a#y h!r!, a tho+gh '!, ,i ha"! grasp!# th!( co(p !t! y on 'irst !nco+nt!r. :h! s!con# is ho, (+ch (or! sti a,aits #isco"!ry in th!s! artic !s 'or on! ,ho has b!co(! acc+sto(!# to 1r!goryIs tho+ght. 8or*ing ,ith 1r!gory an# ,riting abo+t hi(, ,r!st ing tog!th!r ,ith n!, i#!as . as th!y ca(! a ong, I a( probab y as (+ch at ho(! h!r! as any o' his st+#!nts an# co !ag+!s, an# y!t th! r!r!a#ing r!(ains a #isco"!ry. Aost o' th! pi!c!s in this "o +(! ar! tight, int!ns!, abstract arC g+(!nts, that 1r!gory an# oth!rs abor!# to 9+npac*9 o"!r th! int!r"!ning y!arsL an# sti th!r! ar! s+rpris!s hi##!n ,ithin th!( that b!co(! "isib ! as th! r!a#!r co(!s to (o"! 'r!! y in th! t!-t. 7r!.+!nt y , #+ring his car!!r, as his Intro#+ction in#icat!s, 1r!gory '! t as i' h! ,!r! sp!a*ing an# ,riting in a 'or!ign ang+ag!. $!op ! #i# not si(p y agr!! or #isagr!! ,ith hi(L th!y ,!r! b!,i #!r!# or into-icat!#. Aar* =ng! s, in his 1971 $r!'ac!, r!cogC ni/!# th! ana ogy b!t,!!n th! 9(in# !-pan#ing9 !-p!ri!nc!s o' #r+gs an# r! igio+s con"!rsion an# th! *in#s o' int! !ct+a chang! that co+ # b! achi!"!# by a p!r"asi"! r!shaping o' patt!rns o' tho+ght. In r!trosp!ct it stri*!s (! that into-ication an# con"!rsion ,!r! co((on r!spons!s !"!n to th!s! abstract an# #i''ic+ t pi!c!s;r!spons!s in ,hich a 'raction o' th! arg+(!nt ,as carri!# on a ti#! o' int+iti"! a''ir(ation. :o#ay, ho,!"!r, it is b!co(ing incr!asing y possib ! to co(! to grips ,ith 1r!goryIs thin*ing, to s! !ct, a''ir(, cont!st, .+!stion. :hro+gho+t his i'!, h! tr!as+r!# th! r! ationships in ,hich h! 'o+n# opport+niti!s 'or int! !ct+a grapp ing that ,!nt b!yon# a#(iration a#+ ationL critica r!a#ing is !ss!ntia . :his n!, !#ition, th!n, in"it!s r!a#!rs into an !nco+nt!r ,ith th! ,or* o' 1r!gory 0at!son that ,as on y a"ai ab ! to a '!, ,h!n th! co !ction 'irst app!ar!#. Ay a#"ic! to r!a#!rs ,o+ # b! to hang on to th! cha !ng! as ,! as th! a''ir(ation. 8! ha"! not as a ci"i i/ation achi!"!# thos! !pist!(o ogica shi'ts that (ay so(! #ay !nab ! n+c !ar

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#isar(a(!nt, !co ogica r!sponsibi ity, an# n!, approach!s to both !#+cation an# h!a ing that ,i "a +! an# !nhanc! th! co(p !-ity o' p!rsons in th!ir 'a(i ia an# socia s!tting. In th!s! an# in 1r!goryIs at!r boo*s 2Ain# an# )at+r!6 A )!c!ssary %nity, ?+tton 1979, an#, Joint y ,ith (!, Ang! s 7!ar6 :o,ar# an =pist!(o ogy o' th! &acr!#, Aac(i an, 19873 th! int! !ct+a too s ar! o''!r!#. :o#ay th!y ,i co(! (or! r!a#i y to han#, b! !asi!r to ba anc! an# han# ! in a #iscip in!# (ann!r than th!y ,!r! in th! !ar y 1970s, b! (or! acc!ssib ! to practic! an# s*i . 0+t sti th!r! r!(ains th! cha !ng! o' +sing th! too s in s+ch a ,ay that th!y b!Cco(! a part o' th! +s!r. An# sti th! tas*s 'or ,hich th!s! too s ha"! b!!n shap!# arg! y r!(ain to b! #on!, (or! +rg!nt to#ay than !"!r. ;Aary Cath!rin! 0at!son Ca(bri#g!, Aass. A+g+st 1987

FOREWORD
&o(! (!n s!!( ab ! to go on ,or*ing st!a#i y ,ith itt ! s+cc!ss an# no r!ass+ranc! 'ro( o+tsi#!. I a( not on! o' th!s!. I ha"! n!!#!# to *no, that so(!bo#y ! s! b! i!"!# that (y ,or* ha# pro(is! an# #ir!ction, an# I ha"! o't!n b!!n s+rpris!# that oth!rs ha# 'aith in (! ,h!n I ha# "!ry itt ! in (ys! '. I ha"!, at ti(!s, !"!n tri!# to shr+g o'' th! r!sponsibi ity ,hich th!ir contin+!# 'aith i(pos!# on (! by thin*ing, 90+t th!y #onIt r!a y *no, ,hat I a( #oing. Eo, can th!y *no, ,h!n I (ys! ' #o notD9 Ay 'irst anthropo ogica 'i! # ,or* a(ong th! 0aining o' )!, 0ritain ,as a 'ai +r!, an# I ha# a p!rio# o' partia 'ai +60r! in r!s!arch ,ith #o phins. )!ith!r o' th!s! 'ai +r!s has !"!r b!!n h! # against (!. I th!r!'or! ha"! to than* (any p!op ! an# instit+tions 'or bac*ing (!, at ti(!s ,h!n I #i# not consi#!r (ys! ' a goo# b!t. 7irst, I ha"! to than* th! Co+nci o' 7! o,s o' &t. JohnIs Co !g!, Ca(bri#g!, ,ho ! !ct!# (! to a 7! o,ship i((!#iat! y a't!r (y 'ai +r! a(ong th! 0aining. )!-t, in chrono ogica or#!r, I o,! a #!!p #!bt to Aargar!t A!a#, ,ho ,as (y ,i'! an# "!ry c os! coC,or*!r in 0a i an# )!, 1+in!a, an# ,ho sinc! th!n has contin+!# as a 'ri!n# an# pro'!ssiona co !ag+!. In 1942, at a Aacy 7o+n#ation con'!r!nc!, I (!t 8arr!n AcC+ och an# J+ ian 0ig! o,, ,ho ,!r! th!n ta *ing !-cit!# y abo+t 9'!!#bac*.9 :h! ,riting o' )a"!n ha# bro+ght (! to th! "!ry !#g! o' ,hat at!r b!ca(! cyb!rn!tics, b+t I ac*!# th! conc!pt o' n!gati"! '!!#bac*. 8h!n I r!t+rn!# 'ro( o"!rs!as a't!r th! ,ar, I ,!nt to 7ran* 7r!(ontC&(ith o' th! Aacy 7o+n#ation to as* 'or a con'!r!nc! on this th!nC(yst!rio+s (att!r. 7ran* sai# that h! ha# J+st arrang!# s+ch a con'!r!nc! ,ith AcC+ och as chairC(an. It th+s happ!n!# that I ,as pri"i !g!# to b! a (!(b!r o' th! 'a(o+s Aacy Con'!r!nc!s on Cyb!rn!tics. Ay #!bt to 8arr!n AcC+ och, )orb!rt 8i!n!r, John "on )!+(ann, ="! yn E+tchinson, an# oth!r (!(b!rs o' th!s! con'!r!nc!s is !"i#!nt in !"!rything that I ha"! ,ritt!n sinc! 8or # 8ar II.

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In (y 'irst att!(pts to synth!si/! cyb!rn!tic i#!as ,ith anthropoC ogica #ata, I ha# th! b!n!'it o' a 1+gg!nh!i( 7! o,ship. In th! p!rio# o' (y !ntry into th! psychiatric 'i! #, it ,as J+rg!n 4+!sch, ,ith ,ho( I ,or*!# in th! @ang !y $ort!r C inic, ,ho iniC tiat!# (! into (any o' th! c+rio+s '!at+r!s o' th! psychiatric ,or #. 7ro( 1949 to 1962, I ha# th! tit ! o' 9=thno ogist9 in th! G!t!rans A#(inistration Eospita at $a o A to, ,h!r! I ,as gi"!n sing+ ar 'r!!#o( to st+#y ,hat!"!r I tho+ght int!r!sting. I ,as prot!ct!# 'ro( o+tsi#! #!(an#s an# gi"!n this 'r!!#o( by th! #ir!ctor o' th! hospita , ?r. John J. $r+s(ac*. In this p!rio#, 0!rnar# &i!g! s+gg!st!# that th! &tan'or# %niC "!rsity $r!ss r!p+b ish (y boo*, )a"!n, ,hich ha# 'a !n ' at on its 'ac! ,h!n 'irst p+b ish!# in 1936L an# I ,as +c*y !no+gh to g!t 'i ( 'ootag! o' a s!.+!nc! o' p ay b!t,!!n ott!rs in th! 7 !ishhac*!r Moo ,hich s!!(!# to (! o' s+ch th!or!tica int!r!st as to J+sti'y a s(a r!s!arch progra(. I o,! (y 'irst r!s!arch grant in th! psychiatric 'i! # to th! at! Ch!st!r 0arnar# o' th! 4oc*!'! !r 7o+n#ation, ,ho ha# *!pt a copy o' )a"!n 'or so(! y!ars by his b!#si#!. :his ,as a grant to st+#y 9th! ro ! o' th! $ara#o-!s o' Abstraction in Co((+nication.9 %n#!r this grant, Jay Ea !y, John 8!a* an#, an# 0i 7ry Join!# (! to 'or( a s(a r!s!arch t!a( ,ithin th! G.A. Eospita . 0+t again th!r! ,as 'ai +r!. 5+r grant ,as 'or on y t,o y!ars, Ch!st!r 0arnar# ha# r!tir!#, an# in th! opinion o' th! 7o+n#ation sta'' ,! #i# not ha"! !no+gh r!s+ ts to J+sti'y r!n!,a . :h! grant ran o+t, b+t (y t!a( oya y stay!# ,ith (! ,itho+t pay. :h! ,or* ,!nt on, an#, a '!, #ays a't!r th! !n# o' th! grant, ,hi ! I ,as ,ritC ing a #!sp!rat! !tt!r to )orb!rt 8i!n!r 'or his a#"ic! abo+t ,h!r! to g!t th! n!-t grant, th! #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis '! into p ac!. 7ina y 7ran* 7r!(ontC&(ith an# th! Aacy 7o+n#ation sa"!# +s. A't!r that th!r! ,!r! grants 'ro( th! 7o+n#ations 7+n# 'or $syC chiatry an# 'ro( th! )ationa Instit+t! o' A!nta E!a th. 1ra#+a y it app!ar!# that 'or th! n!-t a#"anc!s in th! st+#y o' ogica typing in co((+nication I sho+ # ,or* ,ith ani(a (at!ria , an# I start!# to ,or* ,ith octop+s. Ay ,i'!, @ois, ,or*!# ,ith (!, an# 'or o"!r a y!ar ,! *!pt a #o/!n octop+s!s in o+r i"ing roo(. :his pr! i(inary ,or* ,as pro(ising b+t n!!#!# to b! r!p!at!# an# !-t!n#!# +n#!r b!tt!r con#itions. 7or this no grants ,!r! a"ai ab !.

-ii

At this point, John @i y ca(! 'or,ar# an# in"it!# (! to b! th! #ir!ctor o' his #o phin aboratory in th! Girgin Is an#s. I ,or*!# th!r! 'or abo+t a y!ar an# b!ca(! int!r!st!# in th! prob !(s o' c!tac!an co((+nication, b+t I thin* I a( not c+t o+t to a#(inist!r a aboratory #+bio+s y '+n#!# in a p ac! ,h!r! th! ogistics ar! into C !rab y #i''ic+ t. It ,as ,hi ! I ,as str+gg ing ,ith th!s! prob !(s that I r!c!i"!# a Car!!r ?!"! op(!nt A,ar# +n#!r th! )ationa Instit+t! o' A!nta E!a th. :h!s! a,ar#s ,!r! a#(inist!r!# by 0!rt 0ooth!, an# I o,! (+ch to his contin+!# 'aith an# int!r!st. In 1963, :ay or $ryor o' th! 5c!anic 7o+n#ation in Ea,aii in"it!# (! to ,or* in his 5c!anic Instit+t! on c!tac!an an# oth!r prob !(s o' ani(a an# h+(an co((+nication. It is h!r! that I ha"! ,ritt!n (or! than ha ' o' th! pr!s!nt boo*, inc +#ing th! ,ho ! o' $art G. 8hi ! in Ea,aii, I ha"! a so b!!n ,or*ing r!c!nt y ,ith th! C+ C t+r! @!arning Instit+t! o' th! =astC8!st C!nt!r in th! %ni"!rsity o' Ea,aii, an# o,! so(! th!or!tica insights r!gar#ing @!arning III to #isc+ssions h! # in that Instit+t!. Ay #!bt to th! 8!nn!rC1r!n 7o+n#ation is !"i#!nt 'ro( th! 'act that th! boo* contains no !ss than 'o+r position pap!rs ,ritt!n 'or 8!nn!rC1r!n con'!r!nc!s. I ,ish a so to than* p!rsona y Ars. @ita 5s(+n#s!n, th! ?ir!ctor o' 4!s!arch o' that 7o+n#ation. Aany a so ha"! abor!# a ong th! roa# to h! p (!. Aost o' th!s! cannot b! (!ntion!# h!r!, b+t I (+st partic+ ar y than* ?r. G!rn Carro , ,ho pr!par!# th! bib iography, an# (y s!cr!tary, J+#ith Gan & oot!n, ,ho abor!# ,ith acc+racy thro+gh ong ho+rs in pr!paring this boo* 'or pr!ss. 7ina y th!r! is th! #!bt that !"!ry (an o' sci!nc! o,!s to th! giC ants o' th! past. It is no (!an co('ort, at ti(!s ,h!n th! n!-t i#!a cannot b! 'o+n# an# th! ,ho ! !nt!rpris! s!!(s '+ti !, to r!(!(b!r that gr!at!r (!n ha"! ,r!st !# ,ith th! sa(! prob !(s. Ay p!rsona inspiration has o,!# (+ch to th! (!n ,ho o"!r th! ast 200 y!ars ha"! *!pt a i"! th! i#!a o' +nity b!t,!!n (in# an# bo#y6 @a(arc*, th! 'o+n#!r o' !"o +tionary th!ory, (is!rab !, o #, an# b in#, an# #a(n!# by C+"i!r, ,ho b! i!"!# in &p!cia Cr!ationL 8i ia( 0 a*!, th! po!t an# paint!r, ,ho sa, 9thro+gh his !y!s, not ,ith th!(,9 an# *n!, (or! abo+t ,hat it is to b! h+(an than any oth!r (anL &a(+! 0+t !r, th! ab !st cont!(porary critic o' ?ar,inian

-iii

!"o +tion an# th! 'irst ana yst o' a schi/ophr!nog!nic 'a(i yL 4. 1. Co ing,oo#, th! 'irst (an to r!cogni/!;an# to ana y/! in crysC ta in! pros!;th! nat+r! o' cont!-tL an# 8i ia( 0at!son, (y 'ath!r, ,ho ,as c!rtain y r!a#y in 1894 to r!c!i"! th! cyb!rn!tic i#!as. Selection and Arrangement of Items :h! boo* contains a (ost !"!rything that I ha"! ,ritt!n, ,ith th! !-c!ption o' it!(s too ong to b! inc +#!#, s+ch as boo*s an# !-C t!nsi"! ana ys!s o' #ataL an# it!(s too tri"ia or !ph!(!ra , s+ch as boo* r!"i!,s an# contro"!rsia not!s. A co(p !t! p!rsona bib iogC raphy is app!n#!#. 0roa# y, I ha"! b!!n conc!rn!# ,ith 'o+r sorts o' s+bJ!ct (att!r6 anthropo ogy, psychiatry, bio ogica !"o +tion an# g!n!tics, an# th! n!, !pist!(o ogy ,hich co(!s o+t o' syst!(s th!ory an# !co ogy. =ssays on th!s! s+bJ!cts (a*! +p $arts II, III, IG, an# G o' th! boo*, an# th! or#!r o' th!s! parts corr!spon#s to th! chrono ogica or#!r o' 'o+r o"!r apping p!rio#s in (y i'! in ,hich th!s! s+bJ!cts ha"! b!!n c!ntra to (y thin*ing. 8ithin !ach part, th! !ssays ar! in chrono ogica or#!r. I r!cogni/! that r!a#!rs ar! i*! y to att!n# (ost car!'+ y to thos! parts o' th! boo* #!a ing ,ith th!ir partic+ ar s+bJ!cts. I ha"! th!r!'or! not !#it!# o+t so(! r!p!tition. :h! psychiatrist int!r!st!# in a coho is( ,i !nco+nt!r in 9:h! Cyb!rn!tics o' N&! 'I 9 i#!as ,hich app!ar again in (or! phi osophic #r!ss in 97or(, &+bstanc!, an# ?i''!r!nc!.9 5c!anic Instit+t!, Ea,aii Apra 16, 1971

-i"

INTRODUCTION

The Science of Mind and Order*

:h! tit ! o' this boo* o' co !ct!# !ssays an# !ct+r!s is int!n#!# pr!cis! y to #!'in! th! cont!nts. :h! !ssays, spr!a# o"!r thirtyC'i"! y!ars, co(bin! to propos! a n!, ,ay o' thin*ing abo+t i#!as an# abo+t thos! aggr!gat!s o' i#!as ,hich I ca 9(in#s.9 :his ,ay o' thin*ing I ca th! 9!co ogy o' (in#,9 or th! !co ogy o' i#!as. It is a sci!nc! ,hich #o!s not y!t !-ist as an organi/!# bo#y o' th!ory or *no, !#g!. 0+t th! #!'inition o' an 9i#!a9 ,hich th! !ssays co(bin! to proC pos! is (+ch ,i#!r an# (or! 'or(a than is con"!ntiona . :h! !sC says (+st sp!a* 'or th!(s! "!s, b+t h!r! at th! b!ginning !t (! stat! (y b! i!' that s+ch (att!rs as th! bi at!ra sy((!try o' an ani(a , th! patt!rn!# arrang!(!nt o' !a"!s in a p ant, th! !sca ation o' an ar(a(!nts rac!, th! proc!ss!s o' co+rtship, th! nat+r! o' p ay, th! gra((ar o' a s!nt!nc!, th! (yst!ry o' bio ogica !"o +tion, an# t h ! cont!(porary cris!s in (a nI s r ! a ti on s h i p to hi ( ! n "i C ron(!nt, can on y b! +n#!rstoo# in t!r(s o' s+ch an !co ogy o' i#!as as I propos!. :h! .+!stions ,hich th! boo* rais!s ar! !co ogica 6 Eo, #o i#!as int!ractD Is th!r! so(! sort o' nat+ra s! !ction ,hich #!t!r(in!s th! s+r"i"a o' so(! i#!as an# th! !-tinction or #!ath o' oth!rsD 8hat sort o' !cono(ics i(its th! (+ tip icity o' i#!as in a gi"!n r!gion o' (in#D 8hat ar! th! n!c!ssary con#itions 'or stabi ity 2or s+r"i"a 3 o' s+ch a syst!( or s+bsyst!(D &o(! o' th!s! .+!stions ar! to+ch!# +pon in th! !ssays, b+t th! (ain thr+st o' th! boo* is to c !ar th! ,ay so that s+ch .+!stions can b! (!aning'+ y as*!#. It ,as on y in at! 1969 that I b!ca(! '+ y conscio+s o' ,hat I ha# b!!n #oing. 8ith th! ,riting o' th! <or/ybs*i @!ct+r!, 97or(,
H

:his !ssay, ,ritt!n in 1971, has not b!!n p+b ish!# ! s!C,h!r!.

&+bstanc!, an# ?i''!r!nc!,9 I 'o+n# that in (y ,or* ,ith pri(iti"! p!op !s, schi/ophr!nia, bio ogica sy((!try, an# in (y #iscont!nt ,ith th! con"!ntiona th!ori!s o' !"o +tion an# !arning, I ha# i#!nti'i!# a ,i#! y scatt!r!# s!t o' b!nch (ar*s or points o' r!'!r!nc! 'ro( ,hich a n!, sci!nti'ic t!rritory co+ # b! #!'in!#. :h!s! b!nch (ar*s I ha"! ca !# 9st!ps9 in th! tit ! o' th! boo*. In th! nat+r! o' th! cas!, an !-p or!r can n!"!r *no, ,hat h! is !-p oring +nti it has b!!n !-p or!#. E! carri!s no 0a!#!*!r in his poc*!t, no g+i#!boo* ,hich ,i t! hi( ,hich ch+rch!s h! sho+ # "isit or at ,hich hot! s h! sho+ # stay. E! has on y th! a(big+o+s 'o * or! o' oth!rs ,ho ha"! pass!# that ,ay. )o #o+bt #!!p!r !"! s o' th! (in# g+i#! th! sci!ntist or th! artist to,ar# !-p!ri!nc!s an# tho+ghts ,hich ar! r! !"ant to thos! prob !(s ,hich ar! so(!ho, his, an# this g+i#anc! s!!(s to op!rat! ong b!'or! th! sci!ntist has any conscio+s *no, !#g! o' his goa s. 0+t ho, this happ!ns ,! #o not *no,. I ha"! o't!n b!!n i(pati!nt ,ith co !ag+!s ,ho s!!(!# +nab ! to #isc!rn th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! tri"ia an# th! pro'o+n#. 0+t ,h!n st+#!nts ha"! as*!# (! to #!'in! that #i''!r!nc!, I ha"! b!!n str+c* #+(b. I ha"! sai# "ag+! y that any st+#y ,hich thro,s ight +pon th! nat+r! o' 9or#!r9 or 9patt!rn9 in th! +ni"!rs! is s+r! y nontri"ia . 0+t this ans,!r on y b!gs th! .+!stion. I +s!# to t!ach an in'or(a co+rs! 'or psychiatric r!si#!nts in th! G!t!rans A#(inistration Eospita at $a o A to, trying to g!t th!( to thin* so(! o' th! tho+ghts that ar! in th!s! !ssays. :h!y ,o+ # att!n# #+ti'+ y an# !"!n ,ith int!ns! int!r!st to ,hat I ,as saying, b+t !"!ry y!ar th! .+!stion ,o+ # aris! a't!r thr!! or 'o+r s!ssions o' th! c ass6 98hat is this co+rs! a abo+tD9 I tri!# "ario+s ans,!rs to this .+!stion. 5nc! I #r!, +p a sort o' cat!chis( an# o''!r!# it to th! c ass as a sa(p ing o' th! .+!stions ,hich I hop!# th!y ,o+ # b! ab ! to #isc+ss a't!r co(p !ting th! co+rs!. :h! .+!stions rang!# 'ro( 98hat is a sacra(!ntDI to 98hat is !ntropyD9 an# 98hat is p ayD9 As a #i#actic (an!+"!r, (y cath!chis( ,as a 'ai +r!6 it si !nc!# th! c ass. 0+t on! .+!stion in it ,as +s!'+ 6 A c!rtain (oth!r habit+a y r!,ar#s h!r s(a son ,ith ic! cr!a( a't!r h! !ats his spinach. 8hat

a##itiona in'or(ation ,o+ # yo+ n!!# to b! ab ! to pr!#ict ,h!th!r th! chi # ,i 6 a. Co(! to o"! or hat! spinach, b. @o"! or hat! ic! cr!a(, or c. @o"! or hat! Aoth!rD 8! #!"ot!# on! or t,o s!ssions o' th! c ass to !-p oring th! (any ra(i'ications o' this .+!stion, an# it b!ca(! c !ar to (! that a th! n!!#!# a##itiona in'or(ation conc!rn!# th! cont!-t o' th! (oth!rIs an# sonIs b!ha"ior. In 'act, th! ph!no(!non o' cont!-t an# th! c os! y r! at!# ph!no(!non o' 9(!aning9 #!'in!# a #i"ision b!t,!!n th! 9har#9 sci!nc!s an# th! sort o' sci!nc! ,hich I ,as trying to b+i #. 1ra#+a y I #isco"!r!# that ,hat (a#! it #i''ic+ t to t! th! c ass ,hat th! co+rs! ,as abo+t ,as th! 'act that (y ,ay o' thin*ing ,as #i''!r!nt 'ro( th!irs. A c +! to this #i''!r!nc! ca(! 'ro( on! o' th! st+#!nts. It ,as th! 'irst s!ssion o' th! c ass an# I ha# ta *!# abo+t th! c+ t+ra #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n =ng an# an# A(!rica;a (att!r ,hich sho+ # a ,ays b! to+ch!# on ,h!n an =ng ish(an (+st t!ach A(!ricans abo+t c+ t+ra anthropo ogy. At th! !n# o' th! s!ssion, on! r!si#!nt ca(! +p. E! g anc!# o"!r his sho+ #!r to b! s+r! that th! oth!rs ,!r! a !a"ing, an# th!n sai# rath!r h!sitant y, 9I ,ant to as* a .+!stion.9 9F!s.9 9ItIs;#o yo+ ,ant +s to !arn ,hat yo+ ar! t! ing +sD9 I h!sitat!# a (o(!nt, b+t h! r+sh!# on ,ith, 95r is it a a sort o' !-a(p !, an i +stration o' so(!thing ! s!D9 9F!s, in#!!#O9 0+t an !-a(p ! o' ,hatD An# th!n th!r! ,as, a (ost !"!ry y!ar, a "ag+! co(p aint ,hich +s+a y ca(! to (! as a r+(or. It ,as a !g!# that 90at!son *no,s so(!thing ,hich h! #o!s not t! yo+,9 or 9:h!r!Is so(!thing b!Chin# ,hat 0at!son says, b+t h! n!"!r says ,hat it is.9 ="i#!nt y I ,as not ans,!ring th! .+!stion, 9An !-a(p ! o' ,hatD9 In #!sp!ration, I constr+ct!# a #iagra( to #!scrib! ,hat I conc!i"! to b! th! tas* o' th! sci!ntist. 0y +s! o' this #iagra(, it b!ca(! c !ar that a #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n (y habits o' tho+ght an# thos! o' (y st+#!nts sprang 'ro( th! 'act that th!y ,!r! train!# to thin* an# arg+! in#+cti"! y 'ro( #ata to hypoth!s!s b+t n!"!r to t!st hypoth!s!s against *no, !#g! #!ri"!# by #!#+ction 'ro( th! '+n#a(!nta s o' sci!nc! or phi osophy. :h! #iagra( ha# thr!! co +(ns. 5n th! !'t, I ist!# "ario+s sorts o' +nint!rpr!t!# #ata, s+ch as a 'i ( r!cor# o' h+(an or ani(a

b!ha"ior, a #!scription o' an !-p!ri(!nt, a #!scription or phoC tograph o' a b!!t !Is !g, or a r!cor#!# h+(an +tt!ranc!. I str!ss!# th! 'act that 9#ata9 ar! not !"!nts or obJ!cts b+t a ,ays r!cor#s or #!scriptions or (!(ori!s o' !"!nts or obJ!cts. A ,ays th!r! is a trans'or(ation or r!co#ing o' th! ra, !"!nt ,hich int!r"!n!s b!t,!!n th! sci!ntist an# his obJ!ct. :h! ,!ight o' an obJ!ct is (!asC +r!# against th! ,!ight o' so(! oth!r obJ!ct or r!gist!r!# on a (!Ct!r. :h! h+(an "oic! is trans'or(!# into "ariab ! (agn!ti/ations o' tap!. Aor!o"!r, a ,ays an# in!"itab y, th!r! is a s! !ction o' #ata b!ca+s! th! tota +ni"!rs!, past an# pr!s!nt, is not s+bJ!ct to obs!r"ation 'ro( any gi"!n obs!r"!rIs position. In a strict s!ns!, th!r!'or!, no #ata ar! tr+ y 9ra,,9 an# !"!ry r!cor# has b!!n so(!ho, s+bJ!ct!# to !#iting an# trans'or(ation !ith!r by (an or by his instr+(!nts. 0+t sti th! #ata ar! th! (ost r! iab ! so+rc! o' in'or(ation, an# 'ro( th!( th! sci!ntist (+st start. :h!y pro"i#! his 'irst inspiration an# to th!( h! (+st at!r r!t+rn. In th! (i## ! co +(n, I ist!# a n+(b!r o' i(p!r'!ct y #!'in!# !-p anatory notions ,hich ar! co((on y +s!# in th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s;9!go,9 9an-i!ty,9 9instinct,9 9p+rpos!,9 9(in#,9 9s! ',9 9'i-!# action patt!rn,9 9int! ig!nc!,9 9st+pi#ity,9 9(at+rity,9 an# th! i*!. 7or th! sa*! o' po it!n!ss, I ca th!s! 9h!+ristic9 conc!ptsL b+t, in tr+th, (ost o' th!( ar! so oos! y #!ri"!# an# so (+t+a y irr! !"ant that th!y (i- tog!th!r to (a*! a sort o' conc!pt+a 'og ,hich #o!s (+ch to #! ay th! progr!ss o' sci!nc!. In th! rightChan# co +(n, I ist!# ,hat I ca 9'+n#a(!nta s.9 :h!s! ar! o' t,o *in#s6 propositions an# syst!(s o' propositions ,hich ar! tr+istica , an# propositions or 9 a,s9 ,hich ar! g!n!ra y tr+!. A(ong th! tr+istica propositions I inc +#!# th! 9=t!rna G!riti!s9 o' (ath!(atics ,h!r! tr+th is ta+to ogica y i(it!# to th! #oC(ains ,ithin ,hich (anC(a#! s!ts o' a-io(s an# #!'initions obtain6 9I' n+(b!rs ar! appropriat! y #!'in!# an# i' th! op!ration o' a##ition is appropriat! y #!'in!#L th!n 5 P 7 Q 12.9 A(ong propositions ,hich I ,o+ # #!scrib! as sci!nti'ica y or g!n!ra y an# !(pirica y tr+!, I ,o+ # ist th! cons!r"ation 9 a,s9 'or (ass an# !n!rgy, th! &!con# @a, o' :h!r(o#yna(ics, an# so on. 0+t th! in! b!t,!!n ta+to ogica tr+ths an# !(pirica g!n!ra i/ations is not sharp y #!'inab !, an#, a(ong (y 9'+n#a(!nta s,9 th!r! ar! (any propositions ,hos! tr+th no

s!nsib ! (an can #o+bt b+t ,hich canCnot !asi y b! c assi'i!# as !ith!r !(pirica or ta+to ogica . :h! 9 a,s9 o' probabi ity cannot b! stat!# so as to b! +n#!rstoo# an# not b! b! i!"!#, b+t it is not !asy to #!ci#! ,h!th!r th!y ar! !(pirica or ta+to ogica L an# this is a so tr+! o' &hannonIs th!or!(s in In'or(ation :h!ory. 8ith th! ai# o' s+ch a #iagra(, (+ch can b! sai# abo+t th! ,ho ! sci!nti'ic !n#!a"or an# abo+t th! position an# #ir!ction o' any partic+ ar pi!c! o' in.+iry ,ithin it. 9=-p anation9 is th! (apping o' #ata onto '+n#a(!nta s, b+t th! + ti(at! goa o' sci!nc! is th! incr!as! o' '+n#a(!nta *no, !#g!. Aany in"!stigators, !sp!cia y in th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s, s!!( to b! i!"! that sci!nti'ic a#"anc! is pr!#o(inant y in#+cti"! an# sho+ # b! in#+cti"!. In t!r(s o' th! #iagra(, th!y b! i!"! that progr!ss is (a#! by st+#y o' th! 9ra,9 #ata, !a#ing to n!, h!+ristic conc!pts. :h! h!+ristic conc!pts ar! th!n to b! r!gar#!# as 9,or*ing hypoth!s!s9 an# t!st!# against (or! #ata. 1ra#+a y, it is hop!#, th! h!+ristic conc!pts ,i b! corr!ct!# an# i(pro"!# +nti at ast th!y ar! ,orthy o' a p ac! in th! ist o' '+n#a(!nta s. Abo+t 'i'ty y!ars o' ,or* in ,hich tho+san#s o' c !"!r (!n ha"! ha# th!ir shar! ha"!, in 'act, pro#+c!# a rich crop o' s!"!ra h+n#r!# h!+ristic conc!pts, b+t, a as, scarc! y a sing ! princip ! ,orthy o' a p ac! in th! ist o' '+n#a(!nta s. It is a too c !ar that th! "ast (aJority o' th! conc!pts o' cont!(C porary psycho ogy, psychiatry, anthropo ogy, socio ogy, an# !coC no(ics ar! tota y #!tach!# 'ro( th! n!t,or* o' sci!nti'ic '+nC #a(!nta s. Ao i!r!, ong ago, #!pict!# an ora #octora !-a(ination in ,hich th! !arn!# #octors as* th! can#i#at! to stat! th! 9ca+s! an# r!ason9 ,hy opi+( p+ts p!op ! to s !!p. :h! can#i#at! tri+(phant y ans,!rs in #og @atin, 90!ca+s! th!r! is in it a #or(iti"! princip ! 2"irt+s #or(iti"a3. 9 Charact!ristica y, th! sci!ntist con'ronts a co(p !- int!racti"! syst!(;in this cas!, an int!raction b!t,!!n (an an# opi+(. E! obs!r"!s a chang! in th! syst!( ; th! (an 'a s as !!p. :h! sci!ntist th!n !-p ains th! chang! by gi"ing a na(! to a 'ictitio+s 9ca+s!,9 oC cat!# in on! or oth!r co(pon!nt o' th! int!racting syst!(. =ith!r th! opi+( contains a r!i'i!# #or(iti"! princip !, or th! (an contains a

r!i'i!# n!!# 'or s !!p, an a#or(itosis, ,hich is 9!-pr!ss!#9 in his r!spons! to opi+(. An#, charact!ristica y, a s+ch hypoth!s!s ar! 9#or(iti"!9 in th! s!ns! that th!y p+t to s !!p th! 9critica 'ac+ ty9 2anoth!r r!i'i!# 'ictitio+s ca+s!3 ,ithin th! sci!ntist hi(s! '. :h! stat! o' (in# or habit o' tho+ght ,hich go!s 'ro( #ata to #or(iti"! hypoth!sis an# bac* to #ata is s! 'Cr!in'orcing. :h!r! is, a(ong a sci!ntists, a high "a +! s!t +pon pr!#iction, an#, in#!!#, to b! ab ! to pr!#ict ph!no(!na is a 'in! thing. 0+t pr!#iction is a rath!r poor t!st o' an hypoth!sis, an# this is !sp!cia y tr+! o' 9#orC (iti"! hypoth!s!s.9 I' ,! ass!rt that opi+( contains a #or(iti"! princip !, ,! can th!n #!"ot! a i'!ti(! o' r!s!arch to st+#ying th! charact!ristics o' this princip !. Is it h!atCstab !D In ,hich 'raction o' a #isti at! is it ocat!#D 8hat is its (o !c+ ar 'or(+ aD An# so on. Aany o' th!s! .+!stions ,i b! ans,!rab ! in th! aboratory an# ,i !a# on to #!ri"ati"! hypoth!s!s no !ss 9#or(iti"!9 than that 'ro( ,hich ,! start!#. In 'act, th! (+ tip ication o' #or(iti"! hypoth!s!s is a sy(pto( o' !-c!ssi"! pr!'!r!nc! 'or in#+ction, an# this pr!'!r!nc! (+st a C,ays !a# to so(!thing i*! th! pr!s!nt stat! o' th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s; a (ass o' .+asiCth!or!tica sp!c+ ation +nconn!ct!# ,ith any cor! o' '+n#a(!nta *no, !#g!. In contrast, I try to t!ach st+#!nts; an# this co !ction o' !ssays is "!ry (+ch conc!rn!# ,ith trying to co((+nicat! this th!sis;that in sci!nti'ic r!s!arch yo+ start 'ro( t,o b!ginnings, !ach o' ,hich has its o,n *in# o' a+thority6 th! obs!r"ations cannot b! #!ni!#, an# th! '+n#a(!nta s (+st b! 'itt!#. Fo+ (+st achi!"! a sort o' pinc!rs (an!+"!r. I' yo+ ar! s+r"!ying a pi!c! o' an#, or (apping th! stars, yo+ ha"! t,o bo#i!s o' *no, !#g!, n!ith!r o' ,hich can b! ignor!#. :h!r! ar! yo+r o,n !(pirica (!as+r!(!nts on th! on! han# an# th!r! is =+c i#!an g!o(!try on th! oth!r. I' th!s! t,o cannot b! (a#! to 'it tog!th!r, th!n !ith!r th! #ata ar! ,rong or yo+ ha"! arg+!# ,rong y 'ro( th!( or yo+ ha"! (a#! a (aJor #isco"!ry !a#ing to a r!"ision o' th! ,ho ! o' g!o(!try. :h! ,o+ #Cb! b!ha"iora sci!ntist ,ho *no,s nothing o' th! basic str+ct+r! o' sci!nc! an# nothing o' th! 3000 y!ars o' car!'+ phi osophic an# h+(anistic tho+ght abo+t (an ; ,ho cannot #!'in! !ith!r !ntropy

or a sacra(!nt ;ha# b!tt!r ho # his p!ac! rath!r than a## to th! !-isting J+ng ! o' ha 'Cba*!# hypoth!s!s. 0+t th! g+ ' b!t,!!n th! h!+ristic an# th! '+n#a(!nta is not so ! y #+! to !(piricis( an# th! in#+cti"! habit, nor !"!n to th! s!#+ctions o' .+ic* app ication an# th! 'a+ ty !#+cationa syst!( ,hich (a*!s pro'!ssiona sci!ntists o+t o' (!n ,ho car! itt ! 'or th! '+n#a(!nta str+ct+r! o' sci!nc!. It is #+! a so to th! circ+(stanc! that a "!ry arg! part o' th! '+n#a(!nta str+ct+r! o' nin!t!!nthCc!nt+ry sci!nc! ,as inappropriat! or irr! !"ant to th! prob !(s an# ph!no(!na ,hich con'ront!# th! bio ogist an# b!ha"iora sci!ntist. 7or at !ast 200 y!ars, say 'ro( th! ti(! o' )!,ton to th! at! nin!t!!nth c!nt+ry, th! #o(inant pr!occ+pation o' sci!nc! ,as ,ith thos! chains o' ca+s! an# !''!ct ,hich co+ # b! r!'!rr!# to 'orc!s an# i(pacts. :h! (ath!(atics a"ai ab ! to )!,ton ,as pr!pon#!rant y .+antitati"!, an# this 'act, co(bin!# ,ith th! c!ntra 'oc+s +pon 'orc!s an# i(pacts, !# (!n to (!as+r! ,ith r!(ar*ab ! acc+racy .+antiti!s o' #istanc!, ti(!, (att!r, an# !n!rgy. As th! (!as+r!(!nts o' th! s+r"!yor (+st Jib! ,ith =+c i#!an g!o(!try, so sci!nti'ic tho+ght ha# to Jib! ,ith th! gr!at cons!r"ati"! a,s. :h! #!scription o' any !"!nt !-a(in!# by a physicist or ch!(ist ,as to b! 'o+n#!# +pon b+#g!ts o' (ass an# !n!rgy, an# this r+ ! ga"! a partic+ ar *in# o' rigor to th! ,ho ! o' tho+ght in th! har# sci!nc!s. :h! !ar y pion!!rs o' b!ha"iora sci!nc! not +nnat+ra y b!gan th!ir s+r"!y o' b!ha"ior by #!siring a si(i ar rigoro+s bas! to g+i#! th!ir sp!c+ ations. @!ngth an# (ass ,!r! conc!pts ,hich th!y co+ # har# y +s! in #!scribing b!ha"ior 2,hat!"!r that (ight b!3, b+t !n!rgy s!!(!# (or! han#y. It ,as t!(pting to r! at! 9!n!rgy9 to a r!a#y !-isting (!taphors s+ch as 9str!ngth9 o' !(otions or charact!r or 9"igor.9 5r to thin* o' 9!n!rgy9 as so(!ho, th! opposit! o' 9'atig+!9 or 9apathy.9 A!tabo is( ob!ys an !n!rgy b+#g!t 2,ithin th! strict (!aning o' 9!n!rgy93, an# !n!rgy !-p!n#!# in b!ha"ior (+st s+r! y b! inc +#!# in this b+#g!tL th!r!'or! it s!!(!# s!nsib ! to thin* o' !n!rgy as a #!t!r(inant o' b!ha"ior. It ,o+ # ha"! b!!n (or! 'r+it'+ to thin* o' ac* o' !n!rgy as pr!C "!nti"! o' b!ha"ior, sinc! in th! !n# a star"ing (an ,i c!as! to b!C ha"!. 0+t !"!n this ,i not #o6 an a(o!ba, #!pri"!# o' 'oo#, b!Cco(!s 'or a ti(! (or! acti"!. Its !n!rgy !-p!n#it+r! is an in"!rs! '+nction o' !n!rgy inp+t.

:h! nin!t!!thCc!nt+ry sci!ntists 2notab y 7r!+#3 ,ho tri!# to !sC tab ish a bri#g! b!t,!!n b!ha"iora #ata an# th! '+n#a(!nta s o' physica an# ch!(ica sci!nc! ,!r!, s+r! y, corr!ct in insisting +pon th! n!!# 'or s+ch a bri#g! b+t, I b! i!"!, ,rong in choosing 9!n!rgy9 as th! 'o+n#ation 'or that bri#g!. I' (ass an# !ngth ar! inappropriat! 'or th! #!scribing o' b!ha"ior, th!n !n!rgy is +n i*! y to b! (or! appropriat!. A't!r a , !n!rgy is Aass - G! ocity2, an# no b!ha"iora sci!ntist r!a y insists that 9psychic !n!rgy9 is o' th!s! #i(!nsions. It is n!c!ssary, th!r!'or!, to oo* again a(ong th! '+n#a(!nta s 'or an appropriat! s!t o' i#!as against ,hich ,! can t!st o+r h!+ristic hypoth!s!s. 0+t so(! ,i arg+! that th! ti(! is not y!t rip!L that s+r! y th! '+n#a(!nta s o' sci!nc! ,!r! a arri"!# at by in#+cti"! r!asoning 'ro( !-p!ri!nc!, so ,! sho+ # contin+! ,ith in#+ction +nti ,! g!t a '+n#a(!nta ans,!r. I b! i!"! that it is si(p y not tr+! that th! '+n#a(!nta s o' sciC !nc! b!gan in in#+ction 'ro( !-p!ri!nc!, an# I s+gg!st that in th! s!arch 'or a bri#g!h!a# a(ong th! '+n#a(!nta s ,! sho+ # go bac* to th! "!ry b!ginnings o' sci!nti'ic an# phi osophic tho+ghtL c!rtain y to a p!rio# b!'or! sci!nc!, phi osophy, an# r! igion ha# b!Cco(! s!parat! acti"iti!s s!parat! y p+rs+!# by pro'!ssiona s in s!parat! #iscip in!s. Consi#!r, 'or !-a(p !, th! c!ntra origin (yth o' J+#a!oCChristian p!op !s. 8hat ar! th! '+n#a(!nta phi osophic an# sci!nti'ic prob !(s ,ith ,hich this (yth is conc!rn!#D In th! b!ginning 1o# cr!at!# th! h!a"!n an# th! !arth. An# th! !arth ,as ,itho+t 'or(, an# "oi#L an# #ar*n!ss ,as +pon th! 'ac! o' th! #!!p. An# th! &pirit o' 1o# (o"!# +pon th! 'ac! o' th! ,at!rs. An# 1o# sai#, @!t th!r! b! ight6 an# th!r! ,as ight. An# 1o# sa, th! ight, that it ,as goo#6 an# 1o# #i"i#!# th! ight 'ro( th! #ar*n!ss. An# 1o# ca !# th! ight ?ay, an# th! #ar*n!ss h! ca !# )ight. An# th! !"!ning an# th! (orning ,!r! th! 'irst #ay.

An# 1o# sai#, @!t th!r! b! a 'ir(a(!nt in th! (i#st o' th! ,at!rs, an# !t it #i"i#! th! ,at!rs 'ro( th! ,at!rs. An# 1o# (a#! th! 'ir(a(!nt, an# #i"i#!# th! ,at!rs ,hich ,!r! +n#!r th! 'ir(a(!nt 'ro( th! ,at!rs ,hich ,!r! abo"! th! 'ir(a(!nt6 an# it ,as so. An# 1o# ca !# th! 'ir(a(!nt E!a"!n. An# th! !"!ning an# th! (orning ,!r! th! s!con# #ay. An# 1o# sai#, @!t th! ,at!rs +n#!r th! h!a"!n b! gath!r!# tog!th!r +nto on! p ac!, an# !t th! #ry an# app!ar6 an# it ,as so. An# 1o# ca !# th! #ry an# =arthL an# th! gath!ring tog!th!r o' th! ,at!rs ca !# h! &!as6 an# 1o# sa, that it ,as goo#.
A+thori/!# "!rsion

5+t o' th!s! 'irst t!n "!rs!s o' th+n#!ro+s pros!, ,! can #ra, so(! o' th! pr!(is!s or '+n#a(!nta s o' anci!nt Cha #!an tho+ght an# it is strang!, a (ost !!ri!, to not! ho, (any o' th! '+n#a(!nta s an# prob !(s o' (o#!rn sci!nc! ar! 'or!sha#o,!# in th! anci!nt #oc+(!nt. 213 :h! prob !( o' th! origin an# nat+r! o' (att!r is s+((ari y #is(iss!#. 223 :h! passag! #!a s at !ngth ,ith th! prob !( o' th! origin o' or#!r. 233 A s!paration is th+s g!n!rat!# b!t,!!n th! t,o sorts o' probC !(. It is possib ! that this s!paration o' prob !(s ,as an !rror, b+t ;!rror or not;th! s!paration is (aintain!# in th! '+n#a(!nta s o' (o#!rn sci!nc!. :h! cons!r"ati"! a,s 'or (att!r an# !n!rgy ar! sti s!parat! 'ro( th! a,s o' or#!r, n!gati"! !ntropy, an# in'or(ation. 243 5r#! is s!!n as a (att!r o' sorting an# #i"i#ing. 0+t th! !ss!ntia notion in a sorting is that so(! #i''!r!nc! sha ca+s! so(! oth!r #i''!r!nc! at a at!r ti(!. I' ,! ar! sorting b ac* ba s 'ro( ,hit! ba s, or arg! ba s 'ro( s(a ba s, a #i''!r!nc! a(ong th! ba s is to b! 'o o,!# by a #i''!r!nc! in th!ir ocation;ba s o' on! c ass to on! sac* an# ba s o' anoth!r c ass to anoth!r. 7or s+ch an op!ration, ,! n!!#

so(!thing i*! a si!"!, a thr!sho #, or, par !-c! !nc!, a s!ns! organ. It is +n#!rstan#ab !, th!r!'or!, that a p!rc!i"ing =ntity sho+ # ha"! b!!n in"o*!# to p!r'or( this '+nction o' cr!ating an oth!r,is! i(probab ! or#!r. 253 C os! y in*!# ,ith th! sorting an# #i"i#ing is th! (yst!ry o' c assi'ication, to b! 'o o,!# at!r by th! !-traor#inary h+(an achi!"!(!nt o' na(ing. It is not at a c !ar that th! "ario+s co(pon!nts o' this (yth ar! a pro#+cts o' in#+cti"! r!asoning 'ro( !-p!ri!nc!. An# th! (atCt!r b!co(!s sti (or! p+// ing ,h!n this origin (yth is co(par!# ,ith oth!rs ,hich !(bo#y #i''!r!nt '+n#a(!nta pr!(is!s. A(ong th! Iat(+ o' )!, 1+in!a, th! c!ntra origin (yth, i*! th! 1!n!sis story, #!a s ,ith th! .+!stion o' ho, #ry an# ,as s!parat!# 'ro( ,at!r. :h!y say that in th! b!ginning th! croco#i ! <a",o*(a i pa## !# ,ith his 'ront !gs an# ,ith his hin# !gsL an# his pa## ing *!pt th! (+# s+sp!n#!# in th! ,at!r. :h! gr!at c+ t+r! h!ro, <!"!(b+angga, ca(! ,ith his sp!ar an# *i !# <a",o*(a i. A't!r that th! (+# s!tt !# an# #ry an# ,as 'or(!#. <!"!(b+angga th!n sta(p!# ,ith his 'oot on th! #ry an#, i.!., h! pro+# y #!(onstrat!# 9that it ,as goo#.9 E!r! th!r! is a strong!r cas! 'or #!ri"ing th! (yth 'ro( !-p!riC !nc! co(bin!# ,ith in#+cti"! r!asoning. A't!r a , (+# #o!s r!C (ain in s+sp!nsion i' ran#o( y stirr!# an# #o!s s!tt ! ,h!n th! stirCring c!as!s. Aor!o"!r, th! Iat(+ p!op ! i"! in th! "ast s,a(ps o' th! &!pi* 4i"!r "a !y ,h!r! th! s!paration o' an# 'ro( ,at!r is i(p!r'!ct. It is +n#!rstan#ab ! that th!y (ight b! int!r!st!# in th! #i''!r!ntiation o' an# 'ro( ,at!r. In any cas!, th! Iat(+ ha"! arri"!# at a th!ory o' or#!r ,hich is a (ost a pr!cis! con"!rs! o' that o' th! boo* o' 1!n!sis. In Iat(+ tho+ght, sorting ,i occ+r i' ran#o(i/ation is pr!"!nt!#. In 1!n!C sis, an ag!nt is in"o*!# to #o th! sorting an# #i"i#ing. 0+t both c+ t+r!s a i*! ass+(! a '+n#a(!nta #i"ision b!t,!!n th! prob !(s o' (at!ria cr!ation an# th! prob !(s o' or#!r an# #i''!r!ntiation. 4!t+rning no, to th! .+!stion o' ,h!th!r th! '+n#a(!nta s o' sci!nc! an#Kor phi osophy ,!r!, at th! pri(iti"! !"! , arri"!# at by in#+cti"! r!asoning 'ro( !(pirica #ata, ,! 'in# that th! ans,!r is not si(p !. It is #i''ic+ t to s!! ho, th! #ichoto(y b!t,!!n

10

s+bstanc! an# 'or( co+ # b! arri"!# at by in#+cti"! arg+(!nt. )o (an, a't!r a , has !"!r s!!n or !-p!ri!nc!# 'or( !ss an# +nsort!# (att!rL J+st as no (an has !"!r s!!n or !-p!ri!nc!# a 9ran#o(9 !"!nt. I', th!r!'or!, th! notion o' a +ni"!rs! 9,itho+t 'or( an# "oi#9 ,as arri"!# at by in#+ction, it ,as by a (onstro+s;an# p!rhaps !rron!o+s ; J+(p o' !-trapo ation. An# !"!n so, it is not c !ar that th! starting point 'ro( ,hich th! pri(iti"! phi osoph!rs too* o'' ,as obs!r"ation. It is at !ast !.+a y i*! y that #ichoto(y b!t,!!n 'or( an# s+bstanc! ,as an +nconC scio+s #!#+ction 'ro( th! s+bJ!ctCpr!#icat! r! ation in th! str+ct+r! o' pri(iti"! ang+ag!. :his, ho,!"!r, is a (att!r b!yon# th! r!ach o' +s!'+ sp!c+ ation. 0! that as it (ay, th! c!ntra ;b+t +s+a y not !-p icit ; s+bJ!ct (att!r o' th! !ct+r!s ,hich I +s!# to gi"! to psychiatric r!si#!nts an# o' th!s! !ssays is th! bri#g! b!t,!!n b!ha"iora #ata an# th! 9'+n#a(!nta s9 o' sci!nc! an# phi osophyL an# (y critica co((!nts abo"! abo+t th! (!taphoric +s! o' 9!n!rgy9 in th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s a## +p to a rath!r si(p ! acc+sation o' (any o' (y co !ag+!s, that th!y ha"! tri!# to b+i # th! bri#g! to th! ,rong ha ' o' th! anci!nt #ichoto(y b!t,!!n 'or( an# s+bstanc!. :h! cons!r"ati"! a,s 'or !n!rgy an# (att!r conc!rn s+bstanc! rath!r than 'or(. 0+t (!nta proc!ss, i#!as, co((+nication, organi/ation, #i''!r!ntiation, patt!rn, an# so on, ar! (att!rs o' 'or( rath!r than s+bstanc!. 8ithin th! bo#y o' '+n#a(!nta s, that ha ' ,hich #!a s ,ith 'or( has b!!n #ra(atica y !nrich!# in th! ast thirty y!ars by th! #isco"!ri!s o' cyb!rn!tics an# syst!(s th!ory. :his boo* is conC c!rn!# ,ith b+i #ing a bri#g! b!t,!!n th! 'acts o' i'! an# b!ha"ior an# ,hat ,! *no, to#ay o' th! nat+r! o' patt!rn an# or#!r.

11

Part I: Metalogues
?=7I)I:I5)6 A (!ta og+! is a con"!rsation abo+t so(! prob !(atic s+bJ!ct. :his con"!rsation sho+ # b! s+ch that not on y #o th! participants #isc+ss th! prob !( b+t th! str+ct+r! o' th! con"!rsation as a ,ho ! is a so r! !"ant to th! sa(! s+bJ!ct. 5n y so(! o' th! con"!rsations h!r! pr!s!nt!# achi!"! this #o+b ! 'or(at. )otab y, th! history o' !"o +tionary th!ory is in!"itab y a (!ta og+! b!t,!!n (an an# nat+r!, in ,hich th! cr!ation an# int!raction o' i#!as (+st n!c!ssari y !-!(p i'y !"o +tionary proc!ss.

Metaloque: Why Do Thin ! "et in a Mu##le$%


?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ,hy #o things g!t in a (+## !D 7ath!r6 8hat #o yo+ (!anD :hingsD A+## !D ?6 8! , p!op ! sp!n# a ot o' ti(! ti#ying things, b+t th!y n!"!r s!!( to sp!n# ti(! (+## ing th!(. :hings J+st s!!( to g!t in a (+## ! by th!(s! "!s. An# th!n p!op ! ha"! to ti#y th!( +p again. 76 0+t #o yo+r things g!t in a (+## ! i' yo+ #onIt to+ch th!(D ?6 )o;not i' nobo#y to+ch!s th!(. 0+t i' yo+ to+ch th!(;or i' anybo#y to+ch!s th!(;th!y g!t in a (+## ! an# itIs a ,ors! (+## ! i' it isnIt (!. 76 F!s;thatIs ,hy I try to *!!p yo+ 'ro( to+ching th! things on (y #!s*. 0!ca+s! (y things g!t in a ,ors! (+## ! i' th!y ar! to+ch!# by so(!bo#y ,ho isnIt (!. ?6 0+t #o p!op ! a ,ays (+## ! oth!r p!op !Is thingsD 8hy #o th!y, ?a##yD 76 )o,, ,ait a (in+t!. ItIs not so si(p !. 7irst o' a , ,hat #o yo+ (!an by a (+## !D ?6 I (!an;so I canIt 'in# things, an# so it oo*s a (+## !# +p. :h! ,ay it is ,h!n nothing is straight 76 8! , b+t ar! yo+ s+r! yo+ (!an th! sa(! thing by (+## ! that anybo#y ! s! ,o+ # (!anD ?6 0+t, ?a##y, II( s+r! I #o;b!ca+s! II( not a "!ry ti#y p!rson an# i' I say things ar! in a (+## !, th!n II( s+r! !"!rybo#y ! s! ,o+ # agr!! ,ith (!. 76 A right;b+t #o yo+ thin* yo+ (!an th! sa(! thing by 9ti#y9 that. oth!r p!op ! ,o+ #D I' yo+r (+((y (a*!s yo+r things ti#y, #o yo+ *no, ,h!r! to 'in# th!(D ?6 E(( . . . so(!ti(!s;b!ca+s!, yo+ s!!, I *no, ,h!r! sh! p+ts things ,h!n sh! ti#i!s +p 76 F!s, I try to *!!p h!r a,ay 'ro( ti#ying (y #!s*, too. II( s+r! that sh! an# I #onIt (!an th! sa(! thing by 9ti#y.9
H

8ritt!n in 1948L not pr!"io+s y p+b ish!#.

13

?6 ?a##y, #o yo+ an# I (!an th! sa(! thing by 9ti#yD9 76 I #o+bt it, (y #!ar;I #o+bt it. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, isnIt that a '+nny thing;that !"!rybo#y (!ans th! sa(! ,h!n th!y say 9(+## !#9 b+t !"!ryCbo#y (!ans so(!thing #i''!r!nt by 9ti#y.9 0+t 9ti#y9 is th! opposit! o' 9(+## !#,9 isnIt itD 76 )o, ,! b!gin to g!t into (or! #i''ic+ t .+!stions. @!tIs start again 'ro( th! b!ginning. Fo+ sai# 98hy #o things a ,ays g!t in a (+## !D9 )o, ,! ha"! (a#! a st!p or t,o;an# !tIs chang! th! .+!stion to 98hy #o things g!t in a stat! ,hich Cathy ca s Inot ti#yDI 9 ?o yo+ s!! ,hy I ,ant to (a*! that chang!D ?6 ... F!s, I thin* so;b!ca+s! i' I ha"! a sp!cia (!aning 'or 9ti#y9 th!n so(! o' oth!r p!op !Is 9ti#i!s9 ,i oo* i*! (+## !s to (! ;!"!n i' ,! #o agr!! abo+t (ost o' ,hat ,! ca (+## !s 76 :hatIs right. )o,; !tIs oo* at ,hat yo+ ca ti#y. 8h!n yo+r paint bo- is p+t in a ti#y p ac!, ,h!r! is itD ?6 E!r! on th! !n# o' this sh! '. 76 5*ay;no, i' it ,!r! any,h!r! ! s!D ?6 )o, that ,o+ # not b! ti#y. 76 8hat abo+t th! oth!r !n# o' th! sh! ', h!r!D @i*! thisD ?6 )o, thatIs not ,h!r! it b! ongs, an# anyho, it ,o+ # ha"! to b! straight, not a croo*!# th! ,ay yo+ p+t it. 76 5h;in th! right p ac! an# straight. ?6 F!s. 76 8! , that (!ans that th!r! ar! on y "!ry '!, p ac!s ,hich ar! 9ti#y9 'or yo+r paint bo?6 5n y on! p ac!; 76 )o;"!ry '!, p ac!s, b!ca+s! i' I (o"! it a itt ! bit, i*! this, it is sti ti#y. ?6 A right;b+t "!ry, "!ry '!, p ac!s. 76 A right, "!ry, "!ry '!, p ac!s. )o, ,hat abo+t th! t!##y b!ar an# yo+r #o , an# th! 8i/ar# o' 5/ an# yo+r s,!at!r, an# yo+r sho!sD ItIs th! sa(! 'or a th! things, isnIt it, that !ach thing has on y a "!ry, "!ry '!, p ac!s ,hich ar! 9ti#y9 'or that thingD ?6 F!s, ?a##y;b+t th! 8i/ar# o' 5/ co+ # b! anyC,h!r! on that sh! '. An# ?a##y;#o yo+ *no, ,hatD I hat!, hat! it ,h!n (y boo*s g!t a (i-!# +p ,ith yo+r boo*s an# A+((yIs boo*s. 7 6 F!s, I *no,. 2$a+s!3

14

?6 ?a##y, yo+ #i#nIt 'inish. 8hy #o (y things g!t th! ,ay I say isnIt ti#yD 76 0+t I ha"! 'inish!#;itIs J+st b!ca+s! th!r! ar! (or! ,ays ,hich yo+ ca 9+nti#y9 than th!r! ar! ,ays ,hich yo+ ca 9ti#y.9 ?6 0+t that isnIt a r!ason ,hy 76 0+t, y!s, it is. An# it is th! r!a an# on y an# "!ry i(portant r!ason. ?6 5h, ?a##yO &top it. 76 )o, II( not 'oo ing. :hat is th! r!ason, an# a o' sci!nc! is hoo*!# +p ,ith that r!ason. @!tIs ta*! anCoth!r !-a(p !. I' I p+t so(! san# in th! botto( o' this c+p an# p+t so(! s+gar on th! top o' it, an# no, stir it ,ith a t!aspoon, th! san# an# th! s+gar ,i g!t (i-!# +p, ,onIt th!yD ?6 F!s, b+t, ?a##y, is it 'air to shi't o"!r to ta *ing abo+t 9(i-!# +p9 ,h!n ,! start!# ,ith 9(+## !# +pD9 76 E(( . . . I ,on#!r . .. b+t I thin* so;F!s;b!ca+s! !tIs say ,! can 'in# so(!bo#y ,ho thin*s it is (or! ti#y to ha"! a th! san# +n#!rn!ath a th! s+gar. An# i' yo+ i*! II say I ,ant it that ,ay ?6 E ( ( . . . 76 A right;ta*! anoth!r !-a(p !. &o(!ti(!s in th! (o"i!s yo+ ,i s!! a ot o' !tt!rs o' th! a phab!t a scatt!r!# o"!r th! scr!!n, a higg !#yCpigg !#y an# so(! !"!n +psi#! #o,n. An# th!n so(!thing sha*!s th! tab ! so that th! !tt!rs start to (o"!, an# th!n as th! sha*ing go!s on, th! !tt!rs a co(! tog!th!r to sp! th! tit ! o' th! 'i (. ?6 F!s, II"! s!!n that;th!y sp! !# ?5)A@?. 76 It #o!snIt (att!r ,hat th!y sp! !#. :h! point is that yo+ sa, so(!thing b!ing sha*!n an# stirr!# +p an# inCst!a# o' g!tting (or! (i-!# +p than b!'or!, th! !tt!rs ca(! tog!th!r into an or#!r, a right ,ay +p, an# sp! !# a ,or#;th!y (a#! +p so(!thing ,hich a ot o' p!op ! ,o+ # agr!! is s!ns!. ?6 F!s, ?a##y, b+t yo+ *no, .. . 76 )o, I #onIt *no,L ,hat I a( trying to say is that in th! r!a ,or # things n!"!r happ!n that ,ay. ItIs on y in th! (o"i!s. ?6 0+t, ?a##y .. . 76 I t! yo+ itIs on y in th! (o"i!s that yo+ can sha*! things an# th!y s!!( to ta*! on (or! or#!r an# s!ns! than th!y ha# b!'or! .. .

15

?6 0+t, ?a##y .. . 76 8ait ti II"! 'inish!# this ti(! . . . An# th!y (a*! it oo* i*! that in th! (o"i!s by #oing th! ,ho ! thing bac*,ar#s. :h!y p+t th! !tt!rs a in or#!r to sp! ?5)A@? an# th!n th!y start th! ca(!ra an# th!n th!y start sha*ing th! tab !. ?6 5h, ?a##y;I *n!, that an# I #i# so ,ant to t! yo+ that;an# th!n ,h!n th!y r+n th! 'i (, th!y r+n it bac*,ar#s so that it oo*s as tho+gh things ha# happ!n!# 'or,ar#s. 0+t r!a y th! sha*ing happ!n!# bac*C,ar#s. An# th!y ha"! to photograph it +psi#! #o,n ... 8hy #o th!y, ?a##yD 76 5h 1o#. ?6 8hy #o th!y ha"! to 'i- th! ca(!ra +psi#! #o,n, ?a##yD 76 )o, I ,onIt ans,!r that .+!stion no, b!ca+s! ,!Ir! in th! (i## ! o' th! .+!stion abo+t (+## !s. ?6 5h;a right, b+t #onIt 'org!t, ?a##y, yo+I"! got to ans,!r that .+!stion abo+t th! ca(!ra anoth!r #ay. ?onIt 'org!tO Fo+ ,onIt 'org!t, ,i yo+, ?a##yD 0!Cca+s! I (ay not r!(!(b!r. $ !as!, ?a##y. 76 5*ay;b+t anoth!r #ay. )o,, ,h!r! ,!r! ,!D F!s, abo+t things n!"!r happ!ning bac*,ar#s. An# I ,as trying to t! yo+ ,hy it is a r!ason 'or things to hapCp!n in a c!rtain ,ay i' ,! can sho, that that ,ay has (or! ,ays o' happ!ning than so(! oth!r ,ay. ?6 ?a##y;#onIt b!gin ta *ing nons!ns!. 76 II( not ta *ing nons!ns!. @!tIs start again. :h!r!Is on y on! ,ay o' sp! ing ?5)A@?. Agr!!#D ?6 F!s. 76 A right. An# th!r! ar! (i ions an# (i ions an# (i C ions o' ,ays o' scatt!ring si- !tt!rs on th! tab !. Agr!!#D ?6 F!s. I s+ppos! so. Can so(! o' th!s! b! +psi#! #o,nD 76 F!s;J+st in th! sort o' higg !#yCpigg !#y (+## ! th!y ,!r! in in th! 'i (. 0+t th!r! co+ # b! (i ions an# (i ions an# (i ions o' (+## !s i*! that, co+ #nIt th!r!D An# on y on! ?5)A@?D ?6 A right;y!s. 0+t, ?a##y, th! sa(! !tt!rs (ight sp! 5@? ?A). 76 )!"!r (in#. :h! (o"i! p!op ! #onIt ,ant th!( to sp! 5@? ?A). :h!y on y ,ant ?5)A@?. ?6 8hy #o th!yD 76 ?a(n th! (o"i! p!op !.

16

?6 0+t yo+ (!ntion!# th!( 'irst, ?a##y. 76 F!s;b+t that ,as to try to t! yo+ ,hy things happ!n that ,ay in ,hich th!r! ar! (ost ,ays o' th!ir happ!ning. An# no, itIs yo+r b!#ti(!. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, yo+ n!"!r #i# 'inish t! ing (! ,hy things happ!n that ,ay;th! ,ay that has (ost ,ays. 76 A right. 0+t #onIt start any (or! har!s r+nning;on! is .+it! !no+gh. Anyho,, I a( tir!# o' ?5)A@?, !tIs ta*! anoth!r !-a(p !. @!tIs ta*! tossing p!nni!s. ?6 ?a##yD Ar! yo+ sti ta *ing abo+t th! sa(! .+!stion ,! start!# ,ithD 98hy #o things g!t in a (+## !D9 76 F!s. ?6 :h!n, ?a##y, is ,hat yo+ ar! trying to say tr+! abo+t p!nni!s, an# abo+t ?5)A@?, an# abo+t s+gar an# san#, an# abo+t (y paint bo-, an# abo+t p!nni!sD 76 F!s;thatIs right. ?6 5h;I ,as J+st ,on#!ring, thatIs a . 76 )o,, !tIs s!! i' I can g!t it sai# this ti(!. @!tIs go bac* to th! san# an# th! s+gar, an# !tIs s+ppos! that so(!bo#y says that ha"ing th! san# at th! botto( is 9ti#y9 or 9or#!r y.9 ?6 ?a##y, #o!s so(!bo#y ha"! to say so(!thing i*! that b!'or! yo+ can go on to ta * abo+t ho, things ar! going to g!t (i-!# +p ,h!n yo+ stir th!(D 76 F!s;thatIs J+st th! point. :h!y say ,hat th!y hop! ,i happ!n an# th!n I t! th!( it ,onIt happ!n b!ca+s! th!r! ar! so (any oth!r things that (ight happ!n. An# I *no, that it is (or! i*! y that on! o' th! (any things ,i happ!n an# not on! o' th! '!,. ?6 ?a##y, yo+Ir! J+st an o # boo*(a*!r, bac*ing a th! oth!r hors!s against th! on! hors! that I ,ant to b!t on. 76 :hatIs right, (y #!ar. I g!t th!( to b!t on ,hat th!y ca th! 9ti#y9 ,ay;I *no, that th!r! ar! in'init! y (any (+## !# ,ays;so things ,i a ,ays go to,ar# (+## ! an# (i-!#n!ss. ?6 0+t ,hy #i#nIt yo+ say that at th! b!ginning, ?a##yD I co+ # ha"! +n#!rstoo# that a right. 76 F!s, I s+ppos! so. Anyho,, itIs no, b!#ti(!. ?6 ?a##y, ,hy #o gro,n+ps ha"! ,ars, inst!a# o' J+st 'ighting th! ,ay chi #r!n #oD

17

76 )o;b!#ti(!. 0! o'' ,ith yo+. 8!I ti(!.

ta * abo+t ,ars anoth!r

18

Metalo ue: Why Do F&en'h(en$%


?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ,hy #o 7r!nch(!n ,a"! th!ir ar(s abo+tD 7ath!r6 8hat #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an ,h!n th!y ta *. 8hy #o th!y ,a"! th!ir ar(s an# a thatD 76 8! ;,hy #o yo+ s(i !D 5r ,hy #o yo+ sta(p yo+r 'oot so(!ti(!sD ?6 0+t thatIs not th! sa(! thing, ?a##y. I #onIt ,a"! (y ar(s abo+t i*! a 7r!nch(an #o!s. I #onIt b! i!"! th!y can stop #oing it, ?a##y. Can th!yD 76 I #onIt *no,;th!y (ight 'in# it har# to stop. . . . Can yo+ stop s(i ingD ?6 0+t ?a##y, I #onIt s(i ! a th! ti(!. ItIs har# to stop ,h!n I '!! i*! s(i ing. 0+t I #onIt '!! i*! it a th! ti(!. An# th!n I stop. 76 :hatIs tr+!;b+t th!n a 7r!nch(an #o!snIt ,a"! his ar(s in th! sa(! ,ay a th! ti(!. &o(!ti(!s h! ,a"!s th!( in on! ,ay an# so(!ti(!s in anoth!r;an# so(!ti(!s, I thin*, h! stops ,a"ing th!(.

***
76 8hat #o yo+ thin*D I (!an, ,hat #o!s it (a*! yo+ thin* ,h!n a 7r!nch(an ,a"!s his ar(sD ?6 I thin* it oo*s si y, ?a##y. 0+t I #onIt s+ppos! it oo*s i*! that to anoth!r 7r!nch(an. :h!y cannot a oo* si y to !ach oth!r. 0!ca+s! i' th!y #i#, th!y ,o+ # stop it. 8o+ #nIt th!yD 76 $!rhaps;b+t that is not a "!ry si(p ! .+!stion. 8hat ! s! #o th!y (a*! yo+ thin*D ?6 8! ;th!y oo* a !-cit!# .. . 76 A right;9si y9 an# 9!-cit!#.9 ?6 0+t ar! th!y r!a y as !-cit!# as th!y oo*D I' I ,!r! as !-cit!# as that, I ,o+ # ,ant to #anc! or sing or hit so(!bo#y on th! nos!
:his (!ta og+! is r!print!# 'ro( Impulse 1951, an ann+a o' cont!(porary #anc!, by p!r(ission o' I(p+ s! $+b ications, Inc. It has a so app!ar!# in !".# A $e%&ie' of (eneral Semantics, Go . ), 1953.
H

19

R b+t th!y J+st go on ,a"ing th!ir ar(s. :h!y canIt b! r!a y !-cit!#. 76 8! ;ar! th!y r!a y as si y as th!y oo* to yo+D An# anyho,, ,hy #o yo+ so(!ti(!s ,ant to #anc! an# sing an# p+nch so(!bo#y on th! nos!D ?6 5h. &o(!ti(!s I J+st '!! i*! that. 76 $!rhaps a 7r!nch(an J+st '!! s 9 i*! that9 ,h!n h! ,a"!s his ar(s abo+t. ?6 0+t h! co+ #nIt '!! i*! that a th! ti(!, ?a##y, h! J+st co+ #nIt. 76 Fo+ (!an;th! 7r!nch(an s+r! y #o!s not '!! ,h!n h! ,a"!s his ar(s !-act y as yo+ ,o+ # '!! i' yo+ ,a"!# yo+rs. An# s+r! y yo+ ar! right. ?6 0+t, th!n, ho, #o!s h! '!! D 76 8! ; !t +s s+ppos! yo+ ar! ta *ing to a 7r!nch(an an# h! is ,a"ing his ar(s abo+t, an# th!n in th! (i## ! o' th! con"!rsation, a't!r so(!thing that yo+ ha"! sai#, h! s+##!n y stops ,a"ing his ar(s, an# J+st ta *s. 8hat ,o+ # yo+ thin* th!nD :hat h! ha# J+st stopp!# b!ing si y an# !-cit!#D ?6 )o . . . II# b! 'right!n!#. II# thin* I ha# sai# so(!thing that h+rt his '!! ings an# p!rhaps h! (ight b! r!a y angry. 76 F!s;an# yo+ (ight b! right.

***
?6 A right;so th!y stop ,a"ing th!ir ar(s ,h!n th!y start b!ing angry. 76 8ait a (in+t!. :h! .+!stion, a't!r a , is ,hat #o!s on! 7r!nch(an t! anoth!r 7r!nch(an by ,a"ing his ar(sD An# ,! ha"! part o' an ans,!r;h! t! s hi( so(!thing abo+t ho, h! '!! s abo+t th! oth!r g+y. E! t! s hi( h! is not s!rio+s y angry; that h! is ,i ing an# ab ! to b! ,hat yo+ ca 9si y.9 ?6 0+t;no;thatIs not s!nsib !. E! cannot #o a that ,or* so that at!r h! ,i b! ab ! to t! th! oth!r g+y that h! is angry by J+st *!!ping his o,n ar(s sti . Eo, #o!s h! *no, that h! is going to b! angry at!r onD 76 E! #o!snIt *no,. 0+t, J+st in cas! .. . ?6 )o, ?a##y, it #o!snIt (a*! s!ns!. I #onIt s(i ! so as to b! ab ! to t! yo+ I a( angry by not s(i ing at!r on.

20

76 F!s;I thin* that that is part o' th! r!ason 'or s(i ing. An# th!r! ar! ots o' p!op ! ,ho s(i ! in or#!r to t! yo+ that th!y ar! not angry;,h!n th!y r!a y ar!. ?6 0+t thatIs #i''!r!nt, ?a##y. :hatIs a sort o' t! ing i!s ,ith on!Is 'ac!. @i*! p aying po*!r. 76 F!s. 76 )o, ,h!r! ar! ,!D Fo+ #onIt thin* it s!nsib ! 'or 7r!nch(!n to ,or* so har# to t! !ach oth!r that th!y ar! not angry or h+rt. 0+t a't!r a ,hat is (ost con"!rsation abo+tD I (!an, a(ong A(!ricansD ?6 0+t, ?a##y, itIs abo+t a sorts o' things;bas!ba an# ic! cr!a( an# gar#!ns an# ga(!s. An# p!op ! ta * abo+t oth!r p!op ! an# abo+t th!(s! "!s an# abo+t ,hat th!y got 'or Christ(as. 76 F!s, y!s;b+t ,ho ist!nsD I (!an;a right, so th!y ta * abo+t bas!ba an# gar#!ns. 0+t ar! th!y !-changing in'or(ationD An#, i' so, ,hat in'or(ationD ?6 &+r!;,h!n yo+ co(! in 'ro( 'ishing, an# I as* yo+ 9#i# yo+ catch anythingD9 an# yo+ say 9nothing,9 I #i#nIt *no, that yo+ ,o+ #nIt catch anything ti yo+ to # (!. 76 E((.

***
76 A rightCso yo+ (!ntion (y 'ishing;a (att!r abo+t ,hich I a( s!nsiti"!;an# th!n th!r! is a gap, a si !nc! in th! con"!rsation ;an# that si !nc! t! s yo+ that I #onIt i*! crac*s abo+t ho, (any 'ish I #i#nIt catch. ItIs J+st i*! th! 7r!nch(an ,ho stops ,a"ing his ar(s abo+t ,h!n h! is h+rt. ?6 II( sorry, ?a##y, b+t yo+ #i# say .. . 76 )o;,ait a (in+t!; !tIs not g!t con'+s!# by b!ing sorry;I sha go o+t 'ishing again to(orro, an# I sha sti *no, that I a( +n i*! y to catch a 'ish .. . ?6 0+t, ?a##y, yo+ sai# a con"!rsation is on y t! ing oth!r p!op ! that yo+ ar! not angry ,ith th!( .. . 76 ?i# ID )o;not a con"!rsation, b+t (+ch o' it. &o(!Cti(!s i' both p!op ! ar! ,i ing to ist!n car!'+ y, it is possib ! to #o (or! than !-chang! gr!!tings an# goo# ,ish!s. ="!n to #o (or!

21

than !-chang! in'or(ation. :h! t,o p!op ! (ay !"!n 'in# o+t so(!thing ,hich n!ith!r o' th!( *n!, b!'or!.

***
76 Anyho,, (ost con"!rsations ar! on y abo+t ,h!th!r p!op ! ar! angry or so(!thing. :h!y ar! b+sy t! ing !ach oth!r that th!y ar! 'ri!n# y;,hich is so(!ti(!s a i!. A't!r a , ,hat happ!ns ,h!n th!y cannot thin* o' anything to sayD :h!y a '!! +nco('ortab !. ?6 0+t ,o+ #nIt that b! in'or(ation, ?a##yD I (!an;in'or(ation that th!y ar! not crossD 76 &+r! y, y!s. 0+t itIs a #i''!r!nt sort o' in'or(ation 'ro( 9th! cat is on th! (at.9

***
?6 ?a##y, ,hy cannot p!op ! J+st say 9I a( not cross at yo+9 an# !t it go at thatD 76 Ah, no, ,! ar! g!tting to th! r!a prob !(. :h! point is that th! (!ssag!s ,hich ,! !-chang! in g!st+r!s ar! r!a y not th! sa(! as any trans ation o' thos! g!st+r!s into ,or#s. ?6 I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 I (!an;that no a(o+nt o' t! ing so(!bo#y in (!r! ,or#s that on! is or is not angry is th! sa(! as ,hat on! (ight t! th!( by g!st+r! or ton! o' "oic!. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, yo+ cannot ha"! ,or#s ,itho+t so(! ton! o' "oic!, can yo+D ="!n i' so(!bo#y +s!s as itt ! ton! as h! can, th! oth!r p!op ! ,i h!ar that h! is ho #ing hi(s! ' bac*;an# that ,i b! a sort o' ton!, ,onIt itD 76 F!s;I s+ppos! so. A't!r a thatIs ,hat I sai# J+st no, abo+t g!st+r!s;that th! 7r!nch(an can say so(!thing sp!cia by stopping his g!st+r!s.

***
76 0+t th!n, ,hat #o I (!an by saying that S(!r! ,or#sT can n!"!r con"!y th! sa(! (!ssag! as g!st+r!s;i' th!r! ar! no 9(!r! ,or#s9D ?6 8! , th! ,or#s (ight b! ,ritt!n.

22

76 )o;that ,onIt !t (! o+t o' th! #i''ic+ ty. 0!ca+s! ,ritt!n ,or#s sti ha"! so(! sort o' rhyth( an# th!y sti ha"! o"!rton!s. :h! point is that n o (!r! ,or#s !-ist. :h!r! ar! o n y ,or#s ,ith !ith!r g!st+r! or ton! o' "oic! or so(!thing o' th! sort. 0+t, o' co+rs!, g!st+r!s ,itho+t ,or#s ar! co((on !no+gh.

***
?6 ?a##y, ,h!n th!y t!ach +s 7r!nch at schoo , ,hy #onIt th!y t!ach +s to ,a"! o+r han#sD 76 I #onIt *no,. II( s+r! I #onIt *no,. :hat is probab y on! o' th! r!asons ,hy p!op ! 'in# !arning ang+ag!s so #i''ic+ t.

***
76 Anyho,, it is a nons!ns!. I (!an, th! notion that ang+ag! is (a#! o' ,or#s is a nons!ns!;an# ,h!n I sai# that g!st+r!s co+ # not b! trans at!# into 9(!r! ,or#s,9 I ,as ta *ing nons!ns!, b!ca+s! th!r! is no s+ch thing as 9(!r! ,or#s.9 An# a th! synta- an# gra((ar an# a that st+'' is nons!ns!. ItIs a bas!# on th! i#!a that 9(!r!9 ,or#s !-ist;an# th!r! ar! non!. ?6 0+t, ?a##y .. . 76 I t! yo+;,! ha"! to start a o"!r again 'ro( th! b!ginning an# ass+(! that ang+ag! is 'irst an# 'or!C(ost a syst!( o' g!st+r!s. Ani(a s a't!r a ha"! on y g!st+r!s an# ton!s o' "oic!;an# ,or#s ,!r! in"!nt!# at!r. A+ch at!r. An# a't!r that th!y in"!nt!# schoo C(ast!rs. ?6 ?a##yD 76 F!s. ?6 8o+ # it b! a goo# thing i' p!op ! ga"! +p ,or#s an# ,!nt bac* to on y +sing g!st+r!sD 76 E((. I #onIt *no,. 5' co+rs! ,! ,o+ # not b! ab ! to ha"! any con"!rsations i*! this. 8! co+ # on y bar*, or (!,, an# ,a"! o+r ar(s abo+t, an# a+gh an# gr+nt an# ,!!p. 0+t it (ight b! '+n;it ,o+ # (a*! i'! a sort o' ba !t;,ith #anc!rs (a*ing th!ir o,n (+sic.

23

Metalo ue: A)out "a(e! an# *ein +e&iou!%

?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ar! th!s! con"!rsations s!rio+sD 7ath!r6 C!rtain y th!y ar!. ?6 :h!yIr! not a sort o' ga(! that yo+ p ay ,ith (!D 76 1o# 'orbi# . . . b+t th!y ar! a sort o' ga(! that ,! p ay tog!th!r. ?6 :h!n th!yIr! not s!rio+sO

***
76 &+ppos! yo+ t! (! ,hat yo+ ,o+ # +n#!rstan# by th! ,or#s 9s!rio+s9 an# a 9ga(!.9 ?6 8! . . . i' yo+Ir! . . . I #onIt *no,. 76 I' I a( ,hatD ?6 I (!an . . . th! con"!rsations ar! s!rio+s 'or (!, b+t i' yo+ ar! on y p aying a ga(! .. . 76 &t!a#y no,. @!tIs oo* at ,hat is goo# an# ,hat is ba# abo+t 9p aying9 an# 9ga(!s.9 7irst o' a , I #onIt (in# ;not (+ch; abo+t ,inning or osing. 8h!n yo+r .+!stions p+t (! in a tight spot, s+r!, I try a itt ! har#!r to thin* straight an# to say c !ar y ,hat I (!an. 0+t I #onIt b +'' an# I #onIt s!t traps. :h!r! is no t!(ptation to ch!at. ?6 :hatIs J+st it. ItIs not s!rio+s to yo+. ItIs a ga(!. $!op ! ,ho ch!at J+st #onIt *no, ho, to p ay. :h!y tr!at a ga(! as tho+gh it ,!r! s!rio+s. 76 0+t it is s!rio+s. ?6 )o, it isnIt;not 'or yo+ it isnIt. 76 0!ca+s! I #onIt !"!n ,ant to ch!atD ?6 F!s;part y that.

:his (!ta og+! is r!print!# by p!r(ission 'ro( =:C.6 A 4!"i!, o' 1!n!ra &!(antics, Go . U, 1953.

24

76 0+t #o yo+ ,ant to ch!at an# b +'' a th! ti(!D ?6 )o;o' co+rs! not. 76 8! th!nD ?6 5h;?a##y;yo+I n!"!r +n#!rstan#. 76 I g+!ss I n!"!r ,i . 76 @oo*, I scor!# a sort o' #!bating point J+st no, by 'orcing yo+ to a#(it that yo+ #onIt ,ant to ch!at;an# th!n I ti!# onto that a#(ission th! conc +sion that th!r!'or! th! con"!rsations ar! not 9s!rio+s9 'or yo+ !ith!r. 8as that a sort o' ch!atingD ?6 F!s;sort o'. 76 I agr!!;I thin* it ,as. II( sorry. ?6 Fo+ s!!, ?a##y;i' I ch!at!# or ,ant!# to ch!at, that ,o+ # (!an that I ,as not s!rio+s abo+t th! things ,! ta * abo+t. It ,o+ # (!an that I ,as on y p aying a ga(! ,ith yo+. 76 F!s, that (a*!s s!ns!.

***
?6 0+t it #o!snIt (a*! s!ns!, ?a##y. ItIs an a,'+ (+## !. 76 F!s;a (+## !;b+t sti a sort o' s!ns!. ?6 Eo,, ?a##yD

***
76 8ait a (in+t!. :his is #i''ic+ t to say. 7irst o' a ;I thin* that ,! g!t so(!,h!r! ,ith th!s! con"!rsations. I !nJoy th!( "!ry (+ch an# I thin* yo+ #o. 0+t a so, apart 'ro( that, I thin* that ,! g!t so(! i#!as straight an# I thin* that th! (+## !s h! p. I (!an; that i' ,! both spo*! ogica y a th! ti(!, ,! ,o+ # n!"!r g!t any,h!r!. 8! ,o+ # on y parrot a th! o # c ich!s that !"!rybo#y has r!p!at!# 'or h+n#r!#s o' y!ars. ?6 8hat is a c ich!, ?a##yD 76 A c ich!D ItIs a 7r!nch ,or#, an# I thin* it ,as origina y a print!rIs ,or#. 8h!n th!y print a s!nt!nc! th!y ha"! to ta*! th! s!parat! !tt!rs an# p+t th!( on! by on! into a sort o' groo"!# stic* to sp! o+t th! s!nt!nc!. 0+t 'or ,or#s an# s!nt!nc!s ,hich p!op ! +s! o't!n, th! print!r *!!ps itt ! stic*s o' !tt!rs r!a#y (a#! +p. An# th!s! r!a#yC(a#! s!nt!nc!s ar! ca !# c ich!s.

25

?6 0+t II"! 'orgott!n no, ,hat yo+ ,!r! saying abo+t c ich!s, ?a##y. 76 F!s;it ,as abo+t th! (+## !s that ,! g!t into in th!s! ta *s an# ho, g!tting into (+## !s (a*!s a sort o' s!ns!. I' ,! #i#nIt g!t into (+## !s, o+r ta *s ,o+ # b! i*! p aying r+((y ,itho+t 'irst sh+'' ing th! car#s. ?6 F!s, ?a##y;b+t ,hat abo+t thos! things;th! r!a#yC(a#! stic*s o' !tt!rsD 76 :h! c ich!sD F!s;itIs th! sa(! thing. 8! a ha"! ots o' r!a#yC (a#! phras!s an# i#!as, an# th! print!r has r!a#yC(a#! stic*s o' !tt!rs, a sort!# o+t into phras!s. 0+t i' th! print!r ,ants to print so(!thing n!,;say, so(!thing in a n!, ang+ag!, h! ,i ha"! to br!a* +p a that o # sorting o' th! !tt!rs. In th! sa(! ,ay, in or#!r to thin* n!, tho+ghts or to say n!, things, ,! ha"! to br!a* +p a o+r r!a#yC(a#! i#!as an# sh+'' ! th! pi!c!s. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, th! print!r ,o+ # not sh+'' ! a th! !tt!rsD 8o+ # h!D E! ,o+ #nIt sha*! th!( a +p in a bag. E! ,o+ # p+t th!( on! by on! in th!ir p ac!s;a th! aIs in on! bo- an# a th! bIs in anoth!r, an# a th! co((as in anoth!r, an# so on. 76 F!s;thatIs right. 5th!r,is! h! ,o+ # go (a# trying to 'in# an a ,h!n h! ,ant!# it.

***
76 8hat ar! yo+ thin*ingD ?6 )o;itIs on y that th!r! ar! so (any .+!stions. 76 7or !-a(p !D ?6 8! , I s!! ,hat yo+ (!an abo+t o+r g!tting into (+## !s. :hat that (a*!s +s say n!, sorts o' things. 0+t I a( thin*ing abo+t th! print!r. E! has to *!!p a his itt ! !tt!rs sort!# o+t !"!n tho+gh h! br!a*s +p a th! r!a#yC(a#! phras!s. An# I a( ,on#!ringI abo+t o+r (+## !s. ?o ,! ha"! to *!!p th! itt ! pi!c!s o' o+r tho+ght in so(! sort o' or#!r;to *!!p 'ro( going (a#D 76 I thin* so;y!s;b+t I #onIt *no, ,hat sort o' or#!r. :hat ,o+ # b! a t!rrib y har# .+!stion to ans,!r. I #onIt thin* ,! co+ # g!t an ans,!r to that .+!stion to#ay.

26

***
76 Fo+ sai# th!r! ,!r! 9so (any .+!stions.9 ?o yo+ ha"! anoth!rD ?6 F!s;abo+t ga(!s an# b!ing s!rio+s. :hatIs ,hat ,! start!# 'ro(, an# I #onIt *no, ho, or ,hy that !# +s to ta * abo+t o+r (+## !s. :h! ,ay yo+ con'+s! !"!rything;itIs a sort o' ch!ating. 76 )o, abso +t! y not.

***
76 Fo+ bro+ght +p t,o .+!stions. An# r!a y th!r! ar! a ot (or! . . . 8! start!# 'ro( th! .+!stion abo+t th!s! con"!rsations;ar! th!y s!rio+sD 5r ar! th!y a sort o' ga(!D An# yo+ '! t h+rt that I (ight b! p aying a ga(!, ,hi ! yo+ ,!r! s!rio+s. It oo*s as tho+gh a con"!rsation is a ga(! i' a p!rson ta*!s part in it ,ith on! s!t o' !(otions or i#!as;b+t not a 9ga(!9 i' his i#!as or !(otions ar! #i''!r!nt. ?6 F!s, itIs i' yo+r i#!as abo+t th! con"!rsation ar! #i''!r!nt 'ro( (in! .. . 76 I' ,! both ha# th! ga(! i#!a, it ,o+ # b! a rightD ?6 F!s;o' co+rs!. 76 :h!n it s!!(s to b! +p to (! to (a*! c !ar ,hat I (!an by th! ga(! i#!a. I *no, that I a( s!rio+s;,hat!"!r that (!ans; abo+t th! things that ,! ta * abo+t. 8! ta * abo+t i#!as. An# I *no, that I p ay ,ith th! i#!as in or#!r to +n#!rstan# th!( an# 'it th!( tog!th!r. ItIs 9p ay9 in th! sa(! s!ns! that a s(a chi # 9p ays9 ,ith b oc*s . . . An# a chi # ,ith b+i #ing b oc*s is (ost y "!ry s!rio+s abo+t his 9p ay.9 ?6 0+t is it a ga(!, ?a##yD ?o yo+ p ay against (!D 76 )o. I thin* o' it as yo+ an# I p aying tog!th!r against th! b+i #ing b oc*s;th! i#!as. &o(!ti(!s co(p!ting a bit;b+t co(p!ting as to ,ho can g!t th! n!-t i#!a into p ac!. An# so(!ti(!s ,! attac* !ach oth!rIs bit o' b+i #ing, or I ,i try to #!'!n# (y b+i tC+p i#!as 'ro( yo+r criticis(. 0+t a ,ays in th! !n# ,! ar! ,or*ing tog!th!r to b+i # th! i#!as +p so that th!y ,i stan#.

27

***
?6 ?a##y, #o o+r ta *s ha"! r+ !sD :h! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n a ga(! an# J+st p aying is that a ga(! has r+ !s. 76 F!s. @!t (! thin* abo+t that. I thin* ,! #o ha"! a sort o' r+ !s ... an# I thin* a chi # p aying ,ith b oc*s has r+ !s. :h! b oc*s th!(s! "!s (a*! a sort o' r+ !s. :h!y ,i ba anc! in c!rtain positions an# th!y ,i not ba anc! in oth!r positions. An# it ,o+ # b! a sort o' ch!ating i' th! chi # +s!# g +! to (a*! th! b oc*s stan# +p in a position 'ro( ,hich th!y ,o+ # oth!r,is! 'a . ?6 0+t ,hat r+ !s #o ,! ha"!D 76 8! , th! i#!as that ,! p ay ,ith bring in a sort o' r+ !s. :h!r! ar! r+ !s abo+t ho, i#!as ,i stan# +p an# s+pCport !ach oth!r. An# i' th!y ar! ,rong y p+t tog!th!r th! ,ho ! b+i #ing 'a s #o,n. ?6 )o g +!, ?a##yD 76 )o;no g +!. 5n y ogic.

***
?6 0+t yo+ sai# that i' ,! a ,ays ta *!# ogica y an# #i# not g!t into (+## !s, ,! co+ # n!"!r say anything n!,. 8! co+ # on y say r!a#yC(a#! things. 8hat #i# yo+ ca thos! thingsD 76 C ich!s. F!s. 1 +! is ,hat c ich!s ar! st+c* tog!th!r ,ith. ?6 0+t yo+ sai# 9 ogic,9 ?a##y. 76 F!s, I *no,. 8!Ir! in a (+## ! again. 5n y I #onIt s!! a ,ay o+t o' this partic+ ar (+## !.

***
?6 Eo, #i# ,! g!t into it, ?a##yD 76 A right, !tIs s!! i' ,! can r!trac! o+r st!ps. 8! ,!r! ta *ing abo+t th! 9r+ !s9 o' th!s! con"!rsations. An# I sai# that th! i#!as that ,! p ay ,ith ha"! r+ !s o' ogic .. . ?6 ?a##yO 8o+ #nIt it b! a goo# thing i' ,! ha# a '!, (or! r+ !s an# ob!y!# th!( (or! car!'+ yD :h!n ,! (ight not g!t into th!s! #r!a#'+ (+## !s.

28

76 F!s. 0+t ,ait. Fo+ (!an that I g!t +s into th!s! (+## !s b!ca+s! I ch!at against r+ !s ,hich ,! #onIt ha"!. 5r p+t it this ,ay. :hat ,! (ight ha"! r+ !s ,hich ,o+ # stop +s 'ro( g!tting into (+## !s;as ong as ,! ob!y!# th!(. ?6 F!s, ?a##y, thatIs ,hat th! r+ !s o' a ga(! ar! 'or. 76 F!s, b+t #o yo+ ,ant to t+rn th!s! con"!rsations into that sort o' a ga(!D II# rath!r p ay canasta;,hich is '+n too. ?6 F!s, thatIs right. 8! can p ay canasta ,h!n!"!r ,! ,ant to. 0+t at th! (o(!nt I ,o+ # rath!r p ay this ga(!. 5n y I #onIt *no, ,hat sort o' a ga(! this is. )or ,hat sort o' r+ !s it has. 76 An# y!t ,! ha"! b!!n p aying 'or so(! ti(!. ?6 F!s. An# itIs b!!n '+n. 76 F!s.

***
76 @!tIs go bac* to th! .+!stion ,hich yo+ as*!# an# ,hich I sai# ,as too #i''ic+ t to ans,!r to#ay. 8! ,!r! ta *ing abo+t th! print!r br!a*ing +p his c ich!s, an# yo+ sai# that h! ,o+ # sti *!!p so(! sort o' or#!r a(ong his !tt!rs;to *!!p 'ro( going (a#. An# th!n yo+ as*!# 98hat sort o' or#!r sho+ # ,! c ing to so that ,h!n ,! g!t into a (+## ! ,! #o not go (a#D 9 It s!!(s to (! that th! 9r+ !s9 o' th! ga(! is on y anCoth!r na(! 'or that sort o' or#!r. ?6 F!s;an# ch!ating is ,hat g!ts +s into (+## !s. 76 In a s!ns!, y!s. :hatIs right. =-c!pt that th! ,ho ! point o' th! ga(! is that ,! #o g!t into (+## !s, an# #o co(! o+t on th! oth!r si#!, an# i' th!r! ,!r! no (+## !s o+r 9ga(!9 ,o+ # b! i*! canasta or ch!ss;an# that is not ho, ,! ,ant it to b!. ?6 Is it yo+ that (a*! th! r+ !s, ?a##yD Is that 'airD 76 :hat, #a+ght!r, is a #irty crac*. An# probab y an +n'air on!. 0+t !t (! acc!pt it at 'ac! "a +!. F!s, it is I ,ho (a*! th! r+ !s; a't!r a , I #o not ,ant +s to go (a#. ?6 A right. 0+t, ?a##y, #o yo+ a so chang! th! r+ !sD &o(!ti(!sD 76 E((, anoth!r #irty crac*. F!s, #a+ght!r, I chang! th!( constant y. )ot a o' th!(, b+t so(! o' th!(. ?6 I ,ish yo+I# t! (! ,h!n yo+Ir! going to chang! th!(O

29

76 E((;y!s;again. I ,ish I co+ #. 0+t it isnIt i*! that. I' it ,!r! i*! ch!ss or canasta, I co+ # t! yo+ th! r+ !s, an# ,! co+ #, i' ,! ,ant!# to, stop p aying an# #isc+ss th! r+ !s. An# th!n ,! co+ # start a n!, ga(! ,ith th! n!, r+ !s. 0+t ,hat r+ !s ,o+ # ho # +s b!t,!!n th! t,o ga(!sD 8hi ! ,! ,!r! #isc+ssing th! r+ !sD ?6 I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 F!s. :h! point is that th! p+rpos! o' th!s! con"!rsations is to #isco"!r th! 9r+ !s.9 ItIs i*! i'!;a ga(! ,hos! p+rpos! is to #isco"!r th! r+ !s, ,hich r+ !s ar! a ,ays changing an# a ,ays +n#isco"!rab !. ?6 0+t I #onIt ca that a ga(!, ?a##y. 76 $!rhaps not. I ,o+ # ca it a ga(!, or at any rat! 9p ay.9 0+t it c!rtain y is not i*! ch!ss or canasta. ItIs (or! i*! ,hat *itt!ns an# p+ppi!s #o. $!rhaps. I #onIt *no,.

***
?6 ?a##y, ,hy #o *itt!ns an# p+ppi!s p ayD 76 I #onIt *no,;I #onIt *no,.

30

Metalo ue: ,o- Mu'h Do .ou /no-$%


?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ho, (+ch #o yo+ *no,D 7ath!r6 A!D E((;I ha"! abo+t a po+n# o' *no, !#g!. ?6 ?onIt b! si y. Is it a po+n# st!r ing or a po+n# ,!ightD I (!an r!a y ho, (+ch #o yo+ *no,D 76 8! , (y brain ,!ighs abo+t t,o po+n#s an# I s+ppos! I +s! abo+t a .+art!r o' it;or +s! it at abo+t a .+art!r !''ici!ncy. &o !tIs say ha ' a po+n#. ?6 0+t #o yo+ *no, (or! than JohnnyIs #a##yD ?o yo+ *no, (or! than I #oD 76 E((;I onc! *n!, a itt ! boy in =ng an# ,ho as*!# his 'ath!r, 9?o 'ath!rs a ,ays *no, (or! than sonsD9 an# th! 'ath!r sai#, 9F!s.9 :h! n!-t .+!stion ,as, 9?a##y, ,ho in"!nt!# th! st!a( !ngin!D9 an# th! 'ath!r sai#, 9Ja(!s 8att.9 An# th!n th! son ca(! bac* ,ith 9;b+t ,hy #i#nIt Ja(!s 8attIs 'ath!r in"!nt itD9

***
?6 I *no,. I *no, (or! than that boy b!ca+s! I *no, ,hy Ja(!s 8attIs 'ath!r #i#nIt. It ,as b!ca+s! so(!Cbo#y ! s! ha# to thin* o' so(!thing ! s! b!'or! anybo#y co+ # (a*! a st!a( !ngin!. I (!an so(!thing i*!;I #onIt *no,;b+t th!r! ,as so(!bo#y ! s! ,ho ha# to #isco"!r oi b!'or! anybo#y co+ # (a*! an !ngin!. 76 F!s;that (a*!s a #i''!r!nc!. I (!an, it (!ans that *no, !#g! is a sort o' *nitt!# tog!th!r, or ,o"!n, i*! c oth, an# !ach pi!c! o' *no, !#g! is on y (!aning'+ or +s!'+ b!ca+s! o' th! oth!r pi!c!s;an# . . . ?6 ?o yo+ thin* ,! o+ght to (!as+r! it by th! yar#D 76 )o. I #onIt. ?6 0+t thatIs ho, ,! b+y c oth.

:his (!ta og+! is r!print!# by p!r(ission 'ro( =:C.6A 4!"i!, o' 1!n!ra &!(antics, Go . U, 1953. 91

31

76 F!s. 0+t I #i#nIt (!an that it is c oth. 5n y itIs i*! it;an# c!rtain y ,o+ # not b! ' at i*! c oth;b+t in thr!! #i(!nsions; p!rhaps 'o+r #i(!nsions. ?6 8hat #o yo+ (!an, ?a##yD 76 I r!a y #onIt *no,, (y #!ar. I ,as J+st trying to thin*. 76 I #onIt thin* ,! ar! #oing "!ry ,! this (orning. &+pCpos! ,! start o+t on anoth!r tac*. 8hat ,! ha"! to thin* abo+t is ho, th! pi!c!s o' *no, !#g! ar! ,o"!n tog!th!r. Eo, th!y h! p !ach oth!r. ?6 Eo, #o th!yD 76 8! ;itIs as i' so(!ti(!s t,o 'acts g!t a##!# tog!th!r an# a yo+ ha"! is J+st t,o 'acts. 0+t so(!ti(!s inst!a# o' J+st a##ing th!y (+ tip y;an# yo+ g!t 'o+r 'acts. ?6 Fo+ cannot (+ tip y on! by on! an# g!t 'o+r. Fo+ *no, yo+ canIt. 76 5h.

***
76 0+t y!s I can, too. I' th! things to b! (+ tip i!# ar! pi!c!s o' *no, !#g! or 'acts or so(!thing i*! that. 0!ca+s! !"!ry on! o' th!( is a #o+b ! so(!thing. ?6 I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 8! ;at !ast a #o+b ! so(!thing. ?6 ?a##yO 76 F!s;ta*! th! ga(! o' :,!nty V+!stions. Fo+ thin* o' so(!thing. &ay yo+ thin* o' 9to(orro,.9 A right. )o, I as* 9Is it abstractD9 an# yo+ say 9F!s.9 )o, 'ro( yo+r 9y!s9 I ha"! got a #o+b ! bit o' in'or(ation. I *no, that it is abstract an# I *no, that it isnIt concr!t!. 5r say it this ,ay;'ro( yo+r 9y!s9 I can ha "! th! n+(b!r o' possibi iti!s o' ,hat th! thing can b!. An# thatIs a (+ tip ying by on! o"!r t,o. ?6 IsnIt it a #i"isionD 76 F!s;itIs th! sa(! thing. I (!an;a right;itIs a (+ tip ication by .5. :h! i(portant thing is that itIs not J+st a s+btraction or an a##ition. ?6 Eo, #o yo+ *no, it isnItD

32

76 Eo, #o I *no, itD;8! , s+ppos! I as* anoth!r .+!stion ,hich ,i ha "! th! possibi iti!s a(ong th! abstractions. An# th!n anoth!r. :hat ,i ha"! bro+ght #o,n th! tota possibi iti!s to an !ighth o' ,hat th!y ,!r! at th! b!ginning. An# t,o ti(!s t,o ti(!s t,o is !ight. ?6 An# t,o an# t,o an# t,o is on y si-. 76 :hatIs right. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, I #onIt s!!;,hat happ!ns ,ith :,!nty V+!stionsD 76 :h! point is that i' I pic* (y .+!stions prop!r y I can #!ci#! b!t,!!n t,o ti(!s t,o ti(!s t,o ti(!s t,o t,!nty ti(!s o"!r things;220 things. :hatIs o"!r a (i C ion things that yo+ (ight ha"! tho+ght o'. 5n! .+!stion is !no+gh to #!ci#! b!t,!!n t,o thingsL an# t,o .+!stions ,i #!ci#! b!t,!!n 'o+r things;an# so on. ?6 I #onIt i*! arith(!tic, ?a##y. 76 F!s, I *no,. :h! ,or*ing it o+t is #+ , b+t so(! o' th! i#!as in it ar! a(+sing. Anyho,, yo+ ,ant!# to *no, ho, to (!as+r! *no, !#g!, an# i' yo+ start (!as+ring things that a ,ays !a#s to arith(!tic. ?6 8! ha"!nIt (!as+r!# any *no, !#g! y!t. 76 )o. I *no,. 0+t ,! ha"! (a#! a st!p or t,o to,ar# *no,ing ho, ,! ,o+ # (!as+r! it i' ,! ,ant!# to. An# that (!ans ,! ar! a itt ! n!ar!r to *no,ing ,hat *no, !#g! is. ?6 :hat ,o+ # b! a '+nny sort o' *no, !#g!, ?a##y. I (!an *no,ing abo+t *no, !#g!;,o+ # ,! (!as+r! that sort o' *no,ing th! sa(! ,ayD 76 8ait a (in+t!;I #onIt *no,;thatIs r!a y th! W64 V+!stion on this s+bJ!ct. 0!ca+s!;,! , !tIs go bac* to th! ga(! o' :,!nty V+!stions. :h! point that ,! n!"!r (!ntion!# is that thos! .+!stions ha"! to b! in a c!rtain or#!r. 7irst th! ,i#! g!n!ra .+!stion an# th!n th! #!tai !# .+!stion. An# itIs on y 'ro( ans,!rs to th! ,i#! .+!stions that I *no, ,hich #!tai !# .+!stions to as*. 0+t ,! co+nt!# th!( a a i*!. I #onIt *no,. 0+t no, yo+ as* (! i' *no,ing abo+t *no, !#g! ,o+ # b! (!as+r!# th! sa(! ,ay as oth!r *no, !#g!. An# th! ans,!r (+st s+r! y b! no. Fo+ s!!, i' th! !ar y .+!stions in th! ga(! t! (! ,hat .+!stions to as* at!r, th!n th!y (+st b! part y .+!stions abo+t *no,ing. :h!yIr! !-p oring th! b+sin!ss o' *no,ing.

33

?6 ?a##y;has anybo#y !"!r (!as+r!# ho, (+ch anyCbo#y *n!,. 76 5h y!s. 5't!n. 0+t I #onIt .+it! *no, ,hat th! ans,!rs (!ant. :h!y #o it ,ith !-a(inations an# t!sts an# .+i//!s, b+t itIs i*! trying to 'in# o+t ho, big a pi!c! o' pap!r is by thro,ing ston!s at it. ?6 Eo, #o yo+ (!anD 76 I (!an;i' yo+ thro, ston!s at t,o pi!c!s o' pap!r 'ro( th! sa(! #istanc! an# yo+ 'in# that yo+ hit on! pi!c! (or! o't!n than th! oth!r, th!n probab y th! on! that yo+ hit (ost ,i b! bigg!r than th! oth!r. In th! sa(! ,ay, in an !-a(ination yo+ thro, a ot o' .+!stions at th! st+#!nts, an# i' yo+ 'in# that yo+ hit (or! pi!c!s o' *no, !#g! in on! st+#!nt than in th! oth!rs, th!n yo+ thin* that st+#!nt (+st *no, (or!. :hatIs th! i#!a. ?6 0+t co+ # on! (!as+r! a pi!c! o' pap!r that ,ayD 76 &+r! y on! co+ #. It (ight !"!n b! .+it! a goo# ,ay o' #oing it. 8! #o (!as+r! a ot o' things that ,ay. 7or !-a(p !, ,! J+#g! ho, strong a c+p o' co''!! is by oo*ing to s!! ho, b ac* it is; that is, ,! oo* to s!! ho, (+ch ight is stopp!#. 8! thro, ight ,a"!s at it inst!a# o' ston!s, itIs th! sa(! i#!a. ?6 5h.

***
?6 0+t th!n;,hy sho+ #nIt ,! (!as+r! *no, !#g! that ,ayD 76 Eo,D 0y .+i//!sD )o;1o# 'orbi#. :h! tro+b ! is that that sort o' (!as+ring !a"!s o+t yo+r point;that th!r! ar! #i''!r!nt sorts o' *no, !#g!;an# that th!r!Is *no,ing abo+t *no, !#g!. An# o+ght on! to gi"! high!r (ar*s to th! st+#!nt ,ho can ans,!r th! ,i#!st .+!stionD 5r p!rhaps th!r! sho+ # b! a #i''!r!nt sort o' (ar*s 'or !ach #i''!r!nt sort o' .+!stion. ?6 8! , a right. @!tIs #o that an# th!n a## th! (ar*s tog!th!r an# th!n .. . 76 )o;,! co+ #nIt a## th!( tog!th!r. 8! (ight (+ tip y or #i"i#! on! sort o' (ar*s by anoth!r sort b+t ,! co+ #nIt a## th!(. ?6 8hy not, ?a##yD 76 0!ca+s!;b!ca+s! ,! co+ #nIt. )o ,on#!r yo+ #onIt i*! arith(!tic i' th!y #onIt t! yo+ that sort o' thing at schoo ;8hat

34

#o th!y t! yo+D 1o y;I ,on#!r ,hat th! t!ach!rs thin* arith(!tic is abo+t. ?6 8hat is it abo+t, ?a##yD 76 )o. @!tIs stic* to th! .+!stion o' ho, to (!as+r! *no, !#g!; Arith(!tic is a s!t o' tric*s 'or thin*ing c !ar y an# th! on y '+n in it is J+st its c arity. An# th! 'irst thing abo+t b!ing c !ar is not to (i- +p i#!as ,hich ar! r!a y #i''!r!nt 'ro( !ach oth!r. :h! i#!a o' t,o orang!s is r!a y #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! i#!a o' t,o (i !s. 0!ca+s! i' yo+ a## th!( tog!th!r yo+ on y g!t 'og in yo+r h!a#. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, I canIt *!!p i#!as s!parat!. 5+ght I to #o thatD 76 )o; )o; 5' co+rs! not. Co(bin! th!(. 0+t #onIt a## th!(. :hatIs a . I (!an;i' th! i#!as ar! n+(b!rs an# yo+ ,ant to co(bin! t,o #i''!r!nt sorts, th! thing to #o is to (+ tip y th!( by !ach oth!r. 5r #i"i#! th!( by !ach oth!r. An# th!n yo+I g!t so(! n!, sort o' i#!a, a n!, sort o' .+antity. I' yo+ ha"! (i !s in yo+r h!a#, an# yo+ ha"! ho+rs in yo+r h!a#, an# yo+ #i"i#! th! (i !s by th! ho+rs, yo+ g!t 9(i !s p!r ho+r9;thatIs a sp!!#. ?6 F!s, ?a##y. 8hat ,o+ # I g!t i' I (+ tip i!# th!(D 76 5h;!r;I s+ppos! yo+I# g!t (i !Cho+rs. F!s. I *no, ,hat th!y ar!. I (!an, ,hat a (i !Cho+r is. ItIs ,hat yo+ pay a ta-i #ri"!r. Eis (!t!r (!as+r!s (i !s an# h! has a c oc* ,hich (!as+r!s ho+rs, an# th! (!t!r an# th! c oc* ,or* tog!th!r an# (+ tip y th! ho+rs by th! (i !s an# th!n it (+ tip i!s th! (i !Cho+rs by so(!thing ! s! ,hich (a*!s (i !Cho+rs into #o ars. ?6 I #i# an !-p!ri(!nt onc!. 76 F!sD ?6 I ,ant!# to 'in# o+t i' I co+ # thin* t,o tho+ghts at th! sa(! ti(!. &o I tho+ght 9ItIs s+((!r9 an# I tho+ght 9ItIs ,int!r.9 An# th!n I tri!# to thin* th! t,o tho+ghts tog!th!r. 76 F!sD ?6 0+t I 'o+n# I ,asnIt ha"ing t,o tho+ghts. I ,as on y ha"ing on! tho+ght abo+t ha"ing t,o tho+ghts. 76 &+r!, thatIs J+st it. Fo+ canIt (i- tho+ghts, yo+ can on y co(bin! th!(. An# in th! !n#, that (!ans yo+ canIt co+nt th!(. 0!ca+s! co+nting is r!a y on y a##ing things tog!th!r. An# yo+ (ost y canIt #o that. ?6 :h!n r!a y #o ,! on y ha"! on! big tho+ght ,hich has ots o' branch!s an# ots an# ots o' branch!sD

35

76 F!s. I thin* so. I #onIt *no,. Anyho, I thin* that is a c !ar!r ,ay o' saying it. I (!an itIs c !ar!r than ta *ing abo+t bits o' *no, !#g! an# trying to co+nt th!(.

***
?6 ?a##y, ,hy #onIt yo+ +s! th! oth!r thr!!C.+art!rs o' yo+r brainD 76 5h, y!s;that;yo+ s!! th! tro+b ! is that I ha# schoo Ct!ach!rs too. An# th!y 'i !# +p abo+t a .+art!r o' (y brain ,ith 'og. An# th!n I r!a# n!,spap!rs an# ist!n!# to ,hat oth!r p!op ! sai#, an# that 'i !# +p anoth!r .+art!r ,ith 'og. ?6 An# th! oth!r .+art!r, ?a##yD 76 5h;thatIs 'og that I (a#! 'or (ys! ' ,h!n I ,as trying to thin*.

36

Metalo ue: Why Do Thin ! ,a0e Outline!$%


?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ,hy #o things ha"! o+t in!sD 7ath!r6 ?o th!yD I #onIt *no,. 8hat sort o' things #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an ,h!n I #ra, things, ,hy #o th!y ha"! o+t in!sD 76 8! , ,hat abo+t oth!r sorts o' things;a ' oc* o' sh!!pD or a con"!rsationD ?o th!y ha"! o+t in!sD ?6 ?onIt b! si y. I canIt #ra, a con"!rsation. I (!an things. 76 F!s;I ,as trying to 'in# o+t J+st ,hat yo+ (!ant. ?o yo+ (!an 98hy #o ,! gi"! things o+t in!s ,h!n ,! #ra, th!(D9 or #o yo+ (!an that th! things ha"! o+tC in!s ,h!th!r ,! #ra, th!( or notD ?6 I #onIt *no,, ?a##y. Fo+ t! (!. 8hich #o I (!anD 76 I #onIt *no,, (y #!ar. :h!r! ,as a "!ry angry artist onc! ,ho scribb !# a sorts o' things #o,n, an# a't!r h! ,as #!a# th!y oo*!# in his boo*s an# in on! p ac! th!y 'o+n# h!I# ,ritt!n 98is! (!n s!! o+t in!s an# th!r!'or! th!y #ra, th!(9 b+t in anoth!r p ac! h!I# ,ritt!n 9Aa# (!n s!! o+t in!s an# th!r!'or! th!y #ra, th!(.9 ?6 0+t ,hich #o!s h! (!anD I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 8! , 8i ia( 0 a*!;that ,as his na(!;,as a gr!at artist an# a "!ry angry (an. An# so(!ti(!s h! ro !# +p his i#!as into itt ! spitba s so that h! co+ # thro, th!( at p!op !. ?6 0+t ,hat ,as h! (a# abo+t, ?a##yD 76 0+t ,hat ,as h! (a# abo+tD 5h, I s!!;yo+ (!an 9angry.9 8! ha"! to *!!p thos! t,o (!anings o' 9(a#9 c !ar i' ,! ar! going to ta * abo+t 0 a*!. 0!ca+s! a ot o' p!op ! tho+ght h! ,as (a# ;r!a y (a#;cra/y. An# that ,as on! o' th! things h! ,as (a#Cangry abo+t. An# th!n h! ,as (a#Cangry, too, abo+t so(! artists ,ho paint!# pict+r!s as tho+gh things #i#nIt ha"! o+tC in!s. E! ca !# th!( 9th! s obb!ring schoo .9 ?6 E! ,asnIt "!ry to !rant, ,as h!, ?a##yD
4!print!# by p!r(ission 'ro( =:C.6 A 4!"i!, o' 1!n!ra &!(antics, Go . UI, 1953.
H

37

76 :o !rantD 5h, 1o#. F!s, I *no,;thatIs ,hat th!y #r+( into yo+ at schoo . )o, 0 a*! ,as not "!ry to !rant. E! #i#nIt !"!n thin* to !ranc! ,as a goo# thing. It ,as J+st (or! s obb!ring. E! tho+ght it b +rr!# a th! o+t in!s an# (+## !# !"!rything; that it (a#! a cats gray. &o that nobo#y ,o+ # b! ab ! to s!! anything c !ar y an# sharp y. ?6 F!s, ?a##y. 76 )o, thatIs not th! ans,!r. I (!an 9F!s, ?a##y9 is not th! ans,!r. A that says is that yo+ #onIt *no, ,hat yo+r opinion is;an# yo+ #onIt gi"! a #a(n ,hat I say or ,hat 0 a*! says an# that th! schoo has so b!'+## !# yo+ ,ith ta * abo+t to !ranc! that yo+ canCnot t! th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n anything an# anything ! s!. ?6 28!!ps.3 76 5h, 1o#. II( sorry, b+t I ,as angry. 0+t not r!a y angry ,ith yo+. J+st angry at th! g!n!ra (+shin!ss o' ho, p!op ! act an# thin*;an# ho, th!y pr!ach (+## ! an# ca it to !ranc!. ?6 0+t, ?a##y 76 F!sD ?6 I #onIt *no,. I #onIt s!!( ab ! to thin* "!ry ,! . ItIs a in a (+## !. 76 II( sorry. I s+ppos! I (+## !# yo+ by starting to !t o'' st!a(.

***
?6 ?a##yD 76 F!sD ?6 8hy is that so(!thing to g!t angry abo+tD 76 Is ,hat so(!thing to g!t angry abo+tD ?6 I (!an;abo+t ,h!th!r things ha"! o+t in!s. Fo+ sai# 8i ia( 0 a*! got angry abo+t it. An# th!n yo+ g!t angry abo+t it. 8hy is that, ?a##yD 76 F!s, in a ,ay I thin* it is. I thin* it (att!rs. $!rhaps in a ,ay, is th! thing that (att!rs. An# oth!r things on y (att!r b!ca+s! th!y ar! part o' this. ?6 8hat #o yo+ (!an, ?a##yD 76 I (!an, ,! , !tIs ta * abo+t to !ranc!. 8h!n 1!nti !s ,ant to b+ y J!,s b!ca+s! th!y *i !# Christ, I g!t into !rant. I thin*

38

th! 1!nti !s ar! b!ing (+## !Ch!a#!# an# ar! b +rring a th! o+t in!s. 0!ca+s! th! J!,s #i#nIt *i Christ, th! Ita ians #i# it. ?6 ?i# th!y, ?a##yD 76 F!s, on y th! on!s ,ho #i# ar! ca !# 4o(ans to#ay, an# ,! ha"! anoth!r ,or# 'or th!ir #!sc!n#ants. 8! ca th!( Ita ians. Fo+ s!! th!r! ar! t,o (+## !s an# I ,as (a*ing th! s!con# (+## ! on p+rpos! so ,! co+ # catch it. 7irst th!r!Is th! (+## ! o' g!tting th! history ,rong an# saying th! J!,s #i# it, an# th!n th!r!Is th! (+## ! o' saying that th! #!sc!n#ants sho+ # b! r!sponsib ! 'or ,hat th!ir anc!stors #i#nIt #o. ItIs a s o"!n y. ?6 F!s, ?a##y. 76 A right, II try not to g!t angry again. A II( trying to say is that (+## ! is so(!thing to g!t angry abo+t. ?6 ?a##yD 76 F!sD ?6 8! ,!r! ta *ing abo+t (+## ! th! oth!r #ay. Ar! ,! r!a y ta *ing abo+t th! sa(! thing no,D 76 F!s. 5' co+rs! ,! ar!. :hatIs ,hy itIs i(portant;,hat ,! sai# th! oth!r #ay. ?6 An# yo+ sai# that g!tting things c !ar ,as ,hat &ci!nc! ,as abo+t. 76 F!s, thatIs th! sa(! thing again.

***
?6 I #onIt s!!( to +n#!rstan# it a "!ry ,! . ="!rything s!!(s to b! !"!rything ! s!, an# I g!t ost in it. 76 F!s, I *no, itIs #i''ic+ t. :h! point is that o+r con"!rsations #o ha"! an o+t in!, so(!ho,;i' on y on! co+ # s!! it c !ar y.

***
76 @!tIs thin* abo+t a r!a concr!t! o+tCan#Co+t (+## !, 'or a chang!, an# s!! i' that ,i h! p. ?o yo+ r!(!(b!r th! ga(! o' cro.+!t in A ic! in 8on#!r an#D ?6 F!s;,ith ' a(ingosD 76 :hatIs right. ?6 An# porc+pin!s 'or ba sD

39

76 )o, h!#g!hogs. :h!y ,!r! h!#g!hogs. :h!y #onIt ha"! porc+pin!s in =ng an#. ?6 5h. 8as it in =ng an#, ?a##yD I #i#nIt *no,. 76 5' co+rs! it ,as in =ng an#. Fo+ #onIt ha"! #+ch!ss!s in A(!rica !ith!r. ?6 0+t th!r!Is th! ?+ch!ss o' 8in#sor, ?a##y. 76 F!s, b+t sh! #o!snIt ha"! .+i s, not i*! a r!a porc+pin!. ?6 1o on abo+t A ic! an# #onIt b! si y, ?a##y. 76 F!s, ,! ,!r! ta *ing abo+t ' a(ingos. :h! point is that th! (an ,ho ,rot! A ic! ,as thin*ing abo+t th! sa(! things that ,! ar!. An# h! a(+s!# hi(s! ' ,ith itt ! A ic! by i(agining a ga(! o' cro.+!t that ,o+ # b! a (+## !, J+st abso +t! (+## !. &o h! sai# th!y sho+ # +s! ' a(ingos as (a !ts b!ca+s! th! ' a(ingos ,o+ # b!n# th!ir n!c*s so th! p ay!r ,o+ #nIt *no, !"!n ,h!th!r his (a !t ,o+ # hit th! ba or ho, it ,o+ # hit th! ba . ?6 Anyho, th! ba (ight ,a * a,ay o' its o,n accor# b!ca+s! it ,as a h!#g!hog. 76 :hatIs right. &o that itIs a so (+## !# that nobo#y can t! at a ,hatIs going to happ!n. ?6 An# th! hoops ,a *!# aro+n#, too, b!ca+s! th!y ,!r! so #i!rs. 76 :hatIs right;!"!rything co+ # (o"! an# nobo#y co+ # t! ho, it ,o+ # (o"!. ?6 ?i# !"!rything ha"! to b! a i"! so as to (a*! a co(p !t! (+## !D 76 )o;h! co+ # ha"! (a#! it a (+## ! by . . . no, I s+ppos! yo+Ir! right. :hatIs int!r!sting. F!s, it ha# to b! that ,ay. 8ait a (in+t!. ItIs c+rio+s b+t yo+Ir! right. 0!ca+s! i' h!I# (+## !# things any oth!r ,ay, th! p ay!rs co+ # ha"! !arn!# ho, to #!a ,ith th! (+## ing #!tai s. I (!an, s+ppos! th! cro.+!t a,n ,as b+(py, or th! ba s ,!r! a '+nny shap!, or th! h!a#s o' th! (a !ts J+st ,obb y inst!a# o' b!ing a i"!, th!n th! p!op ! co+ # sti !arn an# th! ga(! ,o+ # on y b! (or! #i''ic+ t;it ,o+ #nIt b! i(possib !. 0+t onc! yo+ bring i"! things into it, it b!co(!s i(possib !. I ,o+ #nIt ha"! !-p!ct!# that. ?6 8o+ #nIt yo+, ?a##yD I ,o+ # ha"!. :hat s!!(s nat+ra to (!. 76 )at+ra D &+r!;nat+ra !no+gh. 0+t I ,o+ # not ha"! !-p!ct!# it to ,or* that ,ay. ?6 8hy notD :hatIs ,hat I ,o+ # ha"! !-p!ct!#.

40

76 F!s. 0+t this is th! thing that I ,o+ # not ha"! !-p!ct!#. :hat ani(a s, ,hich ar! th!(s! "!s ab ! to s!! things ah!a# an# act on ,hat th!y thin* is going to happ!n;a cat can catch a (o+s! by J+(ping to an# ,h!r! th! (o+s! ,i probab y b! ,h!n sh! has co(p !t!# h!r J+(p;b+t itIs J+st th! 'act that ani(a s ar! capab ! o' s!!ing ah!a# an# !arning that (a*!s th!( th! on y r!a y +npr!#ictab ! things in th! ,or #. :o thin* that ,! try to (a*! a,s as tho+gh p!op ! ,!r! .+it! r!g+ ar an# pr!#ictab !. ?6 5r #o th!y (a*! th! a,s J+st b!ca+s! p!op ! ar! not pr!#ictab !, an# th! p!op ! ,ho (a*! th! a,s ,ish th! oth!r p!op ! ,!r! pr!#ictab !D 76 F!s, I s+ppos! so.

***
?6 8hat ,!r! ,! ta *ing abo+tD 76 I #onIt .+it! *no,;not y!t. 0+t yo+ start!# a n!, in! by as*ing i' th! ga(! o' cro.+!t co+ # b! (a#! into a r!a (+## ! on y by ha"ing a th! things in it a i"!. An# I ,!nt chasing a't!r that .+!stion, an# I #onIt thin* II"! ca+ght +p ,ith it y!t. :h!r! is so(!Cthing '+nny abo+t that point. ?6 8hatD 76 I #onIt .+it! *no,;not y!t. &o(!thing abo+t i"ing things an# th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th!( an# th! things that ar! not a i"!; (achin!s, ston!s, so on. Eors!s #onIt 'it in a ,or # o' a+to(obi !s. An# thatIs part o' th! sa(! point. :h!yIr! +npr!#ictab !, i*! ' a(ingos in th! ga(! o' cro.+!t. ?6 8hat abo+t p!op !, ?a##yD 76 8hat abo+t th!(D ?6 8! , th!yIr! a i"!. ?o th!y 'itD I (!an on th! str!!tsD 76 )o, I s+ppos! th!y #onIt r!a y 'it;or on y by ,or*ing pr!tty har# to prot!ct th!(s! "!s an# (a*! th!(s! "!s 'it. F!s, th!y ha"! to (a*! th!(s! "!s pr!#ictab !, b!Cca+s! oth!r,is! th! (achin!s g!t angry an# *i th!(. ?6 ?onIt b! si y. I' th! (achin!s can g!t angry, th!n t*ey ,o+ # ,not b! pr!#ictab !. :h!yI# b! i*! yo+, ?a##y. Fo+ canIt pr!#ict ,h!n yo+Ir! angry, can yo+D 76 )o, I s+ppos! not.

41

?6 0+t, ?a##y, II# rath!r ha"! yo+ +npr!#ictab !;so(!ti(!s.

***
?6 8hat #i# you (!an by a con"!rsation ha"ing an o+tC in!D Eas this con"!rsation ha# an o+t in!D 76 5h, s+r! y, y!s. 0+t ,! cannot s!! it y!t b!ca+s! th! con"!rsation isnIt 'inish!#. Fo+ cannot !"!r s!! it ,hi ! yo+Ir! in th! (i## ! o' it. 0!ca+s! i' yo+ co+ # s!! it, yo+ ,o+ # b! pr!#ictab !; i*! th! (achin!. An# I ,o+ # b! pr!#ictab !;an# th! t,o o' +s tog!th!r ,o+ # b! pr!#ictab ! ?6 0+t I #onIt +n#!rstan#. Fo+ say it is i(portant to b! c !ar abo+t things. An# yo+ g!t angry abo+t p!op ! ,ho b +r th! o+t in!s. An# y!t ,! thin* itIs b!tt!r to b! +npr!#ictab ! an# not to b! i*! a (achin!. An# yo+ say that ,! cannot s!! th! o+t in!s o' o+r con"!rsation ti itIs o"!r. :h!n it #o!snIt (att!r ,h!th!r ,!Ir! c !ar or not. 0!ca+s! ,! cannot do anything abo+t it th!n. 76 F!s, I *no,;an# I #onIt +n#!rstan# it (ys! '. . . . 0+t any,ay, ,ho ,ants to do anything abo+t itD

42

Metalo ue: Why a +-an$%


?a+ght!r6 8hy a s,anD 7ath!r6 F!s;an# ,hy a p+pp!t in $!tro+sh*aD ?6 )o;thatIs #i''!r!nt. A't!r a a p+pp!t is sort o' h+(an;an# that partic+ ar p+pp!t is "!ry h+(an. 76 Aor! h+(an than th! p!op !D ?6 F!s. 76 0+t sti on y sort o' h+(anD An# a't!r a th! s,an is a so sort o' h+(an. ?6 F!s.

***
?6 0+t ,hat abo+t th! #anc!rD Is sh! h+(anD 5' co+rs! sh! really is, b+t, on th! stag!, sh! s!!(s inh+(an or i(p!rsona ;p!rhaps s+p!rh+(an. I #onIt *no,. 76 Fo+ (!an;that ,hi ! th! s,an is on y a sort of s,an an# has no ,!bbing b!t,!!n h!r to!s, th! #anc!r s!!(s on y sort of h+(an. ?6 I #onIt *no,;p!rhaps itIs so(!thing i*! that.

***
76 )o;I g!t con'+s!# ,h!n I sp!a* o' th! 9s,an9 an# th! #anc!r as t,o #i''!r!nt things. I ,o+ # rath!r say that th! thing I s!! on th! stag!;th! s,an 'ig+r!;is both 9sort o'9 h+(an an# 9sort o'9 s,an. ?6 0+t th!n yo+ ,o+ # b! +sing th! ,or# 9sort o'9 in t,o s!ns!s. 76 F!s, thatIs so. 0+t anyho,, ,h!n I say that th! s,an 'ig+r! is 9sort o'9 h+(an, I #onIt (!an that it 2or sh!3 is a (!(b!r o' that sp!ci!s or sort ,hich ,! ca h+(an. ?6 )o, o' co+rs! not. 76 4ath!r that sh! 2or it3 is a (!(b!r o' anoth!r s+b#i"ision o' a arg!r gro+p ,hich ,o+ # inc +#! $!tro+sh*a p+pp!ts an# ba !t s,ans an# p!op !.
H :his (!ta og+! app!ar!# in Impulse 1954 an# is r!Cprint!# by p!r(ission o' I(p+ s! $+b ications, Inc.

43

?6 )o, itIs not i*! g!n!ra an# sp!ci!s. ?o!s yo+r arg!r gro+p inc +#! g!!s!D 76 A right. :h!n I !"i#!nt y #o not *no, ,hat th! ,or# 9sort o'9 (!ans. 0+t I #o *no, that th! ,ho ! o' 'antasy, po!try, ba !t, an# art in g!n!ra o,!s its (!aning an# i(portanc! to th! r! ationship ,hich I r!'!r to ,h!n I say that th! s,an 'ig+r! is a 9sort o'9 s,an;or a 9pr!t!n#9 s,an. ?6 :h!n ,! sha n!"!r *no, ,hy th! #anc!r is a s,an or a p+pp!t or ,hat!"!r, an# sha n!"!r b! ab ! to say ,hat art or po!try is +nti so(!on! says ,hat is r!a y (!ant by 9sort o'.9 76 F!s. 76 0+t ,! #onIt ha"! to a"oi# p+ns. In 7r!nch th! phras! !sp!c! #! 2 it!ra y 9sort o'93 carri!s a sp!cia sort o' p+nch. I' on! (an ca s anoth!r 9a ca(! 9 th! ins+ t (ay b! a 'ri!n# y on!. 0+t i' h! ca s hi( an !sp!c! #! cha(!a+;a sort o' ca(! ;thatIs ba#. ItIs sti ,ors! to ca a (an an !sp!c! #I!sp!c!;a sort o' a sort. ?6 A sort o' a sort o' ,hatD 76 )o;J+st a sort o' a sort. 5n th! oth!r han#, i' yo+ say o' a (an that h! is a tr+! ca(! , th! ins+ t carri!s a ' a"or o' gr+#ging a#(iration. ?6 0+t ,h!n a 7r!nch(an ca s a (an a sort o' ca(! , is h! +sing th! phras! sort o' in anything i*! th! sa(! ,ay as I, ,h!n I say th! s,an is sort o' h+(anD

***
76 ItIs i*!;th!r!Is a passag! in Aacb!th. Aacb!th is ta *ing to th! (+r#!r!rs ,ho( h! is s!n#ing o+t to *i 0an.+o. :h!y c ai( to b! (!n, an# h! t! s th!( th!y ar! sort o' (!n. Ay;in th! cata og+! y! go 'or (!n. as ho+n#s an# gr!yho+n#s, (ongr! s, spani! s, c+rs, sho+ghs, ,at!rCr+gs an# #!(iC,o "!s ar! c !pt a by th! na(! o' #ogs. (Macbeth, Act III, &c!n! 13 ?6 )o;thatIs ,hat yo+ sai# J+st no,. 8hat ,as itD 9Anoth!r s+b#i"ision o' a arg!r gro+pD9 I #onIt thin* thatIs it at a .

44

76 )o, itIs not on y that. Aacb!th, a't!r a , +s!s #ogs in his si(i !. An# 9#ogs9 (!ans !ith!r nob ! ho+n#s or sca"!ng!rs. It ,o+ # not b! th! sa(! i' h! ha# +s!# th! #o(!stic "ari!ti!s o' cats;or th! s+bsp!ci!s o' ,i # ros!s. ?6 A right, a right. 0+t ,hat is th! ans,!r to (y .+!stionD 8h!n a 7r!nch(an ca s a (an a 9sort o'9 ca(! , an# I say that th! s,an is 9sort o'9 h+(an, #o ,! both (!an th! sa(! thing by 9sort o'9D

***
76 A right, !tIs try to ana y/! ,hat 9sort o'9 (!ans. @!tIs ta*! a sing ! s!nt!nc! an# !-a(in! it. I' I say 9th! p+pp!t $!tro+sh*a is s or t o' h+(an,9 I stat! a r! ationCship. ?6 0!t,!!n ,hat an# ,hatD 76 0!t,!!n i#!as, I thin*. ?6 )ot b!t,!!n a p+pp!t an# p!op !D 76 )o. 0!t,!!n so(! i#!as that I ha"! abo+t a p+pp!t an# so(! i#!as that I ha"! abo+t p!op !. ?6 5h.

***
?6 8! th!n, ,hat sort o' a r! ationshipD 76 I #onIt *no,. A (!taphoric r! ationshipD

***
76 An# th!n th!r! is that oth!r r! ationship ,hich is !(phatica y not 9sort o'.9 Aany (!n ha"! gon! to th! sta*! 'or th! proposition that th! br!a# an# ,in! ar! n ot 9sort o'9 th! bo#y an# b oo#. ?6 0+t is that th! sa(! thingD I (!an;is th! s,an ba !t a sacra(!ntD 76 F!s;I thin* so;at !ast 'or so(! p!op !. In $rot!stant ang+ag! ,! (ight say that th! s,an i*! cost+(! an# (o"!(!nts o' th! #anc!r ar! 9o+t,ar# an# "isib ! signs o' so(! in,ar# an# spirit+a grac!9 o' ,o(an. 0+t in Catho ic ang+ag! that ,o+ # (a*! th! ba !t into a (!r! (!taphor an# not a sacra(!nt.

45

?6 0+t yo+ sai# that 'or so(! p!op ! it is a sacra(!nt. Fo+ (!an 'or $rot!stantsD 76 )o, no. I (!an that i' 'or so(! p!op ! th! br!a# an# ,in! ar! on y a (!taphor, ,hi ! 'or oth!rs;Catho ics ;th! br!a# an# ,in! ar! a sacra(!ntL th!n, i' th!r! b! so(! 'or ,ho( th! ba !t is a (!taphor, th!r! (ay b! oth!rs 'or ,ho( it is !(phatica y (or! than a (!taphor;b+t rath!r a sacra(!nt. ?6 In th! Catho ic s!ns!D 76 F!s.

***
76 I (!an that i' ,! co+ # say c !ar y ,hat is (!ant by th! proposition 9th! br!a# an# ,in! is not Nsort o'I th! bo#y an# b oo#9L th!n ,! sho+ # *no, (or! abo+t ,hat ,! (!an ,h!n ,! say !ith!r that th! s,an is 9sort o'9 h+(an or that th! ba !t is a sacra(!nt. ?6 8! ;ho, #o yo+ t! th! #i''!r!nc!D 76 8hich #i''!r!nc!D ?6 0!t,!!n a sacra(!nt an# a (!taphor.

***
76 8ait a (in+t!. 8! ar!, a't!r a , ta *ing abo+t th! p!rC'or(!r or th! artist or th! po!t, or a gi"!n (!(b!r o' th! a+#i!nc!. Fo+ as* (! ho, I t! th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n a sacra(!nt an# a (!taphor. 0+t (y ans,!r (+st #!a ,ith th! p!rson an# not th! (!ssag!. Fo+ as* (! ho, I ,o+ # #!ci#! ,h!th!r a c!rtain #anc! on a c!rtain #ay is or is not sacra(!nta 'or th! partic+ ar #anc!r. ?6 A right;b+t g!t on ,ith it. 76 8! ;I thin* itIs a sort o' a s!cr!t. ?6 Fo+ (!an yo+ ,onIt t! (!D 76 )o;itIs not that sort o' s!cr!t. ItIs not so(!thing that on! (+st not t! . ItIs so(!thing that on! cannot t! . ?6 8hat #o yo+ (!anD 8hy notD 76 @!t +s s+ppos! I as*!# th! #anc!r, 9Aiss U, t! (!, that #anc! ,hich yo+ p!r'or(;is it 'or yo+ a sacra(!nt or a (!r! (!taphorD9 An# !t +s i(agin! that I can (a*! this .+!stion int! igib !. &h! ,i p!rhaps p+t (! o'' by saying, 9Fo+ sa, it

46

;it is 'or yo+ to #!ci#!, i' yo+ ,ant to, ,h!th!r or not it is sacra(!nta 'or yo+.9 5r sh! (ight say, 9&o(!ti(!s it is an# so(!ti(!s it isnIt.9 5r 9Eo, ,as I, ast nightD9 0+t in any cas! sh! can ha"! no #ir!ct contro o"!r th! (att!r.

***
?6 ?o yo+ (!an that anybo#y ,ho *n!, this s!cr!t ,o+ # ha"! it in th!ir po,!r to b! a gr!at #anc!r or a gr!at po!tD 76 )o, no, no. It isnIt i*! that at a . I (!an 'irst that gr!at art an# r! igion an# a th! r!st o' it is abo+t this s!cr!tL b+t *no,ing th! s!cr!t in an or#inary conscio+s ,ay ,o+ # not gi"! th! *no,!r contro .

***
?6 ?a##y, ,hat has happ!n!#D 8! ,!r! trying to 'in# o+t ,hat 9sort o'9 (!ans ,h!n ,! say that th! s,an is 9sort o'9 h+(an. I sai# that th!r! (+st b! t,o s!ns!s o' 9sort o'.9 5n! in th! phras! 9th! s,an 'ig+r! is a Nsort o'I s,an, an# anoth!r in th! phras! 9th! s,an 'ig+r! is Nsort o'I h+(an.9 An# no, yo+ ar! ta *ing abo+t (yst!rio+s s!cr!ts an# contro . 76 A right. II start again. :h! s,an 'ig+r! is not a r!a s,an b+t a pr!t!n# s,an. It is a so a pr!t!n#Cnot h+(an b!ing. It is a so 9r!a y9 a yo+ng a#y ,!aring a ,hit! #r!ss. An# a r!a s,an ,o+ # r!s!(b ! a yo+ng a#y in c!rtain ,ays. ?6 0+t ,hich o' th!s! is sacra(!nta D 76 5h @or#, h!r! ,! go again. I can on y say this6 that it is not on! o' th!s! stat!(!nts b+t th!ir co(bination ,hich constit+t!s a sacra(!nt. :h! 9pr!t!n#9 an# th! 9pr!t!n#Cnot9 an# th! 9r!a y9 so(!ho, g!t '+s!# tog!th!r into a sing ! (!aning. ?6 0+t ,! o+ght to *!!p th!( s!parat!. 76 F!s. :hat is ,hat th! ogicians an# th! sci!ntists try to #o. 0+t th!y #o not cr!at! ba !ts that ,ay;nor sacra(!nts.

47

Metaloque: What I! an In!tin't$%


?a+ght!r6 ?a##y, ,hat is an instinctD 7ath!r6 An instinct, (y #!ar, is a !-p anatory princip !. ?6 0+t ,hat #o!s it !-p ainD 76 Anything;a (ost anything at a . Anything yo+ ,ant it to !-p ain. ?6 ?onIt b! si y. It #o!snIt !-p ain gra"ity. 76 )o. 0+t that is b!ca+s! nobo#y ,ants 9instinct9 to !-p ain gra"ity. ' th!y #i#, it ,o+ # !-p ain it. 8! co+ # si(p y say that th! (oon has an instinct ,hos! str!ngth "ari!s in"!rs! y as th! s.+ar! o' th! #istanc! .. . ?6 0+t thatIs nons!ns!, ?a##y. 76 F!s, s+r! y. 0+t it ,as yo+ ,ho (!ntion!# 9instinct,9 not I. ?6 A right;b+t th!n ,hat #o!s !-p ain gra"ityD 76 )othing, (y #!ar, b!ca+s! gra"ity is an !-p anatory princip !. ?6 5h. ?6 ?o yo+ (!an that yo+ cannot +s! on! !-p anatory princip ! to !-p ain anoth!rD )!"!rD 76 E(( . . . har# y !"!r. :hat is ,hat )!,ton (!ant ,h!n h! sai#, 9hypoth!s!s non 'ingo.9 ?6 An# ,hat #o!s that (!anD $ !as!. 76 8! , yo+ *no, ,hat 9hypoth!s!s9 ar!. Any stat!(!nt in*ing tog!th!r t,o #!scripti"! stat!(!nts is an hypoth!sis. I' yo+ say that th!r! ,as a '+ (oon on 7!br+ary 1st an# anoth!r on Aarch 1stL an# th!n yo+ in* th!s! t,o obs!r"ations tog!th!r in any ,ay, th! stat!(!nt ,hich in*s th!( is an hypoth!sis. ?6 F!s;an# I *no, ,hat non (!ans. 0+t ,hatIs 'ingoD 76 8! ;'ingo is a at! @atin ,or# 'or 9(a*!.9 It 'or(s a "!rba no+n 'ictio 'ro( ,hich ,! g!t th! ,or# 9'iction.9 ?6 ?a##y, #o yo+ (!an that &ir Isaac )!,ton tho+ght that a hypoth!s!s ,!r! J+st (a#! +p i*! stori!sD 76 F!s;pr!cis! y that.
:his (!ta og+! is r!print!# by p!r(ission o' Ao+ton X Co. 'ro( Approach!s to Ani(a Co((+nication, !#it!# by :ho(as A. &!b!o*, 1969
H

48

?6 0+t #i#nIt h! #isco"!r gra"ityD 8ith th! app !D 76 )o, #!ar. E! in"!nt!# it. ?6 5h.... ?a##y, ,ho in"!nt!# instinctD 76 I #onIt *no,. $robab y bib ica . ?6 0+t i' th! i#!a o' gra"ity in*s tog!th!r t,o #!scripti"! stat!(!nts, it (+st b! an hypoth!sis. 76 :hatIs right. ?6 :h!n )!,ton #i# 'ingo an hypoth!sis a't!r a . 76 F!s;in#!!# h! #i#. E! ,as a "!ry gr!at sci!ntist. ? 6 5h. ?6 ?a##y, is an !-p anatory princip ! th! sa(! thing as an hypoth!sisD 76 )!ar y, b+t not .+it!. Fo+ s!!, an hypoth!sis tri!s to !-p ain so(! partic+ ar so(!thing b+t an !-p anatory princip !; i*! 9gra"ity9 or 9instinct9;r!a y !-p ains nothing. ItIs a sort o' con"!ntiona agr!!(!nt b!t,!!n sci!ntists to stop trying to !-p ain things at a c!rtain point. ?6 :h!n is that ,hat )!,ton (!antD I' 9gra"ity9 !-p ains nothing b+t is on y a sort o' '+ stop at th! !n# o' a in! o' !-p anation, th!n in"!nting gra"ity ,as not th! sa(! as in"!nting an hypoth!sis, an# h! co+ # say h! #i# not 'ingo any hypoth!s!s. 76 :hatIs right. :h!r!Is no !-p anation o' an !-p anatory princip !. ItIs i*! a b ac* bo-. ?6 5h. ?6 ?a##y, ,hatIs a b ac* bo-D 76 A 9b ac* bo-9 is a con"!ntiona agr!!(!nt b!t,!!n sci!ntists to stop trying to !-p ain things at a c!rtain point. I g+!ss itIs +s+a y a t!(porary agr!!(!nt. ?6 0+t that #o!snIt so+n# i*! a b ac* bo-. 76 )o;b+t thatIs ,hat itIs ca !#. :hings o't!n #onIt so+n# i*! th!ir na(!s. ?6 )o. 76 ItIs a ,or# that co(!s 'ro( th! !ngin!!rs. 8h!n th!y #ra, a #iagra( o' a co(p icat!# (achin!, th!y +s! a sort o' shorthan#. Inst!a# o' #ra,ing a th! #!tai s, th!y p+t a bo- to stan# 'or a

49

,ho ! b+nch o' parts an# ab! th! bo- ,ith ,hat that b+nch o' parts is s+ppos!# to #o. ?6 &o a 9b ac* bo-9 is a ab! 'or ,hat a b+nch o' things ar! s+ppos!# to #o... . 76 :hatIs right. 0+t itIs not an !-p anation o' ho, th! b+nch ,or*s. ?6 An# gra"ityD 76 Is a ab! 'or ,hat gra"ity is s+ppos!# to #o. ItIs not an !-p anation o' ho, it #o!s it. ?6 5h. ?6 ?a##y, ,hat is an instinctD 76 ItIs a ab! 'or ,hat a c!rtain b ac* bo- is s+ppos!# to #o. ?6 0+t ,hatIs it s+ppos!# to #oD 76 E(. :hat is a "!ry #i''ic+ t .+!stion .. . ?6 1o on. 76 8! . ItIs s+ppos!# to contro ;part y contro ;,hat an organis( #o!s. ?6 ?o p ants ha"! instinctsD 76 )o. I' a botanist +s!# th! ,or# 9instinct,9 ,h!n ta *ing abo+t p ants, h! ,o+ # b! acc+s!# o' /oo(orphis(. ?6 Is that ba#D 76 F!s. G!ry ba# 'or botanists. 7or a botanist to b! g+i ty o' /oo(orphis( is as ba# as 'or a /oo ogist to b! g+i ty o' anthropo(orphis(. G!ry ba#, in#!!#. ?6 5h. I s!!. ?6 8hat #i# yo+ (!an by 9part y contro 9D 76 8! . I' an ani(a 'a s #o,n a c i'', its 'a ing is conCtro !# by gra"ity. 0+t i' it ,igg !s ,hi ! 'a ing, that (ight b! #+! to instinct. ?6 &! 'Cpr!s!r"ati"! instinctD 76 I s+ppos! so. ?6 8hat is a s! ', ?a##yD ?o!s a #og *no, it has a s! 'D 76 I #onIt *no,. 0+t i' th! #og #o!s *no, it has a s! ', an# it ,igg !s in or#!r to pr!s!r"! that s! ', th!n its ,igg ing is rationa , not instincti"!. ?6 5h. :h!n a 9s! 'Cpr!s!r"ati"! instinct9 is a contra#iction. 76 8! , itIs a sort o' ha ',ay ho+s! on th! roa# to anthropo(orphis(. ?6 5h. :hatIs ba#.

50

76 0+t th! #og (ight *no, it ha# a s! ' an# not *no, that that s! ' sho+ # b! pr!s!r"!#. It ,o+ # th!n b! rationa to not ,igg !. &o i' th! #og sti ,igg !s, this ,o+ # b! instincti"!. 0+t i' it !arn!# to ,igg !, th!n it ,o+ # not b! instincti"!. ?6 5h. ?6 8hat ,o+ # not b! instincti"!, ?a##yD :h! !arning or th! ,igg ingD 76 )o;J+st th! ,igg ing. ?6 An# th! !arning ,o+ # b! instincti"!D 76 8! . . . y!s. %n !ss th! #og ha# to !arn to !arn. ? 6 5h. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, ,hat is instinct s+ppos!# to !-p ainD 76 I *!!p trying to a"oi# that .+!stion. Fo+ s!!, instincts ,!r! in"!nt!# b!'or! anybo#y *n!, anything abo+t g!n!tics, an# (ost o' (o#!rn g!n!tics ,as #isco"!r!# b!'or! anybo#y *n!, anything abo+t co((+nication th!ory. &o it is #o+b y #i''ic+ t to trans at! 9instinct9 into (o#!rn t!r(s an# i#!as. ?6 F!s, go on. 76 8! , yo+ *no, that in th! chro(oso(!s, th!r! ar! g!n!sL an# that th! g!n!s ar! so(! sort o' (!ssag!s ,hich ha"! to #o ,ith ho, th! organis( #!"! ops an# ,ith ho, it b!ha"!s. ?6 Is #!"! oping #i''!r!nt 'ro( b!ha"ing, ?a##yD 8hatIs th! #i''!r!nc!D An# ,hich is !arningD Is it 9#!"! oping9 or 9b!ha"ingD9 76 )oO )oO )ot so 'ast. @!tIs a"oi# thos! .+!stions by p+tting #!"! opingC !arningCb!ha"ior a tog!th!r in on! bas*!t. A sing ! sp!ctr+( o' ph!no(!na. )o, !tIs try to say ho, instinct contrib+t!s to !-p aining this sp!ctr+(. ?6 0+t is it a sp!ctr+(D 76 )o;thatIs on y a oos! ,ay o' ta *ing. ?6 5h. ?6 0+t isnIt instinct a on th! b!ha"ior !n# o' that 9sp!ctr+(9D An# isnIt !arning a #!t!r(in!# by !n"iron(!nt an# not chro(oso(!sD 76 @!tIs g!t this c !ar;that th!r! is no b!ha"ior an# no anato(y an# no !arning in th! chro(oso(!s th!(Cs! "!s.

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?6 ?onIt th!y ha"! th!ir o,n anato(yD 76 F!s, o' co+rs!. An# th!ir o,n physio ogy. 0+t th! anato(y an# physio ogy o' th! g!n!s an# chro(oso(!s is not th! anato(y an# physio ogy o' th! ,ho ! ani(a . ?6 5' co+rs! not. 76 0+t it is abo+t th! anato(y an# physio ogy o' th! ,ho ! ani(a . ?6 Anato(y abo+t anato(yD 76 F!s, J+st as !tt!rs an# ,or#s ha"! th!ir o,n 'or(s an# shap!s an# thos! shap!s ar! parts o' ,or#s or s!nt!nc!s an# so on; ,hich (ay b! abo+t anything. ?6 5h. ?6 ?a##y, is th! anato(y o' th! g!n!s an# chro(oso(!s abo+t th! anato(y o' th! ,ho ! ani(a D An# th! physio ogy o' th! g!n!s an# chro(oso(!s abo+t th! physio ogy o' th! ,ho ! ani(a D 76 )o, no. :h!r! is no r!ason to !-p!ct that. ItIs not i*! that. Anato(y an# physio ogy ar! not s!parat! in that ,ay. ?6 ?a##y, ar! yo+ going to p+t anato(y an# physio ogy tog!th!r in on! bas*!t, i*! yo+ #i# #!"! opingC !arningCb!ha"iorD 76 F!s. C!rtain y. ? 6 5h. ?6 :h! sa(! bas*!tD 76 8hy notD I thin* #!"! oping is right in th! (i## ! o' that bas*!t. 4ight s(ac* in th! (i## !. ?6 5h. ?6 I' chro(oso(!s an# g!n!s ha"! anato(y an# physio ogy, th!y (+st ha"! #!"! op(!nt. 76 F!s. :hat 'o o,s. ?6 ?o yo+ thin* th!ir #!"! op(!nt co+ # b! abo+t th! #!"! op(!nt o' th! ,ho ! organis(D 76 I #onIt !"!n *no, ,hat that .+!stion ,o+ # (!an. ?6 I #o. It (!ans that th! chro(oso(!s an# g!n!s ,o+ # b! changing or #!"! oping so(!ho, ,hi ! th! baby is #!"! oping, an# th! chang!s in th! chro(oso(!s ,o+ # b! abo+t th! chang!s in th! baby. Contro ing th!( or part y contro ing th!(. 76 )o. I #onIt thin* so.

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?6 5h. ?6 ?o chro(oso(!s !arnD 76 I #onIt *no,. ?6 :h!y #o so+n# rath!r i*! b ac* bo-!s. 76 F!s, b+t i' chro(oso(!s or g!n!s can !arn, th!n th!y ar! (+ch (or! co(p icat!# b ac* bo-!s than anybo#y at pr!s!nt b! i!"!s. &ci!ntists ar! a ,ays ass+(ing or hoping that things ar! si(p !, an# th!n #isco"!ring that th!y ar! not. ?6 F!s, ?a##y. ?6 ?a##y, is that an instinctD 76 Is ,hat an instinctD ?6 Ass+(ing that things ar! si(p !. 76 )o. 5' co+rs! not. &ci!ntists ha"! to b! ta+ght to #o that. ?6 0+t I tho+ght no organis( co+ # b! ta+ght to b! ,rong !"!ry ti(!. 76 Fo+ng a#y, yo+ ar! b!ing #isr!sp!ct'+ an# ,rong. In th! 'irst p ac!, sci!ntists ar! not ,rong !"!ry ti(! th!y ass+(! that things ar! si(p !. V+it! o't!n th!y ar! right or part y right an# sti (or! o't!n, th!y thin* th!y ar! right an# t! !ach oth!r so. An# that is !no+gh r!in'orc!(!nt. An#, anyho, yo+ ar! ,rong in saying that no organis( can b! ta+ght to b! ,rong !"!ry ti(!. ?6 8h!n p!op ! say that so(!thing is 9instincti"!,9 ar! th!y trying to (a*! things si(p !D 76 F!s, in#!!#. ?6 An# ar! th!y ,rongD 76 I #onIt *no,. It #!p!n#s on ,hat th!y (!an. ?6 5h. ?6 8h!n #o th!y #o itD 76 F!s, thatIs a b!tt!r ,ay o' as*ing th! .+!stion. :h!y #o it ,h!n th!y s!! a cr!at+r! #o so(!thing, an# th!y ar! s+r!6 'irst, that th! cr!at+r! #i# not !arn ho, to #o that so(!thing an#, s!con#, that th! cr!at+r! is too st+pi# to +n#!rstan# ,hy it sho+ # #o that. ?6 Any oth!r ti(!D 76 F!s. 8h!n th!y s!! that a (!(b!rs o' th! sp!ci!s #o th! sa(! things +n#!r th! sa(! circ+(stanc!sL an# ,h!n th!y s!! th!

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ani(a r!p!ating th! sa(! action !"!n ,h!n th! circ+(stanc!s ar! chang!# so that th! action 'ai s. ?6 &o th!r! ar! 'o+r ,ays o' *no,ing that itIs instincti"!. 76 )o. 7o+r con#itions +n#!r ,hich sci!ntists ta * abo+t instinct. ?6 0+t ,hat i' on! con#ition isnIt th!r!D An instinct so+n#s rath!r i*! a habit or a c+sto(. 76 0+t habits ar! !arn!#. ?6 F!s. ?6 Ar! habits a ,ays t,ic! !arn!#D 76 8hat #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an;,h!n I !arn a s!t o' chor#s on th! g+itar, 'irst I !arn th!( or 'in# th!(L an# th!n at!r ,h!n I practic!, I g!t th! habit o' p aying th!( that ,ay. An# so(!ti(!s I g!t ba# habits. 76 @!arning to b! ,rong !"!ry ti(!D ?6 5h;a right. 0+t ,hat abo+t that t,ic!Co"!r b+sin!ssD 8o+ # both parts o' !arning b! not th!r! i' g+itar p aying ,!r! instincti"!D 76 F!s. I' both parts o' !arning ,!r! c !ar y not th!r!, sci!ntists (ight say that g+itar p aying is instincti"!. ?6 0+t ,hat i' on y on! part o' !arning ,as (issingD 76 :h!n, ogica y, th! (issing part co+ # b! !-p ain!# by 9instinct.9 ?6 Co+ # !ith!r part b! (issingD 76 I #onIt *no,. I #onIt thin* anybo#y *no,s. ?6 5h. ?6 ?o bir#s practic! th!ir songsD 76 F!s. &o(! bir#s ar! sai# to practic!. ?6 I g+!ss instinct gi"!s th!( th! 'irst part o' singing, b+t th!y ha"! to ,or* on th! s!con# part. 76 $!rhaps. ?6 Co+ # practicing b! instincti"!D 76 I s+ppos! it co+ # b!;b+t I a( not s+r! ,hat th! ,or# 9instinct9 is co(ing to (!an in this con"!rsation. ?6 ItIs an !-p anatory princip !, ?a##y, J+st i*! yo+ sai#... :h!r!Is on! thing I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 F!sD ?6 Is th!r! a ,ho ! ot o' instinctD 5r ar! th!r! ots o' instinctsD

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76 F!s. :hatIs a goo# .+!stion, an# sci!ntists ha"! ta *!# a gr!at #!a abo+t it, (a*ing ists o' s!parat! instincts an# th!n +(ping th!( tog!th!r again. ?6 0+t ,hatIs th! ans,!rD 76 8! . ItIs not .+it! c !ar. 0+t on! thing is c!rtain6 :hat !-p anatory princip !s (+st b! not (+ tip i!# b!yon# n!c!ssity. ?6 An# that (!ansD $ !as!D 76 ItIs th! i#!a b!hin# (onoth!is(;that th! i#!a o' on! big 1o# is to b! pr!'!rr!# to th! i#!a o' t,o itt ! go#s. ?6 Is 1o# an !-p anatory princip !D 76 5h, y!s;a "!ry big on!. Fo+ sho+ #nIt +s! t,o b ac* bo-!s;or t,o instincts;to !-p ain ,hat on! b ac* bo- ,o+ # !-p ain .. . ?6 I' it ,!r! big !no+gh. 76 )o. It (!ans .. . ?6 Ar! th!r! big instincts an# itt ! instinctsD 76 8! ;as a (att!r o' 'act, sci!ntists #o ta * as i' th!r! ,!r!. 0+t th!y ca th! itt ! instincts by oth!r na(!s ;9r!' !-!s,9 9innat! r! !asing (!chanis(s,9 9'i-!# action patt!rns,9 an# so on. ?6 I s!!; i*! ha"ing on! big 1o# to !-p ain th! +ni"!rs! an# ots o' itt ! 9i(ps9 or 9gob ins9 to !-p ain th! s(a things that happ!n. 76 8! , y!s. 4ath!r i*! that. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, ho, #o th!y +(p things tog!th!r to (a*! th! big instinctsD 76 8! , 'or !-a(p !, th!y #onIt say that th! #og has on! instinct ,hich (a*!s it ,igg ! ,h!n it 'a s #o,n th! c i'' an# anoth!r ,hich (a*!s it r+n a,ay 'ro( 'ir!. ?6 Fo+ (!an thos! ,o+ # both b! !-p ain!# by a s! 'Cpr!s!r"ati"! instinctD 76 &o(!thing i*! that. F!s. ?6 0+t i' yo+ p+t thos! #i''!r!nt acts tog!th!r +n#!r on! instinct, th!n yo+ cannot g!t a,ay 'ro( saying that th! #og has th! +s! o' th! notion o' 9s! '.9 76 )o, p!rhaps not. ?6 8hat ,o+ # yo+ #o abo+t th! instinct 'or th! song an# th! instinct 'or practicing th! songD 76 8! ;#!p!n#ing on ,hat th! song is +s!# 'or. 0oth song an# practic! (ight b! +n#!r a t!rritoria instinct or a s!-+a instinct.

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?6 I ,o+ #nIt p+t th!( tog!th!r. 76 )oD ?6 0!ca+s! ,hat i' th! bir# a so practic!# pic*ing +p s!!# or so(!thingD Fo+I# ha"! to (+ tip y th! instincts ;,hat is itD; b!yon# n!c!ssity. 76 8hat #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an a 'oo#Cg!tting instinct to !-p ain th! practicing pic*ing +p s!!#, an# a t!rritory instinct 'or practicing song. 8hy not ha"! a practicing instinct 'or bothD :hat sa"!s on! b ac* bo-. 76 0+t th!n yo+ ,o+ # thro, a,ay th! i#!a o' +(ping tog!th!r +n#!r th! sa(! instinct actions ,hich ha"! th! sa(! p+rpos!. ?6 F!s;b!ca+s! i' th! practicing is 'or a p+rpos!;I (!an, i' th! bir# has a p+rpos!;th!n th! practicing is rationa an# not instincti"!. ?i#nIt yo+ say so(!thing i*! thatD 76 F!s, I #i# say so(!thing i*! that. ?6 Co+ # ,! #o ,itho+t th! i#!a o' 9instinct9D 76 Eo, ,o+ # yo+ !-p ain things th!nD ?6 8! . II# J+st oo* at th! itt ! things6 8h!n so(!Cthing go!s 9pop,9 th! #og J+(ps. 8h!n th! gro+n# is not +n#!r his '!!t, h! ,igg !s. An# so on. 76 Fo+ (!an;a th! i(ps b+t no go#sD ?6 F!s, so(!thing i*! that. 76 8! . :h!r! ar! sci!ntists ,ho try to ta * that ,ay, an# itIs b!co(ing .+it! 'ashionab !. :h!y say it is (or! obJ!cti"!. ?6 An# is itD 76 5h, y!s. ?6 8hat #o!s 9obJ!cti"!9 (!anD 76 8! . It (!ans that yo+ oo* "!ry har# at thos! things ,hich yo+ choos! to oo* at. ?6 :hat so+n#s right. 0+t ho, #o th! obJ!cti"! p!op ! choos! ,hich things th!y ,i b! obJ!cti"! abo+tD 76 8! . :h!y choos! thos! things abo+t ,hich it is !asy to b! obJ!cti"!. ?6 Fo+ (!an !asy 'or th!(D 76 F!s.

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?6 0+t ho, #o th!y *no, that thos! ar! th! !asy thingsD 76 I s+ppos! th!y try #i''!r!nt things an# 'in# o+t by !-p!ri!nc!. ?6 &o itIs a s+bJ!cti"! choic!D 76 5h, y!s. A !-p!ri!nc! is s+bJ!cti"!. ?6 0+t itIs h+(an an# s+bJ!cti"!. :h!y #!ci#! ,hich bits o' ani(a b!ha"ior to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t by cons+ ting h+(an s+bJ!cti"! !-p!ri!nc!. ?i#nIt yo+ say that anthropo(orphis( is a ba# thingD 76 F!s;b+t th!y #o try to b! not h+(an. ?6 8hich things #o th!y !a"! o+tD 76 8hat #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an;s+bJ!cti"! !-p!ri!nc! sho,s th!( ,hich things it is !asy to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t. &o, th!y go an# st+#y thos! things. 0+t ,hich things #o!s th!ir !-p!ri!nc! sho, ar! #i''ic+ tD &o that th!y a"oi# thos! things. 8hich ar! th! things th!y a"oi#D 76 8! , yo+ (!ntion!# !ar i!r so(!thing ca !# 9practic!.9 :hatIs a #i''ic+ t thing to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t. An# th!r! ar! oth!r things that ar! #i''ic+ t in th! sa(! sort o' ,ay. $ ay, 'or !-a(p !. An# !-p oration. ItIs #i''ic+ t to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t ,h!th!r a rat is r!a y !-p oring or r!a y p aying. &o th!y #onIt in"!stigat! thos! things. An# th!n th!r!Is o"!. An#, o' co+rs!, hat!. ?6 I s!!. :hos! ar! th! sorts o' things that I ,ant!# to in"!nt s!parat! instincts 'or. 76 F!s;thos! things. An# #onIt 'org!t h+(or. ?6 ?a##y;ar! ani(a s obJ!cti"!D 76 I #onIt *no,;probab y not. I #onIt thin* th!y ar! s+bJ!cti"! !ith!r. I #onIt thin* th!y ar! sp it that ,ay. ?6 IsnIt it tr+! that p!op ! ha"! a sp!cia #i''ic+ ty abo+t b!ing obJ!cti"! abo+t th! (or! ani(a parts o' th!ir nat+r!D 76 I g+!ss so. Anyho, 7r!+# sai# so, an# I thin* h! ,as right. 8hy #o yo+ as*D ?6 0!ca+s!, oh #!ar, thos! poor p!op !. :h!y try to st+#y ani(a s. An# th!y sp!cia i/! in thos! things that th!y can st+#y obJ!cti"! y. An# th!y can on y b! obJ!cti"! abo+t thos! things in

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,hich th!y th!(s! "!s ar! !ast i*! ani(a s. It (+st b! #i''ic+ t 'or th!(. 76 )o;that #o!s not n!c!ssari y 'o o,. It is sti possib ! 'or p!op ! to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t so(! things in th!ir ani(a nat+r!. Fo+ ha"!nIt sho,n that th! ,ho ! o' ani(a b!ha"ior is ,ithin th! s!t o' things that p!op ! cannot b! obJ!cti"! abo+t. ?6 )oD ?6 8hat ar! th! r!a y big #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n p!op ! an# ani(a sD 76 8! ;int! !ct, ang+ag!, too s. :hings i*! that. ?6 An# it is !asy 'or p!op ! to b! int! !ct+a y obJ!cti"! in ang+ag! an# abo+t too sD 76 :hatIs right. ?6 0+t that (+st (!an that in p!op ! th!r! is a ,ho ! s!t o' i#!as or ,hatnot ,hich ar! a ti!# tog!th!r. A sort o' s!con# cr!at+r! ,ithin th! ,ho ! p!rson, an# that s!con# cr!at+r! (+st ha"! a .+it! #i''!r!nt ,ay o' thin*ing abo+t !"!rything. An obJ!cti"! ,ay. 76 F!s. :h! roya roa# to conscio+sn!ss an# obJ!cti"ity is thro+gh ang+ag! an# too s. ?6 0+t ,hat happ!ns ,h!n this cr!at+r! oo*s at a thos! parts o' th! p!rson abo+t ,hich it is #i''ic+ t 'or p!op ! to b! obJ!cti"!D ?o!s it J+st oo*D 5r #o!s it (!## !D 76 It (!## !s. ?6 An# ,hat happ!nsD 76 :hatIs a "!ry t!rrib ! .+!stion. ?6 1o on. I' ,! ar! going to st+#y ani(a s, ,! (+st 'ac! that .+!stion. 76 8! . . . :h! po!ts an# artists *no, th! ans,!r b!tt!r than th! sci!ntists. @!t (! r!a# yo+ a pi!c!6
:ho+ght changI# th! in'init! to a s!rp!nt, that ,hich piti!th :o a #!"o+ring ' a(!L an# (an ' !# 'ro( its 'ac! an# hi# In 'or!sts o' night6 th!n a th! !t!rna 'or!sts ,!r!I #i"i#!# Into !arths ro ing in circ !s o' spac!, that i*! an oc!an r+shI# An# o"!r,h! (!# a !-c!pt this 'init! ,a o' ' !sh. :h!n ,as th! s!rp!nt t!(p ! 'or(I#, i(ag! o' in'init! &h+t +p in 'init! r!"o +tionsL an# (an b!ca(! an

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Ang! , E!a"!n a (ighty circ ! t+rning, 1o# a tyrant cro,nI#.H ?6 I #onIt +n#!rstan# it. It so+n#s t!rrib !, b+t ,hat #o!s it (!anD 76 8! . ItIs not an obJ!cti"! stat!(!nt, b!ca+s! it is ta *ing abo+t th! !''!ct o' obJ!cti"ity;,hat th! po!t ca s h!r! 9tho+ght9 +pon th! ,ho ! p!rson or th! ,ho ! o' i'!. 9:ho+ght9 sho+ # r!(ain a part o' th! ,ho ! b+t inst!a# spr!a#s its! ' an# (!## !s ,ith th! r!st. ?6 1o on. 76 8! . It s ic!s !"!rything to bits. ?6 I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 8! , th! 'irst s ic! is b!t,!!n th! obJ!cti"! thing an# th! r!st. An# th!n insi#! th! cr!at+r! thatIs (a#! in th! (o#! o' int! !ct, ang+ag!, an# too s, it is nat+ra that p+rpos! ,i !"o "!. :oo s ar! 'or p+rpos!s an# anything ,hich b oc*s p+rpos! is a hin#ranc!. :h! ,or # o' th! obJ!cti"! cr!at+r! g!ts sp it into 9h! p'+ 9 things an# 9hin#!ring9 things. ?6 F!s. I s!! that. 76 A right. :h!n th! cr!at+r! app i!s that sp it to th! ,or # o' th! ,ho ! p!rson, an# 9h! p'+ 9 an# 9hin#!ring9 b!co(! 1oo# an# ="i , an# th! ,or # is th!n sp it b!t,!!n 1o# an# th! &!rp!nt. An# a't!r that, (or! an# (or! sp its 'o o, b!ca+s! th! int! !ct is a ,ays c assi'ying an# #i"i#ing things +p. ?6 A+ tip ying !-p anatory princip !s b!yon# n!c!ssityD 76 :hatIs right. ?6 &o, in!"itab y, ,h!n th! obJ!cti"! cr!at+r! oo*s at ani(a s, it sp its things +p an# (a*!s th! ani(a s oo* i*! h+(an b!ings a't!r th!ir int! !cts ha"! in"a#!# th!ir so+ s. 76 =-act y. ItIs a sort o' inh+(an anthropo(orphis(. ?6 An# that is ,hy th! obJ!cti"! p!op ! st+#y a th! itt ! i(ps inst!a# o' th! arg!r thingsD 76 F!s. ItIs ca !# &C4 psycho ogy. ItIs !asy to b! obJ!cti"! abo+t s!- b+t not abo+t o"!.

0 a*!, 8., 1794, =+rop! a $roph!cy, print!# an# p+b ish!# by th! a+thor. 2Ita ics a##!#.3

59

?6 ?a##y, ,!I"! ta *!# abo+t t,o ,ays o' st+#ying ani(a s;th! big instinct ,ay an# th! &C4 ,ay, an# n!ith!r ,ay s!!(!# "!ry so+n#. 8hat #o ,! #o no,D 76 I #onIt *no,. ?6 ?i#nIt yo+ say that th! roya roa# to obJ!cti"ity an# conscio+sn!ss is ang+ag! an# too sD 8hatIs th! roya roa# to th! oth!r ha 'D 76 7r!+# sai# #r!a(s. ?6 5h. ?6 8hat ar! #r!a(sD Eo, ar! th!y p+t tog!th!rD 76 8! ;#r!a(s ar! bits an# pi!c!s o' th! st+'' o' ,hich ,! ar! (a#!. :h! nonCobJ!cti"! st+''. ?6 0+t ho, ar! th!y p+t tog!th!rD 76 @oo*. Ar!nIt ,! g!tting rath!r 'ar 'ro( th! .+!stion o' !-p aining ani(a b!ha"iorD ?6 I #onIt *no,, b+t I #onIt thin* so. It oo*s as i' ,! ar! going to b! anthropo(orphic in on! ,ay or anoth!r, ,hat!"!r ,! #o. An# it is ob"io+s y ,rong to b+i # o+r anthropo(orphis( on that si#! o' (anIs nat+r! in ,hich h! is (ost +n i*! th! ani(a s. &o !tIs try th! oth!r si#!. Fo+ say #r!a(s ar! th! roya roa# to th! oth!r si#!. &o . . . 76 I #i#nIt. 7r!+# sai# it. 5r so(!thing i*! it. ?6 A right. 0+t ho, ar! #r!a(s p+t tog!th!rD 76 ?o yo+ (!an ho, ar! t,o #r!a(s r! at!# to !ach oth!rD ?6 )o. 0!ca+s!, as yo+ sai#, th!y ar! on y bits an# pi!c!s. 8hat I (!an is6 Eo, is a #r!a( p+t tog!th!r insi#! its! 'D Co+ # ani(a b!ha"ior b! p+t tog!th!r in th! sa(! sort o' ,ayD 76 I #onIt *no, ,h!r! to b!gin. ?6 8! . ?o #r!a(s go by opposit!sD 76 5h @or#O :h! o # 'o * i#!a. )o. :h!y #onIt pr!#ict th! '+t+r!. ?r!a(s ar! sort o' s+sp!n#!# in ti(!. :h!y #onIt ha"! any t!ns!s. ?6 0+t i' a p!rson is a'rai# o' so(!thing ,hich h! *no,s ,i happ!n to(orro,, h! (ight #r!a( abo+t it toCnightD

60

76 C!rtain y. 5r abo+t so(!thing in his past. 5r abo+t both past an# pr!s!nt. 0+t th! #r!a( contains no ab! to t! hi( ,hat it is 9abo+t9 in this s!ns!. It J+st is. ?6 ?o yo+ (!an itIs as i' th! #r!a( ha# no tit ! pag!D 76 F!s. ItIs i*! an o # (an+script or a !tt!r that has ost its b!ginning an# !n#, an# th! historian has to g+!ss ,hat itIs a abo+t an# ,ho ,rot! it an# ,h!n;'ro( ,hatIs insi#! it. ?6 :h!n ,!Ir! going to ha"! to b! obJ!cti"!, tooD 76 F!s in#!!#. 0+t ,! *no, that ,! ha"! to b! car!'+ abo+t it. 8! ha"! to ,atch that ,! #onIt 'orc! th! conc!pts o' th! cr!at+r! that #!a s in ang+ag! an# too s +pon th! #r!a( (at!ria . ?6 Eo, #o yo+ (!anD 76 8! . 7or !-a(p !6 i' #r!a(s so(!ho, ha"! not t!ns!s an# ar! so(!ho, s+sp!n#!# in ti(!, th!n it ,o+ # b! 'orcing th! ,rong sort o' obJ!cti"ity to say that a #r!a( 9pr!#icts9 so(!thing. An# !.+a y ,rong to say it is a stat!(!nt abo+t th! past. ItIs not history. ?6 5n y propagan#aD 76 8hat #o yo+ (!anD ?6 I (!an;is it i*! th! sort o' stori!s that propagan#ists ,rit! ,hich th!y say ar! history b+t ,hich ar! r!a y on y 'ab !sD 76 A right. F!s. ?r!a(s ar! in (any ,ays i*! (yths an# 'ab !s. 0+t not conscio+s y (a#! +p by a propagan#ist. )ot p ann!#. ?6 ?o!s a #r!a( a ,ays ha"! a (ora D 76 I #onIt *no, abo+t a ,ays. 0+t o't!n, y!s. 0+t th! (ora is not stat!# in th! #r!a(. :h! psychoana yst tri!s to g!t th! pati!nt to 'in# th! (ora . 4!a y th! ,ho ! #r!a( is th! (ora . ?6 8hat #o!s that (!anD 76 I #onIt .+it! *no,. ?6 8! . ?o #r!a(s go by opposit!sD Is th! (ora th! opposit! o' ,hat th! #r!a( s!!(s to sayD 76 5h y!s. 5't!n. ?r!a(s o't!n ha"! an ironic or sarcastic t,ist. A sort o' r!#+ctio a# abs+r#+(. ?6 7or !-a(p !D 76 A right. A 'ri!n# o' (in! ,as a 'ight!r pi ot in 8or # 8ar II. A't!r th! ,ar h! b!ca(! a psycho ogist an# ha# to sit 'or his

61

$h. ?. ora !-a(. E! b!gan to b! t!rri'i!# o' th! ora , b+t, th! night b!'or! th! !-a(, h! ha# a night(ar! in ,hich h! !-p!ri!nc!# again b!ing in a p an! ,hich ha# b!!n shot #o,n. )!-t #ay h! ,!nt into th! !-a(ination ,itho+t '!ar. ?6 8hyD 76 0!ca+s! it ,as si y 'or a 'ight!r pi ot to b! a'rai# o' a b+nch o' +ni"!rsity pro'!ssors ,ho co+ #nIt r!a y shoot hi( #o,n. ?6 0+t ho, #i# h! *no, thatD :h! #r!a( co+ # ha"! b!!n t! ing hi( that th! pro'!ssors ,o+ # shoot hi( #o,n. Eo, #i# h! *no, it ,as ironicD 76 E((. :h! ans,!r is h! #i#nIt *no,. :h! #r!a( #o!snIt ha"! a ab! on it to say it is ironic. An# ,h!n p!op ! ar! b!ing ironic in ,a*ing con"!rsation, th!y o't!n #onIt t! yo+ th!y ar! b!ing ironic. ?6 )o. :hatIs tr+!. I a ,ays thin* itIs sort o' cr+! . 76 F!s. It o't!n is. ?6 ?a##y, ar! ani(a s !"!r ironic or sarcasticD 76 )o. I g+!ss not. 0+t I a( not s+r! that thos! ar! .+it! th! ,or#s ,! sho+ # +s!. 9Ironic9 an# 9sarcastic9 ar! ,or#s 'or th! ana ysis o' (!ssag! (at!ria in ang+ag!. An# ani(a s #onIt ha"! ang+ag!. ItIs p!rhaps part o' th! ,rong sort o' obJ!cti"ity. ?6 A right. :h!n #o ani(a s #!a in opposit!sD 76 8! , y!s. As a (att!r o' 'act, th!y #o. 0+t II( not s+r! itIs th! sa(! thing .. . ?6 1o on. Eo, #o th!yD An# ,h!nD 76 8! . Fo+ *no, ho, a p+ppy i!s on his bac* an# pr!s!nts his b! y to a bigg!r #og. :hatIs sort o' in"iting th! bigg!r #og to attac*. 0+t it ,or*s in th! opposit! ,ay. It stops th! bigg!r #og 'ro( attac*ing. ?6 F!s. I s!!. It is a sort o' +s! o' opposit!s. 0+t #o th!y *no, thatD 76 Fo+ (!an #o!s th! big #og *no, that th! itt ! #og is saying th! opposit! o' ,hat h! (!ansD An# #o!s th! itt ! #og *no, that that is th! ,ay to stop th! big #ogD ?6 F!s. 76 I #onIt *no,. I so(!ti(!s thin* th! itt ! #og *no,s a itt ! (or! abo+t it than th! big #og. Anyho,, th! itt ! #og #o!s not

62

gi"! any signa s to sho, that h! *no,s. E! ob"io+s y co+ #nIt #o that. ?6 :h!n itIs i*! th! #r!a(s. :h!r!Is no ab! to say that th! #r!a( is #!a ing in opposit!s. 76 :hatIs right. ?6 I thin* ,!Ir! g!tting so(!,h!r!. ?r!a(s #!a in opposit!s, an# ani(a s #!a in opposit!s, an# n!ith!r carri!s ab! s to say ,h!n th!y ar! #!a ing in opposit!s. 76 E((. ?6 8hy #o ani(a s 'ightD 76 5h, 'or (any r!asons. :!rritory, s!-, 'oo# .. . ?6 ?a##y, yo+Ir! ta *ing i*! instinct th!ory. I tho+ght ,! agr!!# not to #o that. 76 A right. 0+t ,hat sort o' an ans,!r #o yo+ ,ant to th! .+!stion, ,hy ani(a s 'ightD ?6 8! . ?o th!y #!a in opposit!sD 76 5h. F!s. A ot o' 'ighting !n#s +p in so(! sort o' p!ac!C (a*ing. An# c!rtain y p ay'+ 'ighting is part y a ,ay o' a''irC (ing 'ri!n#ship. 5r #isco"!ring or r!#isco"!ring 'ri!n#ship. ?6 I tho+ght so. . . . ?6 0+t ,hy ar! th! ab! s (issingD Is it 'or th! sa(! r!ason in both ani(a s an# #r!a(sD 76 I #onIt *no,. 0+t, yo+ *no,, #r!a(s #o not a ,ays #!a in opposit!s. ?6 ?o!s a #r!a( a ,ays ha"! a (ora D 76 I #onIt *no, abo+t a ,ays. 0+t o't!n, y!s. 0+t th! (ora is not stat!# in th! #r!a(. :h! psychoana yst tri!s to g!t th! pati!nt to 'in# th! (ora . 4!a y th! ,ho ! #r!a( is th! (ora . ?6 8hat #o!s that (!anD 76 I #onIt .+it! *no,. ?6 8! . ?o #r!a(s go by opposit!sD Is th! (ora th! opposit! o' ,hat th! #r!a( s!!(s to sayD 76 5h y!s. 5't!n. ?r!a(s o't!n ha"! an ironic or sarcastic t,ist. A sort o' r!#+ctio a# abs+r#+(. ?6 7or !-a(p !D

63

76 A right. A 'ri!n# o' (in! ,as a 'ight!r pi ot in 8or # 8ar II. A't!r th! ,ar h! b!ca(! a psycho ogist an# ha# to sit 'or his $h. ?. ora !-a(. E! b!gan to b! t!rri'i!# o' th! ora , b+t, th! night b!'or! th! !-a(, h! ha# a night(ar! in ,hich h! !-p!ri!nc!# again b!ing in a p an! ,hich ha# b!!n shot #o,n. )!-t #ay h! ,!nt into th! !-a(ination ,itho+t '!ar. ?6 8hyD 76 0!ca+s! it ,as si y 'or a 'ight!r pi ot to b! a'rai# o' a b+nch o' +ni"!rsity pro'!ssors ,ho co+ #nIt r!a y shoot hi( #o,n. ?6 0+t ho, #i# h! *no, thatD :h! #r!a( co+ # ha"! b!!n t! ing hi( that th! pro'!ssors ,o+ # shoot hi( #o,n. Eo, #i# h! *no, it ,as ironicD 76 E((. :h! ans,!r is h! #i#nIt *no,. :h! #r!a( #o!snIt ha"! a ab! on it to say it is ironic. An# ,h!n p!op ! ar! b!ing ironic in ,a*ing con"!rsation, th!y o't!n #onIt t! yo+ th!y ar! b!ing ironic. ?6 )o. :hatIs tr+!. I a ,ays thin* itIs sort o' cr+! . 76 F!s. It o't!n is. ?6 ?a##y, ar! ani(a s !"!r ironic or sarcasticD 76 )o. I g+!ss not. 0+t I a( not s+r! that thos! ar! .+it! th! ,or#s ,! sho+ # +s!. 9Ironic9 an# 9sarcastic9 ar! ,or#s 'or th! ana ysis o' (!ssag! (at!ria in ang+ag!. An# ani(a s #onIt ha"! ang+ag!. ItIs p!rhaps part o' th! ,rong sort o' obJ!cti"ity. ?6 A right. :h!n #o ani(a s #!a in opposit!sD 76 8! , y!s. As a (att!r o' 'act, th!y #o. 0+t II( not s+r! itIs th! sa(! thing .. . ?6 1o on. Eo, #o th!yD An# ,h!nD 76 8! . Fo+ *no, ho, a p+ppy i!s on his bac* an# pr!s!nts his b! y to a bigg!r #og. :hatIs sort o' in"iting th! bigg!r #og to attac*. 0+t it ,or*s in th! opposit! ,ay. It stops th! bigg!r #og 'ro( attac*ing. ?6 F!s. I s!!. It is a sort o' +s! o' opposit!s. 0+t #o th!y *no, thatD 76 Fo+ (!an #o!s th! big #og *no, that th! itt ! #og is saying th! opposit! o' ,hat h! (!ansD An# #o!s th! itt ! #og *no, that that is th! ,ay to stop th! big #ogD ?6 F!s.

64

76 I #onIt *no,. I so(!ti(!s thin* th! itt ! #og *no,s a itt ! (or! abo+t it than th! big #og. Anyho,, th! itt ! #og #o!s not gi"! any signa s to sho, that h! *no,s. E! ob"io+s y co+ #nIt #o that. ?6 :h!n itIs i*! th! #r!a(s. :h!r!Is no ab! to say that th! #r!a( is #!a ing in opposit!s. 76 :hatIs right. ?6 I thin* ,!Ir! g!tting so(!,h!r!. ?r!a(s #!a in opposit!s, an# ani(a s #!a in opposit!s, an# n!ith!r carri!s ab! s to say ,h!n th!y ar! #!a ing in opposit!s. 76 E((. ?6 8hy #o ani(a s 'ightD 76 5h, 'or (any r!asons. :!rritory, s!-, 'oo# . . . ?6 ?a##y, yo+Ir! ta *ing i*! instinct th!ory. I tho+ght ,! agr!!# not to #o that. 76 A right. 0+t ,hat sort o' an ans,!r #o yo+ ,ant to th! .+!stion, ,hy ani(a s 'ightD ?6 8! . ?o th!y #!a in opposit!sD 76 5h. F!s. A ot o' 'ighting !n#s +p in so(! sort o' p!ac!C(a*ing. An# c!rtain y p ay'+ 'ighting is part y a ,ay o' a''ir(ing 'ri!n#ship. 5r #isco"!ring or r!#isco"!ring 'ri!n#ship. ?6 I tho+ght so. . . . ?6 0+t ,hy ar! th! ab! s (issingD Is it 'or th! sa(! r!ason in both ani(a s an# #r!a(sD 76 I #onIt *no,. 0+t, yo+ *no,, #r!a(s #o not a ,ays #!a in opposit!s. ?6 )o;o' co+rs! not;nor #o ani(a s. 76 A right th!n. ?6 @!tIs go bac* to that #r!a(. Its tota !''!ct on th! (an ,as th! sa(! as i' so(!bo#y ha# sai# to hi(, 9 Nyo+ in a 'ight!r p an!I is not !.+a to Nyo+ in an ora !-a(.I 9 76 F!s. 0+t th! #r!a( #i#nIt sp! that o+t. It on y says, 9yo+ in a 'ight!r p an!. It !a"!s o+t th! 9not,9 an# it !a"!s o+t th! instr+ction to co(par! th! #r!a( ,ith so(!thing ! s! an# it #o!snIt say ,hat h! sho+ # co(par! it ,ith. ?6 A right. @!tIs ta*! th! 9not9 'irst. Is th!r! any 9not9 in ani(a b!ha"iorD

65

76 Eo, co+ # th!r! b!D ?6 I (!an can an ani(a say by its actions, 9 I ,i not bit! yo+9D 76 8! , to b!gin ,ith. Co((+nication by actions cannot possib y ha"! t!ns!s. :h!y ar! on y possib ! in ang+ag!. ?6 ?i#nIt yo+ say that #r!a(s ha"! no t!ns!sD 76 E((. F!s, I #i#. ?6 5*ay. 0+t ,hat abo+t 9not9. Can th! ani(a say, 9 I a( not biting yo+9D 76 :hat sti has a t!ns! in it. 0+t n!"!r (in#. I' th! ani(a is not biting th! oth!r, h!Is not biting it, an# thatIs it. ?6 0+t h! (ight b! not #oing a sorts o' oth!r things, s !!ping, !ating, r+nning, an# so on. Eo, can h! say, 9ItIs biting that II( not #oing9D 76 E! can on y #o that i' biting has so(!ho, b!!n (!ntion!#. ?6 ?o yo+ (!an that h! co+ # say, 9 I a( not biting yo+9 by 'irst sho,ing his 'angs an# th!n not bitingD 76 F!s. &o(!thing i*! that. ?6 0+t ,hat abo+t t,o ani(a sD :h!yI# both ha"! to sho, th!ir 'angs. 76 F!s. ?6 An#, it s!!(s to (!, th!y (ight (is+n#!rstan# !ach oth!r, an# g!t into a 'ight. 76 F!s. :h!r! is a ,ays that #ang!r ,h!n yo+ #!a in opposit!s an# #o not or cannot say ,hat yo+ ar! #oing, !sp!cia y ,h!n yo+ #o not *no, ,hat yo+ ar! #oing. ?6 0+t th! ani(a s ,o+ # *no, that th!y bar!# th!ir 'angs in or#!r to say, 9I ,onIt bit! yo+.9 76 I #o+bt ,h!th!r th!y ,o+ # *no,. C!rtain y n!ith!r ani(a *no,s it abo+t th! oth!r. :h! #r!a(!r #o!snIt *no, at th! b!ginning o' th! #r!a( ho, th! #r!a( is going to !n#. ?6 :h!n itIs a sort o' !-p!ri(!nt... . 76 F!s. ?6 &o th!y (ight g!t into a 'ight in or#!r to 'in# o+t ,h!th!r 'ighting ,as ,hat th!y ha# to #o. 76 F!s;b+t II# rath!r p+t it !ss p+rposi"! y;that th! 'ight sho,s th!( ,hat sort o' r! ationship th!y ha"!, a't!r it. ItIs not p ann!#. ?6 :h!n 9not9 is r!a y not th!r! ,h!n th! ani(a s sho, th!ir 'angsD 76 I g+!ss not. 5r o't!n not. $!rhaps o # 'ri!n#s (ight !ngag! in p ay'+ 'ighting an# *no, at th! b!ginning ,hat th!y ar! #oing.

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?6 A right. :h!n th! 9not9 is abs!nt in ani(a b!ha"ior b!ca+s! 9not9 is part o' "!rba ang+ag!, an# th!r! canCnot b! any action signa 'or, 9not.9 An# b!ca+s! th!r! is no 9not,9 th! on y ,ay to agr!! on a n!gati"! is to act o+t th! ,ho ! r!#+ctio a# abs+r#+(. Fo+ ha"! to act o+t th! batt ! to pro"! it isnIt on!, an# th!n yo+ ha"! to act o+t th! s+b(ission to pro"! that th! oth!r ,onIt !at yo+. 76 F!s. ?6 ?i# th! ani(a s ha"! to thin* that o+tD 76 )o. 0!ca+s! itIs a n!c!ssari y tr+!. An# that ,hich is n!c!ssari y tr+! ,i go"!rn ,hat yo+ #o r!gar# !ss o' ,h!th!r yo+ *no, that it is n!c!ssari y tr+!. I' yo+ p+t t,o app !s ,ith thr!! app !s yo+ ,i g!t 'i"! app !s;!"!n tho+gh yo+ cannot co+nt. ItIs anoth!r ,ay o' 9!-p aining9 things. ? 6 5h. ?6 0+t, th!n, ,hy #o!s th! #r!a( !a"! o+t th! 9not9D 76 I thin* r!a y 'or a rath!r si(i ar r!ason. ?r!a(s ar! (ost y (a#! o' i(ag!s an# '!! ings, an# i' yo+ ar! going to co((+nicat! in i(ag!s an# '!! ings an# s+ch, yo+ again ar! go"!rn!# by th! 'act that th!r! is no i(ag! 'or 9not.9 ?6 0+t yo+ co+ # #r!a( o' a 9&top9 sign ,ith a in! thro+gh it, ,hich ,o+ # (!an 9)o &topping.9 76 F!s. 0+t thatIs ha ',ay to,ar# ang+ag!. An# th! #! !ting in! isnIt th! ,or# 9not.9 ItIs th! ,or# 9#onIt.9 9?onIt9 can b! con"!y!# in action ang+ag!;i' th! oth!r p!rson (a*!s a (o"! to (!ntion ,hat yo+ ,ant to 'orbi#. Fo+ can !"!n #r!a( in ,or#s, an# th! ,or# 9not9 (ight b! a(ong th!(. 0+t I #o+bt i' yo+ can #r!a( a 9not9 ,hich is abo+t th! #r!a(. I (!an a 9not9 ,hich (!ans 9:his #r!a( is not to b! ta*!n it!ra y.9 &o(!ti(!s, in "!ry ight s !!p, on! *no,s that on! is #r!a(ing. ?6 0+t, ?a##y, yo+ sti ha"!nIt ans,!r!# th! .+!stion abo+t ho, #r!a(s ar! p+t tog!th!r. 76 I thin* r!a y I ha"! ans,!r!# it. 0+t !t (! try again. A #r!a( is a (!taphor or a tang ! o' (!taphors. ?o yo+ *no, ,hat a (!taphor isD

67

?6 F!s. I' I say yo+ ar! i*! a pig that is a si(i !. 0+t i' I say yo+ ar! a pig, that is a (!taphor. 76 Appro-i(at! y, y!s. 8h!n a (!taphor is ab! !# as a (!taphor it b!co(!s a si(i !. ?6 An# itIs that ab! ing that a #r!a( !a"!s o+t. 76 :hatIs right. A (!taphor co(par!s things ,itho+t sp! ing o+t th! co(parison. It ta*!s ,hat is tr+! o' on! gro+p o' things an# app i!s it to anoth!r. 8h!n ,! say a nation 9#!cays,9 ,! ar! +sing a (!taphor, s+gg!sting that so(! chang!s in a nation ar! i*! chang!s ,hich bact!ria pro#+c! in 'r+it. 0+t ,! #onIt stop to (!ntion th! 'r+it or th! bact!ria. ?6 An# a #r!a( is i*! thatD 76 )o. ItIs th! oth!r ,ay aro+n#. :h! #r!a( ,o+ # (!ntion th! 'r+it an# possib y th! bact!ria b+t ,o+ # not (!ntion th! nation. :h! #r!a( ! aborat!s on th! r! ationship b+t #o!s not i#!nti'y th! things that ar! r! at!#. ?6 ?a##y, co+ # yo+ (a*! a #r!a( 'or (!D 76 Fo+ (!an, on this r!cip!D )o. @!tIs ta*! th! pi!c! o' "!rs! ,hich I r!a# yo+ J+st no, an# t+rn it into a #r!a(. ItIs a (ost #r!a( (at!ria th! ,ay it stan#s. 7or (ost o' it, yo+ ha"! on y to s+bstit+t! i(ag!s 'or th! ,or#s. An# th! ,or#s ar! "i"i# !no+gh. 0+t th! ,ho ! string o' (!taphors or i(ag!s is p!gg!# #o,n, ,hich ,o+ # not b! so in a #r!a(. ?6 8hat #o yo+ (!an by 9p!gg!# #o,n9D 76 I (!an by th! 'irst ,or#6 9:ho+ght.9 :hat ,or# th! ,rit!r is +sing it!ra y, an# that on! ,or# t! s yo+ ,hat a th! r!st is abo+t. ?6 An# in a #r!a(D 76 :hat ,or#, too, ,o+ # ha"! b!!n (!taphoric. :h!n th! ,ho ! po!( ,o+ # ha"! b!!n (+ch (or! #i''ic+ t. ?6 A right;chang! it th!n. 76 8hat abo+t 90arbara chang!# th! in'init! . . .9 an# so on. ?6 0+t ,hyD 8ho is sh!D 76 8! , sh!Is barbaro+s, an# sh!Is '!(a !, an# sh! is th! (n!(onic na(! o' a sy ogistic (oo#. I tho+ght sh! ,o+ # #o rath!r ,! as a (onstro+s sy(bo 'or 9:ho+ght.9 I can s!! h!r no, ,ith a pair o' ca ip!rs, pinching h!r o,n brain to chang! h!r +ni"!rs!. ?6 &top it.

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76 A right. 0+t yo+ s!! ,hat I (!an by saying that in #r!a(s th! (!taphors ar! not p!gg!# #o,n. ?6 ?o ani(a s p!g #o,n th!ir (!taphorsD 76 )o. :h!y #onIt ha"! to. Fo+ s!!, ,h!n a gro,nC+p bir# (a*!s i*! a baby bir# in approaching a (!(b!r o' th! opposit! s!-, h!Is +sing a (!taphor ta*!n 'ro( th! r! ationship b!t,!!n chi # an# par!nt. 0+t h! #o!snIt ha"! to p!g #o,n ,hos! r! ationship h! is ta *ing abo+t. ItIs ob"io+s y th! r! ationship b!t,!!n hi(C s! ' an# th! oth!r bir#. :h!yIr! both o' th!( pr!s!nt. ?6 0+t #onIt th!y !"!r +s! (!taphors;act o+t (!taphors ;abo+t so(!thing oth!r than th!ir o,n r! ationshipsD 76 I #onIt thin* so. )o;not (a((a s. An# I #onIt thin* bir#s #o !ith!r. 0!!s;p!rhaps. An#, o' co+rs!, p!op !. ?6 :h!r!Is on! thing I #onIt +n#!rstan#. 76 F!sD ?6 8!I"! 'o+n# a ,ho ! ot o' things in co((on b!t,!!n #r!a(s an# ani(a b!ha"ior. :h!y both #!a in opposit!s, an# th!y both ha"! no t!ns!s, an# th!y both ha"! no 9not,9 an# th!y both ,or* by (!taphor, an# n!ith!r o' th!( p!gs th! (!taphors #o,n. 0+t ,hat I #onIt +n#!rstan# is;,hy, ,h!n th! ani(a s #o th!s! things, it (a*!s s!ns!. I (!an 'or th!( to ,or* in opposit!s. An# th!y #onIt ha"! to p!g #o,n th!ir (!taphors;b+t I #onIt s!! ,hy #r!a(s sho+ # b! i*! that, too. 76 )or #o I. ?6 An# th!r!Is anoth!r thing. 76 F!sD ?6 Fo+ ta *!# abo+t g!n!s an# chro(oso(!s carrying (!ssag!s abo+t #!"! op(!nt. ?o th!y ta * i*! ani(a s an# #r!a(sD I (!an in (!taphors an# ,ith no 9nots9D 5r #o th!y ta * i*! +sD 76 I #onIt *no,. 0+t I a( s+r! th!ir (!ssag! syst!( contains no si(p ! trans'or( o' Instinct :h!ory.

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Part II: Form and Pattern in Anthropology

Cultu&e Conta't an# +'hi!(o ene!i!%


:h! A!(oran#+( ,ritt!n by a Co((itt!! o' th! &ocia &ci!nc!s 4!s!arch Co+nci + , a n , 1935, 1623 has sti(+ at!# (! to p+t 'or,ar# a point o' "i!, ,hich #i''!rs consi#!rab y 'ro( th!irsL an#, tho+gh th! b!ginning o' this artic ! (ay app!ar to b! critica o' th!ir A!(oran#+(, I ,ish to (a*! it c !ar 'ro( th! o+ts!t that I r!gar# as a r!a contrib+tion any s!rio+s att!(pt to #!"is! cat!gori!s 'or th! st+#y o' c+ t+r! contact. Aor!o"!r, sinc! th!r! ar! s!"!ra passag!s in th! A!(oran#+( 2a(ong th!( th! ?!'inition3 ,hich I #o not p!r'!ct y +n#!rstan#, (y criticis(s ar! o''!r!# ,ith so(! h!sitation, an# ar! #ir!ct!# not so (+ch against th! Co((itt!! as against c!rtain !rrors pr!"a !nt a(ong anthropo ogists. 213 ! * e us e s of s uc * s y st e ms of c at e g o ri e s . In g!n!ra it is +n,is! to constr+ct syst!(s o' this sort +nti th! prob !(s ,hich th!y ar! #!sign!# to ! +ci#at! ha"! b!!n c !ar y 'or(+ at!#L an# so 'ar as I can s!!, th! cat!gori!s #ra,n +p by th! Co((itt!! ha"! b!!n constr+ct!# not in r!'!r!nc! to any sp!ci'ica y #!'in!# prob !(s, b+t to thro, a g!n!ra ight on 9th! prob !(9 o' acc+ t+ration, ,hi ! th! prob !( its! ' r!(ains "ag+!. 223 7ro( this it 'o o,s that o+r i((!#iat! n!!# is not so (+ch th! constr+ction o' a s!t o' cat!gori!s ,hich ,i thro, a ight on a th! prob !(s, b+t rath!r th! sch!(atic 'or(+ ation o' th! prob !(s in s+ch a ,ay that th!y (ay b! s!parat! y in"!stigab !. 233 A tho+gh th! Co((itt!! !a"! th!ir prob !(s +n#!'in!#, ,! (ay 'ro( a car!'+ r!a#ing o' th! cat!gori!s gath!r ro+gh y ,hat .+!stions th!y ar! as*ing o' th! (at!ria . It s!!(s that th! Co((itt!! ha"!, as a (att!r o' 'act, b!!n in' +!nc!# by th! sort o' .+!stions ,hich a#(inistrators as* o' anthropo ogists;9Is it a goo# thing to +s! 'orc! in c+ t+r! contactsD9 9Eo, can ,! (a*! a gi"!n
:h! ,ho ! contro"!rsy o' ,hich this artic ! ,as a part has b!!n r!print!# in Beyond the Frontier, !#it!# by $a+ 0ohannon an# 7r!# $ og. 0+t th! ripp !s o' this contro"!rsy ha"! ong sinc! #i!# #o,n, an# th! artic ! is inc +#!# h!r! on y 'or its positi"! contrib+tions. It is r!print!#, +nchang!#, 'ro( Man, Artic ! 199, Go . UUUG, 1935, by p!r(ission o' th! 4oya Anthropo ogica Instit+t! o' 1r!at 0ritain an# Ir! an#.
H

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p!op ! acc!pt a c!rtain sort o' traitD9 an# so on. In r!spons! to this typ! o' .+!stion ,! 'in# in th! #!'inition o' acc+ t+ration an !(phaC sis +pon #i''!r!nc! in c+ t+r! b!t,!!n th! gro+ps in contact an# +pon th! r!s+ ting chang!sL an# s+ch #ichoto(i!s as that b!t,!!n 9! !(!nts 'orc!# +pon a p!op ! or r!c!i"!# "o +ntari y by th!(91 (ay i*!,is! b! r!gar#!# as sy(pto(atic o' this thin*ing in t!r(s o' a#(inistrati"! prob !(s. :h! sa(! (ay b! sai# o' th! cat!gori!s G, A, 0, an# C, 9acc!ptanc!,9 9a#aptation9 an# 9r!action.9 243 8! (ay agr!! that ans,!rs ar! ba# y n!!#!# to th!s! .+!stions o' a#(inistration an#, '+rth!r, that a st+#y o' c+ t+r! contacts is i*! y to gi"! th!s! ans,!rs, 0+t it is a (ost c!rtain that th! sci!nti'ic 'or(+ ation o' th! prob !(s o' conCtact ,i not 'o o, th!s! in!s. It is as i' in th! constr+ction o' cat!gori!s 'or th! st+#y o' cri(ino ogy ,! start!# ,ith a #ichoto(y o' in#i"i#+a s into cri(ina an# noncri(ina ;an#, in#!!#, that c+rio+s sci!nc! ,as ha(p!r!# 'or a ong ,hi ! by this "!ry att!(pt to #!'in! a 9cri(ina typ!.9 253 :h! A!(oran#+( is bas!# +pon a 'a acy6 that ,! can c assi'y th! traits o' a c+ t+r! +n#!r s+ch h!a#ings as !cono(ic, r! igio+s, !tc. 8! ar! as*!#, 'or !-a(p !, to c assi'y traits into thr!! c ass!s, pr!s!nt!# r!sp!cti"! y b!ca+s! o'6 2a3 !cono(ic pro'it or po itica #o(inanc!L 2b3 #!sirabi ity o' bringing abo+t con'or(ity to "a +!s o' #onor gro+pL an# 2c3 !thica an# r! igio+s consi#!rations. :his i#!a, that !ach trait has !ith!r a sing ! '+nction or at !ast so(! on! '+nction ,hich o"!rtops th! r!st, !a#s by !-t!nsion to th! i#!a that a c+ t+r! can b! s+b#i"i#!# into 9instit+tions9 ,h!r! th! b+n# ! o' traits ,hich (a*! +p on! instit+tion ar! a i*! in th!ir (aJor '+nctions. :h! ,!a*n!ss o' this (!tho# o' s+b#i"i#ing a c+ t+r! has b!!n conc +si"! y #!(onstrat!# by Aa ino,s*i an# his p+pi s, ,ho ha"! sho,n that a (ost th! ,ho ! o' a c+ t+r! (ay b! s!!n "ario+s y as a (!chanis( 'or (o#i'ying an# satis'ying th! s!-+a n!!#s o' th! in#i"i#+a s, or 'or th! !n'orc!(!nt o' th! nor(s o' b!ha"ior, or 'or s+pp ying th! in#i"i#+a s ,ith 'oo#. 2 7ro( this !-ha+sti"! #!(onstration ,! (+st !-p!ct that any sing ! trait o' a c+ t+r! ,i pro"! on
1 In any cas! it is c !ar that in a sci!nti'ic st+#y o' proc!ss!s an# nat+ra a,s this in"ocation o' 'r!! ,i can ha"! no p ac!.

72

!-a(ination to b! not si(p y !cono(ic or r! igio+s or str+ct+ra , b+t to parta*! o' a th!s! .+a iti!s accor#ing to th! point o' "i!, 'ro( ,hich ,! oo* at it. I' this b! tr+! o' a c+ t+r! s!!n in synchronic s!ction, th!n it (+st a so app y to th! #iachronic proc!ss!s o' c+ t+r! contact an# chang!L an# ,! (+st !-p!ct that 'or th! o''!ring, acc!ptanc! or r!'+sa o' !"!ry trait that ar! si(+ tan!o+s ca+s!s o' an !cono(ic, str+ct+ra , s!-+a , an# r! igio+s nat+r!. 263 7ro( this it 'o o,s that o+r cat!gori!s 9r! igio+s,9 9!cono(ic,9 !tc., ar! not real s+b#i"isions ,hich ar! pr!s!nt in th! c+ t+r!s ,hich ,! st+#y, b+t ar! (!r! y a-stractions ,hich ,! (a*! 'or o+r o,n con"!ni!nc! ,h!n ,! s!t o+t to #!scrib! c+ t+r!s in ,or#s. :h!y ar! not ph!no(!na pr!s!nt in c+ t+r!, b+t ar! ab! s 'or "ario+s points o' "i!, ,hich ,! a#opt in o+r st+#i!s. In han# ing s+ch abstractions ,! (+st b! car!'+ to a"oi# 8hit!h!a#Is 9'a acy o' (isp ac!# concr!t!n!ss,9 a 'a acy into ,hich, 'or

C'. Aa ino,s*i, Se.ual /ife an# "rime and "ustom0 A. I. 4ichar#s, 1unger and 2or3. :his .+!stion o' th! s+b#i"ision o' a c+ t+r! into 9instit+tions9 is not .+it! as si(p ! as I ha"! in#icat!#L an#, in spit! o' th!ir o,n ,or*s, I b! i!"! that th! @on#on &choo sti a#h!r!s to a th!ory that so(! s+ch #i"ision is practicab !. It is i*! y that con'+sion aris!s 'ro( th! 'act that c!rtain nati"! p!op !s;p!rhaps a , b+t in any cas! thos! o' 8!st!rn =+rop!;act+a y thin* that th!ir c+ t+r! is so s+b#i"i#!#. Gario+s c+ t+ra ph!no(!na a so contrib+t! so(!thing to,ar# s+ch a s+b#i"ision, !.g., +a4 th! #i"ision o' abor an# #i''!r!ntiation o' nor(s o' b!ha"ior b!t,!!n #i''!r!nt gro+ps o' in#i"i#+a s in th! sa(! co((+nity, an# 2b3 an !(phasis, pr!s!nt in c!rtain c+ t+r!s, +pon th! s+b#i"isions o' p ac! an# ti(! +pon ,hich b!ha"ior is or#!r!#. :h!s! ph!no(!na !a# to th! possibi ity, in s+ch c+ t+r!s, o' #+bbing a b!ha"ior ,hich, 'or !-a(p !, ta*!s p ac! in ch+rch b!t,!!n 11.30 an# 12.30 on &+n#ays as 9r! igio+s.9 0+t !"!n in th! st+#y o' s+ch c+ t+r!s th! anthropo ogist (+st oo* ,ith so(! s+spicion +pon his c assi'ication o' traits into instit+tions an# (+st !-p!ct to 'in# a gr!at #!a o' o"!rC apping b!t,!!n "ario+s instit+tions. An ana ogo+s 'a acy occ+rs in psycho ogy, an# consists in r!gar#ing b!ha"ior as c assi'iab ! accor#ing to th! i(p+ s!s ,hich inspir! it, !.g., into s+ch cat!gori!s as s! 'Cprot!cti"!, ass!rti"!, s!-+a , ac.+isiti"!, !tc. E!r!, too, con'+sion r!s+ ts 'ro( th! 'act that not on y th! psycho ogist, b+t a so th! in#i"i#+a st+#i!#, is pron! to thin* in t!r(s o' th!s! cat!gori!s. :h! psycho ogists ,o+ # #o ,! to acc!pt th! probabi ity that !"!ry bit o' b!ha"ior is;at !ast in a ,! Cint!grat!# in#i"i#+a ;si(+ tan!o+s y r! !"ant to a th!s! abstractions

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!-a(p !, th! Aar-ian historians 'a ,h!n th!y (aintain that !cono(ic 9ph!no(!na9 ar! 9pri(ary.9 8ith this pr!a(b !, ,! (ay no, consi#!r an a t!rnati"! sch!(! 'or th! st+#y o' contact ph!no(!na. 273 Scope of t*e in5uiry I s+gg!st that ,! sho+ # consi#!r +n#!r th! h!a# o' 9c+ t+r! contact9 not on y thos! cas!s in ,hich th! contact occ+rs b!t,!!n t,o co((+niti!s ,ith #i''!r!nt c+ t+r!s an# r!s+ ts in pro'o+n# #ist+rbanc! o' th! c+ t+r! o' on! or both gro+psL b+t a so cas!s o' contact ,ithin a sing ! co((+nity. In th!s! cas!s th! contact is b!t,!!n #i''!r!ntiat!# gro+ps o' in#i"i#+a s, !.g., b!t,!!n th! s!-!s, b!t,!!n o # an# yo+ng, b!t,!!n aristocracy an# p !bs, b!t,!!n c ans, !tc., gro+ps ,hich i"! tog!th!r in appro-i(at! !.+i ibri+(. I ,o+ # !"!n !-t!n# th! i#!a o' 9contact 9 so ,i#! y as to inc +#! thos! proc!ss!s ,h!r!by a chi # is (o #!# an# train!# to 'it th! c+ t+r! into ,hich h! ,as born,3 b+t 'or th! pr!s!nt ,! (ay con'in! o+rs! "!s to contacts b!t,!!n gro+ps o' in#i"i#+a s, ,ith #i''!r!nt c+ t+ra nor(s o' b!ha"ior in !ach gro+p. 283 I' ,! consi#!r th! possib ! !n# o' th! #rastic #ist+rbanc!s ,hich 'o o, contacts b!t,!!n pro'o+n# y #i''!r!nt co((+niti!s, ,! s!! that th! chang!s (+st th!or!tica y r!s+ t in on! or oth!r o' th! 'o o,ing patt!rns6 2a3 th! co(p !t! '+sion o' th! origina y #i''!r!nt gro+ps 2b3 th! ! i(ination o' on! or both gro+ps 2c3 th! p!rsist!nc! o' both gro+ps in #yna(ic !.+i ibri+( ,ithin on! (aJor co((+nity 293 Ay p+rpos! in !-t!n#ing th! i#!a o' contact to co"!r th! con#itions o' #i''!r!ntiation insi#! a sing ! c+ t+r! is to +s! o+r *no, !#g! o' th!s! .+i!sc!nt stat!s to thro, ight +pon th! 'actors ,hich ar! at ,or* in stat!s o' #is!.+i ibri+(. It (ay b! !asy to obtain a *no, !#g! o' th! 'actors 'ro( th!ir .+i!t ,or*ing, b+t i(possib ! to iso at! th!( ,h!n th!y ar! "io !nt. :h! a,s o'
:h! pr!s!nt sch!(! is ori!nt!# to,ar# th! st+#y o' socia rath!r than psycho ogica proc!ss!s, b+t a c os! y ana ogo+s sch!(! (ight b! constr+ct!# 'or th! st+#y o' psychopatho ogy. E!r! th! i#!a o' 9contact9 ,o+ # b! st+#i!#, !sp!cia y in th! cont!-ts o' th! (o #ing o' th! in#i"i#+a , an# th! proc!ss!s o' schis(og!n!sis ,o+ # b! s!!n to p ay an i(portant part not on y in acc!nt+ating th! (a a#J+st(!nts o' th! #!"iant, b+t a so in assi(i ating th! nor(a in#i"i#+a to his gro+p.
3

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gra"ity cannot con"!ni!nt y b! st+#i!# by obs!r"ation o' ho+s!s co apsing in an !arthC.+a*!. 2103 "omplete fusion &inc! this is on! o' th! possib ! !n#s o' th! proc!ss ,! (+st *no, ,hat 'actors ar! pr!s!nt in a gro+p o' in#i"i#+a s ,ith consist!nt ho(og!n!o+s patCt!rns o' b!ha"ior in a (!(b!rs o' th! gro+p. An approach to s+ch con#itions (ay b! 'o+n# in any co((+nity ,hich is in a stat! o' appro-i(at! !.+i ibri+( b+t, +n'ort+nat! y, o+r o,n co((+niti!s in =+rop! ar! in a stat! o' s+ch ' +- that th!s! con#itions scarc! y occ+r. Aor!o"!r, !"!n in pri(iti"! co((+niti!s. th! con#itions ar! +s+a y co(p icat!# by #i''!r!ntiation, so that ,! (+st b! cont!nt ,ith st+#i!s o' s+ch ho(og!n!o+s gro+ps as can b! obs!r"!# ,ithin th! (aJor #i''!r!ntiat!# co((+niti!s. 5+r 'irst tas* ,i b! to asc!rtain ,hat sorts o' +nity obtain ,ithin s+ch gro+ps, or rath!r;b!aring in (in# that ,! ar! conc!rn!# ,ith aspects an# not c ass!s o' ph!no(!na;,hat asp!cts o' th! +nity o' th! bo#y o' traits ,! (+st #!scrib! in or#!r to g!t a ,ho ! "i!, o' th! sit+ation. I s+b(it that th! (at!ria , to b! '+ y +n#!rstoo#, must b! !-a(in!# in, at !ast, th! 'o o,ing 'i"! s!parab ! asp!cts6 +a4 A structural aspect of unity :h! b!ha"ior o' any on! in#i"i#+a in any on! cont!-t is, in so(! s!ns!, cogniti"! y consist!nt ,ith th! b!ha"ior o' a th! oth!r in#i"i#+a s in a oth!r cont!-ts. E!r! ,! (+st b! pr!par!# to 'in# that th! inh!r!nt ogic o' on! c+ t+r! #i''!rs pro'o+n# y 'ro( that o' oth!rs. 7ro( this point o' "i!, ,! sha s!!, 'or !-a(p !, that ,h!n in#i"i#+a A gi"!s a #rin* to in#i"i#+a 0, that b!ha"ior is consist!nt ,ith oth!r nor(s o' b!ha"ior obtaining ,ithin th! gro+p ,hich contains A an# 0. :his asp!ct o' th! +nity o' th! bo#y o' b!ha"ior patt!rns (ay b! r!stat!# in t!r(s o' a stan#ar#i/ation o' th! cogniti"! asp!cts o' th! p!rsona iti!s o' th! in#i"i#+a s. 8! (ay say that th! patt!rns o' tho+ght o' th! in#i"i#+a s ar! so stan#ar#i/!# that th!ir b!ha"ior app!ars to th!( logical. 2b3 Affecti&e aspects of unity In st+#ying th! c+ t+r! 'ro( this point o' "i!,, ,! ar! conc!rn!# to sho, th! !(otiona s!tting o' a th! #!tai s o' b!ha"ior. 8! sha s!! th! ,ho ! bo#y o' b!ha"ior as a

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conc!rt!# (!chanis( ori!nt!# to,ar# a''!cti"! satis'action an# #issatis'action o' th! in#i"i#+a s. :his asp!ct o' a c+ t+r! (ay a so b! #!scrib!# in t!r(s o' a stan#ar#i/ation o' a''!cti"! asp!cts o' th! p!rsona iti!s o' th! in#i"i#+a s, ,hich ar! so (o#i'i!# by th!ir c+ t+r! that th!ir b!ha"ior is to th!( !(otiona y consist!nt. 2c3 conomic unity E!r! ,! sha s!! th! ,ho ! bo#y o' b!ha"ior as a (!chanis( ori!nt!# to,ar# th! pro#+ction an# #istrib+tion o' (at!ria obJ!cts. 2#3 "*ronological and spatial unity E!r! ,! sha s!! th! b!ha"ior patt!rns as sch!(atica y or#!r!# accor#ing to ti(! an# p ac!. 8! sha s!! A as gi"ing th! #rin* to 0 9b!ca+s! it is &at+r#ay !"!ning in th! 0 +! 0oar.9 2!3 Sociological unity E!r! ,! sha s!! th! b!ha"ior o' th! in#i"i#+a s as ori!nt!# to,ar# th! int!gration an# #isint!gration o' th! (aJor +nit, th! 1ro+p as a ,ho !. 8! sha s!! th! gi"ing o' #rin*s as a 'actor ,hich pro(ot!s th! so i#arity o' th! gro+p. 2113 In a##ition to st+#ying th! b!ha"ior o' (!(b!rs o' th! ho(og!n!o+s gro+p 'ro( a th!s! points o' "i!,, ,! (+st !-a(in! a n+(b!r o' s+ch gro+ps to #isco"!r th! !''!cts o' stan#ar#i/ation o' th!s! "ario+s points o' "i!, in th! p!op ! ,! ar! st+#ying. 8! ha"! stat!# abo"! that !"!ry bit o' b!ha"ior (+st b! r!gar#!# as probab y r! !"ant to a th!s! "i!,points, b+t th! 'act r!(ains that so(! p!op !s ar! (or! inc in!# than oth!rs to s!! an# phras! th!ir o,n b!ha"ior as 9 ogica 9 or 9'or th! goo# o' th! &tat!.9 2123 8ith this *no, !#g! o' th! con#itions ,hich obtain in ho(og!n!o+s gro+ps, ,! sha b! in a position to !-a(in! th! proc!ss!s o' '+sion o' t,o #i"!rs! gro+ps into on!. 8! (ay !"!n b! ab ! to pr!scrib! (!as+r!s ,hich ,i !ith!r pro(ot! or r!tar# s+ch '+sion, an# pr!#ict that a trait ,hich 'its th! 'i"! asp!cts o' +nity can b! a##!# to a c+ t+r! ,ithCo+t oth!r chang!s. I' it #o!s not 'it, th!n ,! can s!arch 'or appropriat! (o#i'ications !ith!r o' th! c+ t+r! or o' th! trait. 2133 !*e elimination of one or -ot* groups :his !n# r!s+ t is p!rhaps scarc! y ,orth st+#ying, b+t ,! sho+ # at !ast !-a(in! any (at!ria that is a"ai ab !, to #!t!r(in! ,hat sort o' !''!cts s+ch hosti ! acti"ity has +pon th! c+ t+r! o' th! s+r"i"ors. It is possib !, 'or !-a(p !, that th! patt!rns o' b!ha"ior associat!# ,ith

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! i(ination o' oth!r gro+ps (ay b! assi(i at!# into th!ir c+ t+r! so that th!y ar! i(p! !# to ! i(inat! (or! an# (or!. 2143 6ersistence of -ot* groups in dynamic e5uili-rium :his is probab y th! (ost instr+cti"! o' th! possib ! !n# r!s+ ts o' contact, sinc! th! 'actors acti"! in th! #yna(ic !.+i ibri+( ar! i*! y to b! i#!ntica or ana ogo+s ,ith thos! ,hich, in #is!.+i ibri+(, ar! acti"! in c+ t+ra chang!. 5+r 'irst tas* is to st+#y th! r! ationships obtaining b!t,!!n gro+ps o' in#i"i#+a s ,ith #i''!r!ntiat!# b!ha"ior patt!rns, an# at!r to consi#!r ,hat ight th!s! r! ationships thro, +pon ,hat ar! (or! +s+a y ca !# 9contacts.9 ="!ry anthropo ogist ,ho has b!!n in th! 'i! # has ha# opport+nity o' st+#ying s+ch #i''!r!ntiat!# gro+ps. 2153 :h! possibi iti!s o' #i''!r!ntiation o' gro+ps ar! by no (!ans in'init!, b+t 'a c !ar y into t,o cat!gori!s +a4 cas!s in ,hich th! r! ationship is chi!' y sy((!trica , !.g., in th! #i''!r!ntiation o' (oi!ti!s, c ans, "i ag!s an# th! nations o' =+rop!L an# +-4 cas!s in ,hich th! r! ationship is complementary, e.g., in th! #i''!r!ntiation o' socia strata, c ass!s, cast!s, ag! gra#!s, an#, in so(! cas!s, th! c+ t+ra #i''!r!ntiation b!t,!!n th! s!-!s.4 0oth th!s! typ!s o' #i''!r!ntiation contain #yna(ic ! !(!nts, s+ch that ,h!n c!rtain r!straining 'actors ar! r!(o"!# th! #i''!r!ntiation or sp it b!t,!!n th! gro+ps incr!as!s progr!ssi"! y to,ar# !ith!r br!a*#o,n or a n!, !.+i ibri+(. 2163 Symmetrical differentiation :o this cat!gory (ay b! r!'!rr!# a thos! cas!s in ,hich th! in#i"i#+a s in t,o gro+ps A an# 0 ha"! th! sa(! aspirations an# th! sa(! b!ha"ior patt!rns, b+t ar! #i''!r!ntiat!# in th! ori!ntation o' th!s! patt!rns. :h+s (!(b!rs o' gro+p A !-hibit b!ha"ior patt!rns A,0,C in th!ir #!a ings ,ith !ach oth!r, b+t a#opt th! patt!rns U,F,M in th!ir #!a ings ,ith (!(b!rs o' gro+p 0. &i(i ar y, gro+p 0 a#opt th! patt!rns A,0,C a(ong th!(C
C'. Aargar!t A!a#, Se. and !emperament, 1935. 5' th! co((+niti!s #!scrib!# in this boo*, th! Arap!sh an# th! A+n#+g+(or ha"! a pr!pon#!rant y sy((!trica r! ationship b!t,!!n th! s!-!s, ,hi ! th! Cha(b+ i ha"! a co(p !(!ntary r! ationship. A(ong th! Iat(+ , a trib! in th! sa(! ar!a, ,hich I ha"! st+#i!#, th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! s!-!s is co(p !(!ntary, b+t on rath!r #i''!r!nt in!s 'ro( that o' th! Cha(b+ i. I hop! short y to p+b ish a boo* on th! Iat(+ ,ith s*!tch!s o' th!ir c+ t+r! 'ro( th! points o' "i!, a, -, an# e out% in!# in paragraph 10. 2&!! 0ib iography, it!(s 1936 an# 1958 0.3
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s! "!s, b+t !-hibit U,F,M in #!a ing ,ith gro+p A. :h+s a position is s!t +p in ,hich th! b!ha"ior U,F,M is th! stan#ar# r!p y to U,F,M. :his position contains ! !(!nts ,hich (ay !a# to progr!ssi"! #i''!r!ntiation or sc*ismogenesis a ong th! sa(! in!s. I', 'or !-a(p !, th! patt!rns U,F,M inc +#! boasting, ,! sha s!! that th!r! is a Ii*! ihoo#, i' boasting is th! r!p y to boasting, that !ach gro+p ,i #ri"! th! oth!r into !-c!ssi"! !(phasis o' th! patt!rn, a proc!ss ,hich i' not r!Cstrain!# can on y !a# to (or! an# (or! !-tr!(! ri"a ry an# + ti(at! y to hosti ity an# th! br!a*#o,n o' th! ,ho ! syst!(. 2173 "omplementary differentiation :o this cat!gory ,! (ay r!'!r a thos! cas!s in ,hich th! b!ha"ior an# aspirations o' th! (!(b!rs o' th! t,o gro+ps ar! '+n#a(!nta y #i''!r!nt. :h+s (!(b!rs o' gro+p A tr!at !ach oth!r ,ith patt!rns @,A,), an# !-hibit th! patt!rns 5,$,V in #!a ings ,ith gro+p 0. In r!p y to 5,$,V, th! (!(b!rs o' gro+p 0 !-hibit th! patt!rns %,G,8, b+t a(ong th!(s! "!s th!y a#opt patt!rns 4,&,:. :h+s it co(!s abo+t that 5,$,V is th! r!p y to %,G,8, an# "ic! "!rsa. :his #i''!r!ntiation (ay b!Cco(! progr!ssi"!. I', 'or !-a(p !, th! s!ri!s, 5,$,V inc +#!s patt!rns c+ t+ra y r!gar#!# as ass!rti"!, ,hi ! %,G,8 inc +#!s c+ t+ra s+b(issi"!n!ss, it is i*! y that s+b(issi"!n!ss ,i pro(ot! '+rth!r ass!rti"!n!ss ,hich in t+rn ,i pro(ot! '+rth!r s+b(issi"!n!ss. :his schis(og!n!sis, +n !ss it is r!Cstrain!#, !a#s to a progr!ssi"! +ni at!ra #istortion o' th! p!rsona iti!s o' th! (!(b!rs o' both gro+ps, ,hich r!s+ ts in (+t+a hosti ity b!t,!!n th!( an# (+st !n# in th! br!a*C#o,n o' th! syst!(. 2183 $eciprocity :ho+gh r! ationships b!t,!!n gro+ps can broa# y b! c assi'i!# into t,o cat!gori!s, sy((!trica an# co(p !(!ntary, this s+b#i"ision is to so(! !-t!nt b +rr!# by anoth!r typ! o' #i''!r!ntiation ,hich ,! (ay #!scrib! as reciprocal. In this typ! th! b!ha"ior patt!rns U an# F ar! a#opt!# by (!(b!rs o' !ach gro+p in th!ir #!a ings ,ith th! oth!r gro+p, b+t inst!a# o' th! sy((!trica syst!( ,h!r!by U is th! r!p y to U an# F is th! r!p y to F, ,! 'in# h!r! that U is th! r!p y to F. :h+s in !"!ry sing ! inCstanc! th! b!ha"ior is asy((!trica , b+t sy((!try is r!gain!# o"!r a arg! n+(b!r o' instanc!s sinc! so(!ti(!s gro+p A !-hibit U to ,hich gro+p 0 r!p y ,ith F, an# so(!ti(!s gro+p A !-hibit F an# gro+p 0 r!p y ,ith U. Cas!s in ,hich gro+p A so(!ti(!s s!

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sago to gro+p 0 an# th! att!r so(!Cti(!s s! th! sa(! co((o#ity to A, (ay b! r!gar#!# as r!ciproca L b+t i' gro+p A habit+a y s! sago to 0 ,hi ! th! att!r habit+a y s! 'ish to A, ,! (+st, I thin*, r!gar# th! patt!rn as co(p !(!ntary. :h! r!ciproca patt!rn, it (ay b! not!#, is co(p!nsat!# an# ba anc!# ,ithin its! ' an# th!r!'or! #o!s not t!n# to,ar# schis(og!n!sis. 2193 $oints 'or in"!stigation6 2a3 8! n!!# a prop!r s+r"!y o' th! typ!s o' b!ha"ior ,hich can !a# to schis(og!n!s!s o' th! sy((!trica typ!. At pr!s!nt it is on y possib ! to point to boasting an# co((!rcia ri"a ry, b+t no #o+bt th!r! ar! (any oth!r patt!rns ,hich ,i b! 'o+n# to b! acco(pani!# by th! sa(! typ! o' !''!ct. 2b3 8! n!!# a s+r"!y o' th! typ!s o' b!ha"ior ,hich ar! (+t+a y co(p !(!ntary an# !a# to schis(og!n!s!s o' th! s!con# typ!. E!r! ,! can at pr!s!nt on y cit! ass!rti"!n!ss "!rs+s s+b(issi"!n!ss, !-hibitionis( "!rs+s a#(iration, 'ost!ring "!rs+s !-pr!ssions o' '!!b !n!ss an#, in a##ition, th! "ario+s possib ! co(binations o' th!s! pairs. 2c3 8! n!!# "!ri'ication o' th! g!n!ra a, ass+(!# abo"!, that ,h!n t,o gro+ps !-hibit co(p !(!ntary b!ha"ior to !ach oth!r, th! int!rna b!ha"ior b!t,!!n (!(b!rs o' gro+p A (+st n!c!ssari y #i''!r 'ro( th! int!rna b!ha"ior b!t,!!n (!(b!rs o' gro+p 0. 2#3 8! n!!# a syst!(atic !-a(ination o' schis(og!n!s!s o' both typ!s 'ro( th! "ario+s points o' "i!, o+t in!# in paragraph 10. At pr!s!nt I ha"! on y oo*!# at th! (att!r 'ro( th! !tho ogica an# str+ct+ra points o' "i!, 2paragraph 10, asp!cts a an# b) . In a##ition to this, th! Aar-ian historians ha"! gi"!n +s a pict+r! o' th! !cono(ic asp!ct o' co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis in 8!st!rn =+rop!. It is i*! y, ho,!"!r, that th!y th!(s! "!s ha"! b!!n in' +!nc!# +n#+ y by th! schis(og!n!sis ,hich th!y st+#i!# an# ha"! b!!n th!r!by pro(pt!# into !-agg!ration. 2!3 8! n!!# to *no, so(!thing abo+t th! occ+rr!nc! o' r!ciproca b!ha"ior in r! ationships ,hich ar! pr!pon#!rant y !ith!r sy((!trica or co(p !(!ntary. 2203 $estraining factors 0+t, (or! i(portant than any o' th! prob !(s in th! pr!"io+s paragraph, ,! n!!# a st+#y o' th! 'actors ,hich r!strain both typ!s o' schis(og!n!sis. At th! pr!s!nt (o(!nt, th! nations o' =+rop! ar! 'ar a#"anc!# in sy((!trica schis(oC

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g!n!sis an# ar! r!a#y to ' y at !ach oth!rIs throatsL ,hi ! ,ithin !ach nation ar! to b! obs!r"!# gro,ing hosti iti!s b!t,!!n th! "ario+s socia strata, sy(pto(s o' co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis. =.+a y, in th! co+ntri!s r+ !# by n!, #ictatorships ,! (ay obs!r"! !ar y stag!s o' co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis, th! b!ha"ior o' his associat!s p+shing th! #ictator into !"!r gr!at!r pri#! an# ass!rti"!n!ss. :h! p+rpos! o' th! pr!s!nt artic ! is to s+gg!st prob !(s an# in!s o' in"!stigation rath!r than to stat! th! ans,!rs, b+t, t!ntati"! y, s+gg!stions (ay b! o''!r!# as to th! 'actors contro ing schis(og!n!sis6 2a3 It is possib ! that, act+a y, no h!a thy !.+i ibrat!# r! ationship b!t,!!n gro+ps is !ith!r p+r! y sy((!trica or p+r! y co(p !(!ntary, b+t that !"!ry s+ch r! ationship contains ! !(!nts o' th! oth!r typ!. It is tr+! that it is !asy to c assi'y r! ationships into on! or th! oth!r cat!gory accor#ing to th!ir pr!#o(inant !(phas!s, b+t it is possib ! that a "!ry s(a a#(i-t+r! o' co(p !(!ntary b!ha"ior in a sy((!trica r! ationship, or a "!ry s(a a#(i-t+r! o' sy((!trica b!ha"ior in a co(p !(!ntary r! ationship, (ay go a ong ,ay to,ar# stabi i/ing th! position. =-a(p !s o' this typ! o' stabi i/ation ar! p!rhaps co((on. :h! s.+ir! is in a pr!#o(inant y co(p !(!ntary an# not a ,ays co('ortab ! r! ationship ,ith his "i ag!rs, b+t i' h! participat! in "i ag! cric*!t 2a sy((!trica ri"a ry3 b+t onc! a y!ar, this (ay ha"! a c+rio+s y #isproportionat! !''!ct +pon his r! ationship ,ith th!(. 2b3 It is c!rtain that, as. in th! cas! .+ot!# abo"! in ,hich gro+p A s! sago to 0 ,hi ! th! att!r s! 'ish to A, co(p !(!ntary patt!rns (ay so(!ti(!s ha"! a r!a stabi i/ing !''!ct by pro(oting a (+t+a #!p!n#!nc! b!t,!!n th! gro+ps. 2c3 It is possib ! that th! pr!s!nc! o' a n+(b!r o' tr+ y r!ciproca ! !(!nts in a r! ationship (ay t!n# to stabi i/! it, pr!"!nting th! schis(og!n!sis ,hich oth!r,is! (ight r!s+ t !ith!r 'ro( sy((!trica or co(p !(!ntary ! !(!nts. 0+t this ,o+ # s!!( to b! at b!st a "!ry ,!a* #!'!ns!6 on th! on! han#, i' ,! consi#!r th! !''!cts o' sy((!trica schis(og!n!sis +pon th! r!ciproca b!ha"ior patt!rns, ,! s!! that th! att!r t!n# to b! !ss an# !ss !-hibit!#. :h+s, as th! in#i"i#+a s co(posing th! nations o' =+rop! b!co(! (or! an# (or! in"o "!# in th!ir sy((!trica int!rnationa ri"a ri!s,

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th!y gra#+a y !a"! o'' b!ha"ing in a r!ciproca (ann!r, #!C ib!rat! y r!#+cing to a (ini(+( th!ir 'or(!r r!ciproca co(C (!rcia b!ha"ior.5 5n th! oth!r han#, i' ,! consi#!r th! !''!cts o' co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis +pon th! r!ciproca b!ha"ior patt!rns, ,! s!! that on!Cha ' o' th! r!ciproca patCt!rn is iab ! to aps!. 8h!r! 'or(!r y both gro+ps !-hibit!# both U an# F, a syst!( gra#+a y !"o "!s in ,hich on! o' th! gro+ps !-hibits on y U, ,hi ! th! oth!r !-hibits on y F. In 'act, b!ha"ior ,hich ,as 'or(!r y r!ciproca is r!#+c!# to a typica co(p !(!ntary patt!rn an# is i*! y a't!r that to contrib+t! to th! co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis. 2#3 It is c!rtain that !ith!r typ! o' schis(og!n!sis b!t,!!n t,o gro+ps can b! ch!c*!# by 'actors ,hich +nit! th! t,o gro+ps !ith!r in oya ty or opposition to so(! o+tsi#! ! !(!nt. &+ch an o+tsi#! ! !(!nt (ay b! !ith!r a sy(bo ic in#i"i#+a , an !n!(y p!op ! or so(! .+it! i(p!rsona circ+(stanc!;th! ion ,i i! #o,n ,ith th! a(b i' on y it rain har# !no+gh. 0+t it (+st b! not!# that ,h!r! th! o+tsi#! ! !(!nt is a p!rson or gro+p o' p!rsons, th! r! ationship o' th! co(bin!# gro+ps A an# 0 to th! o+tsi#! gro+p ,i a ,ays b! its! ' a pot!ntia y schis(og!nic r! ationship o' on! or th! oth!r typ!. =-a(ination o' (+ tip ! syst!(s o' this *in# is ba# y n!!#!# an# !sp!cia y ,! n!!# to *no, (or! abo+t th! syst!(s 2!.g., (i itary hi!rarchi!s3 in ,hich th! #istortion o' p!rsona ity is (o#i'i!# in th! (i## ! gro+ps o' th! hi!rarchy by p!r(itting th! in#i"i#+a s to !-hibit r!sp!ct an# s+b(ission in #!a ings ,ith high!r gro+ps ,hi ! th!y !-hibit ass!rti"!n!ss an# pri#! in #!a ing ,ith th! o,!r. 2!3 In th! cas! o' th! =+rop!an sit+ation, th!r! is on! oth!r possibi ity;a sp!cia cas! o' contro by #i"!rsion o' att!ntion to o+tsi#! circ+(stanc!s. It is possib ! that thos! r!sponsib ! 'or th! po icy o' c ass!s an# nations (ight b!co(! conscio+s o' th! proc!ss!s ,ith ,hich th!y ar! p aying an# coop!rat! in an att!(pt to so "! th! #i''ic+ ti!s. :his, ho,C!"!r, is not "!ry i*! y to occ+r
5 In this, as in th! oth!r !-a(p !s gi"!n, no att!(pt is (a#! to consi#!r th! schis(og!n!sis 'ro( a th! points o' "i!, o+t in!# in paragraph 10. :h+s, inas(+ch as th! !cono(ic asp!ct o' th! (att!r is not h!r! b!ing consi#!r!#, th! !''!cts o' th! s +(p +pon th! schis(og!n!sis ar! ignor!#. A co(p !t! st+#y ,o+ # b! s+bC #i"i#!# into s!parat! s!ctions, !ach tr!ating on! o' th! asp!cts o' th! ph!no(!na.

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sinc! anthropo ogy an# socia psycho ogy ac* th! pr!stig! n!c!ssary to a#"is!L an#, ,ithCo+t s+ch a#"ic!, go"!rn(!nts ,i contin+! to r!act to !ach oth!rIs r!actions rath!r than pay att!ntion to circ+(stanc!s. 2213 In conc +sion, ,! (ay t+rn to th! prob !(s o' th! a#(inistrator 'ac!# ,ith a b ac*C,hit! c+ t+r! contact. Eis 'irst tas* is to #!ci#! ,hich o' th! !n# r!s+ ts o+t in!# in paragraph 8 is #!sirab ! an# possib ! o' attain(!nt. :his #!cision h! (+st (a*! ,itho+t hypocrisy. I' h! choos!s '+sion, th!n h! (+st !n#!a"or to contri"! !"!ry st!p so as to pro(ot! th! con#itions o' consist!ncy ,hich ar! o+t in!# 2as prob !(s 'or in"!stigation3 in paragraph 10. I' h! choos!s that both gro+ps sha p!rsist in so(! 'or( o' #yna(ic !.+i ibri+(, th!n h! (+st contri"! to !stab ish a syst!( in ,hich th! possibi iti!s o' schis(og!n!sis ar! prop!r y co(p!nsat!# or ba anc!# against !ach oth!r. 0+t at !"!ry st!p in th! sch!(! ,hich I ha"! o+t in!# th!r! ar! prob !(s ,hich (+st b! st+#i!# by train!# st+#!nts an# ,hich ,h!n so "!# ,i contrib+t!, not on y to app i!# socio ogy, b+t to th! "!ry basis o' o+r +n#!rstan#ing o' h+(an b!ings in soci!ty.

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E12e&i(ent! in Thin3in A)out O)!e&0e# Ethnolo i'al Mate&ial%


As I +n#!rstan# it, yo+ ha"! as*!# (! 'or an hon!st, introC sp!cti"!;p!rsona ;acco+nt o' ho, I thin* abo+t anthropo ogica (at!ria , an# i' I a( to b! hon!st an# p!rsona abo+t (y thin*ing, th!n I (+st b! i(p!rsona abo+t th! r!s+ ts o' that thin*ing. ="!n i' I can banish both pri#! an# sha(! 'or ha ' an ho+r, hon!sty ,i sti b! #i''ic+ t. @!t (! try to b+i # +p. a pict+r! o' ho, I thin* by gi"ing yo+ an a+tobiographica acco+nt o' ho, I ha"! ac.+ir!# (y *it o' conc!pt+a too s an# int! !ct+a habits. I #o not (!an an aca#!(ic biography or a ist o' ,hat s+bJ!cts I ha"! st+#i!#, b+t so(!thing (or! signi'icant than that;a ist rath!r o' th! (oti's o' tho+ght in "ario+s sci!nti'ic s+bJ!cts ,hich !'t so #!!p an i(pr!ssion on (y (in# that ,h!n I ca(! to ,or* on anthropo ogica (at!ria , I nat+ra y +s!# thos! borro,!# (oti's to g+i#! (y approach to this n!, (at!ria . I o,! th! gr!at!st part o' this *it o' too s to (y 'ath!r, 8i ia( 0at!son, ,ho ,as a g!n!ticist. In schoo s an# +ni"!rsiti!s th!y #o "!ry itt ! to gi"! on! an i#!a o' th! basic princip !s o' sci!nti'ic thin*ing, an# ,hat I !arn!# o' this ca(! in "!ry arg! (!as+r! 'ro( (y 'ath!rIs con"!rsation an# p!rhaps !sp!cia y 'ro( th! o"!rton!s o' his ta *. E! hi(s! ' ,as inartic+ at! abo+t phi osophy an# (ath!(atics an# ogic, an# h! ,as artic+ at! y #istr+st'+ o' s+ch s+bJ!cts, b+t sti , in spit! o' hi(s! ', I thin*, h! pass!# on to (! so(!thing o' th!s! (att!rs. :h! attit+#!s ,hich I got 'ro( hi( ,!r! !sp!cia y thos! ,hich h! ha# #!ni!# in hi(s! '. In his !ar y;an# as I thin* h! *n!,;his b!st ,or* h! pos!# th! prob !(s o' ani(a sy((!try, s!g(!ntation,
:his pap!r ,as gi"!n at th! &!"!nth Con'!r!nc! on A!tho#s in $hi osophy an# th! &ci!nc!s, h! # at th! )!, &choo 'or &ocia 4!s!arch, Apri 28, 1940. It is h!r! Cr!print!# 'ro( $hi osophy o' &ci!nc!, Go . 8, )o. 1, copyright 1941, :h! 8i ia(s X 8i *ins Co. 4!pro#+c!# by p!r(ission.
H

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s!ria r!p!tition o' parts, patt!rns, !tc. @at!r h! t+rn!# a,ay 'ro( this 'i! # into A!n#! is(, to ,hich h! #!"ot!# th! r!(ain#!r o' his i'!. 0+t h! ha# a ,ays a han*!ring a't!r th! prob !(s o' patt!rn an# sy((!try, an# it ,as this han*!ring an# th! (ysticis( that inCspir!# it that I pic*!# +p an# ,hich, 'or b!tt!r or ,ors!, I ca !# 9sci!nc!.9 I pic*!# +p a "ag+! (ystica '!! ing that ,! (+st oo* 'or th! sa(! sort o' proc!ss!s in a 'i! #s o' nat+ra ph!no(!na;that ,! (ight !-p!ct to 'in# th! sa(! sort o' a,s at ,or* in th! str+ct+r! o' a crysta as in th! str+ct+r! o' soci!ty, or that th! s!g(!ntation o' an !arth,or( (ight r!a y b! co(parab ! to th! proc!ss by ,hich basa t pi ars ar! 'or(!#. I sho+ # not pr!ach this (ystica 'aith in .+it! thos! t!r(s to#ay b+t ,o+ # say rath!r that I b! i!"! that th! typ!s o' (!nta op!ration ,hich ar! +s!'+ in ana y/ing on! 'i! # (ay b! !.+a y +s!'+ in anoth!r;that th! 'ra(!,or* 2th! eidos4 o' sci!nc!, rath!r than th! 'ra(!,or* o' )at+r!, is th! sa(! in a 'i! #s. 0+t th! (or! (ystica phrasing o' th! (att!r ,as ,hat I "ag+! y !arnt, an# it ,as o' paraC (o+nt i(portanc!. It !nt a c!rtain #ignity to any sci!nti'ic in"!stigation, i(p ying that ,h!n I ,as ana y/ing th! patCt!rns o' partri#g!sI '!ath!rs, I (ight r!a y g!t an ans,!r or a bit o' an ans,!r to th! ,ho ! p+// ing b+sin!ss o' patt!rn an# r!g+ arity in nat+r!. An# '+rth!r, this bit o' (ysticis( ,as i(portant b!ca+s! it ga"! (! 'r!!#o( to +s! (y sci!nti'ic bac*gro+n#, th! ,ays o' tho+ght that I ha# pic*!# +p in bio ogy an# ! !(!ntary physics an# ch!(istryL it !nco+rag!# (! to !-p!ct th!s! ,ays o' tho+ght to 'it in ,ith "!ry #i''!r!nt 'i! #s o' obs!r"ation. It !nab !# (! to r!gar# a (y training as pot!ntia y +s!'+ rath!r than +tt!r y irr! !"ant to anthropo ogy. 8h!n I ca(! into anthropo ogy th!r! ,as a consi#!rab ! r!action ta*ing p ac! against th! +s! o' oos! ana ogi!s, !sp!cia y against th! &p!nc!rian ana ogy b!t,!!n th! 5rganis( an# &oci!ty. :han*s to this (ystica b! i!' in th! p!r"a#ing +nity o' th! ph!no(!na o' th! ,or #, I a"oi#!# a gr!at #!a o' int! !ct+a ,ast!. I n!"!r ha# any #o+bt that this ana ogy ,as '+n#a(!nta y so+n#L sinc! to #o+bt ,o+ # ha"! b!!n !(otiona y !-p!nsi"!. )o,a#ays, o' co+rs!, th! !(phasis has shi't!#. 7!, ,o+ # s!rio+s y #o+bt that th! ,ays o' ana ysis ,hich ha"! b!!n 'o+n# +s!'+ in ana y/ing on! co(p !'+nctioning syst!( ar! i*! y to b! o' +s! in ana y/ing any oth!r

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si(i ar syst!(. 0+t th! (ystica prop ,as +s!'+ th!n, tho+gh its phrasing ,as ba#. :h!r! is anoth!r ,ay, too, in ,hich that (ysticis( has h! p!#;a ,ay ,hich is !sp!cia y r! !"ant to (y th!sis. I ,ant to !(phasi/! that ,h!n!"!r ,! pri#! o+rs! "!s +pon 'in#ing a n!,!r, strict!r ,ay o' tho+ght or !-positionL ,h!nC!"!r ,! start insisting too har# +pon 9op!rationa is(9 or sy(bo ic ogic or any oth!r o' th!s! "!ry !ss!ntia syst!(s o' tra( in!s, ,! os! so(!thing o' th! abi ity to thin* n!, tho+ghts. An# !.+a y, o' co+rs!, ,h!n!"!r ,! r!b! against th! st!ri ! rigi#ity o' 'or(a tho+ght an# !-position an# !t o+r i#!as r+n ,i #, ,! i*!,is! os!. As I s!! it, th! a#"anc!s in sci!nti'ic tho+ght co(! 'ro( a com-ination of loose and strict t*in3ing, an# this co(bination is th! (ost pr!cio+s too o' sci!nc!. Ay (ystica "i!, o' ph!no(!na contrib+t!# sp!ci'ica y to b+i # +p this #o+b ! habit o' (in#;it !# (! into ,i # 9h+nch!s9 an#, at th! sa(! ti(!, co(p! !# (or! 'or(a thin*ing abo+t thos! h+nch!s. It !nco+rag!# oos!n!ss o' tho+ght an# th!n i((!#iat! y insist!# that that oos!n!ss b! (!as+r!# +p against a rigi# concr!t!n!ss. :h! point is that th! 'irst h+nch 'ro( ana ogy is ,i #, an# th!n, th! (o(!nt I b!gin to ,or* o+t th! ana ogy, I a( bro+ght +p against th! rigi# 'or(+ ations ,hich ha"! b!!n #!"is!# in th! 'i! # 'ro( ,hich I borro, th! ana ogy. $!rhaps it is ,orth gi"ing an !-a(p ! o' thisL it ,as a (att!r o' 'or(+ ating th! socia organi/ation o' a )!, 1+in!a trib!,;th! Iat(+ . :h! Iat(+ socia syst!( #i''!rs 'ro( o+rs in on! "!ry !ss!ntia point. :h!ir soci!ty co(p !t! y ac*s any sort o' chi!'tainship, an# I phras!# this (att!r oos! y by saying that th! contro o' th! in#i"i#+a ,as achi!"!# by ,hat I ca !# 9 at!ra 9 sanctions rath!r than by 9sanctions 'ro( abo"!.9 1oing o"!r (y (at!ria , I 'o+n# '+rth!r that in g!n!ra th! s+b#i"isions o' th! soci!ty;th! c ans, (oi!ti!s, !tc.;ha# "irt+a y no (!ans o' p+nishing th!ir o,n (!(b!rs. I ha# a cas! in ,hich a c!r!(onia ho+s! o,n!# by a partic+ ar J+nior ag! gra#! ha# b!!n #!'i !#, an# tho+gh th! oth!r (!(b!rs o' th! gra#! ,!r! "!ry angry ,ith th! #!'i !r, th!y co+ # #o nothing abo+t it. I as*!# ,h!th!r th!y ,o+ # *i on! o' his pigs or ta*! any o' his prop!rty, an# th!y r!p i!# 9)o, o' co+rs! not. E! is a (!(b!r o' th!ir o,n initiatory gra#!.9 I' th! sa(! thing ha# happ!n!# in th! big s!nior c!r!(onia ho+s! ,hich

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b! ongs to s!"!ra gra#!s, th!n th! #!'i !r ,o+ # b! p+nish!#. Eis o,n gra#! ,o+ # #!'!n# hi( b+t th! oth!rs ,o+ # start a bra, .6 I th!n b!gan oo*ing 'or (or! concr!t! cas!s ,hich co+ # b! co(par!# ,ith th! contrast b!t,!!n this syst!( an# o+r o,n. I sai#, 9ItIs i*! th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! ra#ia y sy((!trica ani(a s 2J! y'ish, s!a an!(on!s, !tc.3 an# th! ani(a s ,hich ha"! trans"!rs! s!g(!ntation 2!arth,or(s, obst!rs, (an, !tc.3.9 )o, in th! 'i! # o' ani(a s!g(!ntation ,! *no, "!ry itt ! abo+t th! (!chanis(s conc!rn!#, b+t at !ast th! prob !(s ar! (or! concr!t! than in th! socia 'i! #. 8h!n ,! co(par! a socia prob !( ,ith a prob !( o' ani(a #i''!r!ntiation, ,! ar! at onc! pro"i#!# ,ith a "is+a #iagra(, in t!r(s o' ,hich ,! (ay b! ab ! to ta * a itt ! (or! pr!cis! y. An# 'or th! trans"!rs! y s!g(!nt!# ani(a s, at !ast, ,! ha"! so(!thing (or! than a (!r! y anato(ica #iagra(. :han*s to th! ,or* that has b!!n #on! on !-p!ri(!nta !(bryo ogy an# a-ia gra#i!nts, ,! ha"! so(! i#!a o' th! #yna(ics o' th! syst!(. 8! *no, that so(! sort o' asy((!trica r! ation obtains b!t,!!n th! s+cc!ssi"! s!g(!nts, that !ach s!g(!nt ,o+ #, i' it co+ # 2I sp!a* oos! y3 'or( a h!a#, b+t that th! n!-t ant!rior s!g(!nt pr!"!nts this. 7+rth!r, this #yna(ic asy((!try in th! r! ations b!t,!!n s+cc!ssi"! s!g(!nts is r!' !ct!# (orpho ogica yL ,! 'in# in (ost s+ch ani(a s a s!ria #i''!r!nc!;,hat is ca !# (!ta(!ric #i''!r!ntiation;b!t,!!n th!. s+cc!ssi"! s!g(!nts. :h!ir app!n#ag!s, tho+gh th!y can b! sho,n to con'or( to a sing ! basic str+ct+r!, #i''!r on! 'ro( anoth!r as ,! go #o,n th! s!ri!s. 2:h! !gs o' th! obst!r pro"i#! a 'a(i iar !-a(p ! o' th! sort o' thing I (!an.3 In contrast ,ith this, in th! ra#ia y sy((!trica ani(a s, th! s!g(!nts, arrang!# aro+n# th! c!nt!r i*! s!ctors o' a circ !, ar! +s+a y a a i*!. As I say, ,! #o not *no, (+ch abo+t th! s!g(!ntation o' ani(a s, b+t at !ast h!r! ,as !no+gh 'or (! to ta*! bac* to th! prob !( o' Iat(+ socia organi/ation. Ay 9h+nch9 ha# pro"i#!# (! ,ith a s!t o' strict!r ,or#s an# #iagra(s, in t!r(s o' ,hich I co+ # try to b! (or! pr!cis! in (y thin*ing abo+t th! Iat(+
7or #!tai s o' this an# oth!r si(i ar inci#!nts c'. )a"!n, pp. 98C107, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1936.
6

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prob !(. I co+ # no, oo* again at th! Iat(+ (at!ria to #!t!r(in! ,h!th!r th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! c ans ,as r!a y in so(! s!ns! symmetrical an# to #!t!r(in! ,h!th!r th!r! ,as anything that co+ # b! co(par!# ,ith th! ac* o' (!ta(!ric #i''!r!ntiation. I 'o+n# that th! 9h+nch9 ,or*!#. I 'o+n# that so 'ar as opposition, contro , !tc. b!t,!!n th! c ans ,as conc!rn!#, th! r! ations b!t,!!n th!( ,!r! r!asonab y sy((!trica , an# '+rth!r, as to th! .+!stion o' #i''!r!ntiation b!t,!!n th!(, it co+ # b! sho,n that, tho+gh th!r! ,!r! consi#!rab ! #i''!r!nc!s, th!s! 'o o,!# no s!ria patt!rn. A##itiona y, I 'o+n# that th!r! ,as a strong t!n#!ncy 'or c ans to i(itat! !ach oth!r, to st!a bits o' !ach oth!rIs (ytho ogica history an# to incorporat! th!s! into th!ir o,n past;a sort o' 'ra+#+ !nt h!ra #ry, !ach c an copying th! oth!rs so that th! ,ho ! syst!( t!n#!# to #i(inish th! #i''!r!ntiation b!t,!!n th!(. 2:h! syst!( p!rhaps a so contain!# t!n#!nci!s in an opposit! #ir!ction, b+t this .+!stion I n!!# not #isc+ss no,.3 I 'o o,!# +p th! ana ogy in anoth!r #ir!ction. I(pr!ss!# by th! ph!no(!na o' (!ta(!ric #i''!r!ntiation, I (a#! th! point that in o+r soci!ty ,ith its hi!rarchica syst!(s 2co(parab ! to th! !arth,or( or th! obst!r3, ,h!n a gro+p s!c!#!s 'ro( th! par!nt soci!ty, it is +s+a to 'in# that th! in! o' 'ission, th! #i"ision b!t,!!n th! n!, gro+p an# th! o #, (ar*s a #i''!r!ntiation o' (or!s. :h! $i gri( 7ath!rs ,an#!r o'' in or#!r to b! different. 0+t a(ong th! Iat(+ , ,h!n t,o gro+ps in a "i ag! .+arr! , an# on! ha ' go!s o'' an# 'o+n#s a n!, co((+nity, th! (or!s o' th! t,o gro+ps r!(ain i#!ntica . In o+r soci!ty, 'ission t!n#s to b! h!r!tica 2a 'o o,ing a't!r oth!r #octrin!s or (or!s3, b+t in Iat(+ , 'ission is rath!r schis(atic 2a 'o o,ing a't!r oth!r !a#!rs ,itho+t chang! o' #og(a3. Fo+ ,i not! that . h!r! I o"!rro#! (y ana ogy at on! point an# that this (att!r is sti not p!r'!ct y c !ar. 8h!n a trans"!rs! 'ission or a at!ra b+##ing occ+rs in a trans"!rs! y s!g(!nt!# ani(a , th! pro#+cts o' that b+# or 'ission ar! identical, th! post!rior ha ' ,hich ,as h! # in ch!c* by th! ant!rior is r! i!"!# o' this contro an# #!"! ops into a nor(a , co(p !t! ani(a . I a( th!r!'or! not in st!p ,ith (y ana ogy ,h!n I r!gar# th! #i''!r!ntiation ,hich acco(C pani!s 'ission in a hi!rarchica soci!ty as co(parab ! ,ith that ,hich !-ists b!'or! 'ission in a trans"!rs! y s!g(!nt!# ani(a . :his

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#i"!rg!nc! 'ro( th! ana ogy ,i s+r! y b! ,orth in"!stigationL it ,i ta*! +s into a (or! pr!cis! st+#y o' th! asy((!trica r! ations ,hich obtain b!t,!!n th! +nits in th! t,o cas!s an# rais! .+!stions abo+t th! r!actions o' th! s+bor#inat! (!(b!r to its position in th! asy((!try. :his asp!ct o' th! (att!r I ha"! not y!t !-a(in!#. Ea"ing got so(! sort o' conc!pt+a 'ra(! ,ithin ,hich to #!scrib! th! int!rr! ations b!t,!!n c ans, I ,!nt on 'ro( this to consi#!r th! int!rr! ations b!t,!!n th! "ario+s ag! gra#!s in t!r(s o' this sa(! 'ra(!. E!r!, i' any,h!r!, ,h!r! ag! (ight b! !-p!ct!# to pro"i#! a basis 'or s!ria #i''!r!ntiation, ,! o+ght to !-p!ct to 'in# so(! ana og+! o' th! trans"!rs! s!g(!ntation ,ith asy((!trica r! ations b!t,!!n th! s+cc!ssi"! gra#!s;an# to a c!rtain !-t!nt th! ag!Cgra#! syst!( 'itt!# this pict+r!. =ach gra#! has its c!r!(oni!s an# its s!cr!ts o' initiation into that gra#!L an# in th!s! c!r!(oni!s an# s!cr!ts it ,as p!r'!ct y !asy to trac! a (!tC a(!ric #i''!r!ntiation. C!r!(oni!s ,hich ar! '+ y #!"! op!# at th! top o' th! syst!( ar! sti r!cogni/ab ! in th!ir basic 'or( in th! o,!r !"! s;b+t (or! r+#i(!ntary at !ach !"! as ,! go #o,n th! s!ri!s. 0+t th! initiatory syst!( contains on! "!ry int!r!sting ! !(!nt ,hich ,as bro+ght into sharp r! i!' ,h!n (y point o' "i!, ,as #!'in!# in t!r(s o' ani(a s!g(!ntation. :h! gra#!s alternate, so that th! ,ho ! syst!( consists o' t,o oppos!# gro+ps, on! gro+p (a#! +p o' gra#!s 3, 5, 7, !tc. 2th! o## n+(b!rs3, an# th! oth!r (a#! +p o' 2, 4, 6, !tc.L an# th!s! t,o gro+ps (aintain th! typ! o' r! ationship '*ic* I ha# a r!a#y #!scrib!# as 9sy((!trica 9;!ach pro"i#ing sanctions by .+arr! ing ,ith th! oth!r ,h!n th!ir rights ar! in'ring!#. :h+s !"!n ,h!r! ,! (ight !-p!ct th! (ost #!'init! hi!rarchy, th! Iat(+ ha"! s+bstit+t!# 'or it a h!a# !ss syst!( in ,hich on! si#! is sy((!trica y oppos!# to th! oth!r. 7ro( this conc +sion (y !n.+iry, in' +!nc!# by (any oth!r typ!s o' (at!ria , ,i go on to oo* at th! (att!r 'ro( oth!r points o' "i!,;!sp!cia y th! psycho ogica prob !(s o' ,h!th!r a pr!'!r!nc! 'or sy((!trica rath!r than asy((!trica r! ationships can b! i(p ant!# in th! in#i"i#+a , an# ,hat th! (!chanis(s o' s+ch charact!r 'or(ation (ay b!. 0+t ,! n!!# not go into that no,.

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=no+gh has b!!n sai# to bring o+t th! (!tho#o ogica th!(!; that a "ag+! 9h+nch9 #!ri"!# 'ro( so(! oth!r sci!nc! !a#s into th! pr!cis! 'or(+ ations o' that oth!r sci!nc! in t!r(s o' ,hich it is possib ! to thin* (or! 'r+itC'+ y abo+t o+r o,n (at!ria . Fo+ ,i ha"! notic!# that th! 'or( in ,hich I +s!# th! bio ogica 'in#ings ,as r!a y rath!r #i''!r!nt 'ro( that in ,hich a /oo ogist ,o+ # ta * abo+t his (at!ria . 8h!r! th! /oo ogist (ight ta * o' a-ia gra#i!nts, I ta *!# abo+t 9asy((!trica r! ationships b!t,!!n s+cc!ssi"! s!g(!nts,9 an# in (y phrasing I ,as pr!par!# to attach to th! ,or# 9s+cc!ssi"!9 t,o si(+ tan!o+s (!anings;in r!'!rring to th! ani(a (at!ria it (!ant a (orpho ogica s!ri!s in a thr!!C#i(!nsiona concr!t! organis(, ,hi ! in r!'!rring to th! anthropo ogica (at!ria th! ,or# 9s+cc!ssi"!9 (!ant so(! abstract!# prop!rty o' a hi!rarchy. I thin* it ,o+ # b! 'air to say that I +s! th! ana ogi!s in so(! c+rio+s y abstract 'or(;that, as 'or 9a-ia gra#i!nts9 I s+bstit+t! 9asy((!trica r! ationships,9 so a so I !n#o, th! ,or# 9s+cc!ssi"!9 ,ith so(! abstract (!aning ,hich (a*!s it app icab ! to both sorts o' cas!s. :his brings +s to anoth!r "!ry i(portant (oti' in (y thin*ing;a habit o' constr+cting abstractions ,hich r!'!r to t!r(s o' co(parison b!t,!!n !ntiti!sL an# to i +strat! this I can c !ar y r!(!(b!r th! 'irst occasion on ,hich I ,as g+i ty o' s+ch an abstraction. It ,as in (y Moo ogica :ripos !-a(ination at Ca(bri#g!, an# th! !-a(in!r ha# tri!# to co(p! (! to ans,!r at !ast on! .+!stion on !ach branch o' th! s+bJ!ct. Co(parati"! anato(y I ha# a ,ays r!gar#!# as a ,ast! o' ti(!, b+t I 'o+n# (ys! ' 'ac! to 'ac! ,ith it in th! !-a(nation an# ha# not th! n!c!ssary #!tai !# *no, !#g!. I ,as as*!# to co(par! th! +rinog!nita syst!( o' th! a(phibia ,ith that o' th! (a((a ia, an# I #i# not *no, (+ch abo+t it. )!c!ssity ,as th! (oth!r o' in"!ntion. I #!ci#!# that I o+ght to b! ab ! to #!'!n# th! position that co(parati"! anato(y ,as a (+## !# ,ast! o' ti(!, an# so I s!t to ,or* to attac* th! ,ho ! !(phasis on ho(o ogy in /oo ogica th!ory. As yo+ probab y ,i *no,, /oo ogists con"!ntiona y #!a in t,o sorts o' co(parabi ity b!t,!!n organs7*omology an# analogy. 5rgans ar! sai# to b! 9ho(o ogo+s9 ,h!n it can b! sho,n that th!y ha"! si(i ar str+ct+r!

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or b!ar si(i ar str+ct+ra r! ations to oth!r organs, !.g., th! tr+n* o' th! ! !phant is ho(o ogo+s ,ith th! nos! an# ip o' a (an b!Cca+s! it has th! sa(! 'or(a r! ation to oth!r parts;!y!s, !tc.L b+t th! tr+n* o' an ! !phant is ana ogo+s to th! han# o' a (an b!ca+s! both ha"! th! sa(! +s!s. 7i't!!n y!ars ago co(parati"! anato(y r!"o "!# !n# !ss y aro+n# th!s! t,o sorts o' co(parabi ity, ,hich inci#!nta y ar! goo# !-a(p !s o' ,hat I (!an by 9abstractions ,hich #!'in! th! t!r(s o' a co(parison b!t,!!n !ntiti!s.9 Ay attac* on th! syst!( ,as to s+gg!st that th!r! (ight b! oth!r sorts o' co(parabi ity an# that th!s! ,o+ # conC'+s! th! iss+! to s+ch a #!gr!! that (!r! (orpho ogica ana ysis ,o+ # not s+''ic!. I arg+!# that th! bi at!ra 'ins o' a 'ish ,o+ # con"!ntiona y b! r!gar#!# as ho(o ogo+s ,ith th! bi at!ra i(bs o' a (a((a , b+t that th! tai o' a 'ish, a (!#ian organ, ,o+ # con"!ntiona y b! r!gar#!# a 9#i''!r!nt 'ro(9 or at (ost on y 9ana ogo+s to9 th! 'ins. 0+t ,hat abo+t th! #o+b !Ctai !# Japan!s! go #'ishD In this ani(a th! 'actors ca+sing an ano(a y o' th! tai a so ca+s! th! sa(! ano(a y in th! bi at!ra 'insL th!r!'or! th!r! ,as h!r! anoth!r sort o' co(parabi ity, an !.+i"a !nc! in t!r(s o' proc!ss!s an# a,s o' gro,th. 8! , I #onIt *no, ,hat (ar* I got 'or (y ans,!r. I 'o+n# o+t (+ch at!r that, as a (att!r o' 'act, th! at!ra 'ins o' th! go #'ish ar! scarc! y, i' at a , a''!ct!# by th! 'actors ,hich ca+s! th! ano(a y in th! tai , b+t I #o+bt i' th! !-a(in!r ca+ght (! in (y b +''L an# I 'o+n# a so that, c+rio+s y, Ea!*! in 1854 ha# act+a y coin!# th! ,or# 9ho(ono(y9 'or th! "!ry typ! o' !.+i"a !nc! that I ,as in"!nting. :h! ,or# is, so 'ar as I *no,, obso !t!, an# ,as obso !t! ,h!n I ,rot! (y ans,!r. &o 'ar as I ,as conc!rn!#, ho,!"!r, th! i#!a ,as n!, an# I ha# tho+ght o' it (ys! '. I '! t that I ha# #isco"!r!# ho, to thin*. :hat ,as in 1926, an# this sa(! o # c +!;r!cip!, i' yo+ i*!;has r!(ain!# ,ith (! !"!r sinc!. I #i# not r!a i/! that I ha# a r!cip!L an# it ,as not +nti t!n y!ars at!r that I '+ y grasp!# th! signi'icanc! o' this ana ogyho(o ogyCho(ono(y b+sin!ss. $!rhaps it ,i b! o' int!r!st to r!co+nt in so(! #!tai (y "ario+s br+sh!s ,ith th!s! conc!pts an# th! r!cip! ,hich th!y contain!#. &oon a't!r th! !-a(ination to ,hich I ha"! r!'!rr!#, I ,!nt into anthropo ogy an# 'or so(! ti(! stopp!# thin*ing;,on#!ring rath!r ,hat co+ # b! (a#! o' this s+bJ!ct, b+t not g!tting anything

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c !ar !-c!pt a r!p+#iation o' (ost o' th! con"!ntiona approach!s ,hich, to (!, s!!(!# (!aning !ss. I ,rot! a itt ! s*it on th! conc!pt o' tot!(is( in 1930, 'irst pro"ing that th! tot!(is( o' th! Iat(+ is true tot!(is( b!ca+s! it contains a 9high p!rc!ntag!9 o' charact!ristics o' tot!(is( ist!# in 9)ot!s an# V+!ri!s on AnthroC po ogy9 iss+!# (or! or !ss !- cath!#ra by th! 4oya Anthropo ogica Instit+t!, an# th!n going on to th! .+!stion, ,hat sort o' !.+i"a !nc! ,! tho+ght ,! ,!r! r!'!rring to ,h!n ,! !.+at! so(! bits o' Iat(+ c+ t+r! ,ith th! tot!(Cis( o' )orth A(!rica, an# #ragging in ho(o ogyCho(ono(y, !tc. In this #isc+ssion o' 9tr+!9 tot!(is( I sti ha# th! ho(ono(yC ho(o ogy abstractions p!r'!ct y c !ar an# ,as +sing th! conc!pts ,ith a c !an 2tho+gh inartic+ at!3 +n#!rstan#ing o' ,hat sort o' abstractions th!y ,!r!;b+t it is int!r!sting that I a't!r,ar#s (a#! so(! oth!r co(parab ! abstractions 'or th! ana ysis o' at(+ (at!ria an# (+## !# th! iss+!s thro+gh 'org!tting this "!ry thing. I ,as !sp!cia y int!r!st!# in st+#ying ,hat I ca !# th! 9'!! 9 o' c+ t+r!, an# I ,as bor!# ,ith th! con"!ntiona st+#y o' th! (or! 'or(a #!tai s. I ,!nt o+t to )!, 1+in!a ,ith that (+ch "ag+! y c !ar;an# in on! o' (y 'irst !tt!rs ho(! I co(p ain!# o' th! hop! !ssn!ss o' p+tting any sort o' sa t on th! tai o' s+ch an i(pon#!rab ! conc!pt as th! 9'!! 9 o' c+ t+r!. I ha# b!!n ,atching a cas+a gro+p o' nati"!s ch!,ing b!t! , spitting, a+ghing, Jo*ing, !tc., an# I '! t ac+t! y th! tanta i/ing i(possibi ity o' ,hat.I ,ant!# to #o. A y!ar at!r, sti in )!, 1+in!a, I r!a# Ara-ia 8eserta an# r!cogni/!# ,ith a thri that ?o+ghty ha# in a s!ns! #on! ,hat I ,ant!# to #o. E! ha# p+t sa t on th! tai o' th! "!ry bir# that I ,as h+nting. 0+t I r!a i/!# a so;sa# ythat h! ha# +s!# th! ,rong *in# o' sa t. I ,as not int!r!st!# in achi!"ing a it!rary or artistic r!pr!s!ntation o' th! 9'!! 9 o' th! c+ t+r!L I ,as int!r!st!# in a sci!nti'ic ana ysis o' it. 5n th! ,ho ! I thin* that ?o+ghty ,as an !nco+rag!(!nt to (!, an# th! gr!at!st !nco+rag!(!nt I got 'ro( hi( ,as #+! to a 'a acio+s bit o' thin*ing ,hich h! pro(pt!#. It app!ar!# to (! that it ,as i(possib ! to +n#!rstan# th! b!ha"ior o' his Arabs apart 'ro( th! 9'!! 9 o' th!ir c+ t+r!, an# 'ro( this it s!!(!# to 'o o, that th! 9'!! 9 o' th! c+ t+r! ,as in so(! 'ay causati&e in shaping nati"!

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b!ha"ior. :his !nco+rag!# (! to go on thin*ing that I ,as trying a't!r so(!thing that ,as i(portant;so 'ar so goo#. 0+t it a so g+i#!# (! into r!gar#ing th! 9'!! 9 o' th! c+ t+r! as (+ch (or! concr!t! an# ca+sa y acti"! than I ha# any right to #o. :his 'a s! concr!t!n!ss ,as r!in'orc!# at!r by an acci#!nt o' ang+ag!. 4a#c i''!C0ro,n ca !# to (y att!ntion th! o # ,or# 9et*os9 an# to # (! that that ,as ,hat I ,as trying to st+#y. 8or#s ar! #ang!ro+s things, an# it so hapCp!ns that 9!thos9 is in so(! ,ays a "!ry ba# ,or#. I' I ha# b!!n co(p! !# to (a*! +p (y o,n ,or# 'or ,hat I ,ant!# to say, I (ight ha"! #on! b!tt!r an# sa"!# (ys! ' a gr!at #!a o' con'+sion. I ,o+ #, I hop!, ha"! p+t 'or,ar# so(!thing i*! 9!thono(y,9 ,hich ,o+ # ha"! r!(in#!# (! that I ,as r!'!rring to an abstraction o' th! sa(! or#!r as ho(o ogy or ho(ono(y. :h! tro+b ! ,ith th! ,or# 9!thos9 is J+st this;that it is too s*ort. It is a +nit ,or#, a sing ! 1r!!* s+bstanti"!, an# as s+ch h! p!# (! to go on thin*ing that it r!'!rr!# to a +nit so(!thing ,hich I co+ # sti r!gar# as causati&e. I han# !# th! ,or# as i' it ,!r! a cat!gory o' b!ha"ior or a sort o' 'actor ,hich shap!# b!ha"ior. 8! ar! a 'a(i iar ,ith this oos! +s! o' ,or#s in s+ch phras!s as6 9th! ca+s!s o' ,ar ar! !cono(ic,9 9!cono(ic b!ha"ior,9 9h! ,as in' +!nc!# by his !(otions,9 9his sy(pto(s ar! th! r!s+ t o' con' ict b!t,!!n his s+p!r!go an# his i#.9 2I a( not s+r! ho, (any o' th!s! 'a aci!s ar! contain!# in that ast !-a(p !L at a ro+gh co+nt, th!r! s!!( to b! 'i"! ,ith a possib ! si-th, b+t th!r! (ay b! (or!. $sychoana ysis has !rr!# sa# y in +sing ,or#s that ar! too short an# th!r!C'or! app!ar (or! concr!t! than th!y ar!.3 I ,as g+i ty o' J+st this sort o' sho##y thin*ing in (y han# ing o' th! ,or# 9!thos,9 an# yo+ (+st !-c+s! (! i' I ha"! gath!r!# (ora s+pport 'or this con'!ssion by a #igr!ssion to sho, that at any rat! oth!rs ha"! co((itt!# th! sa(! cri(!. @!t +s !-a(in! th! stag!s by ,hich I got into th! 'a acy an# th! ,ay in ,hich I got o+t o' it. I thin* th! 'irst st!p to,ar# an !scap! 'ro( sin ,as to (+ tip y o''!ns!s;an# th!r! is a goo# #!a to b! sai# 'or this (!tho#. Gic! is a't!r a a #+ b+sin!ss ,h!th!r it b! physica or int! !ct+a , an# an !''!cti"! c+r! can so(!ti(!s b! achi!"!# by in#+ g!nc! to th! point at ,hich th! pati!nt r!a i/!s this. It is a ,ay o' pro"ing that a gi"!n in! o' tho+ght or con#+ct

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,i not #o, by !-p!ri(!nta y !-trapo ating it to in'inity, ,h!n its abs+r#iti!s b!co(! !"i#!nt. I (+ tip i!# (y o''!ns!s by cr!ating s!"!ra (or! conc!pts o' abo+t th! sa(! #!gr!! o' abstraction as 9!thos9;I ha# 9!i#os,9 9 c+ t+ra str+ct+r!,9 9socio ogy9;an# a th!s! I han# !# as tho+gh th!y ,!r! concr!t! !ntiti!s. I pict+r!# th! r! ations b!t,!!n !thos an# c+ t+ra str+ct+r! as b!ing i*! th! r! ation b!t,!!n a ri"!r an# its ban*s;9:h! ri"!r (o #s th! ban*s an# th! ban*s g+i#! th! ri"!r. &i(i ar y, th! !thos (o #s th! c+ t+ra str+ct+r! an# is g+i#!# by it.9 I ,as sti oo*ing 'or physica ana ogi!s, b+t no, th! position ,as not .+it! th! sa(! as ,h!n I ,as oo*ing 'or ana ogi!s in or#!r to g!t conc!pts ,hich I co+ # +s! in ana y/ing obs!r"!# (at!ria . I ,as oo*ing no, 'or physica ana ogi!s '*ic* I co+ # +s! in ana y/ing (y o,n conc!pts, an# that is a "!ry (+ch !ss satis'actory b+sin!ss. I #o not (!an, o' co+rs!, that th! oth!r sci!nc!s can gi"! on! no h! p in th! att!(pt to straight!n o+t on!Is tho+ghtsL th!y s+r! y can. 7or !-a(p !, th! th!ory o' ?i(!nsions in physics (ay b! o' !nor(o+s h! p in this 'i! #. 8hat I (!an is that ,h!n on! is s!!*ing an ana ogy 'or th! ! +ci#ation o' (at!ria o' on! sort, it is goo# to oo* at th! ,ay ana ogo+s (at!ria has b!!n ana y/!#. 0+t ,h!n on! is s!!*ing an ! +ci#ation o' on!Is o,n conc!pts, th!n on! (+st oo* 'or ana ogi!s on an !.+a y abstract !"! . Eo,!"!r, th!s! si(i !s abo+t ri"!rs an# th!ir ban*s s!!(!# pr!tty to (! an# I tr!at!# th!( .+it! s!rio+s y. E!r! I (+st #igr!ss 'or a (o(!nt to #!scrib! a tric* o' tho+ght an# sp!!ch, ,hich I ha"! 'o+n# +s!'+ . 8h!n I a( 'ac!# ,ith a "ag+! conc!pt an# '!! that th! ti(! is not y!t rip! to bring that conc!pt into strict !-pr!ssion, I coin so(! oos! !-pr!ssion 'or r!'!rring to this conc!pt an# #o not ,ant to pr!J+#g! th! iss+! by gi"ing th! conc!pt too (!aning'+ a t!r(. I th!r!'or! #+b it hasti y ,ith so(! bri!' concr!t! co o.+ia t!r(;g!n!ra y Ang oC&a-on rath!r than @atin;I ,i sp!a* o' th! 9st+''9 o' c+ t+r!, or 9bits9 o' c+ t+r!, or th! 9'!! 9 o' c+ t+r!. :h!s! bri!' Ang oC&a-on t!r(s ha"! 'or (! a #!'init! '!! ing ton! ,hich r!(in#s (! a th! ti(! that th! conc!pts b!hin# th!( ar! "ag+! an# a,ait ana ysis. It is a tric* i*! tying a *not in a han#*!rchi!';b+t has th! a#"antag! that it sti p!r(its (!, i' I (ay so !-pr!ss it, to go on +sing th! han#*!rchi!' 'or oth!r p+rpos!s. I can go on +sing th! "ag+!

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conc!pt in th! "a +ab ! proc!ss o' oos! thin*ing;sti contin+a y r!(in#!# that (y tho+ghts ar! oos!. 0+t th!s! si(i !s abo+t !thos b!ing th! ri"!r an# th! 'or(+ ations o' c+ t+r! or 9c+ t+ra str+ct+r!9 b!ing its ban*s ,!r! not Ang oC&a-on r!(in#!rs that I ,as !a"ing so(!Cthing 'or ana ysis at a at!r #at!. :h!y ,!r!, as I tho+ght, th! r!a thing;a r!a contrib+tion to o+r +n#!rstan#ing o' ho, c+ t+r! ,or*s. I tho+ght that th!r! ,as on! sort o' ph!no(!non ,hich I co+ # ca 9!thos9 an# anoth!r sort ,hich I co+ # ca 9c+ t+ra str+ct+r!9 an# that th!s! t,o ,or*!# tog!th!r;ha# (+t+a !''!ct on! on th! oth!r. A that r!(ain!# 'or (! to #o ,as to #iscri(inat! c !ar y b!t,!!n th!s! "ario+s sorts o' ph!no(!na so that oth!r p!op ! co+ # p!r'or( th! sa(! sort o' ana ysis that I ,as #oing. :his !''ort o' #iscri(ination I postpon!#, '!! ing p!rhaps that th! prob !( ,as not .+it! rip!;an# I ,!nt on ,ith th! c+ t+ra ana ysis. An# #i# ,hat I sti thin* ,as goo# ,or*. I ,ant to !(phasi/! this ast point;that, as a (att!r o' 'act, consi#!rab ! contrib+tions to sci!nc! can b! (a#! ,ith "!ry b +nt an# croo*!# conc!pts. 8! (ay Jo*! abo+t th! ,ay (isp ac!# concr!t!n!ss abo+n#s in !"!ry ,or# o' psychoCana ytic ,riting;b+t in spit! o' a th! (+## !# thin*ing that 7r!+# start!#, psychoana ysis r!(ains as t*e o+tstan#ing contrib+tion, a (ost th! on y contrib+tion to o+r +n#!rstan#ing o' th! 'a(i y;a (on+(!nt to th! i(portanc! an# "a +! o' oos! thin*ing. 7ina y I ha# co(p !t!# (y boo* on Iat(+ c+ t+r!, ,ith th! !-c!ption o' th! ast chapt!r, th! ,riting o' ,hich ,as to b! th! 'ina t!sting an# r!"i!, o' (y "ario+s th!or!tica conc!pts an# contrib+tions. I p ann!# that this chapt!r sho+ # contain so(! att!(pt to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n th! sort o' thing that I ca !# 9!thos9 an# th! sort o' thing that I ca !# 9!i#os,9 !tc. I ,as in a stat! appro-i(ating that panic in th! !-a(ination roo( ,hich 'or(!r y pro#+c!# th! conc!pt o' *omonomy. I ,as #+! to sai 'or (y n!-t 'i! # trip;(y boo* ha# to b! 'inish!# b!'or! I sai !#;th! boo* co+ # not stan# ,itho+t so(! c !ar stat!(!nt abo+t th! int!rr! ations o' th!s! conc!pts o' (in!. E!r! I ,i .+ot! ,hat 'ina y app!ar!# in th! boo* in this ast chapt!r6

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9I b!gan to #o+bt th! "a i#ity o' (y o,n cat!gori!s, an# p!r'or(!# an !-p!ri(!nt. I chos! thr!! bits o' c+ t+r!6 +a4 a ,a+ 2(oth!rIs broth!r3 gi"ing 'oo# to a laua 2sist!rIs son3L a prag(atic bit, 2b3 a (an sco #ing his ,i'!L an !tho ogica bit, an# 2c3 a (an (arrying his 'ath!rIs sist!rIs #a+ght!rL a str+ct+ra bit. :h!n I #r!, a attic! o' nin! s.+ar!s on a arg! pi!c! o' pap!r, thr!! ro,s o' s.+ar!s ,ith thr!! s.+ar!s in !ach ro,. I ab! !# th! hori/onta ro,s ,ith (y bits o' c+ t+r! an# th! "!rtica co +(ns ,ith (y cat!gori!s. :h!n I 'orc!# (ys! ' to s!! !ach bit as conc!i"ab y b! onging to !ach cat!gory. I 'o+n# that it co+ # b! #on!. 9I 'o+n# that I co+ # thin* o' !ach bit o' c+ t+r! str+ct+ra yL I co+ # s!! it as in accor#anc! ,ith a consist!nt s!t o' r+ !s or 'or(+ ations. =.+a y, I co+ # s!! !ach bit as Nprag(atic,I !ith!r as satis'ying th! n!!#s o' in#i"i#+a s or as contrib+ting to th! int!gration o' soci!ty. Again, I co+ # s!! !ach bit !tho ogica y, as an !-pr!ssion o' !(otion. 9:his !-p!ri(!nt (ay s!!( p+!ri !, b+t to (! it ,as "!ry i(portant, an# I ha"! r!co+nt!# it at !ngth b!ca+s! th!r! (ay b! so(! a(ong (y r!a#!rs ,ho t!n# to r!gar# s+ch conc!pts as N str+ct+r!I as concr!t! parts ,hich Nint!ractI in c+ t+r!, an# ,ho 'in#, as I #i#, a #i''ic+ ty in thin*ing o' th!s! conc!pts as ab! s (!r! y 'or points o' "i!, a#opt!# !ith!r by th! sci!ntist or by th! nati"!s. It is instr+cti"! to p!r'or( th! sa(! !-p!ri(!nt ,ith s+ch conc!pts as !cono(ics, !tc.97 In 'act, 9!thos9 an# th! r!st ,!r! 'ina y r!#+c!# to abstractions o' th! sa(! g!n!ra or#!r as 9ho(o ogy,9 9ho(ono(y, 9 !tc.L th!y ,!r! ab! s 'or points o' "i!, "o +ntari y a#opt!# by th! in"!stigator. I ,as, as yo+ (ay i(agin!, !nor(o+s y !-cit!# at g!tting this tang ! straight!n!# o+t;b+t I ,as a so ,orri!# b!ca+s! I tho+ght I sho+ # b! co(p! !# to r!,rit! th! ,ho ! boo*. 0+t I 'o+n# that this ,as not so. I ha# to t+n! +p th! #!'initions, ch!c* thro+gh to s!! that !ach ti(! th! t!chnica t!r( app!ar!# I co+ # s+bstit+t! th! n!, #!'inition 'or it, (ar* th! (or! !gr!gio+s pi!c!s o' nons!ns! ,ith 'ootnot!s ,arning th! r!a#!r that th!s! passag!s (ight b! ta*!n as a ,arning o' ho, not to say things;an# so on.
@oc. cit., p.

261.

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0+t th! bo#y o' th! boo* ,as so+n# !no+gh;a that it n!!#!# ,as n!, castors on its !gs. &o 'ar I ha"! spo*!n o' (y o,n p!rsona !-p!ri!nc!s ,ith strict an# oos! thin*ing, b+t I thin* act+a y th! story ,hich I ha"! narrat!# is typica o' th! ,ho ! ' +ct+ating b+sin!ss o' th! a#"anc! o' sci!nc!. In (y cas!, ,hich is a s(a on! an# co(parati"! y insigni'icant in th! ,ho ! a#"anc! o' sci!nc!, yo+ can s!! both ! !(!nts o' th! a t!rnating proc!ss;'irst th! oos! thin*ing an# th! b+i #ing +p o' a str+ct+r! on +nso+n# 'o+n#ations an# th!n th! corr!ction to strict!r thin*ing an# th! s+bstit+tion o' a n!, +n#!rpinning b!n!ath th! a r!a#y constr+ct!# (ass. An# that, I b! i!"!, is a pr!tty 'air pict+r! o' ho, sci!nc! a#"anc!s, ,ith this !-c!ption, that +s+a y th! !#i'ic! is arg!r an# th! in#i"i#+a s ,ho 'ina y contrib+t! th! n!, +n#!rpinning ar! #i''!r!nt p!op ! 'ro( thos! ,ho #i# th! initia oos! thin*ing. &o(!ti(!s, as in physics, ,! 'in# c!nt+ri!s b!t,!!n th! 'irst b+i #ing o' th! !#i'ic! an# th! at!r corr!ction o' th! 'o+n#ations;b+t th! proc!ss is basica y th! sa(!. An# i' yo+ as* (! 'or a r!cip! 'or sp!!#ing +p this proc!ss, I ,o+ # say 'irst that ,! o+ght to acc!pt an# !nJoy this #+a nat+r! o' sci!nti'ic tho+ght an# b! ,i ing to "a +! th! ,ay in ,hich th! t,o proc!ss!s ,or* tog!th!r to gi"! +s a#"anc!s in +n#!rstan#ing o' th! ,or #. 8! o+ght not to 'ro,n too (+ch on !ith!r proc!ss, or at !ast to 'ro,n !.+a y on !ith!r proc!ss ,h!n it is +ns+pp !(!nt!# by th! oth!r. :h!r! is, I thin*, a #! ay in sci!nc! ,h!n ,! start to sp!cia i/! 'or too ong !ith!r in strict or in oos! thin*ing. I s+sp!ct, 'or !-a(p !, that th! 7r!+#ian !#i'ic! has b!!n a C o,!# to gro, too big b!'or! th! corr!cti"! o' strict tho+ght is app i!# to it;an# no, ,h!n in"!stigators start r!phrasing th! 7r!+#ian #og(as in n!, strict!r t!r(s th!r! (ay b! a ot o' i '!! ing, ,hich is ,ast!'+ . 2At this point I (ight p!rhaps thro, o+t a ,or# o' co('ort to th! ortho#o- in psychoana ysis. 8h!n th! 'or(+ ators b!gin rooting abo+t a(ong th! (ost basic o' ana ytic pr!(is!s an# .+!stioning th! concr!t! r!a ity o' s+ch conc!pts as th! 9!go9 or ",ish!s9 or th! 9i#9 or th! 9 ibi#o9;as in#!!# th!y ar! a r!a#y b!Cginning to root;th!r! is no n!!# to g!t a ar(!# an# to start ha"ing t!rror #r!a(s o' chaos an# stor(s at s!a. It is c!rtain that (ost o' th! o # 'abric o' ana ysis ,i sti b! !'t

96

stan#ing a't!r th! n!, +n#!rpinning has b!!n ins!rt!#. An# ,h!n th! conc!pts, post+ at!s, an# pr!(is!s ha"! b!!n straight!n!# o+t, ana ysts ,i b! ab ! to !(bar* +pon a n!, an# sti (or! 'r+it'+ orgy o' oos! thin*ing, +nti th!y r!ach a stag! at ,hich again th! r!s+ ts o' th!ir thin*ing (+st b! strict y conc!pt+a i/!#. I thin* that th!y o+ght to !nJoy this a t!rnating .+a ity in th! progr!ss o' sci!nc! an# not #! ay th! progr!ss o' sci!nc! by a r!'+sa to acc!pt this #+a is(.3 7+rth!r than this, b!si#!s si(p y not hin#!ring progr!ss, I thin* ,! (ight #o so(!thing to hast!n (att!rs, an# I ha"! s+gg!st!# t,o ,ays in ,hich this (ight b! #on!. 5n! is to train sci!ntists to oo* a(ong th! o #!r sci!nc!s 'or ,i # ana ogi!s to th!ir o,n (at!ria , so that th!ir ,i # h+nch!s abo+t th!ir o,n prob !(s ,i an# th!( a(ong th! strict 'or(+ ations. :h! s!con# (!tho# is to train th!( to ti! *nots in th!ir han#*!rchi!'s ,h!n!"!r th!y !a"! so(! (atCt!r +n'or(+ at!#;to b! ,i ing to !a"! th! (att!r so 'or y!ars, b+t sti !a"! a ,arning sign in th! "!ry t!r(ino ogy th!y +s!, s+ch that th!s! t!r(s ,i 'or!"!r stan#, not as '!nc!s hi#ing th! +n*no,n 'ro( '+t+r! in"!stigators, b+t rath!r as signposts ,hich r!a#6 9UNEXPLORED BEYOND THIS POINT . 9

97

Mo&ale an# National Cha&a'te&%


8! sha proc!!# as 'o o,s6 213 8! sha !-a(in! so(! o' th! criticis(s ,hich can b! +rg!# against o+r !nt!rtaining any conc!pt o' 9nationa charact!r.9 223 :his !-a(ination ,i !nab ! +s to stat! c!rtain conc!pt+a i(its ,ithin ,hich th! phras! 9nationa charact!r9 is i*! y to b! "a i#. 233 8! sha th!n go on, ,ithin th!s! i(its, to o+t in! ,hat or#!rs o' #i''!r!nc! ,! (ay !-p!ct to 'in# a(ong 8!st!rn nations, trying, by ,ay o' i +stration, to g+!ss (or! concr!t! y at so(! o' th!s! #i''!r!nc!s. 243 @ast y, ,! sha consi#!r ho, th! prob !(s o' (ora ! an# int!rnationa r! ations ar! a''!ct!# by #i''!r!nc!s o' this or#!r. Barriers to Any Concept of "National Character" &ci!nti'ic !n.+iry has b!!n #i"!rt!# 'ro( .+!stions o' this typ! by a n+(b!r o' trains o' tho+ght ,hich !a# sci!ntists to r!gar# a s+ch .+!stions as +npro'itab ! or +nso+n#. 0!C'or! ,! ha/ar# any constr+cti"! opinion as to th! or#!r o' #i''!r!nc!s to b! !-p!ct!# a(ong =+rop!an pop+ ations, th!r!'or!, th!s! #i"!rting trains o' tho+ght (+st b! !-a(in!#. It is, in th! 'irst p ac!, arg+!# that not th! p!op ! b+t rath!r th! circ+(stanc!s +n#!r ,hich th!y i"! #i''!r 'ro( on! co((+nity to anoth!rL that ,! ha"! to #!a ,ith #i''!r!nc!s !ith!r in historica bac*gro+n# or in c+rr!nt con#itions, an# that th!s! 'actors ar! s+''ici!nt to acco+nt 'or a #i''!r!nc!s in b!ha"ior ,itho+t o+r in"o*ing any #i''!r!nc!s o' charact!r in th! in#i"i#+a s conc!rn!#. =ss!ntia y this arg+(!nt is an app!a to 5cca(Is 4a/or;an ass!rtion that ,! o+ght not to (+ tip y !ntiti!s b!yon# n!c!ssity. :h! arg+(!nt is that, ,h!r! obs!r"ab ! #i''!r!nc!s in circ+(stanc! !-ist, ,! o+ght to in"o*! thos! rath!r than (!r! in'!rr!# #i''!r!nc!s in charact!r, ,hich ,! cannot obs!r"!.
H :his !ssay app!ar!# in Ci"i ian Aora !, !#it!# by 1oo#,in 8atson, copyright 1942 by th! &oci!ty 'or th! $sycho ogica &t+#y o' &ocia Iss+!s. It is h!r! r!print!# by p!r(ission o' th! p+b ish!r. &o(! intro#+ctory (at!ria has b!!n !#it!# o+t.

98

:h! arg+(!nt (ay b! (!t in part by .+oting !-p!ri(!nta #ata, s+ch as @!,inIs !-p!ri(!nts 2+np+b ish!# (at!ria 3, ,hich sho,!# that th!r! ar! gr!at #i''!r!nc!s in th! ,ay in ,hich 1!r(ans an# A(!ricans r!spon# to 'ai +r! in an !-p!ri(!nta s!tting. :h! A(!ricans tr!at!# 'ai +r! as a cha !ng! to incr!as! !''ortL th! 1!r(ans r!spon#!# to th! sa(! 'ai +r! ,ith #isco+rag!(!nt. 0+t thos! ,ho arg+! 'or th! !''!cti"!n!ss o' con#itions rath!r than charact!r can sti r!p y that th! !-p!ri(!nta con#itions ar! not, in 'act, th! sa(! 'or both gro+psL that th! sti(+ +s "a +! o' any circ+(stanc! #!p!n#s +pon ho, that circ+(stanc! stan#s o+t against th! bac*gro+n# o' oth!r circ+(stanc!s in th! i'! o' th! s+bJ!ct, an# that this contrast cannot b! th! sa(! 'or both gro+ps. It is possib !, in 'act, to arg+! that sinc! th! sa(! circ+(stanc!s ne&er occ+r 'or in#i"i#+a s o' #i''!r!nt c+ t+ra bac*Cgro+n#, it is th!r!'or! +nn!c!ssary to in"o*! s+ch abstractions as nationa charact!r. :his arg+(!nt br!a*s #o,n, I b! i!"!, ,h!n it is point!# o+t that, in str!ssing circ+(stanc! rath!r than charact!r, ,! ,o+ # b! ignoring th! *no,n 'acts abo+t learning. $!rhaps th! b!st #oc+(!nt!# g!n!ra i/ation in th! 'i! # o' psycho ogy is that, at any gi"!n (o(!nt, th! b!ha"iora charact!ristics o' any (a((a , an# !sp!cia y o' (an, #!p!n# +pon th! pr!"io+s !-p!ri!nc! an# b!ha"ior o' that in#i"i#+a . :h+s in pr!s+(ing that charact!r, as ,! as circ+(stanc!, (+st b! ta*!n into acco+nt, ,! ar! not (+ tip ying !ntiti!s b!yon# n!c!ssityL ,! 3no' o' th! signi'icanc! o' !arn!# charact!r 'ro( oth!r typ!s o' #ata, an# it is this *no, !#g! ,hich co(p! s +s to consi#!r th! a##itiona 9!ntity.9 A s!con# barri!r to any acc!ptanc! o' th! notion o' 9nationa charact!r9 aris!s a't!r th! 'irst has b!!n n!gotiat!#. :hos! ,ho grant that charact!r (+st b! consi#!r!# can sti #o+bt ,h!th!r any +ni'or(ity or r!g+ arity is i*! y to obtain ,ithin s+ch. a sa(p ! o' h+(an b!ings as constit+t!s a nation. @!t +s grant at onc! that uniformity ob"io+s y #o!s not occ+r, an# !t +s proc!!# to consi#!r ,hat sorts o' regularity may b! !-p!ct!#. :h! criticis( ,hich ,! ar! trying to (!!t is i*! y to ta*! 'i"! 'or(s. 213 :h! critic (ay point to th! occ+rr!nc! o' s+bc+ t+ra #i''!r!ntiation, to #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n th! s!-!s, or b!t,!!n c ass!s, or b!t,!!n occ+pationa gro+ps ,ithin th! co((+nity. 223 E! (ay point to th! !-tr!(! h!t!rog!n!ity an# con'+sion o' c+ t+ra nor(s

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,hich can b! obs!r"!# in 9(! tingCpot9 co((+niti!s. 233 E! (ay point to th! acci#!nta #!"iant, th! in#i"i#+a ,ho has +n#!rgon! so(! 9acci#!nta 9 tra+(atic !-p!ri!nc!, not +s+a a(ong thos! in his socia !n"iron(!nt. 243 E! (ay point to th! ph!no(!na o' c+ t+ra chang!, an# !sp!cia y to th! sort o' #i''!r!ntiation ,hich r!s+ ts ,h!n on! part o' th! co((+nity ags b!hin# so(! oth!r in rat! o' chang!. 253 @ast y, h! (ay point to th! arbitrary nat+r! o' nationa bo+n#ari!s. :h!s! obJ!ctions ar! c os! y int!rr! at!#, an# th! r!p i!s to th!( a #!ri"! + ti(at! y 'ro( t,o post+ at!s6 'irst, that th! in#i"i#+a , ,h!th!r 'ro( a physio ogica or a psychoC ogica point o' "i!,, is a sing ! organi:ed !ntity, s+ch that a its 9parts9 or 9asp!cts9 ar! (+t+a y (o#i'iab ! an# (+t+a y int!ractingL an# s!con#, that a co((+nity is i*!C,is! organi:ed in this s!ns!. I' ,! oo* at socia #i''!r!ntiation in a stab ! co((+nity;say, at s!- #i''!r!ntiation in a )!, 1+in!a trib!8;,! 'in# that it is not !no+gh to say that th! habit syst!( or th! charact!r str+ct+r! o' on! s!- is different 'ro( that o' anoth!r. :h! signi'icant point is that th! habit syst!( o' !ach s!- cogs into th! habit syst!( o' th! oth!rL that th! b!ha"ior o' !ach pro(ot!s th! habits o' th! oth!r.9 8! 'in#, 'or !-a(p !, b!t,!!n th! s!-!s, s+ch co(p !(!ntary patt!rns as sp!ctatorshipC!-hibitionis(, #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, an# s+ccoringC #!p!n#!nc!, or (i-t+r!s o' th!s!. )!"!r #o ,! 'in# (+t+a irr! !"anc! b!t,!!n s+ch gro+ps. A tho+gh it is +n'ort+nat! y tr+! that ,! *no, "!ry itt ! abo+t th! t!r(s o' habit #i''!r!ntiation b!t,!!n c ass!s, s!-!s, occ+pationa gro+ps, !tc., in 8!st!rn nations, th!r! is, I thin*, no #ang!r in app ying this g!n!ra conc +sion to a cas!s o' stab ! #i''!r!ntiation b!t,!!n gro+ps ,hich ar! i"ing in (+t+a contact. It
C'. A. A!a# +Se. and !emperament in !*ree 6rimiti&e Societies, )!, For*, Aorro,, 19353, !sp!cia y $art III, 'or an ana ysis o' s!- #i''!r!ntiation a(ong th! Cha(b+ iL a so 1. 0at!son +;a&en, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 19363 'or an ana ysis o' s!- #i''!r!ntiation a(ong a#+ ts in Iat(+ , )!, 1+in!a. 9 8! ar! consi#!ring h!r! on y thos! cas!s in ,hich !tho ogica #i''!r!ntiation 'o o,s th! s!- #ichoto(y. It is a so probab ! that, ,h!r! th! !thos o' th! t,o s!-!s is not sharp y #i''!r!ntiat!#, it ,o+ # sti b! corr!ct to say that th! !thos o' !ach pro(ot!s that o' th! oth!r, !.g., thro+gh s+ch (!chanis(s as co(p!tition an# (+t+a i(itation. C'. A. A!a# +op. cit.4.
8

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is, to (!, inconc!i"ab ! that t,o #i''!ring gro+ps co+ # !-ist si#! by si#! in a co((+nity ,ithCo+t so(! sort o' (+t+a r! !"anc! b!t,!!n th! sp!cia charact!ristics o' on! gro+p an# thos! o' th! oth!r. &+ch an occ+rr!nc! ,o+ # b! contrary to th! post+ at! that a co((+nity is an organi/!# +nit. 8! sha , th!r!'or!, pr!s+(! that this g!n!ra i/ation app i!s to a stab ! socia #i''!r!ntiation. )o,, a that ,! *no, o' th! (!chanics o' charact!r 'or(ation; !sp!cia y th! proc!ss!s o' proJ!ction, r!action 'or(ation, co(p!nsation, an# th! i*!;'orc!s +s to r!gar# th!s! bipo ar patt!rns as +nitary ,ithin th! in#i"i#+a . I' ,! *no, that an in#i"i#+a is train!# in o"!rt !-pr!ssion o' on!Cha ' o' on! o' th!s! patt!rns, !.g., in #o(inanc! b!ha"ior, ,! can pr!#ict ,ith c!rtainty 2tho+gh not in pr!cis! ang+ag!3 that th! s!!#s o' th! oth!r ha '; s+b(ission;ar! si(+ tan!o+s y so,n. in his p!rsona ity. 8! ha"! to thin* o' th! in#i"i#+a , in 'act, as train!# in #o(inanc!C s+b(ission, not in !ith!r #o(inanc! or s+b(ission. 7ro( this it 'o o,s that ,h!r! ,! ar! #!a ing ,ith stab ! #i''!r!ntiation ,ithin a co((+nity, ,! ar! J+sti'i!# in ascribing co((on charact!r to th! (!(b!rs o' that co((+nity, pro"i#!# ,! ta*! th! pr!ca+tion o' #!scribing that co((on charact!r in t!r(s o' th! (oti's o' r! ationship b!t,!!n th! #i''!r!ntiat!# s!ctions o' th! co((+nity. :h! sa(! sort o' consi#!rations ,i g+i#! +s in #!a ing ,ith o+r s!con# criticis(;th! !-tr!(!s o' h!t!rog!n!ity, s+ch as occ+r in (o#!rn 9(! tingCpot9 co((+niti!s. &+ppos! ,! att!(pt!# to ana y/! o+t a th! (oti's o' r! ationship b!t,!!n in#i"i#+a s an# gro+ps in s+ch a co((+nity as )!, For* CityL i' ,! #i# not !n# in th! (a#ho+s! ong b!'or! ,! ha# co(p !t!# o+r st+#y, ,! sho+ # arri"! at a pict+r! o' co((on charact!r that ,o+ # b! a (ost in'init! y co(p !-;c!rtain y that ,o+ # contain (or! 'in! #i''!r!ntiations than th! h+(an psych! is capab ! o' r!so "ing ,ithin its! '. At this point, th!n, both ,! an# th! in#i"i#+a s ,ho( ,! ar! st+#ying ar! 'orc!# to ta*! a short c+t6 to tr!at h!t!rog!n!ity as a positi"! charact!ristic o' th! co((on !n"iron(!nt, sui generis. 8h!n, ,ith s+ch an hypoth!sis, ,! b!gin to oo* 'or co((on (oti's o' b!ha"ior, ,! not! th! "!ry c !ar t!n#!nci!s to,ar# g orying in h!t!rog!n!ity 'or its o,n sa*! 2as in th! 4obinson @ato+ch! 90a a# 'or A(!ricans93 an# to,ar# r!gar#ing th! ,or #

101

as (a#! +p o' an in'inity o' #isconn!ct!# .+i/Cbits 2 i*! 4ip !yIs 90! i!"! It or )ot93. :h! thir# obJ!ction, th! cas! o' th! in#i"i#+a #!"iant, 'a s in th! sa(! 'ra(! o' r!'!r!nc! as that o' th! #i''!r!ntiation o' stab ! gro+ps. :h! boy on ,ho( an =ng ish p+b icCschoo !#+cation #o!s not ta*!, !"!n tho+gh th! origina roots o' his #!"ianc! ,!r! ai# in so(! 9acci#!nta 9 tra+(atic inci#!nt, is r!acting to th! p+b icC schoo syst!(. :h! b!ha"iora habits ,hich h! ac.+ir!s (ay not 'o o, th! nor(s ,hich th! schoo int!n#s to i(p ant, b+t th!y ar! ac.+ir!# in r!action to thos! "!ry nor(s. E! (ay 2an# o't!n #o!s3 ac.+ir! patt!rns th! !-act opposit! o' th! nor(a L b+t h! cannot conc!i"ab y ac.+ir! irr! !"ant patt!rns. E! (ay b!co(! a 9ba#9 p+b icCschoo =ng ish(an, h! (ay b!co(! insan!, b+t sti his #!"iant charact!ristics ,i b! syst!(atica y r! at!# to th! nor(s ,hich h! is r!sisting. 8! (ay #!scrib! his charact!r, in#!!#, by saying that it is as syst!(atica y r! at!# to th! stan#ar# p+b icC schoo charact!r as th! charact!r o' Iat(+ nati"!s o' on! s!- is syst!(atica y r! at!# to th! charact!r o' th! oth!r s!-. Eis charact!r is ori!nt!# to th! (oti's an# patt!rns o' r! ationship in th! soci!ty in ,hich h! i"!s. :h! sa(! 'ra(! o' r!'!r!nc! app i!s to th! 'o+rth consi#!ration, that o' changing co((+niti!s an# th! sort o' #i''!r!ntiation ,hich occ+rs ,h!n on! s!ction o' a co((+nity ags b!hin# anoth!r in chang!. &inc! th! #ir!ction in ,hich a chang! occ+rs ,i n!c!ssari y b! con#ition!# by th!, status 5uo ante, th! n!, patt!rns, b!ing r!actions to th! o #, ,i b! syst!(atica y r! at!# to th! o #. As ong as ,! con'in! o+rs! "!s to th! t!r(s an# th!(!s o' this syst!(atic r! ationship, th!r!'or!, ,! ar! !ntit !# to !-p!ct r!g+ arity o' charact!r in th! in#i"i#+a s. 7+rth!r(or!, th! e.pectation and e.perience of c*ange (ay, in so(! cas!s, b! so i(portant as to b!co(! a co((on charact!rC

102

#!t!r(ining 'actor 10 sui generis, in th! sa(! sort o' ,ay that 9h!t!rog!n!ity9 (ay ha"! positi"! !''!cts. @ast y, ,! (ay consi#!r cas!s o' shi'ting nationa bo+n#ari!s, o+r 'i'th criticis(. E!r!, o' co+rs!, ,! cannot !-p!ct that a #ip o(atIs signat+r! on a tr!aty ,i i((!#iat! y (o#i'y th! charact!rs o' th! in#i"i#+a s ,hos! nationa a !gianc! is th!r!by chang!#. It (ay !"!n happ!n;'or !-a(p !, in cas!s ,h!r! a pr! it!rat! nati"! pop+ ation is bro+ght 'or th! 'irst ti(! in contact ,ith =+rop!ans;that, 'or so(! ti(! a't!r th! shi't, th! t,o parti!s to s+ch a sit+ation ,i b!ha"! in an !-p oratory or a (ost ran#o( (ann!r, !ach r!taining its o,n nor(s an# not y!t #!"! oping any sp!cia a#J+st(!nts to th! sit+ation o' contact. ?+ring this p!rio#, ,! sho+ # sti not !-p!ct any g!n!ra i/ations to app y to both gro+ps. G!ry soon, ho,!"!r, ,! *no, that !ach si#! #o!s #!"! op sp!cia patt!rns o' b!ha"ior to +s! in its contacts ,ith th! oth!r. 11 At this point, it b!co(!s (!aning'+ to as* ,hat syst!(atic t!r(s o' r! ationship ,i #!scrib! th! co((on charact!r o' th! t,o gro+psL an# 'ro( this point on, th! #!gr!! o' co((on charact!r str+ct+r! ,i incr!as! +nti th! t,o gro+ps b!co(! r! at!# to !ach oth!r J+st as t,o c ass!s or t,o s!-!s in a stab !, #i''!r!ntiat!# soci!ty.12 In s+(, to thos! ,ho arg+! that h+(an co((+niti!s sho, too gr!at int!rna #i''!r!ntiation or contain too gr!at a ran#o( ! !(!nt 'or any notion o' co((on charact!r to app y, o+r r!p y ,o+ # b! that ,! !-p!ct s+ch an approach to b! +s!'+ 2a3 pro"i#!# ,!
10 7or a #isc+ssion o' th! ro ! p ay!# by 9chang!9 an# 9h!t!rog!n!ity9 in (! tingCpot co((+niti!s, c'. A. A!a# 29=#+cati"! !''!cts o' socia !n"iron(!nt as #isc os!# by st+#i!s o' pri(iti"! soci!ti!s.9 $ap!r r!a# at th! &y(posi+( on =n"iron(!nt an# =#+cation, %ni"!rsity o' Chicago, &!pt!(b!r 22, 19413. A so 7. A !-an#!r 29=#+cati"! in' +!nc! o' p!rsona ity 'actors in th! !n"iron(!nt.9 $ap!r r!a# at th! &y(posi+( on =n"iron(!nt an# =#+cation, %ni"!rsity o' Chicago, &!pt!(b!r 22,19413. 11 In th! &o+th &!as, thos! sp!cia (o#!s o' b!ha"ior ,hich =+rop!ans a#opt to,ar# nati"! p!op !s, an# thos! oth!r (o#!s o' b!ha"ior ,hich th! nati"! a#opts to,ar# =+rop!ans, ar! "!ry ob"io+s. Apart 'ro( ana ys!s o' 9pi#gin9 ang+ag!s, ,! ha"!, ho,!"!r, no psycho ogica #ata on th!s! patt!rns. 7or a #!scription o' th! ana ogo+s patt!rns in )!groC,hit! r! ationships, c'. J. ?o ar# +"aste and "lass in a Sout*ern !oi&n, )!, Ea"!n, Fa ! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 19373, !sp!cia y Chapt!r UII, Acco((o#ation Attit+#!s o' )!gro!s. 12 C'. 1. 0at!son, 9C+ t+r! Contact an# &chis(og!n!sis,9 ,an, 1935, 86 199. 24!print!# in this "o +(!.3

103

#!scrib! co((on charact!r in t!r(s o' th! th!(!s o' r! ationship -et'een gro+ps an# in#i"i#+a s ,ithin th! co((+nity, an# 2b3 pro"i#!# that ,! a o, s+''ici!nt ti(! to ! aps! 'or th! co((+nity to r!ach so(! #!gr!! o' !.+i ibri+( or to acc!pt !ith!r chang! or h!t!rog!n!ity as a charact!ristic o' th!ir h+(an !n"iron(!nt. Differences Which We May Expect Between National ro!ps

:h! abo"! !-a(ination o' 9stra, (!n9 in th! cas! against 9nationa charact!r9 has "!ry string!nt y i(it!# th! scop! o' this conc!pt. 0+t th! conc +sions 'ro( this !-a(ination ar! by no (!ans si(p y n!gati"!. :o i(it th! scop! o' a conc!pt is a (ost synony(o+s ,ith #!'ining it. 8! ha"! a##!# on! "!ry i(portant too to o+r !.+ip(!nt ;th! t!chni.+! o' #!scribing th! co((on charact!r 2or th! 9high!st co((on 'actor9 o' charact!r3 o' in#i"i#+a s in a h+(an co((+nity in t!r(s o' bipo ar a#J!cti"!s. Inst!a# o' #!spairing in 'ac! o' th! 'act that nations ar! high y #i''!r!ntiat!#, ,! sha ta*! th! #i(!nsions o' that #i''!r!ntiation as o+r c +!s to th! nationa charact!r. )o ong!r cont!nt to say, 91!r(ans ar! s+b(issi"!,9 or 9=ng ish(!n ar! a oo',9 ,! sha +s! s+ch phras!s as 9#o(inantC s+b(issi"!9 ,h!n r! ationships o' this sort can b! sho,n to occ+r. &i(i ar y, ,! sha not r!'!r to 9th! paranoi#a ! !(!nt in 1!r(an charact!r,9 +n !ss ,! can sho, that by 9paranoi#a 9 ,! (!an so(! bipo ar charact!ristic o' 1!r(anC1!r(an or 1!r(anC'or!ign r! ationships. 8! sha not #!scrib! "ari!ti!s o' charact!r by #!'ining a gi"!n charact!r in t!r(s o' its position on a contin++( b!t,!!n !-tr!(! #o(inanc! an# !-tr!(! s+b(issi"!n!ss, b+t ,! sha , inst!a#, try to +s! 'or o+r #!scriptions so(! s+ch contin+a as 9#!gr!! o' int!r!st in, or ori!ntation to,ar#, #o(inanc!C s+b(ission.9 &o 'ar, ,! ha"! (!ntion!# on y a "!ry short ist o' bipo ar charact!ristics6 #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, s+ccoringC#!p!n#!nc!, an# !-hibitionis(Csp!ctatorship. 5n! criticis( ,i c!rtain y b! +pp!r(ost in th! r!a#!rIs (in#, that, in short, a thr!! o' th!s! charact!ristics ar! c !ar y pr!s!nt in a 8!stC!rn c+ t+r!s. 0!'or!

104

o+r (!tho# b!co(!s +s!'+ , th!r!'or!, ,! (+st try to !-pan# it to gi"! +s s+''ici!nt scop! an# #iscri(inatory po,!r to #i''!r!ntiat! on! 8!st!rn c+ t+r! 'ro( anoth!r. As this conc!pt+a 'ra(! #!"! ops, no #o+bt, (any '+rth!r !-pansions an# #iscri(inations ,i b! intro#+c!#. :h! pr!s!nt pap!r ,i #!a ,ith on y thr!! s+ch typ!s o' !-pansion.

Alternati"es to Bipolarity

8h!n ,! in"o*!# bipo arity as a (!ans o' han# ing #i''!rC !ntiation ,ithin soci!ty ,itho+t 'or!going so(! notion o' co((on charact!r str+ct+r!, ,! consi#!r!# on y th! possibi ity o' si(p ! bipo ar #i''!r!ntiation. C!rtain y this patt!rn is "!ry co((on in 8!st!rn c+ t+r!sL ta*!, 'or instanc!, 4!p+b icanC?!(ocrat, po itica 4ightC@!'t, s!- #i''!r!ntiation, 1o# an# th! #!"i , an# so on. :h!s! p!op !s !"!n try to i(pos! a binary patt!rn +pon ph!no(!na ,hich ar! not #+a in nat+r!;yo+th "!rs+s ag!, abor "!rs+s capita , (in# "!rs+s (att!r;an#, in g!n!ra , ac* th! organi/ationa #!"ic!s 'or han# ing triang+ ar syst!(sL th! inc!ption o' any 9thir#9 party is a ,ays r!gar#!#, 'or !-a(p !, as a thr!at to o+r po itica organi/ation. :his c !ar t!n#!ncy to,ar# #+a syst!(s o+ght not, ho,!"!r, to b in# +s to th! occ+rr!nc! o' oth!r patt!rns.13 :h!r! is, 'or !-a(p !, a "!ry int!r!sting t!n#!ncy in =ng ish co((+niti!s to,ar# th! 'or(ation o' t!rnary syst!(s, s+ch as par!ntsCn+rs!Cchi #, *ingC(inist!rsCp!op !, o''ic!rsC).C.5.IsC pri"at!s.14 8hi ! th! pr!cis! (oti's o' r! ationship in th!s! t!rnary
:h! 0a in!s! socia syst!( in th! (o+ntain co((+niti!s is a (ost !ntir! y #!"oi# o' s+ch #+a is(s. :h! !tho ogica #i''!r!ntiation o' th! s!-!s is rath!r s ightL po itica 'actions ar! co(p !t! y abs!nt. In th! p ains, th!r! is a #+a is( ,hich has r!s+ t!# 'ro( th! intr+si"! Ein#oo cast! syst!(, thos! ,ith cast! b!ing #iscri(iC nat!# 'ro( thos! ,itho+t cast!. At th! sy(bo ic !"! 2part y as a r!s+ t o' Ein#oo in' +!nc!3 #+a is(s ar! (+ch (or! 'r!.+!nt, ho,!"!r, than th!y ar! in th! socia str+ct+r! 2!.g., )orth!ast "s. &o+th,!st, 1o#s "s. #!(ons, sy(bo ic @!'t "s. 4ight, sy(bo ic Aa ! "s. 7!(a !, !tc.3. 14 A 'o+rth instanc! o' this thr!!'o # patt!rn occ+rs in so(! gr!at p+b ic schoo s 2as in Chart!rho+s!3, ,h!r! th! a+thority is #i"i#!# b!t,!!n th! .+i!t!r, (or!
13

105

syst!(s r!(ain to b! in"!stigat!#, it is i(portant to not! that th!s! syst!(s, to ,hich I r!'!r as 9t!rnary,9 ar! n!ith!r 9si(p ! hi!rarchi!s9 nor 9triang !s.9 0y a p+r! hi!rarchy, I sho+ # (!an a s!ria syst!( in ,hich 'ac!CtoC'ac! r! ations #o not occ+r b!t,!!n (!(b!rs ,h!n th!y ar! s!parat!# by so(! int!r"!ning (!(b!rL in oth!r ,or#s, syst!(s in ,hich th! on y co((+nication b!t,!!n A an# C pass!s thro+gh 0. 0y a triang ! I sho+ # (!an a thr!!'o # syst!( ,ith no s!ria prop!rti!s. :h! t!rnary syst!(, par!ntCn+rs!C chi #, on th! oth!r han#, is "!ry #i''!r!nt 'ro( !ith!r o' th!s! oth!r 'or(s. It contains s!ria ! !(!nts, b+t 'ac!CtoC'ac! contact #o!s occ+r b!t,!!n th! 'irst an# th! thir# (!(b!rs. =ss!ntia y, th! '+nction o' th! (i## ! (!(b!r is to instr+ct an# #iscip in! th! thir# (!(b!r in th! 'or(s o' b!ha"ior ,hich h! sho+ # a#opt in his contacts ,ith th! 'irst. :h! n+rs! t!ach!s th! chi # ho, to b!ha"! to,ar# its par!nts, J+st as th! ).C.5. t!ach!s an# #iscip in!s th! pri"at! in ho, h! sho+ # b!ha"! to,ar# o''ic!rs. In psychoana ytic t!r(ino ogy, th! proc!ss o' introJ!ction is #on! indirectly, not by #ir!ct i(pact o' th! par!nta p!rsona ity +pon th! chi #. 15 :h! 'ac!C toC'ac! contacts b!t,!!n th! 'irst an# thir# (!(b!rs ar!, ho,!"!r, "!ry i(portant. 8! (ay r!'!r, in this conn!ction, to th! "ita #ai y rit+a in th! 0ritish Ar(y, in ,hich th! o''ic!r o' th! #ay as*s th! ass!(b !# pri"at!s an# ).C.5.Is ,h!th!r th!r! ar! any co(p aints. C!rtain y, any '+ #isc+ssion o' =ng ish charact!r o+ght to a o, 'or t!rnary, as ,! as bipo ar patt!rns. Sy##etrical Motifs

&o 'ar, ,! ha"! consi#!r!# on y ,hat ,! ha"! ca !# 9co(C p !(!ntary9 patt!rns o' r! ationship, in ,hich th! b!ha"ior patt!rns at on! !n# o' th! r! ationship ar! #i''!r!nt 'ro(, b+t 'it in ,ith, th! b!ha"ior patt!rns at th! oth!r !n# 2#o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, !tc.3.
po ish!#, int! !ct+a !a#!rs 29(onitors93 an# th! ro+gh!r, o+#!r, ath !tic !a#!rs 2captain o' 'ootba , h!a# o' ong roo(, !tc.3, ,ho ha"! th! #+ty o' s!!ing to it that th! 9'ags9 r+n ,h!n th! (onitor ca s. 15 7or a g!n!ra #isc+ssion o' c+ t+ra "ariants o' th! 5!#ip+s sit+ation an# th! r! at!# syst!(s o' c+ t+ra sanctions, c'. A. A!a# 29&ocia chang! an# c+ t+ra

106

:h!r! !-ists, ho,!"!r, a ,ho ! cat!gory o' h+(an int!rp!rsona b!ha"ior ,hich #o!s not con'or( to this #!scription. In a##ition to th! contrasting co(p !(!ntary patt!rns, ,! ha"! to r!cogni/! th! !-ist!nc! o' a s!ri!s o' symmetrical patt!rns, in ,hich p!op ! r!spon# to ,hat oth!rs ar! #oing by th!(s! "!s #oing so(!thing si(i ar. In partic+ ar, ,! ha"! to consi#!r thos! co(p!titi"!16 patC t!rns in ,hich in#i"i#+a or gro+p A is sti(+ at!# to more o' any typ! o' b!ha"ior by p!rc!i"ing (or! o' that sa(! typ! o' b!ha"ior 2or gr!at!r s+cc!ss in that typ! o' b!ha"ior3 in in#i"i#+a or gro+p 0. :h!r! is a "!ry pro'o+n# contrast b!t,!!n s+ch co(p!titi"! syst!(s o' b!ha"ior an# co(p !(!ntary #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission syst!(s;a high y signi'icant contrast 'or any #isc+ssion o' nationa charact!r. In co(p !(!ntary stri"ing, th! sti(+ +s ,hich pro(pts A to gr!at!r !''orts is th! r! ati"! 'ea3ness in 0L i' ,! ,ant to (a*! A s+bsi#! or s+b(it, ,! o+ght to sho, hi( that 0 is strong!r than h! is. In 'act, th! co(p !(!ntary charact!r str+ct+r! (ay b! s+((ari/!# by th! phras! 9b+ yCco,ar#,9 i(p ying th! co(bination o' th!s! charact!ristics in th! p!rsona ity. :h! sy((!trica co(p!titi"! syst!(s, on th! oth!r han#, ar! an a (ost pr!cis! '+nctiona opposit! o' th! co(p !(!ntary. E!r! th! sti(+ +s ,hich !"o*!s gr!at!r stri"ing in A is th! "ision o' gr!at!r strengt* or gr!at!r stri"ing in 0L an#, in"!rs! y, i' ,! #!(onstrat! to A that 0 is r!a y ,!a*, A ,i r! a- his !''orts. It is probab ! that th!s! t,o contrasting patt!rns ar! a i*! a"ai ab ! as pot!ntia iti!s in a h+(an b!ingsL b+t c !ar y, any in#i"i#+a ,ho b!ha"!s in both ,ays at onc! ,i ris* int!rna con'+sion an# con' ict. In th! "ario+s nationa gro+ps, cons!.+!nt y, #i''!r!nt (!tho#s o' r!so "ing this #iscr!pancy ha"! #!"! op!#. In =ng an# an# in A(!rica, ,h!r! chi #r!n an# a#+ ts ar! s+bJ!ct!# to an a (ost contin+o+s barrag! o' #isappro"a ,h!n!"!r th!y !-hibit th! co(p !(!ntary patt!rns, th!y in!"itab y co(! to acc!pt th!
:h! t!r( 9coop!ration,9 ,hich is so(!ti(!s +s!# as th! opposit! o' 9co(p!tition,9 co"!rs a "!ry ,i#! "ari!ty o' patt!rns, so(! o' th!( sy((!trica an# oth!rs co(p !(!ntary, so(! bipo ar an# oth!rs in ,hich th! coop!rating in#i"i#+a s ar! chi!' y ori!nt!# to so(! p!rsona or i(p!rsona goa . 8! (ay !-p!ct that so(! car!'+ ana ysis o' th!s! patt!rns ,i gi"! +s "ocab+ ary 'or #!scribing oth!r sorts o' nationa charact!ristics. &+ch an ana ysis cannot b! att!(pt!# in this pap!r.
16

107

!thics o' 9'air p ay.9 4!spon#ing to th! cha !ng! o' #i''ic+ ti!s, th!y cannot, ,itho+t g+i t, *ic* th! +n#!r#og.17 7or 0ritish (ora ! ?+n*ir* ,as a sti(+ +s, not a #!pr!ssant. In 1!r(any, on th! oth!r han#, th! sa(! c ich!s ar! appar!nt y ac*ing, an# th! co((+nity is chi!' y organi/!# on th! basis o' a co(p !(!ntary hi!rarchy in t!r(s o' #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission. :h! #o(inanc! b!ha"ior is sharp y an# c !ar y #!"! op!#L y!t th! pict+r! is not p!r'!ct y c !ar an# n!!#s '+rth!r in"!stigation. 8h!th!r a p+r! #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission hi!rarchy co+ # !"!r !-ist as a stab ! syst!( is #o+bt'+ . It s!!(s that in th! cas! o' 1!r(any, th! s+b(ission !n# o' th! patt!rn is (as*!#, so that o"!rt s+b(issi"! b!ha"ior is a (ost as strong y taboo!# as it is in A(!rica or =ng an#. In p ac! o' s+b(ission, ,! 'in# a sort o' para#!Cgro+n# i(passi"ity. A hint as to th! proc!ss by ,hich th! s+b(issi"! ro ! is (o#i'i!# an# r!n#!r!# to !rab ! co(!s to +s o+t o' th! int!rC"i!,s in a r!c!nt y b!g+n st+#y o' 1!r(an i'! histori!s. 18 5n! 1!r(an s+bJ!ct #!scrib!# ho, #i''!r!nt ,as th! tr!at(!nt ,hich h!, as a boy, r!c!i"!# in his &o+th 1!r(an ho(!, 'ro( that ,hich his sist!r r!c!i"!#. E! sai# that (+ch (or! ,as #!(an#!# o' hi(L that his sist!r ,as a o,!# to !"a#! #iscip in!L that ,h!r!as h! ,as a ,ays !-p!ct!# to c ic* his h!! s an# ob!y ,ith pr!cision, his sist!r ,as a o,!# (+ch (or! 'r!!#o(. :h! int!r"i!,!r at onc! b!gan to oo* 'or int!rs!- sib ing J!a o+sy, b+t th! s+bJ!ct #!c ar!# that it ,as a gr!at!r honor 'or th! boy to ob!y. 95n! #o!snIt !-p!ct too (+ch o' gir s,9 h! sai#. 98hat on! '! t th!y 2boys3 sho+ # acco(p ish an# #o ,as "!ry s!rio+s, b!ca+s! th!y ha# to b! pr!par!# 'or i'!.9 An int!r!sting in"!rsion o' no-lesse o-lige.

17 io It is, ho,!"!r, possib ! that in c!rtain s!ctions o' th!s! nations, co(p !(!ntary patt!rns occ+r ,ith so(! 'r!.+!ncy;partic+ ar y a(ong gro+ps ,ho ha"! s+''!r!# 'ro( pro ong!# ins!c+rity an# +nc!rtainty, !.g., racia (inoriti!s, #!pr!ss!# ar!as, th! stoc* !-chang!, po itica circ !s, !tc. 18

1. 0at!son, +np+b ish!# r!s!arch 'or th! Co+nci on E+(an 4! ations.

108

Co#$inations of Motifs

A(ong th! co(p !(!ntary (oti's, ,! ha"! (!ntion!# on y thr!!;#o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, !-hibitionis(Csp!ctatorship, an# s+ccoranc!C#!p!n#!nc!;b+t th!s! thr!! ,i s+''ic! to i +strat! th! sort o' "!ri'iab ! hypoth!s!s at ,hich ,! can arri"! by #!scribing nationa charact!r in this hyph!nat!# t!r(ino ogy.19 &inc!, c !ar y, a thr!! o' th!s! (oti's occ+r in a 8!st!rn c+ t+r!s, th! possibi iti!s 'or int!rnationa #i''!r!nc! ar! i(it!# to th! proportions an# ,ays in ,hich th! (oti's ar! co(bin!#. :h! proportions ar! i*! y to b! "!ry #i''ic+ t to #!t!ct, !-c!pt ,h!r! th! #i''!r!nc!s ar! "!ry arg!. 8! (ay b! s+r! o+rs! "!s that 1!r(ans ar! (or! ori!nt!# to,ar# #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission than ar! A(!ricans, b+t to #!(onstrat! this c!rtainty is i*! y to b! #i''ic+ t. :o !sti(at! #i''!r!nc!s in th! #!gr!! o' #!"! op(!nt o' !-hibitionis(sp!ctatorship or s+ccoranc!C#!p!n#!nc! in th! "ario+s nations ,i , in#!!#, probab y b! .+it! i(possib !. I', ho,!"!r, ,! consi#!r th! possib ! ,ays in ,hich th!s! (oti's (ay b! co(bin!# tog!th!r, ,! 'in# sharp .+a itati"! #i''!r!nc!s ,hich ar! s+sc!ptib ! o' !asy "!ri'ication. @!t +s ass+(! that a thr!! o' th!s! (oti's ar! #!"! op!# in a r! ationships in a 8!st!rn c+ t+r!s, an# 'ro( this ass+(ption go on to consi#!r '*ic* indi&idual plays '*ic* role. It is ogica y possib ! that in on! c+ t+ra !n"iron(!nt A ,i b! #o(inant an# !-hibitionist, ,hi ! 0 is s+b(issi"! an# sp!ctatorL ,hi ! in anoth!r c+ t+r! U (ay b! #o(inant an# sp!ctator, ,hi ! F is s+b(issi"! an# !-hibitionist. =-a(p !s o' this sort o' contrast rath!r !asi y co(! to (in#. :h+s ,! (ay not! that ,h!r!as th! #o(inant )a/is pr!!n th!(s! "!s b!'or! th! p!op !, th! c/ar o' 4+ssia *!pt his pri"at! ba !t, an# &ta in !(!rg!s 'ro( s!c +sion on y to r!"i!, his troops. 8! (ight p!rhaps pr!s!nt th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! )a/i $arty an# th! p!op ! th+s6
19 97or a '+ !r st+#y, ,! o+ght to consi#!r s+ch oth!r (oti's as aggr!ssionC passi"ity, poss!ssi"!Cposs!ss!#, ag!ntCtoo , !tc. An# a o' th!s! (oti's ,i r!.+ir! so(!,hat (or! critica #!'inition than can b! att!(pt!# in this pap!r.

109

%arty ?o(inanc! =-hibitionis(

%eople &+b(ission &p!ctatorship

8hi ! th! c/ar an# his ba !t ,o+ # b! r!pr!s!nt!#6


":ar <allet

?o(inanc! &p!ctatorship

&+b(ission =-hibitionis(

&inc! th!s! =+rop!an !-a(p !s ar! co(parati"! y +npro"!#, it is ,orth,hi ! at this point to #!(onstrat! th! occ+rr!nc! o' s+ch #i''!r!nc!s by #!scribing a rath!r stri*ing !thnographic #i''!r!nc! ,hich has b!!n #oc+(!nt!# (or! '+ y. In =+rop!, ,h!r! ,! t!n# to associat! s+ccoring b!ha"ior ,ith socia s+p!riority, ,! constr+ct o+r par!nt sy(bo s accor#ing y. 5+r 1o#, or o+r *ing, is th! 9'ath!r9 o' his p!op !. In 0a i, on th! oth!r han#, th! go#s ar! th! 9chi #r!n9 o' th! p!op !, an# ,h!n a go# sp!a*s thro+gh th! (o+th o' a p!rson in tranc!, h! a##r!ss!s anyon! ,ho ,i ist!n as 9'ath!r.9 &i(i ar y, th! raJah is sa=anganga 29spoi t9 i*! a chi #3 by his p!op !. :h! 0a in!s!, '+rth!r, ar! "!ry 'on# o' p+tting chi #r!n in th! co(bin!# ro !s o' go# an# #anc!rL in (ytho ogy, th! p!r'!ct princ! is po ish!# an# narcissistic. :h+s th! 0a in!s! patt!rn (ight b! s+((ari/!# th+s6
High Status Low Status

?!p!n#!nc! =-hibitionis(

&+ccoring &p!ctatorship

An# this #iagra( ,o+ # i(p y, not on y that th! 0a in!s! '!! #!p!n#!nc! an# !-hibitionis( an# s+p!rior stat+s to go nat+ra y tog!th!r, b+t a so that a 0a in!s! ,i not r!a#i y co(bin! s+ccoring ,ith !-hibitionis( 2that is, 0a i co(p !t! y ac*s th! ost!ntatio+s gi'tCgi"ing charact!ristic o' (any pri(iti"! p!op !s3 or ,i b! !(barrass!# i' 'orc!# by th! cont!-t to att!(pt s+ch a co(bination.

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A tho+gh th! ana ogo+s #iagra(s 'or o+r 8!st!rn c+ t+r!s cannot b! #ra,n ,ith th! sa(! c!rtainty, it is ,orth,hi ! to att!(pt th!( 'or th! par!ntCchi # r! ationships in =ng ish, A(!rican, an# 1!r(an c+ t+r!s. 5n! !-tra co(p ication (+st, ho,!"!r, b! 'ac!#L ,h!n ,! oo* at par!ntCchi # r! ationships inst!a# o' at r! ationships b!t,!!n princ!s an# p!op !, ,! ha"! to (a*! sp!ci'ic a o,anc! 'or th! chang!s in th! patt!rn ,hich occ+r as th! chi # gro,s o #!r. &+cC coranc!C#!p!n#!nc! is +n#o+bt!# y a #o(inant (oti' in !ar y chi #hoo#, b+t "ario+s (!chanis(s at!r (o#i'y this !-tr!(! #!p!n#!nc!, to bring abo+t so(! #!gr!! o' psycho ogica inC #!p!n#!nc!. :h! =ng ish +pp!rC an# (i## !Cc ass syst!( ,o+ # b! r!pC r!s!nt!# #iagra((atica y th+s6 6arents ?o(inanc! "*ildren

&+b(ission 2(o#i'i!# by 9t!rnary9 n+rs! syst!(3 &+ccoring ?!p!n#!nc! 2#!p!n#!nc! habits bro*!n by s!paration ;chi #r!n s!nt to schoo 3 =-hibitionis( &p!ctatorship 2chi #r!n ist!n si !nt y at (!a s3

In contrast ,ith this, th! ana ogo+s A(!rican patt!rn s!!(s to b!6 6arents ?o(inanc! 2s ight3 &+ccoring &p!ctatorship "*ildren &+b(ission 2s ight3 ?!p!n#!nc! =-hibitionis(

An# this patt!rn #i''!rs 'ro( th! =ng ish not on y in th! r!"!rsa o' th! sp!ctatorshipC!-hibitionis( ro !s, b+t a so in th! cont!nt o' ,hat is !-hibit!#. :h! A(!rican chi # is !nco+rag!# by his par!nts to sho, o'' his in#!p!n#!nc!. %s+a y th! proc!ss o' psycho ogica ,!aning is not acco(p ish!# by s!n#ing th! chi # a,ay to a

111

boar#ing schoo L inst!a#, th! chi #Is !-hibitionis( is p ay!# o'' against his in#!p!n#!nc!, +nti th! att!r is n!+tra i/!#. @at!r, 'ro( this b!ginning in th! !-hibition o' in#!p!n#!nc!, th! in#i"i#+a (ay so(!ti(!s go on in a#+ t i'! to sho, o'' s+ccoranc!, his ,i'! an# 'a(i y b!co(ing in so(! #!gr!! his 9!-hibits.9 :ho+gh th! ana ogo+s 1!r(an patt!rn probab y r!s!(b !s th! A(!rican in th! arrang!(!nt o' th! pair!# co(p !(!ntary ro !s, c!rtain y it #i''!rs 'ro( th! A(!rican in that th! 'ath!rIs #o(inanc! is (+ch strong!r an# (+ch (or! consist!nt, an# !sp!cia y in that th! cont!nt o' th! boyIs !-hibitionis( is .+it! #i''!r!nt. E! is, in 'act, #o(inat!# into a sort o' h!! Cc ic*ing !-hibitionis( ,hich ta*!s th! p ac! o' o"!rt s+b(issi"! b!ha"ior. :h+s, ,hi ! in th! A(!rican charact!r !-hibitionis( is !nco+rag!# by th! par!nt as a (!tho# o' psycho ogica ,!aning, both its '+nction an# its cont!nt ar! 'or th! 1!r(an !ntir! y #i''!r!nt. ?i''!r!nc!s o' this or#!r, ,hich (ay b! !-p!ct!# in a =+rop!an nations, ar! probab y th! basis o' (any o' o+r nai"! an# o't!n +n*in# int!rnationa co((!nts. :h!y (ay, in#!!#, b! o' consi#!rab ! i(portanc! in th! (!chanics o' int!rnationa r! ations, in as (+ch as an +n#!rstan#ing o' th!( (ight #isp! so(! o' o+r (is+n#!rstan#ings. :o an A(!rican !y!, th! =ng ish too o't!n app!ar 9arrogant,9 ,h!r!as to an =ng ish !y! th! A(!rican app!ars to b! 9boast'+ .9 I' ,! co+ # sho, pr!cis! y ho, (+ch o' tr+th an# ho, (+ch o' #istortion is pr!s!nt in th!s! i(pr!ssions, it (ight b! a r!a contrib+tion to int!ra i!# coop!ration. In t!r(s o' th! #iagra(s abo"!, th! 9arroganc!9 o' th! =ng ish(an ,o+ # b! #+! to th! co(bination o' #o(inanc! an# !-hibitionis(. :h! =ng ish(an in a p!r'or(ing ro ! 2th! par!nt at br!a*'ast, th! n!,spap!r !#itor, th! po itica spo*!s(an, th! !ct+r!r, or ,hat not3 ass+(!s that h! is a so in a #o(inant ro !; that h! can #!ci#! in accor#anc! ,ith "ag+!, abstract stan#ar#s ,hat sort o' p!r'or(anc! to gi"! ;an# th! a+#i!nc! can 9ta*! it or !a"! it.9 Eis o,n arroganc! h! s!!s !ith!r as 9nat+ra 9 or as (itigat!# by his h+(i ity in 'ac! o' th! abstract stan#ar#s. V+it! +na,ar! that his b!ha"ior co+ # conc!i"ab y b! r!gar#!# as a co((!nt +pon his a+#i!nc!, h! is, on th! contrary, a,ar! on y o' b!Cha"ing in th! p!r'or(!rIs ro !, as h! +n#!rstan#s that ro !. 0+t th! A(!rican #o!s not s!! it th+s. :o hi(, th! 9arrogant9 b!ha"ior o' th!

112

=ng ish(an app!ars to b! #ir!ct!# against th! a+#i!nc!, in ,hich cas! th! i(p icit in"ocation o' so(! abstract stan#ar# app!ars on y to a## ins+ t to inJ+ry. &i(i ar y, th! b!ha"ior ,hich an =ng ish(an int!rpr!ts as 9boast'+ 9 in an A(!rican is not aggr!ssi"!, a tho+gh th! =ng ish(an (ay '!! that h! is b!ing s+bJ!ct!# to so(! sort o' in"i#io+s co(parison. E! #o!s not *no, that, as a (att!r o' 'act, A(!ricans ,i on y b!ha"! i*! this to p!op ! ,ho( th!y rath!r i*! an# r!sp!ct. Accor#ing to th! hypoth!sis abo"!, th! 9boasting9 patt!rn r!s+ ts 'ro( th! c+rio+s in*ag! ,h!r!by !-hibition o' s! 'C s+''ici!ncy an# in#!p!n#!nc! is p ay!# o'' against o"!r#!p!n#!nc!. :h! A(!rican, ,h!n h! boasts, is oo*ing 'or appro"a o' his +pstan#ing in#!p!n#!nc!L b+t th! nai"! =ng ish(an int!rpr!ts this b!ha"ior as a bi# 'or so(! sort o' #o(inanc! or s+p!riority. In this sort o' ,ay, ,! (ay s+ppos! that th! ,ho ! ' a"or o' on! nationa c+ t+r! (ay #i''!r 'ro( that o' anoth!r, an# that s+ch #i''!r!nc!s (ay b! consi#!rab ! !no+gh to !a# to s!rio+s (is+n#!rstan#ings. It is probab !, ho,!"!r, that th!s! #i''!r!nc!s ar! not so co(p !- in th!ir nat+r! as to b! b!yon# th! r!ach o' in"!stigation. Eypoth!s!s o' th! typ! ,hich ,! ha"! a#"anc!# co+ # b! !asi y t!st!#, an# r!s!arch on th!s! in!s is +rg!nt y n!!#!#. National Character and A#erican Morale

%sing th! (oti's o' int!rp!rsona an# int!rgro+p r! ationCship as o+r c +!s to nationa charact!r, ,! ha"! b!!n ab ! to in#icat! c!rtain or#!rs o' r!g+ ar #i''!r!nc! ,hich ,! (ay !-p!ct to 'in# a(ong th! p!op !s ,ho shar! o+r 8!st!rn ci"i i/ation. 5' n!c!ssity, o+r stat!(!nts ha"! b!!n th!or!tica rath!r than !(pirica L sti , 'ro( th! th!or!tica str+ct+r! ,hich ,! ha"! b+i t +p, it is possib ! to !-tract c!rtain 'or(+ as ,hich (ay b! +s!'+ to th! b+i #!r o' (ora !. A o' th!s! 'or(+ as ar! bas!# +pon th! g!n!ra ass+(ption that p!op ! ,i r!spon# (ost !n!rg!tica y ,h!n th! cont!-t is str+ct+r!# to app!a to th!ir habit+a patt!rns o' r!action. It is not

113

s!nsib ! to !nco+rag! a #on*!y to go +p hi by o''!ring hi( ra, (!at, nor ,i a ion r!spon# to grass. 213 &innc! a 8!st!rn nations t!n# to thin* an# b!ha"! in bipo ar t!r(s, ,! sha #o ,! , in b+i #ing A(!rican (ora !, to thin* o' o+r "ario+s !n!(i!s as a sing ! hosti ! !ntity. :h! #istinctions an# gra#ations ,hich int! !ct+a s (ight pr!'!r ar! i*! y to b! #ist+rbing. 223 &inc! both A(!ricans an# =ng ish r!spon# (ost !n!rC g!tica y to sy((!trica sti(+ i, ,! sha b! "!ry +n,is! i' ,! so'tCp!#a th! #isast!rs o' ,ar. I' o+r !n!(i!s #!'!at +s at any point, that 'act o+ght to b! +s!# to th! (a-i(+( as a cha !ng! an# a sp+r to '+rth!r !''ort. 8h!n o+r 'orc!s ha"! s+''!r!# so(! r!"!rs!, o+r n!,spap!rs o+ght to b! in no h+rry to t! +s that 9!n!(y a#"anc!s ha"! b!!n ch!c*!#.9 Ai itary progr!ss is a ,ays int!r(itt!nt, an# th! (o(!nt to stri*!, th! (o(!nt ,h!n (a-i(+( (ora ! is n!!#!#, occ+rs ,h!n th! !n!(y is so i#i'ying his position an# pr!paring th! n!-t b o,. At s+ch a (o(!nt, it is not s!nsib ! to r!#+c! th! aggr!ssi"! !n!rgy o' o+r !a#!rs an# p!op ! by s(+g r!Cass+ranc!. 233 :h!r! is, ho,!"!r, a s+p!r'icia #iscr!pancy b!t,!!n th! habit o' sy((!trica (oti"ation an# th! n!!# 'or sho,ing s! 'C s+''ici!ncy. 8! ha"! s+gg!st!# that th! A(!rican boy !arns to stan# +pon his o,n '!!t thro+gh thos! occasions in chi #hoo# ,h!n his par!nts ar! appro"ing sp!ctators o' his s! 'Cs+''ici!ncy. I' this #iagnosis is corr!ct, it ,o+ # 'o o, that a c!rtain b+bb ing +p o' s! 'Cappr!ciation is nor(a an# h!a thy in A(!ricans an# is p!rhaps an !ss!ntia ingr!#i!nt o' A(!rican in#!p!n#!nc! an# str!ngth. A too it!ra 'o o,ing o' th! 'or(+ a abo"!, th!r!'or!, a too gr!at insist!nc! +pon #isast!rs an# #i''ic+ ti!s, (ight !a# to so(! oss o' !n!rgy thro+gh th! #a((ing +p o' this spontan!o+s !-+b!ranc!. A rath!r conc!ntrat!# #i!t o' 9b oo#, s,!at, an# t!ars9 (ay b! goo# 'or th! =ng ishL b+t A(!ricans, ,hi ! no !ss #!p!n#!nt +pon sy((!trica (oti"ation, cannot '!! th!ir oats ,h!n '!# on nothing b+t #isast!r. 5+r p+b ic spo*!s(!n an# n!,spap!r !#itors sho+ # n!"!r so'tp!#a th! 'act that ,! ha"! a (anCsi/!# Job on o+r han#s, b+t th!y ,i #o ,! to insist a so that A(!rica is a (anCsi/!# nation. Any sort o' att!(pt to r!ass+r! A(!ricans by

114

(ini(i/ing th! str!ngth o' th! !n!(y (+st b! a"oi#!#, b+t 'ran* boasts o' r!a s+cc!ss ar! goo#. 243 0!ca+s! o+r "ision o' th! p!ac! is a 'actor in o+r ,arC(a*ing (ora !, it is ,orth,hi ! to as* at onc! ,hat ight th! st+#y o' nationa #i''!r!nc!s (ay thro, +pon th! prob !(s o' th! p!ac! tab !. 8! ha"! to #!"is! a p!ac! tr!aty +a4 s+ch that A(!ricans an# 0ritish ,i 'ight to achi!"! it, an# 2b3 s+ch that it ,i bring o+t th! b!st rath!r than th! ,orst charact!ristics o' o+r !n!(i!s. I' ,! approach it sci!nti'ica y, s+ch a prob !( is by no (!ans b!yon# o+r s*i . :h! (ost conspic+o+s psycho ogica h+r# ! to b! n!gotiat!#, in i(agining s+ch a p!ac! tr!aty, is th! contrast b!t,!!n 0ritish an# A(!rican sy((!trica patt!rns an# th! 1!r(an co(p !(!ntary patt!rn, ,ith its taboo on o"!rt s+bC(issi"! b!ha"ior. :h! a i!# nations ar! not psycho ogica y !.+ipp!# to !n'orc! a harsh tr!atyL th!y (ight #ra, +p s+ch a tr!aty, b+t in si- (onths th!y ,o+ # tir! o' *!!ping th! +n#!r#og #o,n. :h! 1!r(ans, on th! oth!r han#, i' th!y s!! th!ir ro ! as 9s+b(issi"!,9 ,i not stay #o,n ,itho+t harsh tr!at(!nt. 8! ha"! s!!n that th!s! consi#!rations app i!# !"!n to s+ch a (i # y p+niti"! tr!aty as ,as #!"is!# at G!rsai !sL th! a i!s o(itt!# to !n'orc! it, an# th! 1!r(ans r!'+s!# to acc!pt it. It is, th!r!'or!, +s! !ss to #r!a( o' s+ch a tr!aty, an# ,ors! than +s! !ss to r!p!at s+ch #r!a(s as a ,ay o' raising o+r (ora ! no,, ,h!n ,! ar! angry ,ith 1!r(any. :o #o that ,o+ # on y obsc+r! th! iss+!s in th! 'ina s!tt !(!nt. :his inco(patibi ity b!t,!!n co(p !(!ntary an# sy((!trica (oti"ation (!ans, in 'act, that th! tr!aty cannot b! organi/!# aro+n# si(p ! #o(inanc!Cs+b(issi"! (oti'sL h!nc! ,! ar! 'orc!# to oo* 'or a t!rnati"! so +tions. 8! (+st !-Ca(in!, 'or !-a(p !, th! (oti' o' !-hibitionis(Csp!ctatorship ;,hat #igni'i!# ro ! is !ach o' th! "ario+s nations b!st 'itt!# to p ayD;an# that o' s+ccoringC #!p!n#!nc!;in th! star"ing post,ar ,or #, ,hat (oti"ationa patt!rns sha ,! !"o*! b!t,!!n thos! ,ho gi"! an# thos! ,ho r!c!i"! 'oo#D An#, a t!rnati"! to th!s! so +tions, ,! ha"! th! possibi ity o' so(! thr!!'o # str+ct+r!, ,ithin ,hich both th! a i!s an# 1!r(any ,o+ # s+b(it, not to !ach oth!r, b+t to so(! abstract princip !.

115

*ali: The 4alue +y!te( o5 a +tea#y +tate*

"Ethos" and "Schis#o&enesis"

It ,o+ # b! an o"!rsi(p i'ication;it ,o+ # !"!n b! 'a s! ;to say that sci!nc! n!c!ssari y a#"anc!s by th! constr+ction an# !(pirica t!sting o' s+cc!ssi"! ,or*ing hypoth!s!s. A(ong th! physicists an# ch!(ists th!r! (ay b! so(! ,ho r!a y proc!!# in this oithoc o- (ann!r, b+t a(ong th! socia sci!ntists th!r! is p!rhaps not on!. 5+r conc!pts ar! oos! y #!'in!#;a ha/! o' chiarosc+ro pr!'ig+ring sharp!r in!s sti +n#ra,n;an# o+r hypoth!s!s ar! sti so "ag+! that rar! y can ,! i(agin! any cr+cia instanc! ,hos! in"!stigation ,i t!st th!(. :h! pr!s!nt pap!r is an att!(pt to (a*! (or! pr!cis! an i#!a ,hich I p+b ish!# in 193620 an# ,hich has ain 'a o, sinc! that ti(!. :h! notion o' et*os ha# pro"!# a +s!'+ conc!pt+a too 'or (!, an# ,ith it I ha# b!!n ab ! to g!t a sharp!r +n#!rstan#ing o' Iat(+ c+ t+r!. 0+t this !-p!ri!nc! by no (!ans pro"!# that this too ,o+ # n!c!ssari y b! +s!'+ in oth!r han#s or 'or th! ana ysis o' oth!r c+ t+r!s. :h! (ost g!n!ra conc +sion I co+ # #ra, ,as o' this or#!r6 that (y o,n (!nta proc!ss!s ha# c!rtain charact!risticsL that th! sayings, actions, an# organi/ation o' th! Iat(+ ha# c!rtain charact!risticsL an# that th! abstraction, 9!thos,9 p!r'or(!# so(! ro !;cata ytic, p!rhaps;in !asing th! r! ation b!t,!!n th!s! t,o sp!ci'iciti!s, (y (in# an# th! #ata ,hich I (ys! ' ha# co !ct!#. I((!#iat! y a't!r co(p !ting th! (an+script o' ;a&en, I ,!nt to 0a i ,ith th! int!ntion o' trying +pon 0a in!s! #ata this too ,hich ha# b!!n !"o "!# 'or th! ana ysis o' Iat(+ . 7or on! r!ason or anoth!r, ho,!"!r, I #i# not #o this, part y b!ca+s! in 0a i Aargar!t
H :his !ssay app!ar!# in Social Structure# Studies 6resented to A. $. $adcliffe% <ro'n, !#it!# by A!y!r 7ort!s, 1949. It is r!print!# by p!r(ission o' th! C ar!n#on $r!ss. $r!paration o' th! !ssay ,as ai#!# by a 1+gg!nh!i( 7! o,ship. 20 1. 0at!son, ;a&en, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1936.

116

A!a# an# I ,!r! !ngag!# in #!"ising oth!r too s;photographic (!tho#s o' r!cor# an# #!scription;an# part y b!ca+s! I ,as !arning th! t!chni.+!s o' app ying g!n!tic psycho ogy to c+ t+ra #ata, b+t (or! !sp!cia y b!ca+s! at so(! inartic+ at! !"! I '! t that th! too ,as +ns+itab ! 'or this n!, tas*. It ,as not that !thos ,as in any s!ns! #ispro"!#;in#!!#, a too or a (!tho# can scarc! y b! pro"!# 'a s!. It can on y b! sho,n to b! not +s!'+ , an# in this cas! th!r! ,as not !"!n a c !ar #!(onstration o' +s! !ssn!ss. :h! (!tho# r!(ain!# a (ost +ntri!#, an# th! (ost I co+ # say ,as that, a't!r that s+rr!n#!r to th! #ata ,hich is th! 'irst st!p in a anthropo ogica st+#y, !tho ogica ana ysis #i# not s!!( to b! th! n!-t thing to #o. It is no, possib ! to sho, ,ith 0a in!s! #ata ,hat p!c+ iariti!s o' that c+ t+r! (ay ha"! in' +!nc!# (! a,ay 'ro( !tho ogica ana ysis, an# this #!(onstration ,i !a# to a gr!at!r g!n!ra i/ation o' th! abstractionL !thos. 8! sha in th! proc!ss (a*! c!rtain h!+ristic a#"anc!s ,hich (ay g+i#! +s to (or! rigoro+s #!scripti"! proc!#+r!s in #!a ing ,ith oth!r c+ t+r!s. 213 :h! ana ysis o' Iat(+ #ata !# to th! #!'inition o' !thos as 9:h! !-pr!ssion o' a c+ t+ra y stan#ar#i/!# syst!( o' organi/ation o' th! instincts an# !(otions o' th! in#i"i#+a s.9>1 223 Ana ysis o' Iat(+ !thos;consisting in th! or#!ring o' #ata so as to (a*! !"i#!nt c!rtain r!c+rr!nt 9!(phas!s9 or 9th!(!s9; !# to r!cognition o' schis(og!n!sis. It app!ar!# that th! ,or*ing o' at(+ soci!ty in"o "!# inter alia t,o c ass!s o' r!g!n!rati"!22 or 9"icio+s9 circ !s. 0oth o' th!s! ,!r! s!.+!nc!s o' socia int!raction
)a"!n, p. 118. :h! t!r(s 9r!g!n!rati"!9 an# 9#!g!n!rati"!9 ar! borro,!# 'ro( co((+niC cations !ngin!!ring. A r!g!n!rati"! or 9"icio+s9 circ ! is a chain o' "ariab !s o' th! g!n!ra typ!6 incr!as! in A ca+s!s incr!as! in 0L incr!as! in 0 ca+s!s incr!as! in CL .. incr!as! in ) ca+s!s incr!as! in A. &+ch a syst!(, i' pro"i#!# ,ith th! n!c!ssary !n!rgy so+rc!s an# i' !-t!rna 'actors p!r(it, ,i c !ar y op!rat! at a gr!at!r an# gr!at!r rat! or int!nsity. A 9#!g!n!rati"!9 or 9s! 'Ccorr!cti"!9 circ ! #i''!rs from a r!C g!n!rati"! circ ! in containing at !ast on! in* o' th! typ!6 9incr!as! in ) ca+s!s decrease in A.9 :h! ho+s! th!r(ostat or th! st!a( !ngin! ,ith a go"!rnor ar! !-C a(p !s o' s+ch s! 'Ccorr!cting syst!(s. It ,i b! not!# that in (any instanc!s th! sa(! (at!ria circ+it (ay b! !ith!r r!g!n!rati"! or #!g!n!rati"! accor#ing to th! a(o+nt o' oa#ing, 'r!.+!ncy o' i(p+ s!s trans(itt!# aro+n# th! path, an# ti(! charact!ristics o' th! tota path.
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s+ch that AIs acts ,!r! sti(+ i 'or 0Is acts, ,hich in t+rn b!ca(! sti(+ i 'or (or! int!ns! action on th! part o' A, an# so on, A an# 0 b!ing p!rsons acting !ith!r as in#i"i#+a s or as gro+p (!(b!rs. 233 :h!s! schis(og!nic s!.+!nc!s co+ # b! c assi'i!# into t,o c ass!s6 +a4 symmetrical sc*ismogenesis, ,h!r! th! (+t+a y pro(oting actions o' A an# 0 ,!r! !ss!ntia y si(i ar, !.g., in cas!s o' co(p!tition, ri"a ry, an# th! i*!L an# 2 b3 complementary sc*ismogenesis, ,h!r! th! (+t+a y pro(oting actions ar! !ss!ntia y #issi(i ar b+t (+t+a y appropriat!, !.g., in cas!s o' #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, s+ccoringC#!p!n#!nc!, !-hibitionis(C sp!ctatorship, an# th! i*!. 243 In 1939 a consi#!rab ! a#"anc! ,as (a#! in #!'ining th! 'or(a r! ations b!t,!!n th! conc!pts o' sy((!trica an# co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis. :his ca(! 'ro( an att!(pt to stat! schis(og!nic th!ory in t!r(s o' 4ichar#sonIs !.+ations 'or int!rnationa ar(a(!nts rac!s23. :h! !.+ations 'or ri"a ry !"i#!nt y ga"! a 'irst appro-i(ation to ,hat I ha# ca !# 9sy((!trica schis(og!n!sis.9 :h!s! !.+ations ass+(! that th! int!nsity o' AIs actions 2th! rat! o' his ar(ing, in 4ichar#sonIs cas!3 is si(p y proportiona to th! a(o+nt by ,hich 0 is ah!a# o' A. :h! sti(+ +s t!r( in 'act is 20 ;A3, an# ,h!n this t!r( is positi"! it is !-p!ct!# that A ,i !nCgag! in !''orts to ar(. 4ichar#sonIs s!con# !.+ation (a*!s th! sa(! ass+(ption mutatis mutandis abo+t 0Is actions. :h!s! !.+ations s+gg!st!# that oth!r si(p y ri"a ro+s or co(p!titi"! ph!no(!na;!.g., boasting;tho+gh not s+bJ!ct to s+ch si(p ! (!as+r!(!nt as !-p!n#it+r! on ar(a(!nt, (ight y!t ,h!n + ti(at! y (!as+r!# b! r!#+cib ! to a si(p y ana ogo+s s!t o' r! ations. :h! (att!r ,as, ho,!"!r, not so c !ar in th! cas! o' co(C p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis. 4ichar#sonIs !.+ations 'or 9s+bC (ission9 !"i#!nt y #!'in! a ph!no(!non so(!,hat #i''!r!nt 'ro( a progr!ssi"! co(p !(!ntary r! ationship, an# th! 'or( o' his !.+ations #!scrib!s th! action o' a 'actor 9s+b(issi"!ness" ,hich s o,s #o,n an# + ti(at! y r!"!rs!s th! sign o' ,ar i*! !''ort. 8hat ,as, ho,!"!r, r!.+ir!# to #!scrib! co(p !(!ntary schis(og!n!sis
23 @. 7. 4ichar#son, 91!n!ra i/!# 7or!ign $o itics,9 0ritish Jo+rna $sycho ogy, Aonograph &+pp !(!nt --iii, 1939.

o'

118

,as an !.+ationa 'or( gi"ing. a sharp an# #iscontin+o+s r!"!rsa o' sign. &+ch an !.+ationa 'or( is achi!"!# by s+pposing AIs actions in a co(p !(!ntary r! ationship to b! proportiona to a sti(+ +s t!r( o' th! typ! 2A ;03 . &+ch a 'or( has a so th! a#"antag! o' a+to(atica y #!'ining th! actions o' on! o' th! participants as n!gati"!, an# th+s gi"!s so(! (ath!(atica ana og+! 'or th! appar!nt psycho ogica r! at!#n!ss o' #o(ination to s+b(ission, !-hibitionis( to sp!ctatorship, s+ccoring to #!p!n#!nc!, !tc. )otab y this 'or(+ ation is its! ' a n!gati"! o' th! 'or(+ ation 'or ri"a ry, th! sti(+ +s t!r( b!ing th! opposit!. It ha# b!!n obs!r"!# that sy((!trica s!.+!nc!s o' actions t!n# sharp y to r!#+c! th! strain o' !-c!ssi"! y co(p !(!ntary r! ationships b!t,!!n p!rsons or gro+ps.24 It is t!(pting to ascrib! this !''!ct to so(! hypoth!sis ,hich ,o+ # (a*! th! t,o typ!s o' schis(og!n!sis in so(! #!gr!! psycho ogica y inco(patib !, as is #on! by th! abo"! 'or(+ ation. 253 It is o' int!r!st to not! that a th! (o#!s associat!# ,ith th! !rog!no+s /on!s,25 tho+gh not c !ar y .+anti'iab !, #!'in! th!(!s 'or complementary r! ationship. 263 :h! in* ,ith !rog!no+s /on!s s+gg!st!# in 5, abo"!, in#icat!s that ,! o+ght, p!rhaps, not to thin* o' si(p ! rising !-pon!ntia c+r"!s o' int!nsity i(it!# on y by 'actors ana ogo+s to 'atig+!, s+ch as 4ichar#sonIs !.+ations ,o+ # i(p yL b+t rath!r that ,! sho+ # !-p!ct o+r c+r"!s to b! bo+n#!# by ph!no(!na co(parab ! to orgas(;that th! achi!"!(!nt o' a c!rtain #!gr!! o' bo#i y or n!+ra in"o "!(!nt or int!nsity (ay b! 'o o,!# by a r! !as! o' schis(og!nic t!nsion. In#!!#, a that ,! *no, abo+t h+(an b!ings in "ario+s sorts o' si(p ! cont!sts ,o+ # s!!( to
)a"!n, p. 173. =. E. Eo(b+rg!r, 9Con'ig+rations in $ ay6 $sychoC ogica )ot!s,9 $sychoana ytica V+art!r y, 1937, "i6 138C214. :his pap!r, on! o' th! (ost i(portant in th! it!rat+r! s!!*ing to stat! psychoana ytic hypoth!s!s in (or! rigoro+s t!r(s, #!a s ,ith th! 9(o#!s9 appropriat! to th! "ario+s !rog!no+s /on!s ;intr+sion, incorporation, r!t!ntion, an# th! i*!;an# sho,s ho, th!s! (o#!s (ay b! trans'!rr!# 'ro( on! /on! to anoth!r. :his !a#s th! ,rit!r to a chart o' th! possib ! p!r(+tations an# co(binations o' s+ch trans'!rr!# (o#a iti!s. :his chart pro"i#!s pr!cis! (!ans o' #!scribing th! co+rs! o' th! #!"! op(!nt o' a arg! "ari!ty of #i''!r!nt typ!s o' charact!r str+ct+r! 2!.g., as (!t ,ith in #i''!r!nt c+ t+r!s3.
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in#icat! that this is th! cas!, an# that th! conscio+s or +nconscio+s ,ish 'or r! !as! o' this *in# is an i(portant 'actor ,hich #ra,s th! participants on an# pr!"!nts th!( 'ro( si(p y ,ith#ra,ing 'ro( cont!sts ,hich ,o+ # oth!r,is! not co((!n# th!(s! "!s to 9 co((on s!ns!.9 I' th!r! b! any basic h+(an charact!ristic ,hich (a*!s (an pron! to str+gg !, it ,o+ # s!!( to b! this hop! o' r! !as! 'ro( t!nsion thro+gh tota in"o "!(!nt. In th! cas! o' ,ar this 'actor is +n#o+bt!# y o't!n pot!nt. 2:h! r!a tr+th;that in (o#!rn ,ar'ar! on y a "!ry '!, o' th! participants achi!"! this c i(actic r! !as!;s!!(s har# y to stan# against th! insi#io+s (yth o' 9tota 9 ,ar.3 273 In 1936 it ,as s+gg!st!# that th! ph!no(!non o' 9'a ing in o"!9 (ight b! co(parab ! to a schis(og!n!sis ,ith th! signs r!"!rs!#, an# !"!n that 9i' th! co+rs! o' tr+! o"! !"!r ran s(ooth it ,o+ # 'o o, an !-pon!ntia c+r"!.926 4ichar#son27 has sinc!, in#!p!n#!nt y, (a#! th! sa(! point in (or! 'or(a t!r(s. $aragraph 6, abo"!, c !ar y in#icat!s that th! 9!-pon!ntia c+r"!s9 (+st gi"! p ac! to so(! typ! o' c+r"! ,hich ,i not ris! in#!'init! y b+t ,i r!ach a c i(a- an# th!n 'a . 7or th! r!st, ho,!"!r, th! ob"io+s r! ationCship o' th!s! int!racti"! ph!no(!na to c i(a- an# orgas( "!ry (+ch str!ngth!ns th! cas! 'or r!gar#ing schis(og!n!sis an# thos! c+(+ ati"! s!.+!nc!s o' int!raction ,hich !a# to o"! as o't!n psycho ogica y !.+i"a !nt. 28itn!ss th! c+rio+s con'+sions b!t,!!n 'ighting an# o"!(a*ing, th! sy(bo ic i#!nti'ications o' orgas( ,ith #!ath, th! r!c+rr!nt +s! by (a((a s o' organs o' o''!ns! as orna(!nts o' s!-+a attracttion, !tc.3 283 Sc*ismogenic se5uences 'ere not found in <ali. :his n!gati"! stat!(!nt is o' s+ch i(portanc! an# con' icts ,ith so (any th!ori!s o' socia opposition an# Aar-ian #!t!r(inis( that, in or#!r to achi!"! cr!#ibi ity, I (+st h!r! #!Cscrib! sch!(atica y th! proc!ss o' charact!r 'or(ation, th! r!s+ ting 0a in!s! charact!r str+ct+r!, th! !-c!ptiona inCstanc!s in ,hich so(! sort o' c+(+ ati"! int!raction can b! r!cogni/!#, an# th! (!tho#s by ,hich .+arr! s an# stat+s #i''!r!ntiation ar! han# !#. 2?!tai !# ana ysis o' th! "ario+s points an# th! s+pporting #ata cannot h!r! b!
26 27

;a&en, p. 197. 5p. cit., 1939.

120

r!pro#+c!#, b+t r!'!r!nc!s ,i b! gi"!n to p+b ish!# so+rc!s ,h!r! th! #ata can b! !-a(in!#.328 Balinese Character

+a4 :h! (ost i(portant !-c!ption to th! abo"! g!n!ra i/ation occ+rs in th! r! ationship b!t,!!n a#+ ts 2!sp!cia y par!nts3 an# chi #r!n. :ypica y, th! (oth!r ,i start a s(a ' irtation ,ith th! chi #, p+ ing its p!nis or oth!r,is! sti(+ ating it to int!rp!rsona acti"ity. :his ,i !-cit! th! chi #, an# 'or a '!, (o(!nts c+(+ ati"! int!raction ,i occ+r. :h!n J+st as th! chi #, approaching so(! s(a c i(a-, ' ings its ar(s aro+n# th! (oth!rIs n!c*, h!r att!ntion ,an#!rs. At this point th! chi # ,i typica y start an a t!rnati"! c+(+ ati"! int!raction, b+i #ing +p to,ar# t!(p!r tantr+(. :h! (oth!r ,i !ith!r p ay a sp!ctatorIs ro !, !nJoying th! chi #Is tantr+(, or, i' th! chi # act+a y attac*s h!r, ,i br+sh o'' his attac* ,ith no sho, o' ang!r on h!r part. :h!s! s!C .+!nc!s can b! s!!n !ith!r as an !-pr!ssion o' th! (oth!rIs #istast! 'or this typ! o' p!rsona in"o "!(!nt or as cont!-t in ,hich th! chi # ac.+ir!s a #!!p #istr+st o' s+ch in"o "!(!nt. :h! p!rhaps basica y h+(an t!n#!ncy to,ar#s c+(+ ati"! p!rsona int!raction is th+s (+t!#.29 It is possib ! that so(! sort o' contin+ing p at!a+ o' int!nsity is s+bstit+t!# 'or c i(a- as th! chi # b!co(!s (or! '+ y a#J+st!# to 0a in!s! i'!. :his cannot at pr!s!nt b! c !ar y #oc+(!nt!# 'or s!-+a r! ations, b+t th!r! ar! in#ications that a p at!a+ typ! o' s!.+!nc! is charact!ristic 'or tranc! an# 'or .+arr! s 2s!! #, b! o,3. 2b3&i(i ar s!.+!nc!s ha"! th! !''!ct o' #i(inishing th! chi #Is t!n#!nci!s to,ar# co(p!titi"! an# ri"a ro+s b!ha"ior. :h! (oth!r ,i , 'or !-a(p !, t!as! th! chi # by s+c* ing th! baby o' so(!

&!! !sp!cia y 1. 0at!son an# A. A!a#, 0a in!s! Charact!r6 A $hotographic Ana ysis. &inc! this photoCgraphic r!cor# is a"ai ab !, no photographs ar! inc +#!# in th! pr!s!nt pap!r. 29 0a in!s! Charact!r6 A $hotographic Ana ysis, p . 47, an# pp. 32C6.

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oth!r ,o(an an# ,i !nJoy h!r o,n chi #Is !''orts to p+sh th! intr+#!r 'ro( th! br!ast.30 2c3In g!n!ra th! ac* o' c i(a- is charact!ristic 'or 0a in!s! (+sic, #ra(a, an# oth!r art 'or(s. :h! (+sic typica y has a progr!ssion, #!ri"!# 'ro( th! ogic o' its 'or(a str+ct+r!, an# (o#i'ications o' int!nsity #!t!r(in!# by th! #+ration an# progr!ss o' th! ,or*ing o+t o' th!s! 'or(a r! ations. It #o!s not ha"! th! sort o' rising int!nsity an# c i(a- str+ct+r! charact!ristic o' (o#!rn 5cci#!nta (+sic, b+t rath!r a 'or(a progr!ssion.31 2#3 0a in!s! c+ t+r! inc +#!s #!'init! t!chni.+!s 'or #!a ing ,ith .+arr! s. :,o (!n ,ho ha"! .+arr! !# ,i go 'or(a y to th! o''ic! o' th! oca r!pr!s!ntati"! o' th! 4aJah an# ,i th!r! r!gist!r th!ir .+arr! , agr!!ing that ,hich!"!r sp!a*s to th! oth!r sha pay a 'in! or (a*! an o''!ring to th! go#s. @at!r, i' th! .+arr! t!r(inat!s, this contract (ay b! 'or(a y n+ i'i!#. &(a !r;b+t si(i ar; a"oi#anc!s (pwik) ar! practic!#, !"!n by s(a chi #r!n in th!ir .+arr! s. It is signi'icant, p!rhaps, that this proc!#+r! is not an att!(pt to in' +!nc! th! protagonists a,ay 'ro( hosti ity an# to,ar# 'ri!n#ship. 4ath!r, it is a 'or(a r!cognition o' th! stat! o' th!ir (+t+a r! ationship, an# possib y, in so(! sort, a p!gging o' th! r! ationship at that stat!. I' this int!rpr!tation is corr!ct, this (!tho# o' #!a ing ,ith .+arr! s ,o+ # corr!spon# to th! s+bstit+tion o' a p at!a+ 'or a c i(a-. 2!3 In r!gar# to ,ar'ar!, cont!(porary co((!nt on th! o # ,ars b!t,!!n th! 4aJahs in#icat!s that in th! p!rio# ,h!n th! co((!nts ,!r! co !ct!# 21936Y393 ,ar ,as tho+ght o' as containing arg! ! !(!nts o' (+t+a a"oi#anc!. :h! "i ag! o' 0aJo!ng 1!#! ,as s+rro+n#!# by an o # "a +( an# 'oss, an# th! p!op ! !-p ain!# th! '+nctions o' th!s! 'orti'ications in th! 'o o,ing t!r(s6 9I' yo+ an# I ha# a .+arr! , th!n yo+ ,o+ # go an# #ig a #itch aro+n# yo+r ho+s!. @at!r I ,o+ # co(! to 'ight ,ith yo+, b+t I ,o+ # 'in# th! #itch an# th!n th!r! ,o+ # b! no 'ight9;a sort o' (+t+a Aaginot @in! psycho ogy. &i(i ar y th! bo+n#ari!s b!t,!!n n!ighboring *ing#o(s ,!r!, in g!n!ra , a #!s!rt!# noC(anIs an# inhabit!# on y by "agrants an# !-i !s. 2A "!ry #i''!r!nt psycho ogy o' ,ar'ar! ,as
bi#., p s. 49, 52, 53, an# 69C72. &!! Co in Ac$h!!, 9:h! Abso +t! A+sic o' 0a i,9 ,odern ,usic, 19?50 an# A 1ouse in <ali, @on#on, 1o anc/, 1947.
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no #o+bt #!"! op!# ,h!n th! *ing#o( o' <arangas!( !(bar*!# on th! con.+!st o' th! n!ighboring is an# o' @o(bo* in th! b!ginning o' th! !ight!!nth c!nt+ry. :h! psycho ogy o' this (i itaris( has not b!!n in"!stigat!#, b+t th!r! is r!ason to b! i!"! that th! ti(! p!rsp!cti"! o' th! 0a in!s! co onists in @o(bo* is to#ay sigC ni'icant y #i''!r!nt 'ro( that o' 0a in!s! in 0a i.332 2'3 :h! 'or(a t!chni.+!s o' socia in' +!nc!;oratory an# th! i*!;ar! a (ost tota y ac*ing in 0a in!s! c+ t+r!. :o #!(an# th! contin+!# att!ntion o' an in#i"i#+a or to !-!rt !(otiona in' +!nc! +pon a gro+p ar! a i*! #istast!'+ an# "irt+a y i(possib !L b!ca+s! in s+ch circ+(stanc!s th! att!ntion o' th! "icti( rapi# y ,an#!rs. ="!n s+ch contin+!# sp!!ch as ,o+ #, in (ost c+ t+r!s, b! +s!# 'or th! t! ing o' stori!s #o!s not occ+r in 0a i. :h! narrator ,i , typica y, pa+s! a't!r a s!nt!nc! or t,o, an# ,ait 'or so(! (!(b!r o' th! a+#i!nc! to as* hi( a concr!t! .+!stion abo+t so(! #!tai o' th! p ot. E! ,i th!n ans,!r th! .+!stion an# so r!s+(! his narration. :his proc!#+r! appar!nt y br!a*s th! c+(+ ati"! t!nsion by irr! !"ant int!raction. 2g3 :h! principa hi!rarchica str+ct+r!s in th! soci!ty;th! cast! syst!( an# th! hi!rarchy o' '+ citi/!ns ,ho ar! th! "i ag! co+nci ;ar! rigi#. :h!r! ar! no cont!-ts in ,hich on! in#i"i#+a co+ # conc!i"ab y co(p!t! ,ith anoth!r 'or position in !ith!r o' th!s! syst!(s. An in#i"i#+a (ay os! his (!(b!rship in th! hi!rarchy 'or "ario+s acts, b+t his p ac! in it cannot b! a t!r!#. &ho+ # h! at!r r!t+rn to ortho#o-y an# b! acc!pt!# bac*, h! ,i r!t+rn to his origina position in r! ation to th! oth!r (!(b!rs.33 :h! 'or!going #!scripti"! g!n!ra i/ations ar! a partia ans,!rs to a n!gati"! .+!stion;98hy is 0a in!s! soci!ty nonC schis(og!nicD9;an# 'ro( th! co(bination o' th!s! g!n!ra i/ations ,! arri"! at a pict+r! o' a soci!ty #i''!ring "!ry (ar*!# y 'ro( o+r o,n, 'ro( that o' th! Iat(+ , 'ro( thos! syst!(s o' socia opposition ,hich 4a#c i''!C0ro,n has ana y/!#, an# 'ro( any socia str+ct+r! post+ at!# by Aar-ian ana ysis.

&!! 1. 0at!son, 9An 5 # :!(p ! an# a )!, Ayth,9 8=a'a, -"ii, 0ata"ia, 1937. &!! A. A!a#, 9$+b ic 5pinion A!chanis(s a(ong $ri(iti"! $!op !s,9 6u-lic @pinion Auarterly, 1937, is 5% 16.
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8! start!# ,ith th! hypoth!sis that h+(an b!ings ha"! a t!n#!ncy to in"o "! th!(s! "!s in s!.+!nc!s o' c+(+ ati"! int!raction, an# this hypoth!sis is sti !'t "irt+a y intact. A(ong th! 0a in!s! th! babi!s, at !ast, !"i#!nt y ha"! s+ch t!n#!nci!s. 0+t 'or socio ogica "a i#ity this hypoth!sis (+st no, b! g+ar#!# ,ith a par!nth!tica c a+s! stip+ ating that th!s! t!n#!nci!s ar! op!rati"! in th! #yna(ics o' soci!ty on y i' th! chi #hoo# training is not s+ch as to pr!"!nt th!ir !-pr!ssion in a#+ t i'!. 8! ha"! (a#! an a#"anc! in o+r *no, !#g! o' th! scop! o' h+(an charact!r 'or(ation in #!(onstrating that th!s! t!n#!nci!s to,ar# c+(+ ati"! int!raction ar! s+bJ!ct to so(! sort o' (o#i'ication, #!con#itioning, or inhibition.34 An# this is an i(portant a#"anc!. 8! *no, ho, it is that th! 0a in!s! ar! nonschis(og!nic an# ,! *no, ho, th!ir #istast! 'or schis(og!nic patt!rns is !-pr!ss!# in "ario+s #!tai s o' th! socia organi/ation; th! rigi# hi!rarchi!s, th! instit+tions 'or th! han# ing o' .+arr! s, !tc. ;b+t ,! sti *no, nothing o' th! positi"! #yna(ics o' th! soci!ty. 8! ha"! ans,!r!# on y th! n!gati"! .+!stion. Balinese Ethos

:h! n!-t st!p, th!r!'or!, is to as* abo+t 0a in!s! !thos. 8hat act+a y ar! th! (oti"!s an# th! "a +!s ,hich acco(pany th! co(p !- an# rich c+ t+ra acti"iti!s o' th! 0a in!s!D 8hat, i' not co(p!titi"! an# oth!r typ!s o' c+(+ ati"! int!rr! ationship, ca+s!s th! 0a in!s! to carry o+t th! ! aborat! patt!rns o' th!ir i"!sD 213 It is i((!#iat! y c !ar to any "isitor to 0a i that th! #ri"ing 'orc! 'or c+ t+ra acti"ity is not !ith!r ac.+isiti"!n!ss or cr+#! physio ogica n!!#. :h! 0a in!s!, !sp!cia y in th! p ains, ar! not h+ngry or po"!rtyCstric*!n. :h!y ar! ,ast!'+ o' 'oo#, an# a "!ry consi#!rab ! part o' th!ir acti"ity go!s into !ntir! y nonpro#+cti"! acti"iti!s o' an artistic or rit+a nat+r! in ,hich 'oo# an# ,!a th ar!
34 As is +s+a in anthropo ogy, th! #ata ar! not s+''ici!nt y pr!cis! to gi"! +s any c +! as to th! nat+r! o' th! !arning proc!ss!s in"o "!#. Anthropo ogy, at b!st, is on y ab ! to raise prob !(s o' this or#!r. :h! n!-t st!p (+st b! !'t 'or aboratory !-p!ri(!ntation.

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a"ish y !-p!n#!#. =ss!ntia y, ,! ar! #!a ing ,ith an !cono(y o' p !nty rath!r than an !cono(y o' scarcity. &o(!, in#!!#, ar! rat!# 9poor9 by th!ir '! o,s, b+t non! o' th!s! poor ar! thr!at!n!# by star"ation, an# th! s+gg!stion that h+(an b!ings (ay act+a y star"! in gr!at 5cci#!nta citi!s ,as, to th! 0a in!s!, +n+tt!rab y shoc*ing. 223 In th!ir !cono(ic transactions th! 0a in!s! sho, a gr!at #!a o' car!'+ n!ss in th!ir s(a #!a ings. :h!y ar! 9p!nny ,is!.9 5n th! oth!r han#, this car!'+ n!ss is co+nt!rCact!# by occasiona 9po+n# 'oo ishn!ss9 ,h!n th!y ,i !-p!n# arg! s+(s o' (on!y +pon c!r!(onia s an# oth!r 'or(s o' a"ish cons+(ption. :h!r! ar! "!ry '!, 0a in!s! ,ho ha"! th! i#!a o' st!a#i y (a-i(i/ing th!ir ,!a th or prop!rtyL th!s! '!, ar! part y #is i*!# an# part y r!gar#!# as o##iti!s. 7or th! "ast (aJority th! 9sa"ing o' p!nni!s9 is #on! ,ith a i(it!# ti(! p!rsp!cti"! an# a i(it!# !"! o' aspiration. :h!y ar! sa"ing +nti th!y ha"! !no+gh to sp!n# arg! y on so(! c!r!(onia . 8! sho+ # not #!scrib! 0a in!s! !cono(ics in t!r(s o' th! in#i"i#+a Is att!(pt to (a-i(i/! "a +!, b+t rath!r co(par! it ,ith th! r! a-ation osci ations o' physio ogy an# !ngin!!ring, r!a i/ing that not on y is this ana ogy #!scripti"! o' th!ir s!.+!nc!s o' transactions, b+t that th!y th!(s! "!s s!! th!s! s!.+!nc!s as nat+ra y ha"ing so(! s+ch 'or(. 233 :h! 0a in!s! ar! (ar*!# y #!p!n#!nt +pon spatia ori!ntation. In or#!r to b! ab ! to b!ha"! th!y (+st *no, th!ir car#ina points, an# i' a 0a in!s! is ta*!n by (otor car o"!r t,isting roa#s so that h! os!s his s!ns! o' #ir!ction, h! (ay b!co(! s!"!r! y #isori!ntat!# an# +nab ! to act 2!.g., a #anc!r (ay b!co(! +nab ! to #anc!3 +nti h! has got bac* his ori!ntation by s!!ing so(! i(portant an#(ar*, s+ch as th! c!ntra (o+ntain o' th! is an# aro+n# ,hich th! car#ina points ar! str+ct+r!#. :h!r! is a co(parab ! #!p!n#!nc! +pon socia ori!ntation, b+t ,ith this #i''!r!nc!6 that ,h!r! th! spatia ori!ntation is in a hori/onta p an!, socia ori!ntation is '! t to b!, in th! (ain, "!rtica . 8h!n t,o strang!rs ar! bro+ght tog!th!r, it is n!c!ssary, b!'or! th!y can con"!rs! ,ith any 'r!!#o(, that th!ir r! ati"! cast! positions b! stat!#. 5n! ,i as* th! oth!r, 98h!r! #o yo+ sitD9 an# this is a (!taphor 'or cast!. It is as*ing, !ss!ntia y, 9?o yo+ sit high or o,D9 8h!n !ach *no,s th! cast! o' th! oth!r, !ach ,i th!n *no,

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,hat !ti.+!tt! an# ,hat ing+istic 'or(s h! sho+ # a#opt, an# con"!rsation can th!n proc!!#. @ac*ing s+ch ori!ntation, a 0a in!s! is tong+!Cti!#. 243 It is co((on to 'in# that acti"ity 2oth!r than th! 9p!nny ,is#o(9 (!ntion!# abo"!3 rath!r than b!ing p+rposi"!, i.!., ai(!# at so(! #!'!rr!# goa , is "a +!# 'or its! '. :h! artist, th! #anc!r, th! (+sician, an# th! pri!st (ay r!c!i"! a p!c+niary r!,ar# 'or th!ir pro'!ssiona acti"ity, b+t on y in rar! cas!s is this r!,ar# a#!.+at! to r!co(p!ns! th! artist !"!n 'or his ti(! an# (at!ria s. :h! r!,ar# is a to*!n o' appr!ciation, it is a #!'inition o' th! cont!-t in ,hich th! th!atrica co(pany p!r'or(s, b+t it is not th! !cono(ic (ainCstay o' th! tro+p!. :h! !arnings o' th! tro+p! (ay b! sa"!# +p to !nab ! th!( to b+y n!, cost+(!s, b+t ,h!n 'ina y th! cost+(!s ar! bo+ght it is +s+a y n!c!ssary 'or !"!ry (!(b!r to (a*! a consi#!rab ! contrib+tion to th! co((on '+n# in or#!r to pay 'or th!(. &i(i ar y, in r!gar# to th! o''!rings ,hich ar! ta*!n to !"!ry t!(p ! '!ast, th!r! is no p+rpos! in this !nor(o+s !-p!n#it+r! o' artistic ,or* an# r!a ,!a th. :h! go# ,i not bring any b!n!'it b!ca+s! yo+ (a#! a b!a+ti'+ str+ct+r! o' ' o,!rs an# 'r+it 'or th! ca !n#ric '!ast in his t!(p !, nor ,i h! a"!ng! yo+r abst!ntion. Inst!a# o' #!'!rr!# p+rpos! th!r! is an i((!#iat! an# i((an!nt satis'action in p!r'or(ing b!a+ti'+ y, ,ith !"!rybo#y ! s!, that ,hich it is corr!ct to p!r'or( in !ach partic+ ar cont!-t. 253 In g!n!ra th!r! is !"i#!nt !nJoy(!nt to b! ha# 'ro( #oing things b+si y ,ith arg! cro,#s o' oth!r p!op !.35 Con"!rs! y th!r! is s+ch (is'ort+n! inh!r!nt in th! oss o' gro+p (!(b!rship that th! thr!at o' this oss is on! o' th! (ost s!rio+s sanctions in th! c+ t+r!. 263 It is o' gr!at int!r!st to not! that (any 0a in!s! actions ar! artic+ at! y acco+nt!# 'or in socio ogica t!r(s rath!r than in t!r(s o' in#i"i#+a goa s or "a +!s.36 :his is (ost conspic+o+s in r!gar# to a actions r! at!# to th! "i ag! co+nci , th! hi!rarchy ,hich inc +#!s a '+ citi/!ns. :his bo#y, in its s!c+ ar asp!cts, is r!'!rr!# to as I 8esa 2 it!ra y, 9Ar. Gi ag!93, an# n+(!ro+s r+ !s an# proc!#+r!s ar! rationa i/!# by r!'!r!nc! to this abstract p!rsonag!. &i(i ar y, in its sacr!# asp!cts,
0at!son an# A!a#, op. cit., p1. 5. C'. ;a&en, pp. 250 i'., ,h!r! it ,as s+gg!st!# that ,! (+st !-p!ct to 'in# that so(! p!op !s o' th! ,or # ,o+ # r! at! th!ir actions to th! socio ogica 'ra(!.
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th! "i ag! is #!i'i!# as <etara 8esa 21o# Gi ag!3, to ,ho( shrin!s ar! !r!ct!# an# o''!rings bro+ght. 28! (ay g+!ss that a ?+r*h!i(ian ana ysis ,o+ # s!!( to th! 0a in!s! to b! an ob"io+s an# appropriat! approach to th! +n#!rstan#ing o' (+ch o' th!ir p+b ic c+ t+r!.3 In partic+ ar a (on!y transactions ,hich in"o "! th! "i ag! tr!as+ry ar! go"!rn!# by th! g!n!ra i/ation, 9:h! "i ag! #o!s not os!9 +8esanne sing dadi pot=ol4. :his g!n!ra i/ation app i!s, 'or !-a(p !, in a cas!s in ,hich a b!ast is so # 'ro( th! "i ag! h!r#. %n#!r no circ+(stanc!s can th! "i ag! acc!pt a pric! !ss than that ,hich it act+a y or no(ina y pai#. 2It is i(portant to not! that th! r+ ! ta*!s th! 'or( o' 'i-ing a o,!r i(it an# is not an inJ+nction to (a-i(i/! th! "i ag! tr!as+ry.3 A p!c+ iar a,ar!n!ss o' th! nat+r! o' socia proc!ss!s is !"i#!nt in s+ch inci#!nts as th! 'o o,ing6 A poor (an ,as abo+t to +n#!rgo on! o' th! i(portant an# !-p!nsi"! rites de passage ,hich ar! n!c!ssary 'or p!rsons as th!y approach th! top o' th! co+nci hi!rarchy. 8! as*!# ,hat ,o+ # hapCp!n i' h! r!'+s!# to +n#!rta*! this !-p!n#it+r!. :h! 'irst ans,!r ,as that, i' h! ,!r! too poor, I 8esa ,o+ # lend hi( th! (on!y. In r!spons! to '+rth!r pr!ssing as to ,hat ,o+ # happ!n i' h! r!a y r!'+s!#, ,! ,!r! to # that nobo#y !"!r ha# r!'+s!#, b+t that i' so(!bo#y #i#, nobo#y ,o+ # go thro+gh th! c!r!(ony again. I(p icit in this ans,!r an# in th! 'act that nobo#y !"!r #o!s r!'+s! is th! ass+(ption that th! ongoing c+ t+ra proc!ss is its! ' to b! "a +!#. 273 Actions ,hich ar! c+ t+ra y corr!ct +patoet4 ar! acc!ptab ! an# a!sth!tica y "a +!#. Actions ,hich ar! p!r(issib ! +dadi4 ar! o' (or! or !ss n!+tra "a +!L ,hi ! actions ,hich ar! not p!r(issib ! +sing dadi4 ar! to b! #!pr!cat!# an# a"oi#!#. :h!s! g!n!ra i/ations, in th!ir trans at!# 'or(, ar! no #o+bt tr+! in (any c+ t+r!s, b+t it is i(portant to g!t a c !ar +n#!rstan#ing o' ,hat th! 0a in!s! (!an by dadi. :h! notion is not to b! !.+at!# ,ith o+r 9!ti.+!tt!9 or 9 a,,9 sinc! !ach o' th!s! in"o*!s th! "a +! J+#g(!nt o' so(! oth!r p!rson or socio ogica !ntity. In 0a i th!r! is no '!! ing that actions ha"! b!!n or ar! cat!gori/!# as dadi or sing dadi by so(! h+(an or s+p!rnat+ra a+thority. 4ath!r, th! stat!(!nt that s+chCan#Cs+ch an action is dadi is an abso +t! g!n!ra i/ation to th!

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!''!ct that +n#!r th! gi"!n circ+(stanc!s this action is r!g+ ar. 37 It is ,rong 'or a cast! !ss p!rson to a##r!ss a princ! in oth!r than th! 9po ish!# ang+ag!,9 an# it is ,rong 'or a (!nstr+ating ,o(an to !nt!r a t!(p !. :h! princ! or th! #!ity (ay !-pr!ss annoyanc!, b+t th!r! is no '!! ing that !ith!r th! princ!, th! #!ity, or th! cast! !ss p!rCson (a#! th! r+ !s. :h! o''!ns! is '! t to b! against th! or#!r an# nat+ra str+ct+r! o' th! +ni"!rs! rath!r than against th! act+a p!rson o''!n#!#. :h! o''!n#!r, !"!n in s+ch s!rio+s (att!rs as inc!st 2'or ,hich h! (ay b! !-tr+#!# 'ro( th! soci!ty338 is not b a(!# 'or anything ,ors! than st+pi#ity an# c +(sin!ss. 4ath!r, h! is 9an +n'ort+nat! p!rson9 +ana3 latfoer4, an# (is'ort+n! (ay co(! to any o' +s 9,h!n it is o+r t+rn.9 7+rth!r, it (+st b! str!ss!# that th!s! patt!rns ,hich #!'in! corr!ct an# p!r(issib ! b!ha"ior ar! !-c!!#ing y co(p !- 2!sp!cia y th! r+ !s o' ang+ag!3 an# that th! in#i"i#+a 0a in!s! 2!"!n to so(! #!gr!! insi#! his o,n 'a(i y3 has contin+a an-i!ty !st h! (a*! an !rror. Aor!o"!r, th! r+ !s ar! not o' s+ch a *in# that th!y can b! s+((ari/!# !ith!r in a si(p ! r!cip! or an !(otiona attit+#!. =ti.+!tt! cannot b! #!#+c!# 'ro( so(! co(pr!h!nsi"! stat!(!nt abo+t th! oth!r p!rsonIs '!! ings or 'ro( r!sp!ct 'or s+p!riors. :h! #!tai s ar! too co(p !- an# too "ario+s 'or this, an# so th! in#i"i#+a 0a in!s! is 'or!"!r pic*ing his ,ay, i*! a tightrop! ,a *!r, a'rai# at any (o(!nt !st h! (a*! so(! (isst!p. 283 :h! (!taphor 'ro( post+ra ba anc! +s!# in th! ast paragraph is #!(onstrab y app icab ! in (any cont!-ts o' 0a in!s! c+ t+r!6 2a3:h! '!ar o' oss o' s+pport is an i(portant th!(! in 0a in!s! chi #hoo#.39 2b3= !"ation 2,ith its att!n#ant prob !(s o' physica an# (!taphorica ba anc!3 is th! passi"! co(p !(!nt o' r!sp!ct.40 2c3:h! 0a in!s! chi # is ! !"at!# i*! a s+p!rior p!rCson or a go#.41
37 :h! ,or# dadi is a so +s!# as a cop+ a r!'!rring to chang!s in socia stat+s. I Anoe dadi Boe-a=an (!ans 9&oCan#Cso has b!co(! a "i ag! o''icia .9 38 A!a#, 9$+b ic 5pinion A!chanis(s a(ong $ri(iti"! $!op !s,9 loc. cit., 1937. 39 0at!son an# A!a#, op. cit., p s. 17, 67, an# 79. 40 I-id., p s. 10C14. 41 I-id., p1. 45.

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2#3In cas!s o' act+a physica ! !"ation42 th! #+ty o' ba ancing th! syst!( 'a s on th! s+pporting o,!r p!rson, b+t contro o' th! #ir!ction in ,hich th! syst!( ,i (o"! is in th! han#s o' th! ! !"at!#. :h! itt ! gir in th! 'ig+r! stan#ing in tranc! on a (anIs sho+ #!rs can ca+s! h!r b!ar!r to go ,h!r!"!r sh! #!sir!s by (!r! y !aning in that #ir!ction. E! (+st th!n (o"! in that #ir!ction in or#!r to (aintain th! ba anc! o' th! syst!(. 2!3A arg! proportion o' o+r co !ction o' 1>CC 0a in!s! car"ings sho,s pr!occ+pation on th! part o' th! artist ,ith prob !(s o' ba anc!.43 2'3:h! 8itch, th! p!rsoni'ication o' '!ar, 'r!.+!nt y +s!s a g!st+r! ca !# 3apar, ,hich is #!scrib!# as that o' a (an 'a ing 'ro( a cocon+t pa ( on s+##!n y s!!ing a sna*!. In this g!st+r! th! ar(s ar! rais!# si#!,ays to a position so(!C,hat abo"! th! h!a#. 2g3:h! or#inary 0a in!s! t!r( 'or th! p!rio# b!'or! th! co(ing o' th! ,hit! (an is 9,h!n th! ,or # ,as st!a#y9 +doegas goemine enteg4. Applications of the 'on Ne!#annian a#e

="!n this "!ry bri!' isting o' so(! o' th! ! !(!nts in 0a in!s! !thos s+''ic!s to in#icat! th!or!tica prob !(s o' pri(! i(portanc!. @!t +s consi#!r th! (att!r in abstract t!r(s. 5n! o' th! hypoth!s!s +n#!r ying (ost socio ogy is that th! #yna(ics o' th! socia (!chanis( can b! #!scrib!# by ass+(ing that th! in#i"i#+a s constit+ting that (!chanis( ar! (oti"at!# to (a-i(i/! c!rtain "ariab !s. In con"!ntiona !cono(ic th!ory it is ass+(!# that th! in#i"i#+a s ,i (a-i(i/! "a +!, ,hi ! in schis(og!nic th!ory it ,as tacit y ass+(!# that th! in#i"i#+a s ,o+ # (a-i(i/! intangib ! b+t sti si(p ! "ariab !s s+ch as pr!stig!, s! 'C!st!!(, or !"!n

I-id., p1. 10, 'ig. 3. At pr!s!nt it is not possib ! to (a*! s+ch a stat!(!nt in sharp y #!'in!# .+antitati"! t!r(s, th! a"ai ab ! J+#g(!nts b!ing s+bJ!cti"! an# 5cci#!nta .
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s+b(issi"!n!ss. :h! 0a in!s!, ho,!"!r, #o not (a-i(i/! any s+ch si(p ! "ariab !s. In or#!r to #!'in! th! sort o' contrast ,hich !-ists b!t,!!n th! 0a in!s! syst!( an# any co(p!titi"! syst!(, !t +s start by consi#!ring th! pr!(iss!s o' a strict y co(p!titi"! Gon )!+(annian ga(! an# proc!!# by consi#!ring ,hat chang!s ,! (+st (a*! in th!s! pr!(iss!s in or#!r to appro-i(at! (or! c os! y to th! 0a in!s! syst!(. 213 :h! p ay!rs in a Gon )!+(annian ga(! ar!, by hypoth!sis, (oti"at!# on y in t!r(s o' a sing ! in!ar 2sc. (on!tary3 sca ! o' "a +!. :h!ir strat!gi!s ar! #!t!r(in!#6 +a4 by th! r+ !s o' th! hypoth!tica ga(!L an# +-4 by th!ir int! ig!nc!, ,hich is, by hypoth!sis, s+''ici!nt to so "! a prob !(s pr!s!nt!# by th! ga(!. Gon )!+(ann sho,s that, +n#!r c!rtain #!'inab ! circ+(stanc!s #!p!n#ing +pon th! n+(b!r o' p ay!rs an# +pon th! r+ !s, coa itions o' "ario+s sorts ,i b! 'or(!# by th! p ay!rs, an# in 'act Gon )!+(annIs ana ysis conc!ntrat!s (ain y +pon th! str+ct+r! o' th!s! coa itions an# th! #istrib+tion o' "a +! a(ong th! (!(b!rs. In co(paring th!s! ga(!s ,ith h+(an soci!ti!s ,! sha r!gar# socia organi/ations as ana ogo+s to coa ition syst!(s.44 223 Gon )!+(annian syst!(s #i''!r 'ro( h+(an soci!ti!s in th! 'o o,ing r!sp!cts6 2a3Eis 9p ay!rs9 ar! 'ro( th! start co(p !t! y int! ig!nt, ,h!r!as h+(an b!ings !arn. 7or h+(an b!ings ,! (+st !-p!ct that th! r+ !s o' th! ga(! an# th! con"!ntions associat!# ,ith any partic+ ar s!t o' coa itions ,i b!co(! incorporat!# into th! charact!r str+ct+r!s o' th! in#i"i#+a p ay!rs.
A t!rnati"! y, ,! (ight han# ! th! ana ogy in anoth!r ,ay. A socia syst!( is, as Gon )!+(ann an# Aorg!nst!rn point o+t, co(parab ! to a nonC/!ro s+( ga(! in ,hich on! or (or! coa itions o' p!op ! p ay against !ach oth!r an# against nat+r!. :h! nonC/!ro s+( charact!ristic is bas!# on th! 'act that "a +! is contin+a y !-tract!# 'ro( th! nat+ra !n"iron(!nt. Inas(+ch as 0a in!s! soci!ty !-p oits nat+r!, th! tota !ntity, inc +#ing both !n"iron(!nt an# p!op !, is c !ar y co(parab ! to a ga(! r!.+iring coa ition b!t,!!n p!op !. It is possib !, ho,!"!r, that that s+b#i"ision o' th! tota ga(! co(prising th! people only (ight b! s+ch that th! 'or(ation o' coa itions ,ithin it ,o+ # not b! !ss!ntia ;that is, 0a in!s! soci!ty (ay #i''!r 'ro( (ost oth!r soci!ti!s in that th! 9r+ !s9 o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n p!op ! #!C'in! a 9ga(!9 o' th! typ! Gon )!+(ann ,o+ # ca 9nonC!ss!ntia .9 :his possibi ity is not h!r! !-a(in!#. 2&!! Gon )!+(ann an# Aorg!nst!rn, op. cit.4
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2b3:h! (a((a ian "a +! sca ! is not si(p ! an# (onoCton!, b+t (ay b! !-c!!#ing y co(p !-. 8! *no,, !"!n at a physio ogica !"! , that ca ci+( ,i not r!p ac! "ita(ins, nor ,i an a(ino aci# r!p ac! o-yg!n. 7+rth!r, ,! *no, that th! ani(a #o!s not stri"! to (a-i(i/! its s+pp y o' any o' th!s! #iscr!pant co((o#iti!s, b+t rath!r is r!.+ir!# to (aintain th! s+pp y o' !ach ,ithin to !rab ! i(its. :oo (+ch (ay b! as har('+ as too itt !. It is a so #o+bt'+ ,h!th!r (a((a ian pr!'!r!nc! is a ,ays transiti"!. 2c3 In th! Gon )!+(annian syst!( th! n+(b!r o' (o"!s in a gi"!n 9p ay9 o' a ga(! is ass+(!# to b! 'init!. :h! strat!gic prob !(s o' th! in#i"i#+a s ar! so +b ! b!ca+s! th! in#i"i#+a can op!rat! ,ithin a i(it!# ti(! p!rsp!cti"!. E! n!!# on y oo* 'or,ar# a 'init! #istanc! to th! !n# o' th! p ay ,h!n th! gains an# oss!s ,i b! pai# +p an# !"!ryCthing ,i start again 'ro( a ta-ula rasa. In h+(an soci!ty i'! is not p+nct+at!# in this ,ay, an# !ach in#i"i#+a 'ac!s a "ista o' +n*no,ab ! 'actors ,hos! n+(b!r incr!as!s 2probab y !-pon!ntia y3 into th! '+t+r!. 2#3 :h! Gon )!+(annian p ay!rs ar!, by hypoth!sis, not s+sc!ptib ! !ith!r to !cono(ic #!ath or to bor!#o(. :h! os!rs can go on osing 'or!"!r, an# no p ay!r can ,ith#ra, 'ro( th! ga(!, !"!n tho+gh th! o+tco(! o' !"!ry p ay is #!'init! y pr!#ictab ! in probabi ity t!r(s. 233 5' th!s! #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n Gon )!+(annian an# h+(an syst!(s, on y th! #i''!r!nc!s in "a +! sca !s an# th! possibi ity o' 9#!ath9 conc!rn +s h!r!. 7or th! sa*! o' si(p icity ,! sha ass+(! that th! oth!r #i''!r!nc!s, tho+gh "!ry pro'o+n#, can 'or th! (o(!nt b! ignor!#. 243 C+rio+s y, ,! (ay not! that, a tho+gh (!n ar! (a((a s an# th!r!'or! ha"! a pri(ary "a +! syst!( ,hich is (+ ti#i(!nsiona an# non(a-i(i/ing, it is y!t possib ! 'or th!s! cr!at+r!s to b! p+t into cont!-ts in ,hich th!y ,i stri"! to (a-i(i/! on! or a '!, si(p ! "ariab !s 2(on!y, pr!stig!, po,!r, !tc.3 . 253 &inc! th! (+ ti#i(!nsiona "a +! syst!( is appar!nt y pri(ary, th! prob !( pr!s!nt!# by, 'or !-a(p !, Iat(+ socia organi/ation is not so (+ch to acco+nt 'or th! b!ha"ior o' Iat(+ in#i"i#+a s by in"o*ing 2or abstracting3 th!ir "a +! syst!(L ,! sho+ # a so as* ho, that "a +! syst!( is i(pos!# on th! (a((a ian in#i"i#+a s by th! socia organi/ation in ,hich th!y 'in# th!(s! "!s.

131

Con"!ntiona y in anthropo ogy this .+!stion is attac*!# thro+gh g!n!tic psycho ogy. 8! !n#!a"or to co !ct #ata to sho, ho, th! "a +! syst!( i(p icit in th! socia prgani/ation is b+i t into th! charact!r str+ct+r! o' th! in#i"i#+a s in th!ir chi #hoo#. :h!r! is, ho,!"!r, an a t!rnati"! approach ,hich ,o+ # (o(!ntari y ignor!, as Gon )!+(ann #o!s, th! ph!no(!na o' !arning an# consi#!r (!r! y th! strat!gic i(p ications o' thos! cont!-ts ,hich (+st occ+r in accor#anc! ,ith th! gi"!n 9r+ !s9 an# th! coa ition syst!(. In this conn!ction it is i(portant to not! that co(p!titi"! cont!-ts; pro"i#!# th! in#i"i#+a s can b! (a#! to r!cogni/! th! cont!-ts as co(p!titi"!;in!"itab y r!#+c! th! co(p !- ga(+t o' "a +!s to "!ry si(p ! an# !"!n in!ar an# (onoton! t!r(s.45 Consi#!rations o' this sort, plus #!scriptions o' th! r!g+ ariti!s in th! proc!ss o' charact!r 'or(ation, probab y s+''ic! to #!Cscrib! ho, si(p ! "a +! sca !s ar! i(pos!# +pon (a((a ian in#i"i#+a s in co(p!titi"! soci!ti!s s+ch as that o' th! Iat(+ or t,!nti!thCc!nt+ry A(!rica. 263 In 0a in!s! soci!ty, on th! oth!r han#, ,! 'in# an. !ntir! y #i''!r!nt stat! o' a''airs. )!ith!r th! in#i"i#+a nor th! "i ag! is conc!rn!# to (a-i(i/! any si(p ! "ariab !. 4ath!r, th!y ,o+ # s!!( to b! conc!rn!# to (a-i(i/! so(!Cthing ,hich ,! (ay ca stabi ity, +sing this t!r( p!rhaps in a high y (!taphorica ,ay. 2:h!r! is, in 'act, on! si(p ! .+antitati"! "ariab ! ,hich #o!s app!ar to b! (a-i(i/!#. :his "ariab ! is th! a(o+nt o' any 'in! i(pos!# by th! "i ag!. 8h!n 'irst i(pos!# th! 'in!s ar! (ost y "!ry s(a , b+t i' pay(!nt is #! ay!# th! a(o+nt o' th! 'in! is incr!as!# "!ry st!!p y, an# i' th!r! b! any sign that th! o''!n#!r is refusing to pay;9opposing th! "i ag!9;th! 'in! is at onc! rais!# to an !nor(o+s s+( an# th! o''!n#!r is #!pri"!# o' (!(b!rship in th! co((+nity +nti h! is ,i ing to gi"! +p his opposition. :h!n a part o' th! 'in! (ay b! !-c+s!#.3 273 @!t +s no, consi#!r an hypoth!tica syst!( consisting o' a n+(b!r o' i#!ntica p ay!rs, p +s an +(pir! ,ho is conc!rn!# ,ith th! (aint!nanc! o' stabi ity a(ong th! p ay!rs. @!t +s '+rth!r s+ppos! that th! p ay!rs ar! iab ! to !cono(ic #!ath, that o+r +(pir! is conc!rn!# to s!! that this sha not occ+r, an# that th! +(pir! has po,!r to (a*! c!rtain a t!rations in th! r+ !s o' th!
45

@. <. 7ran*, 9:h! Cost o' Co(p!tition,9 6lan Age, 1940, "i 6 314C24.

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ga(! or in th! probabi iti!s associat!# ,ith chanc! (o"!s. C !ar y this +(pir! ,i b! in (or! or !ss contin+a con' ict ,ith th! p ay!rs. E! is stri"ing to (aintain a #yna(ic !.+i ibri+( or st!a#y stat!, an# this ,! (ay r!phras! as th! att!(pt to (a-i(i/! th! chanc!s against th! (a-i(i/ation o' any sing ! si(p ! "ariab !. 28.3 Ashby has point!# o+t in rigoro+s t!r(s that th! st!a#y stat! an# contin+!# !-ist!nc! o' co(p !- int!racti"! syst!(s #!p!n# +pon pr!"!nting th! (a-i(i/ation o' any "ariab !, an# that any contin+!# incr!as! in any "ariab ! ,i in!"itab y r!s+ t in, an# b! i(it!# by, irr!"!rsib ! chang!s in th! syst!(. E! has a so point!# o+t that in s+ch syst!(s it is "!ry i(portant to p!r(it c!rtain "ariab !s to a t!r.46 :h! st!a#y stat! o' an !ngin! ,ith a go"!rnor is +n i*! y to b! (aintain!# i' th! position o' th! ba s o' th! go"!rnor is c a(p!#. &i(i ar y a tightrop! ,a *!r ,ith a ba ancing po ! ,i not b! ab ! to (aintain his ba anc! !-c!pt by &arying th! 'orc!s ,hich h! !-!rts +pon th! po !. 293 4!t+rning no, to th! conc!pt+a (o#! s+gg!st!# in paragraph 7, !t +s ta*! on! '+rth!r st!p to,ar# (a*ing this (o#! co(parab ! ,ith 0a in!s! soci!ty. @!t +s s+bstit+t! 'or th! +(pir! a "i ag! co+nci co(pos!# o' a th! p ay!rs. 8! no, ha"! a syst!( ,hich pr!s!nts a n+(b!r o' ana ogi!s to o+r ba ancing acrobat. 8h!n th!y sp!a* as (!(b!rs o' th! "i ag! co+nci , th! p ay!rs by hypoth!sis ar! int!r!st!# in (aintaining th! st!a#y stat! o' th! syst!(;that is, in pr!"!nting th! (a-i(i/ation o' any si(p ! "ariab ! th! !-c!ssi"! incr!as! o' ,hich ,o+ # pro#+c! irr!"!rsib ! chang!. In th!ir #ai y i'!, ho,!"!r, th!y ar! sti !ngag!# in si(p ! co(p!titi"! strat!gi!s. 2103 :h! n!-t st!p to,ar# (a*ing o+r (o#! r!s!(b ! 0a in!s! soci!ty (or! c os! y is c !ar y to post+ at! in th! charact!r str+ct+r! o' th! in#i"i#+a s an#Kor in th! cont!-ts o' th!ir #ai y i'! thos! 'actors ,hich ,i (oti"at! th!( to,ar# (aint!nanc! o' th! st!a#y stat! not on y ,h!n th!y sp!a* in co+nci , b+tIa so in th!ir oth!r int!rp!rsona r! ations. :h!s! 'actors ar! in 'act r!cogni/ab ! in 0a i an# ha"! b!!n !n+(!rat!# abo"!. In o+r ana ysis o' ,hy 0a in!s! soci!ty is nonschis(og!nic, ,! not!# that th! 0a in!s! chi # !arns
8. 4. Ashby, 9=''!ct o' Contro s on &tabi ity,9 ;ature, cl&, no. ?9?C, 7!br+ary >4, 1945, >4>%4?.
46

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to a"oi# c+(+ ati"! int!raction, i.!., th! (a-i(i/ation o' c!rtain si(p ! "ariab !s, an# that th! socia organi/ation an# cont!-ts o' #ai y i'! ar! so constr+ct!# as to pr!c +#! co(p!titi"! int!raction. 7+rth!r, in o+r ana ysis o' th! 0a in!s! !thos, ,! not!# r!c+rr!nt "a +ation6 2a3 o' th! c !ar an# static #!'inition o' stat+s an# spatia ori!ntation, an# 2b3 o' ba anc! an# s+ch (o"!(!nt as ,i con#+c! to ba anc!. In s+( it s!!(s that th! 0a in!s! !-t!n# to h+(an r! ationships attit+#!s bas!# +pon bo#i y ba anc!, an# that th!y g!n!ra i/! th! i#!a that (otion is !ss!ntia to ba anc!. :his ast point gi"!s +s, I b! i!"!, a partia ans,!r to th! .+!stion o' ,hy th! soci!ty not on y contin+!s to '+nction b+t '+nctions rapi# y an# b+si y, contin+a y +n#!rta*ing c!r!(onia an# artistic tas*s ,hich ar! not !cono(ica y or co(p!titi"! y #!t!r(in!#. :his st!a#y stat! is (aintain!# by contin+a nonprogr!ssi"! chang!. Schis#o&enic Syste# "ers!s the Steady State

I ha"! #isc+ss!# t,o typ!s o' socia syst!( in s+ch sch!(atic o+t in! that it is possib ! to stat! c !ar y a contrast b!t,!!n th!(. 0oth typ!s o' syst!(, so 'ar as th!y ar! capab ! o' (aintaining th!(s! "!s ,itho+t progr!ssi"! or irr!"!rsib ! chang!, achi!"! th! st!a#y stat!. :h!r! ar!, ho,C!"!r, pro'o+n# #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n th!( in th! (ann!r in ,hich th! st!a#y stat! is r!g+ at!#. :h! Iat(+ syst!(, ,hich is h!r! +s!# as a prototyp! o' schis(og!nic syst!(s, inc +#!s a n+(b!r o' r!g!n!rati"! ca+sa circ+its or "icio+s circ !s. =ach s+ch circ+it consists o' t,o or (or! in#i"i#+a s 2or gro+ps o' in#i"i#+a s3 ,ho participat! in pot!ntia y c+(+ ati"! int!raction. =ach h+(an in#i"i#+a is an !n!rgy so+rc! or 9r! ay,9 s+ch that th! !n!rgy +s!# in his r!spons!s is not #!ri"!# 'ro( th! sti(+ i b+t 'ro( his o,n (!tabo ic proc!ss!s. It th!r!'or! 'o o,s that s+ch a schis(og!nic syst!( is;+n !ss contro !#; iab ! to !-c!ssi"! incr!as! o' thos! acts ,hich charact!ri/! th! schis(og!n!s!s. :h! anthropo ogist ,ho att!(pts !"!n a .+a itati"! #!scription o'. s+ch a syst!( (+st th!r!'or! i#!nti'y6 213 th! in#i"i#+a s an# gro+ps in"o "!# in schis(og!n!sis an# th! ro+t!s o'

134

co((+nication b!t,!!n th!(L 223 th! cat!gori!s o' acts an# cont!-ts charact!ristic o' th! schis(og!n!s!sL 233 th! proc!ss!s ,h!r!by th! in#i"i#+a s b!co(! psycho ogica y apt to p!r'or( th!s! acts an#Kor th! nat+r! o' th! cont!-ts ,hich 'orc! th!s! acts +pon th!(L an# ast y, 243 h! (+st i#!nti'y th! (!chanis(s or 'actors ,hich contro th! schis(og!n!s!s. :h!s! contro ing 'actors (ay b! o' at !ast thr!! #istinct typ!s6 +a4 #!g!n!rati"! ca+sa oops (ay b! s+p!rpos!# +pon th! schis(og!n!s!s so that ,h!n th! att!r r!ach a c!rtain int!nsity so(! 'or( o' r!straint is a p p i ! # as occ+rs in 5cci#!nta syst!(s ,h!n a go"!rn(!nt int!r"!n!s to i(it !cono(ic co(p!titionL 2b3 th!r! (ay b!, in a##ition to th! schis(og!n!s!s a r!a#y consi#!r!#, oth!r c+(+ ati"! int!ractions acting in an opposit! s!ns! an# so pro(oting socia int!gration rath!r than 'issionL 2c3 th! incr!as! in schis(og!n!sis (ay b! i(it!# by 'actors ,hich ar! int!rna y or !-t!rna y !n"iron(!nta to th! parts o' th! schis(og!nic circ+it. &+ch 'actors ,hich ha"! on y s(a r!straining !''!ct at o, int!nsiti!s o' schis(og!n!sis (ay incr!as! ,ith incr!as! o' int!nsity. 7riction, 'atig+!, an# i(itation o' !n!rgy s+pp y ,o+ # b! !-a(p !s o' s+ch 'actors. In contrast ,ith th!s! schis(og!nic syst!(s, 0a in!s! soci!ty is an !ntir! y #i''!r!nt typ! o' (!chanis(, an# in #!Cscribing it th! anthropo ogist (+st 'o o, !ntir! y #i''!r!nt proc!#+r!s, 'or ,hich r+ !s cannot as y!t b! ai# #o,n. &inc! th! c ass o' 9nonschis(og!nic9 socia syst!(s is #!'in!# on y in n!gati"! t!r(s, ,! cannot ass+(! that (!(b!rs o' th! c ass ,i ha"! co((on charact!ristics. In th! ana ysts o' th! 0a in!s! syst!(, ho,!"!r, th! 'o o,ing st!ps occ+rr!#, an# it is possib ! that so(! at !ast o' th!s! (ay b! app icab ! in th! ana ysis o' oth!r c+ t+r!s o' this c ass6 213 it ,as obs!r"!# that schis(og!nic s!.+!nc!s ar! rar! in 0a iL +>4 th! !-c!ptiona cas!s in ,hich s+ch s!.+!nc!s occ+r ,!r! in"!stigat!#L 233 'ro( this in"!stigation it app!ar!#, +a4 that in g!n!ra th! cont!-ts ,hich r!c+r in 0a in!s! socia i'! pr!c +#! c+(+ ati"! int!raction an# 2 b3 that chi #hoo# !-p!ri!nc! trains th! chi # a,ay 'ro( s!!*ing c i(a- in p!rsona int!ractionL 243 it ,as sho,n that c!rtain positi"! "a +!s;r! at!# to ba anc!;r!c+r in th! c+ t+r! an# ar! incorporat!# into th! charact!r str+ct+r! #+ring chi #Choo#, an#, '+rth!r, that th!s! "a +!s (ay b! sp!ci'ica y r!C at!# to th! st!a#y stat!L 253 a (or! #!tai !# st+#y is no, r!.+ir!# to

135

arri"! at a syst!(atic stat!(!nt abo+t th! s! 'Ccorr!cting charact!ristics o' th! syst!(. It is !"i#!nt that th! !thos a on! is ins+''ici!nt to (aintain th! st!a#y stat!. 7ro( ti(! to ti(! th! "i ag! or so(! oth!r !ntity #o!s st!p in to corr!ct in'ractions. :h! nat+r! o' th!s! instanc!s o' th! ,or*ing o' th! corr!cti"! (!chanis( (+st b! st+#i!#L b+t it is c !ar that this int!r(itt!nt (!chanis( is "!ry #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! contin+a y acting r!straints ,hich (+st b! pr!s!nt in a schis(og!nic syst!(s.

136

+tyle6 "&a'e6 an# In5o&(ation in P&i(iti0e A&t%

(ntrod!ction

:his pap!r consists o' s!"!ra sti Cs!parat! att!(pts to (ap a th!ory associat!# ,ith c+ t+r! an# th! non"!rba arts. &inc! no on! o' th!s! att!(pts is co(p !t! y s+cc!ss'+ , an# sinc! th! att!(pts #o not as y!t (!!t in th! (i## ! o' th! t!rritory to b! (app!#, it. (ay b! +s!'+ to stat!, in nonCt!chnica ang+ag!, ,hat it is I a( a't!r. A #o+s E+- !y +s!# to say that th! c!ntra prob !( 'or h+(anity is th! .+!st 'or grace. :his ,or# h! +s!# in ,hat h! tho+ght ,as th! s!ns! in, ,hich it is +s!# in th! )!, :!sta(!nt. E! !-p ain!# th! ,or#, ho,!"!r, in his o,n t!r(s. E! arg+!#; i*! 8a t 8hit(an; that th! co((+nication an# b!ha"ior o' ani(a s has a nai"!t!, a si(p icity, ,hich (an has ost. AanIs b!ha"ior is corr+pt!# by #!c!it;!"!n s! 'C#!c!it;by p+rpos!, an# by s! 'Cconscio+sn!ss. As A #o+s sa, th! (att!r, (an has ost th! 9grac!9 ,hich ani(a s sti ha"!. In t!r(s o' this contrast, A #o+s arg+!# that 1o# r!s!(b !s th! ani(a s rath!r than (an6 E! is i#!a y +nab ! to #!c!i"! an# incapab ! o' int!rna con'+sions. In th! tota sca ! o' b!ings, th!r!'or!, (an is as i' #isp ac!# si#!,ays an# ac*s that grac! ,hich th! ani(a s ha"! an# ,hich 1o# has. I arg+! that art is a part o' (anIs .+!st 'or grac!L so(!Cti(!s his !cstasy in partia s+cc!ss, so(!ti(!s his rag! an# agony at 'ai +r!. I arg+! a so that th!r! ar! (any sp!ci!s o' grac! ,ithin th! (aJor g!n+sL an# a so that th!r! ar! (any *in#s o' 'ai +r! an#
H :his !ssay ,as a position pap!r 'or th! 8!nn!rC1r!n Con'!r!nc! on $ri(iti"! Art, 1967. It is h!r! r!print!# 'ro( A Study of 6rimiti&e Art, !#it!# by ?r. Anthony 7org!, to b! p+b ish!# by 5-'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss, by p!r(ission o' th! p+b ish!r.

137

'r+stration an# #!part+r! 'ro( grac!. )o #o+bt !ach c+ t+r! has its charact!ristic sp!ci!s o' grac! to,ar# ,hich its artists stri"!, an# its o,n sp!ci!s o' 'ai +r!. &o(! c+ t+r!s (ay 'ost!r a n!gati"! approach to this #i''ic+ t int!gration, an a"oi#anc! o' co(p !-ity by crass pr!'!r!nc! !ith!r 'or tota conscio+sn!ss or tota +nconscio+sn!ss. :h!ir art is +n i*! y to b! 9gr!at.9 I sha arg+! that th! prob !( o' grac! is '+n#a(!nta y a prob !( o' int!gration an# that ,hat is to b! int!grat!# is th! #i"!rs! parts o' th! (in#;!sp!cia y thos! (+ tip ! !"! s o' ,hich on! !-tr!(! is ca !# 9conscio+sn!ss9 an# th! oth!r th! 9+nconscio+s.9 7or th! attain(!nt o' grac!, th! r!asons o' th! h!art (+st b! int!grat!# ,ith th! r!asons o' th! r!ason. =#(+n# @!ach has con'ront!# +s, in this con'!r!nc!, ,ith th! .+!stion6 Eo, is it that th! art o' on! c+ t+r! can ha"! (!aning or "a i#ity 'or critics rais!# in a #i''!r!nt c+ t+r!D Ay ans,!r ,o+ # b! that, i' art is so(!ho, !-pr!ssi"! o' so(!thing i*! grac! or psychic int!gration, th!n th! success o' this !-pr!ssion (ight ,! b! r!cogni/ab ! across c+ t+ra barri!rs. :h! physica grac! o' cats is pro'o+n# y #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! physica grac! o' hors!s, an# y!t a (an ,ho has th! physica grac! o' n!ith!r can !"a +at! that o' both. An# !"!n ,h!n th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' art is th! 'r+stration o' int!gration, crossCc+ t+ra r!cognition o' th! pro#+cts o' this 'r+stration is not too s+rprising. :h! c!ntra .+!stion is6 In ,hat 'or( is in'or(ation abo+t psychic int!gration contain!# or co#!# in th! ,or* o' artD

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Style and Meanin&

:h!y say that 9!"!ry pict+r! t! s a story,9 an# this g!n!ra i/ation ho #s 'or (ost o' art i' ,! !-c +#! 9(!r!9 g!o(!tric orna(!ntation. 0+t I ,ant pr!cis! y to a"oi# ana y/ing th! 9story. 9 :hat asp!ct o' th! ,or* o' art ,hich can (ost !asi y b! r!#+c!# to ,or#s;th! myt*ology conn!ct!# ,ith th! s+bJ!ct (att!r;is not ,hat I ,ant to #isc+ss. I sha not !"!n (!ntion th! +nconscio+s (ytho ogy o' pha ic sy(bo Cis(, !-c!pt at th! !n#. I a( conc!rn!# ,ith ,hat i(portant psychic in'or(ation is in th! art obJ!ct .+it! apart 'ro( ,hat it (ay 9r!pr!s!nt.9 9/e style est lD*omme meme9 29:h! sty ! is th! (an hi(Cs! '93 20+''on3. 8hat is i(p icit in sty !, (at!ria s, co(position, rhyth(, s*i , an# so onD C !ar y this s+bJ!ct (att!r ,i inc +#! g!o(!trica ornaC (!ntation a ong ,ith th! co(position an# sty istic asp!cts o' (or! r!pr!s!ntationa ,or*s. :h! ions in :ra'a gar &.+ar! co+ # ha"! b!!n !ag !s or b+ #ogs an# sti ha"! carri!# th! sa(! 2or si(i ar3 (!ssag!s abo+t !(pir! an# abo+t th! c+ t+ra pr!(is!s o' nin!t!!nthCc!nt+ry =ng an#. An# y!t, ho, #i''!r!nt (ight th!ir (!ssag! ha"! b!!n ha# th!y b!!n (a#! o' ,oo#O 0+t r!pr!s!ntationa is( as s+ch is r! !"ant. :h! !-tr!(! y r!a istic hors!s an# stags o' A ta(ira ar! s+r! y not abo+t th! sa(! c+ t+ra pr!(is!s as th! high y con"!ntiona i/!# b ac* o+t in!s o' a at!r p!rio#. :h! code ,h!r!by p!rc!i"!# obJ!cts or p!rsons 2or s+p!rnat+ra s3 ar! trans'or(!# into ,oo# or paint is a so+rc! o' in'or(ation abo+t th! artist an# his c+ t+r!. It is th! "!ry r+ !s o' trans'or(ation that ar! o' int!r!st to (!; not th! (!ssag!, b+t th! co#!. Ay goa is not instr+(!nta . I #o not ,ant to +s! th! trans'or(ation r+ !s ,h!n #isco"!r!# to +n#o th! trans'or(ation or to 9#!co#!9 th! (!ssag!. :o trans at! th! art obJ!ct into (ytho ogy an# th!n !-a(in! th! (ytho ogy ,o+ # b! on y a n!at ,ay o' #o#ging or n!gating th! prob !( o' 9,hat is artD9

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I as*, th!n, not abo+t th! (!aning o' th! !nco#!# (!ssag! b+t rath!r abo+t th! (!aning o' th! co#! chos!n. 0+t sti that (ost s ipp!ry ,or# 9(!aning9 (+st b! #!'in!#. It ,i b! con"!ni!nt to #!'in! (!aning in th! (ost g!n!ra possib ! ,ay in th! 'irst instanc!. 9A!aning9 (ay b! r!gar#!# as an appro-i(at! synony( o' patt!rn, r!#+n#ancy, in'or(ation, an# 9r!straint,9 ,ithin a para#ig( o' th! 'o o,ing sort6 Any aggr!gat! o' !"!nts or obJ!cts 2!.g., a s!.+!nc! o' phon!(!s, a painting, or a 'rog, or a c+ t+r!3 sha b! sai# to contain 9r!#+n#ancy9 or 9patt!rn9 i' th! aggr!gat! can b! #i"i#!# in any ,ay by a 9s ash (ar*,9 s+ch that an obs!r"!r p!rc!i"ing on y ,hat is on on! si#! o' th! s ash (ar* can guess, ,ith b!tt!r than ran#o( s+cc!ss, ,hat is on th! oth!r si#! o' th! s ash (ar*. 8! (ay say that ,hat is on on! si#! o' th! s ash contains information or has meaning abo+t ,hat is on th! oth!r si#!. 5r, in !ngin!!rIs ang+ag!, th! aggr!gat! contains 9r!#+n#ancy.9 5r, again, 'ro( th! point o' "i!, o' a cyb!rn!tic obs!r"!r, th! in'or(ation a"ai ab ! on on! si#! o' th! s ash ,i r!strain 2i.!., r!#+c! th! probabi ity o'3 ,rong g+!ssing. =-a(p !s6 :h! !tt!r : in a gi"!n ocation in a pi!c! o' ,ritt!n =ng ish pros! propos!s that th! n!-t !tt!r is i*! y to b! an E or an 4 or a "o,! . It is possib ! to (a*! a b!tt!r than ran#o( g+!ss across a s ash ,hich i((!#iat! y 'o o,s th! :. =ng ish sp! ing contains r!#+n#ancy. 7ro( a part o' an =ng ish s!nt!nc!, #! i(it!# by a s ash, it is possib ! to g+!ss at th! syntactic str+ct+r! o' th! r!(ain#!r o' th! s!nt!nc!. 7ro( a tr!! "isib ! abo"! gro+n#, it is possib ! to g+!ss at th! !-ist!nc! o' roots b! o, gro+n#. :h! top pro"i#!s in'or(ation abo+t th! botto(. 7ro( an arc o' a dra'n circ !, it is possib ! to g+!ss at th! position o' oth!r parts o' th! circ+('!r!nc!. 27ro( th! #ia(!t!r o' an ideal circ !, it is possib ! to ass!rt th! !ngth o' th! circ+('!r!nc!. 0+t this is a (att!r o' tr+th ,ithin a ta+to ogica syst!(. 3 7ro( ho, th! boss act!# y!st!r#ay, it (ay b! possib ! to g+!ss ho, h! ,i act to#ay.

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7ro( ,hat I say, it (ay b! possib ! to (a*! pr!#ictions abo+t ho, yo+ ,i ans,!r. Ay ,or#s contain (!aning or in'or(ation abo+t yo+r r!p y. :! !graphist A has a ,ritt!n (!ssag! on his pa# an# s!n#s this (!ssag! o"!r ,ir! to 0, so that 0 no, g!ts th! sa(! s!.+!nc! o' !tt!rs on his (!ssag! pa#. :his transaction 2or 9 ang+ag! ga(!9 in 8ittg!nst!inIs phras!3 has cr!at!# a r!#+n#ant +ni"!rs! 'or an obs!r"!r 5. I' 0 *no,s ,hat ,as on AIs pa#, h! can (a*! a b!tt!r than ran#o( g+!ss at ,hat is on 0Is pa#. :h! !ss!nc! an# raison dIetre o' co((+nication is th! cr!ation o' r!#+n#ancy, (!aning, patt!rn, pr!#ictabi ity, in'or(ation, an#Kor th! r!#+ction o' th! ran#o( by 9r!straint.9 It is, I b! i!"!, o' pri(! i(portanc! to ha"! a conc!pt+a syst!( ,hich ,i 'orc! +s to s!! th! 9(!ssag!9 2!.g., th! art obJ!ct3 as -ot* its! ' int!rna y patt!rn!# and its! ' a part o' a arg!r patt!rn!# +ni"!rs!;th! c+ t+r! or so(! part o' it. :h! charact!ristics o' obJ!cts o' art ar! b! i!"!# to b! a-out, or to b! part y #!ri"!# 'ro(, or #!t!r(in!# by, oth!r charact!ristics o' c+ t+ra an# psycho ogica syst!(s. 5+r prob !( (ight th!r!'or! h! o"!rsi(p y r!pr!s!nt!# by th! #iagra(6
[Characteristic, of art object/Characteristics of rest of culture]

,h!r! s.+ar! brac*!ts !nc os! th! +ni"!rs! o' r! !"anc!, an# ,h!r! th! ob i.+! stro*! r!pr!s!nts a s ash across ,hich so(! g+!ssing is possib !, in on! #ir!ction or in both. :h! prob !(, th!n, is to sp! o+t ,hat sorts o' r! ationships, corr!spon#!nc!s, !tc., cross or transc!n# this ob i.+! stro*!. Consi#!r th! cas! in ,hich I say to yo+, 9ItIs raining,9 an# yo+ g+!ss that i' yo+ oo* o+t th! ,in#o, yo+ ,i s!! rain#rops. A si(i ar #iagra( ,i s!r"!6
[Characteristics of "It's raining"/Perception of raindrops]

)otic!, ho,!"!r, that this cas! is by no (!ans si(p !. 5n y i' yo+ *no, th! language an# ha"! so(! tr+st in (y "!racity ,i yo+ b! ab ! to (a*! a g+!ss abo+t th! rainC#rops. In 'act, '!, p!op ! in this sit+ation r!strain th!(Cs! "!s 'ro( s!!(ing y #+p icating th!ir in'or(ation by oo*ing o+t o' th! ,in#o,. 8! i*! to pro"! that o+r

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g+!ss!s ar! right, an# that o+r 'ri!n#s ar! hon!st. &ti (or! i(portant, 'e li3e to test or &erify t*e correctness of our &ie' of our relations*ip to ot*ers. :his ast point is nontri"ia . It i +strat!s th! n!c!ssari y hi!rarchic str+ct+r! o' a co((+nicationa syst!(s6 th! 'act o' con'or(ity or noncon'or(ity 2or in#!!# any oth!r r! ationship3 b!t,!!n parts o' a patt!rn!# ,ho ! (ay its! ' b! in'or(ati"! as part o' so(! sti arg!r ,ho !. :h! (att!r (ay h! #iagra((!# th+s6 >29ItIs raining"/raindrop. /!o"#"e relationship ,h!r! r!#+n#ancy across th! s ash (ar* ,ithin th! s(a !r +ni"!rs! !nc os!# in ro+n# brac*!ts propos!s 2is a (!ssag! abo+t3 a r!#+n#ancy in th! arg!r +ni"!rs! !nc os!# in s.+ar! brac*!ts. 0+t th! (!ssag! 9ItIs raining9 is its! ' con"!ntiona y co#!# an# int!rna y patt!rn!#, so that s!"!ra s ash (ar*s co+ # b! #ra,n across th! (!ssag! in#icating patt!rning ,ithin th! (!ssag! its! '. An# th! sa(! is tr+! o' th! rain. It, too, is patt!rn!# an# str+ct+r!#. 7ro( th! #ir!ction o' on! #rop, I co+ # pr!#ict th! #ir!ction o' oth!rs. An# so on. <ut t*e slas* mar3s across t*e &er-al message 9ItDs raining9 'ill not correspond in any simple 'ay to t*e slas* mar3s across t*e raindrops. I', inst!a# o' a "!rba (!ssag!, I ha# gi"!n yo+ a pict+r! o' th! rain, so(! o' th! s ash!s on th! pict+r! ,o+ # ha"! corr!spon#!# ,ith s ash!s on th! p!rc!i"!# rain. :his #i''!r!nc! pro"i#!s a n!at 'or(a crit!rion to s!parat! th! 9arbitrary9 an# #igita co#ing charact!ristic o' th! "!rba part o' ang+ag! 'ro( th! iconic co#ing o' #!piction. 0+t "!rba #!scription is o't!n iconic in its arg!r str+ct+r!. A sci!ntist #!scribing an !arth,or( (ight start at th! h!a# !n# an# ,or* #o,n its !ngth;th+s pro#+cing a #!scription iconic in its s!.+!nc! an# ! ongation. E!r! again ,! obs!r"! a hi!rarchic str+ct+ring, #igita or "!rba at on! !"! an# iconic at anoth!r.

/e&els and /ogical !ypes

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9@!"! s9 ha"! b!!n (!ntion!#6 +a4 It ,as not!# that th! com-ination o' th! (!ssag! 9ItIs raining9 ,ith th! p!rc!ption o' rain#rops can its! ' constit+t! a (!ssag! abo+t a +ni"!rs! o' p!rsona r! ationsL an# 2b3 that ,h!n ,! chang! o+r 'oc+s o' att!ntion 'ro( s(a !r to arg!r +nits o' (!ssag! (at!ria , ,! (ay #isco"!r that a arg!r +nit contains iconic co#ing tho+gh th! s(a !r parts o' ,hich it ,as (a#! ar! "!rba 6 th! "!rba #!scription o' an !arth,or( (ay, as a ,ho !, b! ! ongat!#. :h! (att!r o' !"! s no, crops +p in anoth!r 'or( ,hich is cr+cia 'or any !pist!(o ogy o' art6 :h! ,or# 9*no,9 is not (!r! y a(big+o+s in co"!ring both connaitre 2to *no, thro+gh th! s!ns!s, to r!cogni/! or p!rc!i"!3 an# sa&oir 2to *no, in th! (in#3, b+t "ari!s ;acti"! y shi'ts; in (!aning 'or basic syst!(ic r!asons. :hat ,hich ,! *no, thro+gh th! s!ns!s can -ecome *no, !#g! in th! (in#. 9I *no, th! ,ay to Ca(bri#g!9 (ight (!an that I ha"! st+#i!# th! (ap an# can gi"! yo+ #ir!ctions. It (ight (!an that I can r!ca #!tai s a a ong th! ro+t!. It (ight (!an that ,h!n #ri"ing that ro+t! I recogni:e (any #!tai s !"!n tho+gh I co+ # r!ca on y a '!,. It (ight (!an that ,h!n #ri"ing to Ca(bri#g! I can tr+st to 9habit9 to (a*! (! t+rn at th! right points, ,itho+t ha"ing to t*in3 ,h!r! I a( going. An# so on. In a cas!s, ,! #!a ,ith a r!#+n#ancy or patt!rning o' a .+it! co(p !- sort6 >29I know . . ."/my mind)//the road] an# th! #i''ic+ ty is to #!t!r(in! th! nat+r! o' th! patt!rning ,ithin th! ro+n# brac*!ts, or, to p+t th! (att!r anoth!r ,ay6 ,hat parts o' th! (in# ar! r!#+n#ant ,ith th! partic+ ar (!ssag! abo+t 9*no,ing.9 @ast, th!r! is a sp!cia 'or( o' 9*no,ing9 ,hich is +s+a y r!gar#!# as a#aptation rath!r than in'or(ation. A shar* is b!a+ti'+ y shap!# 'or oco(otion in ,at!r, b+t th! g!no(! o' th! shar* s+r! y #o!s not contain #ir!ct in'or(ation abo+t hy#ro#yna(ics. 4ath!r, th! g!no(! (+st b! s+ppos!# to contain in'or(ation or instr+ctions ,hich ar! th! complement o' hy#ro#yna(ics. )ot hy#ro#yna(ics, b+t ,hat hy#ro#yna(ics r!.+ir!s, has b!!n b+i t +p in th! shar*Is g!no(!. &i(i ar y, a (igratory bir# p!rhaps #o!s not *no, th! ,ay

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to its #!stination in any o' th! s!ns!s o+t in!# abo"!, b+t th! bir# (ay contain th! co(p !(!ntary instr+ctions n!c!ssary t# ca+s! it to ' y right. 9/e coeur a ses raisons 5ue la raison ne connait point9 29:h! h!art has its r!asons ,hich th! r!ason #o!s not at a p!rc!i"!93. It is this;th! co(p !- ay!ring o' conscio+sn!ss an# +nconscio+sn!ss; that cr!at!s #i''ic+ ty ,h!n ,! try to #isc+ss art or rit+a or (ytho ogy. :h! (att!r o' le&els o' th! (in# has b!!n #isc+ss!# 'ro( (any points o' "i!,, at !ast 'o+r o' ,hich (+st b! (!ntion!# an# ,o"!n into any sci!nti'ic approach to art6 213 &a(+! 0+t !rIs insist!nc! that th! b!tt!r an organis( 9*no,s9 so(!thing, th! !ss conscio+s it b!co(!s o' its *no, !#g!, i.!., th!r! is a proc!ss ,h!r!by *no, !#g! 2or 9habit9 ;,h!th!r o' action, p!rc!ption, or tho+ght3 sin*s to #!!p!r an# #!!p!r !"! s o' th! (in#. :his ph!no(!non, '*ic* is c!ntra to M!n #iscip in! 2c'. E!rrig! , Een in t*e Art of Arc*ery4, is a so r! !"ant to a art an# a s*i . 223 A#a b!rt A(!sI #!(onstrations that th! conscio+s, thr!!C #i(!nsiona "is+a i(ag!s, ,hich ,! (a*! o' that ,hich ,! s!!, ar! (a#! by proc!ss!s in"o "ing (ath!(atica pr!(is!s o' p!rsp!cti"!, !tc., o' th! +s! o' ,hich ,! ar! tota y +nconscio+s. 5"!r th!s! proc!ss!s, ,! ha"! no "o +ntary contro . A #ra,ing o' a chair ,ith th! p!rsp!cti"! o' "an 1ogh a''ronts th! conscio+s !-p!ctations an#, #i( y, r!(in#s th! conscio+sn!ss o' ,hat ha# b!!n 2+nconscio+s y3 ta*!n 'or grant!#. 233 :h! 7r!+#ian 2!sp!cia y 7!nich! Is3 th!ory o' #r!a(s as (!taphors co#!# accor#ing to primary process. I sha consi#!r sty !;n!atn!ss, bo #n!ss o' contrast, !tc.;as (!taphoric an# th!r!'or! as in*!# to thos! !"! s o' th! (in# ,h!r! pri(ary proc!ss ho #s s,ay. 243 :h! 7r!+#ian "i!, o' th! +nconscio+s as th! c! ar or c+pboar# to ,hich '!ar'+ an# pain'+ (!(ori!s ar! conCsign!# by a proc!ss o' r!pr!ssion. C assica 7r!+#ian th!ory ass+(!# that #r!a(s ,!r! a secondary pro#+ct, cr!at!# by 9#r!a( ,or*.9 Aat!ria +nacc!ptab ! to conscio+s tho+ght ,as s+ppos!# y trans at!# into th! (!taphoric i#io( o' pri(ary proc!ss to a"oi# ,a*ing th! #r!a(!r. An# this (ay b! tr+! o' thos! it!(s o' in'or(ation ,hich ar! h! # in th!

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+nconscio+s by th! proc!ss o' r!pr!ssion. As ,! ha"! s!!n, ho,!"!r, (any oth!r sorts o' in'or(ation ar! inacc!ssib ! to conscio+s insp!ction, inc +#ing (ost o' th! pr!(is!s o' (a((a ian int!raction. It ,o+ # s!!( to (! s!nsib ! to thin* o' th!s! it!(s as !-isting primarily in th! i#io( o' pri(ary proc!ss, on y ,ith #i''ic+ ty to b! trans at!# into 9rationa 9 t!r(s. In oth!r ,or#s, I b! i!"! that (+ch o' !ar y 7r!+#ian th!ory ,as +psi#! #o,n. At that ti(! (any thin*!rs r!gar#!# conscio+s r!ason as nor(a an# s! 'C !-p anatory ,hi ! th! +nconscio+s ,as r!gar#!# as (yst!rio+s, n!!#ing proo', an# n!!#ing !-p anation. 4!pr!ssion ,as th! !-p anation, an# th! +nconscio+s ,as 'i !# ,ith tho+ghts ,hich co+ # ha"! b!!n conscio+s b+t ,hich r!pr!ssion an# #r!a( ,or* ha# #istort!#. :o#ay ,! thin* o' conscio+sn!ss as th! (yst!rio+s, an# o' th! co(p+tationa (!tho#s o' th! +nconscio+s, !.g., pri(ary proc!ss, as contin+a y acti"!, n!c!ssary, an# a C!(bracing. :h!s! consi#!rations ar! !sp!cia y r! !"ant in any atCt!(pt to #!ri"! a th!ory o' art or po!try. $o!try is not a sort o' #istort!# an# #!corat!# pros!, b+t rath!r pros! is po!try ,hich has b!!n stripp!# #o,n an# pinn!# to a $rocr+st!an b!# o' ogic. :h! co(p+t!r (!n ,ho ,o+ # progra( th! trans ation o' ang+ag!s so(!ti(!s 'org!t this 'act abo+t th! pri(ary nat+r! o' ang+ag!. :o try to constr+ct a (achin! to trans at! th! art o' on! c+ t+r! into th! art o' anoth!r ,o+ # b! !.+a y si y. A !gory, at b!st a #istast!'+ sort o' art, is an in"!rsion o' th! nor(a cr!ati"! proc!ss. :ypica y an abstract r! ation, !.g., b!t,!!n tr+th an# J+stic!, is 'irst conc!i"!# in rationa t!r(s. :h! r! ationship is th!n (!taphori/!# an# #o !# +p to oo* i*! a pro#+ct o' pri(ary proc!ss. :h! abstractions ar! p!rsoni'i!# an# (a#! to participat! in a ps!+#o(yth, an# so on. A+ch a#"!rtising art is a !gorica in this s!ns!, that th! cr!ati"! proc!ss is in"!rt!#. In th! c ich! syst!( o' Ang oC&a-ons, it is co((on y ass+(!# that it ,o+ # b! so(!ho, b!tt!r i' ,hat is +nconscio+s ,!r! (a#! conscio+s. 7r!+#, !"!n, is sai# to ha"! sai#, 98h!r! i# ,as, th!r! !go sha b!,9 as tho+gh s+ch an incr!as! in conscio+s *no, !#g! an# contro ,o+ # b! both possib ! an#, o' co+rs!, an i(pro"!(!nt. :his "i!, is th! pro#+ct o' an a (ost tota y #istort!# !pist!(o ogy an# a tota y #istort!# "i!, o' ,hat sort o' thing a (an, or any oth!r organis(, is.

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5' th! 'o+r sorts o' +nconscio+sn!ss ist!# abo"!, it is "!ry c !ar that th! 'irst thr!! ar! n!c!ssary. Conscio+sn!ss, 'or ob"io+s (!chanica r!asons,47 (+st a ,ays b! i(it!# to a rath!r s(a 'raction o' (!nta proc!ss. I' +s!'+ at a , it (+st th!r!'or! b! h+sban#!#. :h! +nconscio+sn!ss associat!# ,ith habit is an !cono(y both o' tho+ght an# o' conscio+sn!ssL an# th! sa(! is tr+! o' th! inacc!ssabi ity o' th! proc!ss!s o' p!rc!ption. :h! conscio+s organis( #o!s not r!.+ir! 2'or prag(atic p+rpos!s3 to *no, *o' it p!rc!i"!s ;on y to *no, '*at it p!rc!i"!s. 2:o s+gg!st that ,! (ight op!rat! ,itho+t a 'o+n#ation in pri(ary proc!ss ,o+ # b! to s+gg!st that th! h+(an brain o+ght to b! #i''!r!nt y str+ct+r!#.3 5' th! 'o+r typ!s, on y th! 7r!+#ian c+pboar# 'or s*! !tons is p!rhaps +n#!sirab ! an# co+ # b! ob"iat!#. 0+t th!r! (ay sti b! a#"antag!s in *!!ping th! s*! !ton o'' th! #ining roo( tab !. In tr+th, o+r i'! is s+ch that its +nconscio+s co(pon!nts ar! contin+o+s y pr!s!nt in a th!ir (+ tip ! 'or(s. It 'o o,s that in o+r r! ationships ,! contin+o+s y !-chang! (!ssag!s abo+t th!s! +nconscio+s (at!ria s, an# it b!co(!s i(portant a so to !-chang! (!ta(!ssag!s by ,hich ,! t! !ach oth!r ,hat or#!r an# sp!ci!s o' +nconscio+sn!ss 2or conscio+sn!ss3 attach!s to o+r (!ssag!s. In a (!r! y prag(atic ,ay, this is i(portant b!ca+s! th! or#!rs o' tr+th ar! #i''!r!nt 'or #i''!r!nt sorts o' (!ssag!s. Inso'ar as a (!ssag! is conscio+s an# "o +ntary, it co+ # b! #!c!it'+ . I can t! yo+ that th! cat is on th! (at ,h!n in 'act sh! is not th!r!. I can t! yo+ 9I o"! yo+9 ,h!n in 'act I #o not. 0+t #isco+rs! abo+t r! ationship is co((on y acco(pani!# by a (ass o' s!(i"o +ntary *in!sic an# a+tono(ic signa s ,hich pro"i#! a (or! tr+st,orthy co((!nt on th! "!rba (!ssag!. &i(i ar y ,ith s*i , th! 'act o' s*i in#icat!s th! pr!s!nc! o' arg! +nconscio+s co(pon!nts in th! p!r'or(anc!. It th+s b!co(!s r! !"ant to oo* at any ,or* o' art ,ith th! .+!stion6 8hat co(pon!nts o' this (!ssag! (at!ria ha# ,hat or#!rs o' +nconscio+sn!ss 2or conscio+sn!ss3 'or th! artistD An# this
47 Consi#!r th! i(possibi ity o' constr+cting a t! !"ision s!t ,hich ,o+ # r!port +pon its scr!!n all th! ,or*ings o' its co(pon!nt parts, inc +#ing !sp!cia y thos! parts conc!rn!# in this r!porting.

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.+!stion, I b! i!"!, th! s!nsiti"! critic +s+a y as*s, tho+gh p!rhaps not conscio+s y. Art b!co(!s, in this s!ns!, an !-!rcis! in co((+nicating abo+t th! sp!ci!s o' +nconscio+sn!ss. 5r, i' yo+ pr!'!r it, a sort o' p ay b!ha"ior ,hos! '+nction is, a(ongst oth!r things, to practic! an# (a*! (or! p!r'!ct co((+nication o' this *in#. I a( in#!bt!# to ?r. Anthony 7org! 'or a .+otation 'ro( Isa#ora ?+ncan6 9I' I co+ # t! yo+ ,hat it (!ant, th!r! ,o+ # b! no point in #ancing it.9 E!r stat!(!nt is a(big+o+s. In t!r(s o' th! rath!r "+ gar pr!(is!s o' o+r c+ t+r!, ,! ,o+ # trans at! th! stat!(!nt to (!an6 9:h!r! ,o+ # th!n b! no point in #ancing it, b!Cca+s! I co+ # t! it to yo+, .+ic*!r an# ,ith !ss a(big+ity, in ,or#s.9 :his int!rpr!tation go!s a ong ,ith th! si y i#!a that it ,o+ # b! a goo# thing to b! conscio+s o' !"!rything o' ,hich ,! ar! +nconscio+s. 0+t th!r! is anoth!r possib ! (!aning o' Isa#ora ?+ncanIs r!(ar*6 I' th! (!ssag! ,!r! th! sort o' (!ssag! that co+ # b! co((+nicat!# in ,or#s, th!r! ,o+ # b! no point in #ancing it, b+t it is not that sort o' (!ssag!. It is, in 'act, pr!cis! y th! sort o' (!ssag! ,hich ,o+ # b! 'a si'i!# i' co((+nicat!# in ,or#s, b!ca+s! th! +s! o' ,or#s 2oth!r than po!try3 ,o+ # i(p y that this is a '+ y conscio+s an# "o +ntary (!ssag!, an# this ,o+ # b! si(p y +ntr+!. I b! i!"! that ,hat Isa#ora ?+ncan or any artist is trying to co((+nicat! is (or! i*!6 9:his is a partic+ ar sort o' part y +nconscio+s (!ssag!. @!t +s !ngag! in this partic+ ar sort o' part y +nconscio+s co((+nication.9 5r p!rhaps6 9:his is a (!ssag! abo+t th! int!r'ac! b!t,!!n conscio+s an# +nconscio+s. :h! (!ssag! o' s3ill o' any sort (+st a ,ays b! o' this *in#. :h! s!nsations an# .+a iti!s o' s*i can n!"!r b! p+t in ,or#s, an# y!t th! 'act o' s*i is conscio+s. :h! artistIs #i !((a is o' a p!c+ iar sort. E! (+st practic! in or#!r to p!r'or( th! cra't co(pon!nts o' his Job. 0+t to practic! has a ,ays a #o+b ! !''!ct. It (a*!s hi(, on th! on! han#, (or! ab ! to #o ,hat!"!r it is h! is att!(ptingL an#, on th! oth!r han#, by th! ph!no(!non o' habit 'or(ation, it (a*!s hi( !ss a,ar! o' ho, h! #o!s it. I' his att!(pt is to co((+nicat! abo+t th! +nconscio+s co(pon!nts o' his p!r'or(anc!, th!n it 'o o,s that h! is on a sort o'

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(o"ing stair,ay 2or !sca ator3 abo+t ,hos! position h! is trying to co((+nicat! b+t ,hos! (o"!(!nt is its! ' a '+nction o' his !''orts to co((+nicat!. C !ar y, his tas* is i(possib !, b+t, as has b!!n r!(ar*!#, so(! p!op ! #o it "!ry pr!tti y. %ri#ary %rocess

9:h! h!art has its reasons ,hich th! r!ason #o!s not at a p!rc!i"!.9 A(ong Ang oC&a-ons, it is rath!r +s+a to thin* o' th! 9r!asons9 o' th! h!art or o' th! +nconscio+s as inchoat! 'orc!s or p+sh!s or h!a"ings;,hat 7r!+# ca !# !rie-en. !o $asca , a 7r!nch(an, th! (att!r ,as rath!r #i''!r!nt, an# h! no #o+bt tho+ght o' th! r!asons o' th! h!art as a bo#y o' ogic or co(p+tation as pr!cis! an# co(p !- as th! r!asons o' conscio+sn!ss. 2I ha"! notic!# that Ang oC&a-on anthropo ogists so(!Cti(!s (is+n#!rstan# th! ,ritings o' C a+#! @!"iC&tra+ss 'or pr!cis! y this r!ason. :h!y say h! !(phasi/!s too (+ch th! int! !ct an# ignor!s th! 9'!! ings.9 :h! tr+th is that h! ass+(!s that th! h!art has pr!cis! a gorith(s.3 :h!s! a gorith(s o' th! h!art, or, as th!y say, o' th! +nC conscio+s, ar!, ho,!"!r, co#!# an# organi/!# in a (ann!r tota y #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! a gorith(s o' ang+ag!. An# sinc! a gr!at #!a o' conscio+s tho+ght is str+ct+r!# in t!r(s o' th! ogics o' ang+ag!, th! a gorith(s o' th! +nconscio+s ar! #o+b y inacc!ssib !. It is not on y that th! conscio+s (in# has poor acc!ss to this (at!ria , b+t a so th! 'act that ,h!n s+ch acc!ss is achi!"!#, !.g., in #r!a(s, art, po!try, r! igion, into-ication, an# th! i*!, th!r! is sti a 'or(i#ab ! prob !( o' trans ation. :his is +s+a y !-pr!ss!# in 7r!+#ian ang+ag! by saying that th! op!rations o' th! +nconscio+s ar! str+ct+r!# in t!r(s o' primary process, ,hi ! th! tho+ghts o' conscio+sn!ss 2!sp!cia y "!rba i/!# tho+ghts3 ar! !-pr!ss!# in secondary process. )obo#y, to (y *no, !#g!, *no,s anything abo+t s!con#ary proc!ss. 0+t it is or#inari y ass+(!# that !"!rybo#y *no,s a

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abo+t it, so I sha not att!(pt to #!scrib! s!con#ary proc!ss in any #!tai , ass+(ing that yo+ *no, as (+ch abo+t it as I. $ri(ary proc!ss is charact!ri/!# 2!.g., by 7!nich! 3 as ac*ing n!gati"!s, ac*ing t!ns!, ac*ing in any i#!nti'ication o' ing+istic (oo# 2i.!., no i#!nti'ication o' in#icati"!, s+bJ+ncti"!, optati"!, !tc.3 an# (!taphoric. :h!s! charact!ri/ations ar! bas!# +pon th! !-p!ri!nc! o' psychoana ysts, ,ho (+st int!rpr!t #r!a(s an# th! patt!rns o' 'r!! association. It is a so tr+! that th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' pri(aryCproc!ss #isco+rs! is #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' ang+ag! an# conscio+sn!ss. Conscio+sn!ss ta *s abo+t things or p!rsons, an# attach!s pr!#icat!s to th! sp!ci'ic things or p!rsons ,hich ha"! b!!n (!ntion!#. In pri(ary proc!ss th! things or p!rsons ar! +s+a y not i#!nti'i!#, an# th! 'oc+s o' th! #isco+rs! is +pon th! relations*ips ,hich ar! ass!rt!# to obtain b!t,!!n th!(. :his is r!a y on y anoth!r ,ay o' saying that th! #isco+rs! o' pri(ary proc!ss is (!taphoric. A (!taphor r!tains +nchang!# th! r! ationship ,hich it 9i +strat!s9 ,hi ! s+bstit+ting oth!r things or p!rsons 'or th! r! ata. In a si(i !, th! 'act that a (!taphor is b!ing +s!# is (ar*!# by th! ins!rtion o' th! ,or#s 9as i'9 or 9 i*!.9 In pri(ary proc!ss 2as in art3 th!r! ar! no (ar*!rs to in#icat! to th! conscio+s (in# that th! (!ssag! (at!ria is (!taphoric. 27or a schi/ophr!nic, it is a (aJor st!p to,ar#s a (or! con"!ntiona sanity ,h!n h! can 'ra(! his schi/ophr!nic +tC t!ranc!s or th! co((!nts o' his "oic!s in an 9as i'9 t!r(ino ogy.3 :h! 'oc+s o' 9r! ationship9 is, ho,!"!r, so(!,hat (or! narro, than ,o+ # b! in#icat!# (!r! y by saying that pri(aryCproc!ss (at!ria is (!taphoric an# #o!s not i#!nti'y th! sp!ci'ic r! ata. :h! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' #r!a( an# oth!r pri(aryCproc!ss (at!ria is, in 'act, r! ationship in th! (or! narro, s!ns! o' r! ationship b!t,!!n s! ' an# oth!r p!rsons or b!t,!!n s! ' an# th! !n"iron(!nt. Ang oC&a-ons ,ho ar! +nco('ortab ! ,ith th! i#!a that '!! ings an# !(otions ar! th! o+t,ar# signs o' pr!cis! an# co(p !- a gorith(s +s+a y ha"! to b! to # that th!s! (att!rs, th! r! ationship b!t,!!n s! ' an# oth!rs, an# th! r! ationship b!t,!!n s! ' an# !n"iron(!nt, ar!, in 'act, th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' ,hat ar! ca !# 9'!! ings9; o"!, hat!, '!ar, con'i#!nc!, an-i!ty, hosti ity,

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!tc. It is +n'ort+nat! that th!s! abstractions r!'!rring to patterns o' r! ationship ha"! r!c!i"!# na(!s, ,hich ar! +s+a y han# !# in ,ays that ass+(! that th! 9'!! ings9 ar! (ain y charact!ri/!# by .+antity rath!r than by pr!cis! patt!rn. :his is on! o' th! nons!nsica contrib+tions o' psycho ogy to a #istort!# !pist!(o ogy. 0! a that as it (ay, 'or o+r pr!s!nt p+rpos!s it is i(portant to not! that th! charact!ristics o' pri(ary proc!ss as #!scrib!# abo"! ar! th! in!"itab ! charact!ristics o' any co((+nicationa syst!( b!t,!!n organis(s ,ho (+st +s! on y iconic co((+nication. :his sa(! i(itation is charact!ristic o' th! artist an# o' th! #r!a(!r an# o' th! pr!h+(an (a((a or bir#. 2:h! co((+nication o' ins!cts is, p!rhaps, anCoth!r (att!r.3 In iconic co((+nication, th!r! is no t!ns!, no si(p ! n!gati"!, no (o#a (ar*!r. :h! abs!nc! o' si(p ! n!gati"!s is o' !sp!cia int!r!st b!Cca+s! it o't!n 'orc!s organis(s into saying t*e opposite of '*at t*ey mean in order to get across t*e proposition. t*at t*ey mean t*e opposite of '*at t*ey say. :,o #ogs approach !ach oth!r an# n!!# to !-chang! th! (!ssag!6 98! ar! not going to 'ight.9 0+t th! on y ,ay in ,hich 'ight can b! (!ntion!# in iconic co((+nication is by th! sho,ing o' 'angs. It is th!n n!c!ssary 'or th! #ogs to #isco"!r that this (!ntion o' 'ight ,as, in 'act, on y !-p oratory. :h!y (+st, th!r!'or!, !-p or! ,hat th! sho,ing o' 'angs (!ans. :h!y th!r!'or! !ngag! in a bra, L #isco"!r that n!ith!r + ti(at! y int!n#s to *i th! oth!rL an#, a't!r that, th!y can b! 'ri!n#s. 2Consi#!r th! p!ac!C(a*ing c!r!(onia s o' th! An#a(an Is an#!rs. Consi#!r a so th! '+nctions o' in"!rt!# stat!(!nt or sarcas(, an# oth!r sorts o' h+(or in #r!a(, art, an# (ytho ogy.3 In g!n!ra , th! #isco+rs! o' ani(a s is conc!rn!# ,ith r! aC tionship !ith!r b!t,!!n s! ' an# oth!r or s! ' an# !n"iron(!nt. In n!ith!r cas! is it n!c!ssary to i#!nti'y th! r! ata. Ani(a A t! s 0 abo+t his r! ationship ,ith 0 an# h! t! s C abo+t his r! ationship ,ith C. Ani(a A #o!s not ha"! to t! ani(a C abo+t his r! ationship ,ith 0. A ,ays th! r! ata ar! p!rc!ptib y pr!s!nt to i +strat! th! #isco+rs!, an# a ,ays th! #isco+rs! is iconic in th! s!ns! o' b!ing co(pos!# o' part actions 29int!ntion (o"!(!nts93

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,hich (!ntion th! ,ho ! action ,hich is b!ing (!ntion!#. ="!n ,h!n th! cat as*s yo+ 'or (i *, sh! cannot (!ntion th! obJ!ct ,hich sh! ,ants 2+n !ss it b! p!rc!ptib y pr!s!nt3. &h! says, 9Aa(a, (a(a,9 an# yo+ ar! s+ppos!# 'ro( this in"ocation o' #!C p!n#!ncy to g+!ss that it is (i * that sh! r!.+ir!s. A this in#icat!s that pri(aryCproc!ss tho+ghts an# th! co((+nication o' s+ch tho+ghts to oth!rs ar!, in an !"o +tionary s!ns!, (or! archaic than th! (or! conscio+s op!rations o' ang+ag!, !tc. :his has i(p ications 'or th! ,ho ! !cono(ics an# #yna(ic str+ct+r! o' th! (in#. &a(+! 0+t !r ,as p!rhaps 'irst to point o+t that that ,hich ,! *no, b!st is that o' ,hich ,! ar! !ast conscio+s, i.!., that th! proc!ss o' habit 'or(ation is a sin*ing o' *no, !#g! #o,n to !ss conscio+s an# (or! archaic !"! s. :h! +nconscio+s contains not on y th! pain'+ (att!rs ,hich conscio+sn!ss pr!'!rs to not insp!ct, b+t a so (any (att!rs ,hich ar! so 'a(i iar that ,! #o not n!!# to insp!ct th!(. Eabit, th!r!'or!, is a (aJor !cono(y o' conscio+s tho+ght. 8! can #o things ,itho+t conscio+s y thin*ing abo+t th!(. :h! s*i o' an artist, or rath!r his #!(onstration o' a s*i , b!co(!s a (!ssag! a-out th!s! parts o' his +nconscio+sn!ss. 20+t not p!rhaps a (!ssag! 'ro( th! +nconscio+s.3 0+t th! (att!r is not .+it! so si(p !. &o(! typ!s o' *no, !#g! can con"!ni!nt y b! s+n* to +nconscio+s !"! s, b+t oth!r typ!s (+st b! *!pt on th! s+r'ac!. 0roa# y, ,! can a''or# to sin* thos! sorts o' *no, !#g! ,hich contin+! to b! tr+! r!gar# !ss o' chang!s in th! !n"iron(!nt, b+t ,! (+st (aintain in an acc!ssib ! p ac! a thos! contro s o' b!ha"ior ,hich (+st b! (o#i'i!# 'or !"!ry instanc!. :h! ion can sin* into his +nconscio+s th! proposition that /!bras ar! his nat+ra pr!y, b+t in #!a ing ,ith any partic+ ar /!bra h! (+st b! ab ! to (o#i'y th! (o"!(!nts o' his attac* to 'it ,ith th! partic+ ar t!rrain an# th! partic+ ar !"asi"! tactics o' th! partic+ ar /!bra. :h! !cono(ics o' th! syst!(, in 'act, p+sh!s organis(s to,ar# sin*ing into th! +nconscio+s thos! g!n!ra iti!s o' r! ationship ,hich r!(ain p!r(an!nt y tr+! an# to,ar# *!!ping ,ithin th! conscio+s th! prag(atics o' partic+ ar instanc!s. :h! pr!(is!s (ay, !cono(ica y, b! s+n*, b+t partic+ ar conc +sions (+st b! conscio+s. 0+t th! 9sin*ing,9 tho+gh !coC no(ica , is sti #on! at a pric!;th! pric! o' inacc!ssibi ity. &inc!

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th! !"! to ,hich things ar! s+n* is charact!ri/!# by iconic a gorith(s an# (!taphor, it b!co(!s #i''ic+ t 'or th! organis( to !-a(in! th! (atri- o+t or ,hich his conscio+s conc +sions spring. Con"!rs! y, ,! (ay not! that ,hat is common to a partic+ ar stat!(!nt an# a corr!spon#ing (!taphor is o' a g!n!ra ity appropriat! 'or sin*ing. )!antitati"e *i#its of Conscio!sness

A "!ry bri!' consi#!ration o' th! prob !( sho,s that it is not conc!i"ab y possib ! 'or any syst!( to b! tota y conscio+s. &+ppos! that on th! scr!!n o' conscio+sn!ss th!r! ar! r!ports 'ro( (any parts o' th! tota (in#, an# consi#!r th! a##ition to conscio+sn!ss o' thos! r!ports n!c!ssary to co"!r ,hat is, at a gi"!n stag! o' !"o +tion, not a r!a#y co"!r!#. :his a##ition ,i in"o "! a "!ry gr!at incr!as! in th! circ+it str+ct+r! o' th! brain b+t sti ,i not achi!"! tota co"!rag!. :h! n!-t st!p ,i b! to co"!r th! proc!ss!s an# !"!nts occ+rring in th! circ+it str+ct+r! ,hich ,! ha"! J+st a##!#. An# so on. C !ar y, th! prob !( is inso +b !, an# !"!ry n!-t st!p in th! approach to tota conscio+sn!ss ,i in"o "! a gr!at inCcr!as! in th! circ+itry r!.+ir!#. It 'o o,s that a organis(s (+st b! cont!nt ,ith rath!r itt ! conscio+sn!ss, an# that i' conscio+sn!ss has any +s!'+ '+nctions ,hat!"!r 2,hich has n!"!r b!!n #!(onstrat!# b+t is probab y tr+!3, th!n economy in conscio+sn!ss ,i b! o' th! 'irst i(portanc!. )o organis( can a''or# to b! conscio+s o' (att!rs ,ith ,hich it co+ # #!a at +nconscio+s !"! s. :his is th! !cono(y achi!"!# by habit 'or(ation. )!alitati"e *i#its of Conscio!sness

It is, o' co+rs!, tr+! 'or th! :G s!t that a satis'actory pict+r! on th! scr!!n is an in#ication that (any parts o' th! (achin! ar!

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,or*ing as th!y sho+ #L an# si(i ar consi#!rations app y to th! 9scr!!n9 o' conscio+sn!ss. 0+t ,hat is pro"i#!# is on y a "!ry in#ir!ct r!port o' th! ,or*ing o' a thos! parts. I' th! :G s+''!rs 'ro( a b o,n t+b!, or th! (an 'ro( a stro*!, effects o' this patho ogy (ay b! !"i#!nt !no+gh on th! scr!!n or to conscio+sn!ss, b+t #iagnosis (+st sti b! #on! by an !-p!rt. :his (att!r has b!arings +pon th! nat+r! o' art. :h! :G ,hich gi"!s a #istort!# or oth!r,is! i(p!r'!ct pict+r! is, in a s!ns!, co((+nicating abo+t its +nconscio+s patho ogi!s;!-hibiting its sy(pto(sL an# on! (ay as* ,h!th!r so(! artists ar! not #oing so(!thing si(i ar. 0+t this sti ,onIt #o. It is so(!ti(!s sai# that th! #istortions o' art 2say, "an 1oghIs 9Chair93 ar! #ir!ct y r!pr!s!ntati"! o' ,hat th! artist 9sees.9 I' s+ch stat!(!nts r!'!r to 9s!!ing9 in th! si(p !st physica s!ns! 2!.g., r!(!#iab ! ,ith sp!ctac !s3, I pr!s+(! that th!y ar! nons!ns!. I' "an 1ogh co+ # on y s!! th! chair in that ,i # ,ay, his !y!s ,o+ # not s!r"! prop!r y to g+i#! hi( in th! "!ry acc+rat! p acing o' paint on can"as. An#, con"!rs! y, a photographica y acc+rat! r!pr!s!ntation o' th! chair on th! can"as ,o+ # a so b! s!!n by "an 1ogh in th! ,i # ,ay. 4! ,o+ # s!! no n!!# to #istort th! painting. 0+t s+ppos! ,! say that th! artist is painting to#ay ,hat h! sa, y!st!r#ay;or that h! is painting ,hat h! so(!ho, *no,s that h! mig*t s!!. 9I s!! as ,! as yo+ #o;b+t #o yo+ r!a i/! that this oth!r ,ay o' s!!ing a chair !-ists as a h+(an pot!ntia ityD An# that that pot!ntia ity is a ,ays in yo+ an# in (!D9 Is h! !-hibiting sy(pto(s ,hich h! mig*t ha"!, b!ca+s! th! ,ho ! sp!ctr+( o' psychopatho ogy is possib ! 'or +s a D Into-ication by a coho or #r+gs (ay h! p +s to s!! a #istort!# ,or #, an# th!s! #istortions (ay b! 'ascinating in that ,! r!cogni/! th! #istortions as ours. In &ino pars &eritatis. 8! can b! h+(b !# or aggran#i/!# by r!a i/ing that this, too, is a part o' th! h+(an s! ', a part o' :r+th. 0+t into-ication #o!s not incr!as! s*i ;at b!st it (ay r! !as! s*i pr!"io+s y ac.+ir!#. 8itho+t s*i is no art. Consi#!r th! cas! o' th! (an ,ho go!s to th! b ac*boar# ;or to th! si#! o' his ca"!;an# #ra,s, 'r!!han#, a p!r'!ct r!in#!!r in its post+r! o' thr!at. E! cannot tell you abo+t th! #ra,ing o' th! r!in#!!r 29I' h! co+ #, th!r! ,o+ # b! no point in #ra,ing it93. 9?o

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yo+ *no, that his p!r'!ct ,ay o' s!!ing;an# #ra,ing;a r!in#!!r !-ists as a h+(an pot!ntia ityD9 :h! cons+((at! s*i o' th! #ra'ts(an "a i#at!s th! artistIs (!ssag! abo+t his r! ationship to th! ani(a ;his !(pathy. 2:h!y say th! A ta(ira things ,!r! (a#! 'or sy(path!tic h+nting (agic. 0+t (agic on y n!!#s th! cr+#!st sort o' r!pC r!s!ntations. :h! scra, !# arro,s ,hich #!'ac! th! b!a+ti'+ r!in#!!r (ay ha"! b!!n (agica ;p!rhaps a "+ gar att!(pt to (+r#!r th! artist, i*! (o+stach!s scra, !# on th! Aona @isa.3 The Correcti"e Nat!re of Art

It ,as not!# abo"! that conscio+sn!ss is n!c!ssari y s! !cti"! an# partia , i.!., that th! cont!nt o' conscio+sn!ss is, at b!st, a s(a part o' tr+th abo+t th! s! '. 0+t i' this part b! selected in any syst!(atic (ann!r, it is c!rtain that th! partia tr+ths o' conscio+sn!ss ,i b!, in aggr!gat!, a #istortion o' th! tr+th o' so(! arg!r ,ho !. In th! cas! o' an ic!b!rg, ,! (ay g+!ss, 'ro( ,hat is abo"! s+r'ac!, ,hat sort o' st+'' is b! o,L b+t ,! cannot (a*! th! sa(! sort o' !-trapo ation 'ro( th! cont!nt o' conscio+sn!ss. It is not (!r! y th! s! !cti"ity o' pr!'!r!nc!, ,h!r!by th! s*! !tons acc+(+ at! in th! 7r!+#ian +nconscio+s, that (a*!s s+ch !-trapo ation +nso+n#. &+ch a s! !ction by pr!'!r!nc! ,o+ # on y pro(ot! opti(is(. 8hat is s!rio+s is th! crossc+tting o' th! circ+itry o' th! (in#. I', as ,! (+st b! i!"!, th! tota (in# is an int!grat!# n!t,or* 2o' propositions, i(ag!s, proc!ss!s, n!+ra patho ogy, or ,hat ha"! yo+ ;accor#ing to ,hat sci!nti'ic ang+ag! yo+ pr!'!r to +s!3, an# i' th! cont!nt o' conscio+sn!ss is on y a sa(p ing o' #i''!r!nt parts an# oca iti!s in this n!tC,or*L th!n, in!"itab y, th! conscio+s "i!, o' th! n!t,or* as a ,ho ! is a (onstro+s #!nia o' th! integration o' that ,ho !. 7ro( th! c+tting o' conscio+sn!ss, ,hat app!ars abo"! th! s+r'ac! is arcs o' circ+its inst!a# o' !ith!r th! co(p !t! circ+its or th! arg!r co(p !t! circ+its o' circ+its. 8hat th! +nai#!# conscio+sn!ss 2+nai#!# by art, #r!a(s, an# th! i*!3 can n!"!r appr!ciat! is th! systemic nat+r! o' (in#.

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:his notion can con"!ni!nt y b! i +strat!# by an ana ogy6 th! i"ing h+(an bo#y is a co(p !-, cyb!rn!tica y int!grat!# syst!(. :his syst!( has b!!n st+#i!# by sci!ntists;(ost y (!#ica (!n; 'or (any y!ars. 8hat th!y no, *no, abo+t th! bo#y (ay apt y b! co(par!# ,ith ,hat th! +nai#!# conscio+sn!ss *no,s abo+t th! (in#. 0!ing #octors, th!y ha# p+rpos!s6 to c+r! this an# that. :h!ir r!s!arch !''orts ,!r! th!r!'or! 'oc+s!# 2as att!ntion 'oc+s!s th! conscio+sn!ss3 +pon thos! short trains o' ca+sa ity ,hich th!y co+ # (anip+ at!, by (!ans o' #r+gs or oth!r int!r"!ntion, to corr!ct (or! or !ss sp!ci'ic an# i#!nti'iab ! stat!s or sy(pto(s. 8h!n!"!r th!y #isco"!r!# an !''!cti"! 9c+r!9 'or so(!thing, r!s!arch in that ar!a c!as!# an# att!ntion ,as #ir!ct!# ! s!,h!r!. 8! can no, pr!"!nt po io, b+t nobo#y *no,s (+ch (or! abo+t th! syst!(ic asp!cts o' that 'ascinating #is!as!. 4!s!arch on it has c!as!# or is, at b!st, con'in!# to i(pro"ing th! "accin!s. 0+t a bag o' tric*s 'or c+ring or pr!"!nting a ist o' sp!ci'i!# #is!as!s pro"i#!s no o"!ra 'isdom. :h! !co ogy an# pop+ ation #yna(ics o' th! sp!ci!s has b!!n #isr+pt!#L parasit!s ha"! b!!n (a#! i((+n! to antibioticsL th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (oth!r an# n!onat! has b!!n a (ost #!stroy!#L an# so on. Charact!ristica y, !rrors occ+r ,h!r!"!r th! a t!r!# ca+sa chain is part o' so(! arg! or s(a circ+it str+ct+r! o' syst!(. An# th! r!(ain#!r o' o+r t!chno ogy 2o' ,hich (!#ica sci!nc! is on y a part3 bi#s 'air to #isr+pt th! r!st o' o+r !co ogy. :h! point, ho,!"!r, ,hich I a( trying to (a*! in this pap!r is not an attac* on (!#ica sci!nc! b+t a #!(onstration o' an in!"itab ! 'act6 that (!r! p+rposi"! rationa ity +nai#!# by s+ch ph!no(!na as art, r! igion, #r!a(, an# th! i*!, is n!c!ssari y pathog!nic an# #!str+cti"! o' i'!L an# that its "ir+ !nc! springs sp!ci'ica y 'ro( th! circ+(stanc! that i'! #!p!n#s +pon int!r oc*ing circuits o' conting!ncy, ,hi ! conscio+sn!ss can s!! on y s+ch short arcs o' s+ch circ+its as h+(an p+rpos! (ay #ir!ct. In a ,or#, th! +nai#!# conscio+sn!ss (+st a ,ays in"o "! (an in th! sort o' st+pi#ity o' ,hich !"o +tion ,as g+i ty ,h!n sh! +rg!# +pon th! #inosa+rs th! co((onCs!ns! "a +!s o' an ar(a(!nts rac!. &h! in!"itab y r!a i/!# h!r (ista*! a (i ion y!ars at!r an# ,ip!# th!( o+t.

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%nai#!# conscio+sn!ss (+st a ,ays t!n# to,ar# hat!L not on y b!ca+s! it is goo# co((on s!ns! to !-t!r(inat! th! oth!r '! o,, b+t 'or th! (or! pro'o+n# r!ason that, s!!ing on y arcs o' circ+its, th! in#i"i#+a is contin+a y s+rpris!# an# n!c!ssari y ang!r!# ,h!n his har#h!a#!# po ici!s r!Ct+rn to p ag+! th! in"!ntor. I' yo+ +s! ??: to *i ins!cts, yo+ (ay s+cc!!# in r!#+cing th! ins!ct pop+ ation so 'ar that th! ins!cti"or!s ,i star"!. Fo+ ,i th!n ha"! to +s! (or! ??: than b!C'or! to *i th! ins!cts ,hich th! bir#s no ong!r !at. Aor! probab y, yo+ ,i *i o'' th! bir#s in th! 'irst ro+n# ,h!n th!y !at th! poison!# ins!cts. I' th! ??: *i s o'' th! #ogs, yo+ ,i ha"! to ha"! (or! po ic! to *!!p #o,n th! b+rg ars. :h! b+rg ars ,i b!co(! b!tt!r ar(!# an# (or! c+nning ... an# so on. :hat is th! sort o' ,or # ,! i"! in;a ,or # o' circ+it str+ct+r!s ;an# o"! can s+r"i"! on y i' ,is#o( 2i.!., a s!ns! or r!cognition o' th! 'act o' circ+itry3 has an !''!cti"! "oic!. 8hat has b!!n sai# so 'ar propos!s .+!stions abo+t any partic+ ar ,or* o' art so(!,hat #i''!r!nt 'ro( thos! ,hich ha"! b!!n con"!ntiona y as*!# by anthropo ogists. :h! 9c+ t+r! an# p!rsona ity schoo ,9 'or !-a(p !, has tra#itiona y +s!# pi!c!s o' art or rit+a as sa(p !s or prob!s to r!"!a partic+ ar psycho ogica th!(!s or stat!s. :h! .+!stion has b!!n6 ?o!s th! art t! +s abo+t ,hat sort o' p!rson (a#! itD 0+t i' art, as s+gg!st!# abo"!, has a positi"! '+nction in (aintaining ,hat I ca !# 9,is#o(,9 i.!., in corr!cting a too p+rposi"! "i!, o' i'! an# (a*ing th! "i!, (or! syst!(ic, th!n th! .+!stion to b! as*!# o' th! gi"!n ,or* o' art b!co(!s6 8hat sorts o' corr!ction in th! #ir!ction o' ,is#o( ,o+ # b! achi!"!# by cr!ating or "i!,ing this ,or* o' artD :h! .+!stion b!co(!s #yna(ic rath!r than static. Analysis of Balinese %aintin&

:+rning no, 'ro( th! consi#!ration o' !pist!(o ogy to a sp!ci'ic art sty !, ,! not! 'irst ,hat is (ost g!n!ra an# (ost ob"io+s.

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8ith a (ost no !-c!ptions, th! b!ha"iors ca !# art or th!ir pro#+cts 2a so ca !# art3 ha"! t,o charact!ristics6 th!y r!.+ir! or !-hibit s3ill, an# th!y contain r!#+n#ancy or patt!rn. 0+t thos! t,o charact!ristics ar! not s!parat!6 th! s*i is 'irst in (aintaining an# th!n in (o#+ ating th! r!#+n#anci!s. :h! (att!r is p!rhaps (ost c !ar ,h!r! th! s*i is that o' th! Jo+rn!y(an an# th! r!#+n#ancy is o' co(parati"! y o, or#!r. 7or !-a(p !, in th! 0a in!s! painting by I#a 0ag+s ?Jati &+ra o' th! "i ag! o' 0at+an, 1937 an# in a (ost a painting o' th! 0at+an schoo , s*i o' a c!rtain ! !(!ntary b+t high y #iscip in!# sort ,as !-!rcis!# or practic!# in th! bac*gro+n# o' 'o iag!. :h! r!#+n#anci!s to b! achi!"!# in"o "! rath!r +ni'or( an# rhyth(ica r!p!tition o' !a' 'or(s, b+t this r!#+n#ancy is, so to sp!a*, 'ragi !. It ,o+ # b! bro*!n or int!rr+pt!# by s(+#g!s or irr!g+ ariti!s o' si/! or ton! in th! painting o' th! s+cc!ssi"! !a"!s. 8h!n a 0at+an artist oo*s at th! ,or* o' anoth!r, on! o' th! 'irst things h! !-a(in!s is th! t!chni.+! o' th! !a'y bac*gro+n#. :h! !a"!s ar! 'irst #ra,n, in 'r!! o+t in! in p!nci L th!n !ach o+t in! is tight y r!#!'in!# ,ith p!n an# b ac* in*. 8h!n this has b!!n #on! 'or a th! !a"!s, th! artist b!gins to paint ,ith br+sh an# Chin!s! in*. =ach !a' is co"!r!# ,ith a pa ! ,ash. 8h!n th!s! ,ash!s ar! #ry, !ach !a' r!c!i"!s a s(a !r conc!ntric ,ash an# a't!r this anoth!r sti s(a !r, an# so on. :h! 'ina r!s+ t is a !a' ,ith an a C (ost ,hit! ri( insi#! th! in*!# o+t in!, an# s+cc!ssi"! st!ps o' #ar*!r an# #ar*!r co or to,ar# th! c!nt!r o' th! !a'. A 9goo#9 pict+r! has +p to 'i"! or si- s+ch s+cc!ssi"! ,ash!s on !"!ry !a'. 2:his partic+ ar painting is not "!ry 9goo#9 in this s!ns!. :h! !a"!s ar! #on! in on y thr!! or 'o+r st!ps.3 :h! s*i an# th! patt!rning so 'ar #isc+ss!# #!p!n# +pon (+sc+ ar rot! an# (+sc+ ar acc+racy;achi!"ing th! p!rhaps not n!g igib ! artistic !"! o' a ,! C ai# o+t 'i! # o' t+rnips. I ,as ,atching a "!ry gi't!# A(!rican carp!nt!rCarchit!ct at ,or* on th! ,oo#,or* o' a ho+s! h! ha# #!sign!#. I co((!nt!# on th! s+r!n!ss an# acc+racy o' !ach st!p. E! sai#, 95h, that. :hatIs on y i*! +sing a typ!,rit!r. Fo+ ha"! to b! ab ! to #o that ,itho+t thin*ing.9 0+t on top o' this !"! o' r!#+n#ancy is anoth!r. :h! +ni'or(ity o' th! o,!rC !"! r!#+n#ancy (+st b! (o#+ at!# to gi"! high!r

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or#!rs o' r!#+n#ancy. :h! !a"!s in on! ar!a (+st b! different 'ro( th! !a"!s in anoth!r ar!a, an# th!s! differences (+st b! in so(! ,ay (+t+a y r!#+n#ant6 th!y (+st b! part o' a arg!r patt!rn. In#!!#, th! '+nction an# n!c!ssity o' th! 'irstC !"! contro is pr!cis! y to (a*! th! s!con# !"! possib !. :h! p!rc!i"!r o' th! ,or* o' art (+st r!c!i"! in'or(ation that th! artist can paint a +ni'or( ar!a o' !a"!s b!ca+s! ,itho+t this in'or(ation h! ,i not b! ab ! to acc!pt as signi'icant th! "ariations in that +ni'or(ity. 5n y th! "io inist ,ho can contro th! .+a ity o' his not!s can +s! "ariations o' that .+a ity 'or (+sica p+rpos!s. :his princip ! is basic an# acco+nts, I s+gg!st, 'or th! a (ost +ni"!rsa in*ag! in a!sth!tics b!t,!!n s*i an# patt!rn. :h! !-c!ptions;!.g., th! c+ t o' nat+ra an#scap!s, 9'o+n# obJ!cts,9 in*b ots, scatt!rgra(s, an# th! ,or*s o' Jac*son $o oc*;s!!( to !-!(p i'y th! sa(! r+ ! in r!"!rs!. In th!s! cas!s, a arg!r patt!rning s!!(s to propos! th! i +sion that th! #!tai s (+st ha"! b!!n contro !#. Int!rC(!#iat! cas!s a so occ+r6 !.g., in 0a in!s! car"ing, th! nat+ra grain o' th! ,oo# is rath!r 'r!.+!nt y +s!# to s+gg!st #!Ctai s o' th! 'or( or s+r'ac! o' th! s+bJ!ct. In th!s! cas!s, th! s*i i!s not in th! #ra'ts(anship o' th! #!tai s, b+t in th! artistIs p ac!(!nt o' his #!sign ,ithin th! thr!!C#i(!nsiona str+ct+r! o' th! ,oo#. A sp!cia 9!''!ct9 is achi!"!#, not by th! (!r! r!pr!s!ntationa is(, b+t by th! p!rc!i"!rIs partia a,ar!n!ss that a physica syst!( ot*er than that o' #ra'ts(anCship has contrib+t!# to #!t!r(in! his p!rc!ption. 8! no, t+rn to (or! co(p !- (att!rs, sti conc!ntrating att!ntion +pon th! (ost ob"io+s an# ! !(!ntary. Co#position

213 :h! #! in!ation o' !a"!s an# oth!r 'or(s #o!s not r!ach to th! !#g! o' th! pict+r! b+t sha#!s o'' into #ar*n!ss so that a (ost a aro+n# th! r!ctang ! th!r! is a ban# o' +n#i''!r!ntiat!# #ar* pig(!nt. In oth!r ,or#s, th! pict+r! is 'ra(!# ,ithin its o,n 'a#!C o+t. 8! ar! a o,!# to '!! that th! (att!r is in so(! s!ns! 9o+t o'

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this ,or #9L an# this in spit! o' th! 'act that th! sc!n! #!pict!# is 'a(i iar;th! starting o+t o' a cr!(ation proc!ssion. 223 :h! pict+r! is filled. :h! co(position !a"!s no op!n spac!s. )ot on y is non! o' th! pap!r !'t +npaint!#, b+t no consi#!rab ! ar!a is !'t in +ni'or( ,ash. :h! arg!st s+ch ar!as ar! th! "!ry #ar* patch!s at th! botto( b!t,!!n th! !gs o' th! (!n. :o 5cci#!nta !y!s, this gi"!s an !''!ct o' 9'+ssin!ss.9 :o psychiatric !y!s, th! !''!ct is o' 9an-i!ty9 or 9co(p+ si"ity.9 8! ar! a 'a(i iar ,ith th! strang! oo* o' thos! !tt!rs 'ro( cran*s, ,ho '!! that th!y (+st 'i th! pag!. 233 0+t b!'or! trying too 'ast to #iagnos! or !"a +at!, ,! ha"! to not! that th! co(position o' th! o,!r ha ' o' th! pict+r!, apart 'ro( this 'i ing o' bac*gro+n# spac!, is t+rb+ !nt. )ot (!r! y a #!piction o' acti"! 'ig+r!s, b+t a s,ir ing co(position (o+nting +p,ar#s an# c os!# o'' by th! contrasting #ir!ction o' th! g!st+r!s o' th! (!n at th! top o' th! pyra(i#. :h! +pp!r ha ' o' th! pict+r!, in contrast, is s!r!n!. In#!!#, th! !''!ct o' th! p!r'!ct y ba anc!# ,o(!n ,ith o''!rings on th!ir h!a#s is so s!r!n! that, at 'irst g anc!, it app!ars that th! (!n ,ith (+sica instr+(!nts (+st s+r! y b! sitting. 2:h!y ar! s+ppos!# to b! (o"ing in proc!ssion.3 0+t this co(positiona str+ct+r! is th! r!"!rs! o' th! +s+a 5cci#!nta . 8! !-p!ct th! o,!r part o' a pict+r! to b! th! (or! stab ! an# !-p!ct to s!! action an# (o"!(!nt in th! +pp!r part;i' any,h!r!. 243 At this point, it is appropriat! to !-a(in! th! pict+r! as a s!-+a p+n an#, in this conn!ction, th! int!rna !"i#!nc! 'or s!-+a r!'!r!nc! is at !ast as strong as it is in th! cas! o' th! :angaroa 'ig+r! #isc+ss!# by @!ach. A yo+ ha"! to #o is to s!t yo+r (in# in th! corr!ct post+r! an# yo+ ,i s!! an !nor(o+s pha ic obJ!ct 2th! cr!(ation to,!r3 ,ith t,o ! !phantsI h!a#s at th! bas!. :his obJ!ct (+st pass thro+gh a narro, !ntranc! into a s!r!n! co+rtyar# an# th!nc! on,ar# an# +p,ar# thro+gh a sti (or! narro, passag!,ay. Aro+n# th! bas! o' th! pha ic obJ!ct yo+ s!! a t+rb+ !nt (ass o' ho(+nc+ i, a cro,# in ,hich 8as non! ,ho ,o+ # b! 'or!(ost :o !a# s+ch #ir! attac*L

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0+t thos! b!hin# cri!# 97or,ar#O9 An# thos! b!'or! cri!# 90ac*O9 An# i' yo+ ar! so (in#!#, yo+ ,i 'in# that Aaca+ ayIs po!( abo+t ho, Eorati+s *!pt th! bri#g! is no !ss s!-+a than th! pr!s!nt pict+r!. :h! ga(! o' s!-+a int!rpr!tation is !asy i' yo+ ,ant to p ay it. )o #o+bt th! sna*! in th! tr!! Z to th! !'t o' th! pict+r! co+ # a so b! ,o"!n into th! s!-+a story. It is sti possib !, ho,!"!r, that so(!thing is a##!# to o+r +n#!rstan#ing o' a ,or* o' art by th! hypoth!sis that th! s+bJ!ct (att!r is #o+b !6 that th! pict+r! r!pr!s!nts both th! start o' a cr!(ation proc!ssion an# a pha +s ,ith "agina. 8ith a itt ! i(agination, ,! co+ # a so s!! th! pict+r! as a sy(bo ic r!pr!s!ntation o' 0a in!s! socia organi/ation in ,hich th! s(ooth r! ations o' !ti.+!tt! an# gai!ty (!taphorica y co"!r th! t+rb+ !nc! o' passion. An#, o' co+rs!, 9Eorati+s9 is "!ry !"i#!nt y an i#!a i/!# (yth o' nin!t!!nthCc!nt+ry i(p!ria =ng an#. It is probab y an !rror to thin* o' #r!a(, (yth, an# art as b!ing abo+t any on! (att!r oth!r than r! ationship. As ,as (!ntion!# !ar i!r, #r!a( is (!taphoric an# is not partic+ ar y abo+t th! r! ata (!ntion!# in th! #r!a(. In th! con"!ntiona int!rpr!tation o' #r!a(, anoth!r s!t o' r! ata, o't!n s!-+a , is s+bstit+t!# 'or th! s!t in th! #r!a(. 0+t p!rhaps by #oing this ,! on y cr!at! anoth!r #r!a(. :h!r! in#!!# is no a priori r!ason 'or s+pposing that th! s!-+a r! ata ar! any (or! pri(ary or basic than any oth!r s!t. In g!n!ra , artists ar! "!ry +n,i ing to acc!pt int!rpr!tations o' this sort, an# it is not c !ar that th!ir obJ!ction is to th! s!-+a nat+r! o' th! int!rpr!tation. 4ath!r, it s!!(s that rigi# 'oc+sing +pon any sing ! s!t o' r! ata #!stroys 'or th! artist th! (or! pro'o+n# signi'icanc! o' th! ,or*. I' th! pict+r! ,!r! only abo+t s!- or only abo+t socia organi/ation, it ,o+ # b! tri"ia . It is nontri"ia or pro'o+n# pr!cis! y b!ca+s! it is abo+t s!- an# socia organi/ation an# cr!(ation, an# oth!r things. In a ,or#, it is on y abo+t r!C ationship an# not abo+t any i#!nti'iab ! r! ata. 253 It is appropriat! th!n to as* ho, th! artist has han# !# th! i#!nti'ication o' his s+bJ!ct (att!r ,ithin th! pict+r!. 8! not! 'irst that th! cr!(ation to,!r ,hich occ+pi!s a (ost on!Cthir# o' th! pict+r! is a (ost in"isib !. It #o!s not stan# o+t against its

160

bac*gro+n# as it sho+ # i' th! artist ,ant!# to ass!rt +n!.+i"oca y 9this is a cr!(ation.9 )otab y a so, th! co''in, ,hich (ight b! !-p!ct!# to b! a 'oca point, is appropriat! y p ac!# J+st b! o, th! c!nt!r b+t !"!n so #o!s not catch th! !y!. In 'act, th! artist has ins!rt!# #!tai s ,hich ab! th! pict+r! as a cr!(ation sc!n! b+t th!s! #!tai s b!co(! a (ost ,hi(sica asi#!s, i*! th! sna*! an# th! itt ! bir#s in th! tr!!s. :h! ,o(!n ar! carrying th! rit+a y corr!ct o''!rings on th!ir h!a#s, an# t,o (!n appropriat! y bring ba(boo contain!rs o' pa ( to##y, b+t th!s! #!tai s, too, ar! on y ,hi(sica y a##!#. :h! artist p ays #o,n th! s+bJ!ct i#!nti'ication an# th!r!by gi"!s (aJor str!ss to th! contrast b!t,!!n th! t+rb+ !nt an# th! s!r!n! (!ntion!# in 3, abo"!. 263 In s+(, it is (y opinion that th! cr+- o' th! pict+r! is th! int!r,o"!n contrast b!t,!!n th! s!r!n! an# th! t+rb+ !nt. An# a si(i ar contrast or co(bination ,as a so pr!s!nt, as ,! ha"! s!!n, in th! painting o' th! !a"!s. :h!r!, too, an !-+b!rant 'r!!#o( ,as o"!r ai# by pr!cision. In t!r(s o' this conc +sion, I can no, att!(pt an ans,!r to th! .+!stion pos!# abo"!6 8hat sorts o' corr!ction, in th! #ir!ction o' syst!(ic ,is#o(, co+ # b! achi!"!# by cr!ating or "i!,ing this ,or* o' artD In 'ina ana ysis, th! pict+r! can b! s!!n as an a''ir(ation that to choos! !ith!r t+rb+ !nc! or s!r!nity as a h+(an p+rpos! ,o+ # b! a "+ gar !rror. :h! conc!i"ing an# cr!ating o' th! pict+r! (+st ha"! pro"i#!# an !-p!ri!nc! ,hich !-pos!# this !rror. :h! +nity an# int!gration o' th! pict+r! ass!rt that n!ith!r o' th!s! contrasting po !s can b! chos!n to th! !-c +sion o' th! oth!r, b!ca+s! th! po !s ar! (+t+a y #!p!n#!nt. :his pro'o+n# an# g!n!ra tr+th is si(+ tan!o+s y ass!rt!# 'or th! 'i! #s o' s!-, socia organi/ation, an# #!ath.

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Co((ent on Pa&t II
&inc! 8or # 8ar II, it has b!!n 'ashionab ! to !ngag! in 9int!r#iscip inary9 r!s!arch, an# this +s+a y (!ans, 'or !-a(p !, that an !co ogist ,i n!!# a g!o ogist to t! hi( abo+t th! roc*s an# soi s o' th! partic+ ar t!rrain ,hich h! is in"!stigating. 0+t th!r! is anoth!r s!ns! in ,hich sci!nti'ic ,or* (ay c ai( to b! int!r#iscip inary. :h! (an ,ho st+#i!s th! arrang!(!nt o' !a"!s an# branch!s in th! gro,th o' a ' o,!ring p ant (ay not! an ana ogy b!t,!!n th! 'or(a r! ations b!t,!!n st!(s, !a"!s, an# b+#s, an# th! 'or(a r! ations that obtain b!t,!!n #i''!r!nt sorts o' ,or#s in a s!nt!nc!. E! ,i thin* o' a 9 !a'9 not as so(!thing ' at an# gr!!n b+t as so(!thing r! at!# in a partic+ ar ,ay to th! st!( 'ro( ,hich it gro,s an# to th! s!con#ary st!( 2or b+#3 ,hich is 'or(!# in th! ang ! b!t,!!n !a' an# pri(ary st!(. &i(i ar y th! (o#!rn ing+ist thin*s o' a 9no+n9 not as th! 9na(! o' a p!rson, p ac!, or thing,9 b+t as a (!(b!r o' a c ass o' ,or#s #!C'in!# by th!ir relations*ip in s!nt!nc! str+ct+r! to 9"!rbs9 an# oth!r parts. :hos! ,ho thin* 'irst o' th! 9things9 ,hich ar! r! at!# 2th! 9r! ata93 ,i #is(iss any ana ogy b!t,!!n gra((ar an# th! anato(y o' p ants as 'arC'!tch!#. A't!r a , a !a' an# a no+n #o not at a r!s!(b ! !ach oth!r in o+t,ar# app!aranc!. 0+t i' ,! thin* 'irst o' th! r! ationships an# consi#!r th! r! ata as #!'in!# so ! y by th!ir r! ationships, th!n ,! b!gin to ,on#!r. Is th!r! a pro'o+n# ana ogy b!t,!!n gra((ar an# anato(yD Is th!r! an int!r#iscip inary sci!nc! ,hich sho+ # conc!rn its! ' ,ith s+ch ana ogi!sD 8hat ,o+ # s+ch a sci!nc! c ai( as its s+bJ!ct (att!rD An# ,hy sho+ # ,! !-p!ct s+ch 'arC' +ng ana ogi!s to ha"! signi'icanc!D In #!a ing ,ith any ana ogy, it is i(portant to #!'in! !-act y ,hat is c ai(!# ,h!n ,! say that th! ana ogy is (!aning'+ . In th! pr!s!nt !-a(p !, it is not c ai(!# that a no+n sho+ # oo* i*! a !a'. It is not !"!n c ai(!# that th! r! ation b!t,!!n !a' an# st!( is th! sa(! as th! r! ation b!t,!!n no+n an# "!rb. 8hat is c ai(!# is, 'irst, that in both anato(y an# gra((ar th! parts ar! to b! c assi'i!#

162

accor#ing to th! r! ations b!t,!!n th!(. In both 'i! #s, th! relations ar! to b! tho+ght o' as so(!ho, pri(ary, th! r! ata as s!con#ary. 0!yon# this, it is c ai(!# that th! r! ations ar! o' th! sort g!n!rat!# by proc!ss!s o' in'or(ation !-Cchang!. In oth!r ,or#s, th! (yst!rio+s an# po y(orphic r! ation b!t,!!n conte.t an# content obtains in both anato(y an# ing+isticsL an# !"o +tionists o' th! nin!t!!nth c!nt+ry, pr!occ+pi!# ,ith ,hat ,!r! ca !# 9ho(o ogi!s,9 ,!r!, in 'act, st+#ying pr!cis! y th! cont!-t+a str+ct+r!s o' bio ogica #!"! op(!nt. A o' this sp!c+ ation b!co(!s a (ost p atit+#! ,h!n ,! r!a i/! that both gra((ar an# bio ogica str+ct+r! ar! pro#+cts o' co((+nicationa an# organi/ationa proc!ss. :h! anato(y o' th! p ant is a co(p !- trans'or( o' g!notypic instr+ctions, an# th! 9 ang+ag!9 o' th! g!n!s, i*! any oth!r ang+ag!, (+st o' n!c!ssity ha"! cont!-t+a str+ct+r!. Aor!Co"!r, in a co((+nication, th!r! (+st b! a r! !"anc! b!t,!!n th! cont!-t+a str+ct+r! o' th! (!ssag! an# so(! str+ct+ring o' th! r!cipi!nt. :h! tiss+!s o' th! p ant co+ # not 9r!a#9 th! g!notypic instr+ctions carri!# in th! chro(oso(!s o' !"!ry c! +n !ss c! an# tiss+! !-ist, at that gi"!n (o(!nt, in a cont!-t+a str+ct+r!. 8hat has b!!n sai# abo"! ,i s!r"! as s+''ici!nt #!'inition o' ,hat is h!r! (!ant by 9'or( an# patt!rn.9 :h! 'oc+s o' #isc+ssion ,as +pon 'or( rath!r than cont!nt, +pon cont!-t rath!r than +pon ,hat occ+rs 9in9 th! gi"!n conCt!-t, +pon r! ationship rath!r than +pon th! r! at!# p!rCsons or ph!no(!na. :h! !ssays inc +#!# rang! 'ro( a #isc+ssion o' 9schis(og!n!sis9 219353 to t,o !ssays ,ritt!n a't!r th! birth o' cyb!rn!tics. In 1935, I c!rtain y ha# not c !ar y grasp!# th! c!ntra i(portanc! o' 9cont!-t.9 I tho+ght that th! proc!ss!s o' schisC (og!n!sis ,!r! i(portant an# nontri"ia b!ca+s! in th!( I s!!(!# to s!! !"o +tion at ,or*6 i' int!raction b!t,!!n p!rsons co+ # +n#!rgo progr!ssi"! .+a itati"! chang! as inCt!nsity incr!as!#, th!n s+r! y this co+ # b! th! "!ry st+'' o' c+ t+ra !"o +tion. It 'o o,!# that a #ir!ctiona chang!, !"!n in bio ogica !"o +tion an# phy og!ny, (ight;or (+st ;b! #+! to progr!ssi"! int!raction b!t,!!n organis(s. %n#!r nat+ra s! !ction, s+ch chang! in r! ationships ,o+ # 'a"or progr!ssi"! chang! in anato(y an# physio ogy.

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:h! progr!ssi"! incr!as! in si/! an# ar(a(!nt o' th! #inosa+rs ,as, as I sa, it, si(p y an int!racti"! ar(a(!nts rac!;a schis(og!nic proc!ss. 0+t I co+ # not th!n s!! that th! !"o +tion o' th! hors! 'ro( o * i p p u s ,as not a on!Csi#!# a#J+st(!nt to i'! on grassy p ains. &+r! y th! grassy p ains th!(s! "!s ,!r! !"o "!# pari passe ,ith th! !"o +tion o' th! t!!th an# hoo"!s o' th! hors!s an# oth!r +ng+ at!s. :+r' ,as th! !"o "ing r!spons! o' th! "!g!tation to th! !"o +tion o' th! hors!. It is th! conte.t ,hich !"o "!s. :h! c assi'ication o' schis(og!nic proc!ss into 9sy((!trica 9 an# 9co(p !(!ntary9 ,as a r!a#y a c assi'ication o' conCt!-ts o' b!ha"iorL an#, a r!a#y in this !ssay, th!r! is a proposa to !-(in! th! possib ! co(binations o' th!(!s in co(p !(!ntary b!ha"ior. 0y 1942, I ha# co(p !t! y 'orCgott!n this o # proposa , b+t I att!(pt!# to #o pr!cis! y ,hat I ha# propos!# s!"!n y!ars pr!"io+s y. In 1942 (any o' +s ,!r! int!r!st!# in 9nationa charact!r9 an# th! conC, trast b!t,!!n =ng an# an# A(!rica 'ort+nat! y bro+ght into 'oc+s th! 'act that 9sp!ctatorship9 is in =ng an# a 'i ia charact!ristic, in*!# ,ith #!p!n#!ncy an# s+b(ission, ,hi ! in A(!rica sp!ctatorship is a par!nta charact!ristic in*!# ,ith #o(inanc! an# s+ccoring. :his hypoth!sis, ,hich I ca !# 9!n#C in*ag!, 9 (ar*!# a t+rning point in (y thin*ing. 7ro( that ti(! on, I ha"! conscio+s y 'oc+s!# +pon th! .+a itati"! str+ct+r! o' conCt!-ts rath!r than +pon int!nsity o' int!raction. Abo"! a , th! ph!no(!na o' !n#C in*ag! sho,!# that cont!-t+a str+ct+r!s co+ # th!(s! "!s b! messages7an i(portant point ,hich is not (a#! in th! 1942 artic !. An =ng ish(an ,h!n h! is app a+#ing anoth!r is in#icating or signa ing pot!ntia s+b(ission an#Kor #!p!n#!ncyL ,h!n h! sho,s o'' or #!(an#s sp!ctatorship, h! is signa ing. #o(inanc! or s+p!riorityL an# so on. ="!ry =ng ish(an ,ho ,rit!s a boo* (+st b! g+i ty o' this. 7or th! A(!rican, th! con"!rs! (+st ho #. Eis boasting is b+t a bi# 'or .+asipar!nta apC pro"a . :h! notion o' cont!-t r!app!ars in th! !ssay 9&ty !, 1rac!, an# In'or(ation in $ri(iti"! Art,9 b+t h!r! th! i#!a o' cont!-t has !"o "!# to (!!t th! r! at!# i#!as o' 9r!#+n#ancy,9 9patt!rn,9 an# 9(!aning.9

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Part III: Form and Pathology in Relationship

Social Planning and the Concept of Deutero-Learning


@!t (! ta*! as 'oc+s 'or this co((!nt th! ast it!(1 in ?r. A!a#Is s+((ary o' h!r pap!r. :o th! ay(an ,ho has not occ+pi!# hi(s! ' ,ith th! co(parati"! st+#y o' h+(an c+ t+r!s, this r!co((!n#ation (ay app!ar strang!L it (ay app!ar to b! an !thica or phi osophica para#o-, a s+gg!stion that ,! #iscar# p+rpos! in
H :hisC artic ! ,as (y co((!nt on Aargar!t A!a#Is artic ! 9:h! Co(parati"! &t+#y o' C+ t+r! an# th! $+rposi"! C+ ti"ation o' ?!(ocratic Ga +!s,9 p+b ish!# as Chapt!r IG o' Science, 6*ilosop*y and $eligion, Second Symposium, copyright 1942 by th! Con'!r!nc! on &ci!nc!, $hi osophy an# 4! igion, )!, For*. It is h!r! r!print!# by p!r(ission o' th! Con'!r!nc! an# o' Earp!r X 4o,, Inc. I ha"! ita ici/!# a par!nth!sis in 'ootnot! 5 ,hich pr!C'ig+r!s th! conc!pt o' th! 9#o+b ! bin#.9 1 ?r. A!a# ,rit!s6 9. . thos! st+#!nts ,ho ha"! #!C"ot!# th!(s! "!s to st+#ying c+ t+r!s as ,ho !s, as syst!(s o' #yna(ic !.+i ibri+(, can (a*! th! 'o o,ing contrib+tions 6 . . . 94. I(p !(!nt p ans 'or a t!ring o+r pr!s!nt c+ t+r! by r!cogni/ing th! i(portanc! o' inc +#ing th! socia sci!ntist 'it*in his !-p!ri(!nta (at!ria , an# by r!cogni/ing that by ,or*ing to,ar# #!'in!# ends 'e co((it o+rs! "!s to th! (anip+ ation o' p!rsons, an# th!r!'or! to th! n!gation o' #!(ocracy. 5n y by ,or*ing in t!r(s o' "a +!s ,hich ar! i(it!# to #!'ining a direction is it possib ! 'or +s to +s! sci!nti'ic (!tho#s in th! contro o' th! proc!ss ,itho+t th! n!gation o' th! (ora a+tono(y o' th! h+(an spirit.9 2Ita ics h!rs.3

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or#!r to achi!"! o+r p+rpos!L it (ay !"!n ca to (in# so(! o' th! basic aphoris(s o' Christianity an# :aois(. &+ch aphoris(s ar! 'a(i iar !no+ghL b+t th! ay(an ,i b! a itt ! s+rpris!# to 'in# th!( co(ing 'ro( a sci!ntist an# #r!ss!# in a th! paraph!rna ia o' ana ytic tho+ght. :o oth!r anthropo ogists an# socia sci!ntists, ?r. A!a#Is r!co((!n#ations ,i b! !"!n (or! s+rprising, an# p!rhaps (or! (!aning !ss, b!Cca+s! instr+(!nta ity an# 9b +!prints9 ar! an !ss!ntia ingr!#i!nt in th! ,ho ! str+ct+r! o' i'! as sci!nc! s!!s it. @i*!,is!, to thos! in po itica i'!, ?r. A!a#Is r!co((!n#ation ,i b! strang!, sinc! th!y s!! #!cisions as c assi'iab ! into po icyC(a*ing #!cisions "!rs+s !-!c+ti"! #!cisions. :h! go"!rnors an# th! sci!ntists a i*! 2not to (!ntion th! co((!rcia ,or #3 s!! h+(an a''airs as patt!rn!# +pon p+rC pos!, (!ans an# !n#s, connation an# satis'action. I' anybo#y #o+bts that ,! t!n# to r!gar# p+rpos! an# instr+(!nta ity as #istincti"! y h+(an, !t hi( consi#!r th! o # .+ip abo+t !ating an# i"ing. :h! cr!at+r! ,ho 9!ats to i"!9 is th! high!st h+(anL h! ,ho 9 i"!s to !at9 is coars!rCgrain!#, b+t sti h+(anL b+t i' h! J+st 9!ats and i"!s,9 ,itho+t attrib+ting instr+(!nta ity or a sp+rio+s priority in ti(! s!.+!nc! to !ith!r proc!ss, h! is rat!# on y a(ong th! ani(a s, an# so(!, !ss *in#, ,i r!gar# hi( as "!g!tab !. ?r. A!a#Is contrib+tion consists in this;that sh!, 'orti'i!# by co(parati"! st+#y o' oth!r c+ t+r!s, has b!!n ab ! to transc!n# th! habits o' tho+ght c+rr!nt in h!r o,n c+ C t+r! an# has b!!n ab ! to say "irt+a y this6 90!'or! ,! app y socia sci!nc! to o+r o,n nationa a''airs, ,! (+st r!C!-a(in! an# chang! o+r habits o' tho+ght on th! s+bJ!ct o' (!ans an# !n#s. 8! ha"! !arnt, in o+r c+ t+ra s!tting, to c assi'y b!ha"ior into N(!ansI an# N!n#sI an# i' ,! go on . #!'ining !n#s as s!parat! 'ro( (!ans and app y th! socia sci!nc!s as cr+#! y instr+(!nta (!ans, +sing th! r!cip!s o' sci!nc! to (anip+ at! p!op !, ,! sha arri"! at a tota itarian rath!r than a #!(ocratic syst!( o' i'!.9 :h! so +tion ,hich sh! o''!rs is that ,! oo* 'or th! 9#ir!ction,9 an# 9 "a +!s9 i(p icit in th! (!ans, rath!r than oo*ing ah!a# to a b +!print!# goa an# thin*ing o' this goa as J+sti'ying or not J+sti'ying (anip+ ati"! (!ans. 8! ha"! to 'in# th! "a +! o' a p ann!# act i(p icit in an# si(+ tan!o+s ,ith th! act its! ', not

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s!parat! 'ro( it in th! s!ns! that th! act ,o+ # #!ri"! its "a +! 'ro( r!'!r!nc! to a '+t+r! !n# or goa . ?r. A!a#Is pap!r is, in 'act, not a #ir!ct pr!ach(!nt abo+t !n#s an# (!ansL sh! #o!s not say that !n#s !ith!r #o or #o not J+sti'y th! (!ans. &h! is ta *ing not #ir!ct y abo+t !n#s an# (!ans, b+t abo+t th! ,ay ,! t!n# to thin* abo+t ,ays an# (!ans, an# abo+t th! #ang!rs inh!r!nt in o+r habit o' tho+ght. It is sp!ci'ica y at this !"! that th! anthropo ogist has (ost to contrib+t! to o+r prob !(s. It is his tas* to s!! th! high!st co((on 'actor i(p icit in a "ast "ari!ty o' h+(an ph!no(!na, or in"!rs! y, to #!ci#! ,h!th!r ph!no(!na ,hich app!ar to b! si(i ar ar! not intrinsica y #i''!r!nt. E! (ay go to on! &o+th &!a co((+nity, s+ch as th! Aan+s, an# th!r! 'in# that tho+gh !"!rything that th! nati"!s #o is concr!t! y #i''!r!nt 'ro( o+r o,n b!ha"ior, y!t th! +n#!r ying syst!( o' (oti"!s is rath!r c os! y co(parab ! ,ith o+r o,n o"! o' ca+tion an# ,!a th acc+(+ ationL or again h! (ay go to anoth!r soci!ty s+ch as 0a i an# th!r! 'in# that, ,hi ! th! o+t,ar# app!aranc! o' th! nati"! r! igion is c os! y co(parab ! ,ith o+r o,n;*n!! ing to pray, inc!ns!, inton!# +tt!ranc!s p+nct+at!# by a b! , !tc.;th! basic !(otiona attit+#!s ar! '+n#a(!nta y #i''!r!nt. In 0a in!s! r! igion ,! 'in# an appro"a accor#!# to rot!, non!(otiona p!r'or(anc! o' c!rtain acts inst!a# o' th! insist!nc! +pon corr!ct !(otiona attit+#!, charact!ristic o' Christian ch+rch!s. In !"!ry cas! th! anthropo ogist is conc!rn!# not ,ith (!r! #!scription b+t ,ith a s ight y high!r #!gr!! o' abstraction, a ,i#!r #!gr!! o' g!n!ra i/ation. Eis 'irst tas* is th! (!tic+ o+s co !ction o' (ass!s o' concr!t! obs!r"ations o' nati"! i'!;b+t th! n!-t st!p is not a (!r! s+((ari/ing o' th!s! #ataL it is rath!r to int!rpr!t th! #ata in an abstract ang+ag! ,hich sha transc!n# an# co(pr!h!n# th! "ocab+ ary an# notions !-p icit an# i(p icit in o+r o,n c+ t+r!. It is not possib ! to gi"! a sci!nti'ic #!scription o' a nati"! c+ t+r! in =ng ish ,or#sL th! anthropo ogist (+st #!"is! a (or! abstract "ocab+ ary in t!r(s o' ,hich both o+r o,n an# th! nati"! c+ t+r! can b! #!scrib!#. :his th!n is th! typ! o' #iscip in! ,hich has !nab !# ?r. A!a# to point o+t that a #iscr!pancy;a basic an# '+n#a(!nta #iscr!pancy ;!-ists b!t,!!n 9socia !ngin!!ring,9 (anip+ ating p!op ! in or#!r

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to achi!"! a p ann!# b +!Cprint soci!ty, an# th! i#!a s o' #!(ocracy, th! 9s+pr!(! ,orth an# (ora r!sponsibi ity o' th! in#i"i#+a h+(an p!rCson.9 :h! t,o con' icting (oti's ha"! ong b!!n i(p icit in o+r c+ t+r!, sci!nc! has ha# instr+(!nta !anings sinc! b!'or! th! In#+stria 4!"o +tion, an# !(phasis +pon in#i"i#+a ,orth an# r!sponsibi ity is !"!n o #!r. :h! thr!at o' con' ict b!t,!!n th! t,o (oti's has on y co(! r!c!nt y, ,ith incr!asing conscio+sn!ss o', an# !(phasis +pon, th! #!(ocratic (oti' an# si(+ tan!o+s spr!a# o' th! instr+(!nta (oti'. 7ina y, th! con' ict is no, a i'!CorC#!ath str+gg ! o"!r th! ro ! ,hich th! socia sci!nc!s sha p ay in th! or#!ring o' h+(an r! ationships. It is har# y an !-agg!ration to say that this ,ar is i#!o ogica y abo+t J+st this;th! ro ! o' th! socia sci!nc!s. Ar! ,! to r!s!r"! th! t!chni.+!s an# th! right to (anip+ at! p!op ! as th! pri"i !g! o' a '!, p anning, goa Cori!nt!#, an# po,!rCh+ngry in#i"i#+a s, to ,ho( th! instr+(!nta ity o' sci!nc! (a*!s a nat+ra app!a D )o, that ,! ha"! th! t!chni.+!s, ar! ,!, in co # b oo#, going to tr!at p!op ! as thingsD 5r ,hat ar! ,! going to #o ,ith th!s! t!chni.+!sD :h! prob !( is on! o' "!ry gr!at #i''ic+ ty as ,! as +rg!ncy, an# it is #o+b y #i''ic+ t b!ca+s! ,!, as sci!ntists, ar! #!!p y soa*!# in habits o' instr+(!nta t h o + g h t thos! o' +s, at !ast, 'or ,ho( sci!nc! is a part o' i'!, as ,! as a b!a+ti'+ an# #igni'i!# abstraction. @!t +s try to s+r(o+nt this a##itiona so+rc! o' #i''ic+ ty by t+rning th! too s o' sci!nc! +pon this habit o' instr+(!nta tho+ght an# +pon th! n!, habit ,hich ?r. A!a# !n"isag!s;th! habit ,hich oo*s 'or 9#ir!ction9 an# 9"a +!9 in th! chos!n act, rath!r than in #!'in!# goa s. C !ar y, both o' th!s! habits ar! ,ays o' oo*ing at ti(! s!.+!nc!s. In th! o # Jargon o' psycho ogy, th!y r!pr!s!nt #i''!r!nt ,ays o' app!rc!i"ing s!.+!nc!s o' b!ha"ior, or in th! n!,!r Jargon o' g!sta t psycho ogy, th!y (ight both b! #!scrib!# as habits o' oo*ing 'or on! or anoth!r sort o' cont!-t+a 'ra(! 'or b!ha"ior. :h! prob !( ,hich ?r. A!a#;,ho a#"ocat!s a chang! in s+ch habits;rais!s is th! prob !( o' ho, habits o' this abstract or#!r ar! !arn!#. :his is not th! si(p ! typ! o' .+!stion ,hich is pos!# in (ost psycho ogica aboratori!s, 9%n#!r ,hat circ+(stanc!s ,i a #og !arn to sa i"at! in r!spons! to a b! D9 or, 98hat "ariab !s go"!rn s+cc!ss in rot! !arningD9 5+r .+!stion is on! #!gr!! (or! abstract,

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an#, in a s!ns!, bri#g!s th! gap b!t,!!n th! !-p!ri(!nta ,or* on si(p ! !arning an# th! approach o' th! g!sta t psycho ogists. 8! ar! as*ing, 9Eo, #o!s th! #og ac.+ir! a habit o' p+nct+ating or apC p!rc!i"ing th! in'init! y co(p !- str!a( o' !"!nts 2inc +#ing his o,n b!ha"ior3 so that this str!a( app!ars to b! (a#! +p o' on! typ! o' short s!.+!nc!s rath!r than anCoth!rD9 5r, s+bstit+ting th! sci!ntist 'or th! #og, ,! (ight as*, 98hat circ+(stanc!s #!t!r(in! that a gi"!n sci!ntist ,i p+nct+at! th! str!a( o' !"!nts so as to conc +#! that a is pr!#!t!r(in!#, ,hi ! anoth!r ,i s!! th! str!a( o' !"!nts as so r!g+ ar as to b! s+sc!ptib ! o' contro D9 5r, again, on th! sa(! !"! o' abstraction !t +s as*;an# this .+!stion is "!ry r! !"ant to th! pro(otion o' #!(ocracy;98hat circ+(stanc!s pro(ot! that sp!ci'ic habit+a phrasing o' th! +ni"!rs! ,hich ,! ca N'r!! ,i I an# thos! oth!rs ,hich ,! ca Nr!sponsibi ity,I Nconstr+cti"!n!ss,I N!n!rgy,I Npassi"ity,I N#o(inanc!,I an# th! r!stD9 7or a th!s! abstract .+a iti!s, th! !ss!ntia stoc*CinCtra#! o' th! !#+cators, can b! s!!n as "ario+s habits o' p+nct+ating th! str!a( o' !-p!ri!nc! so that it ta*!s on on! or anoth!r sort o' coh!r!nc! an# s!ns!. :h!y ar! abstractions ,hich b!gin to ass+(! so(! op!rationa (!aning ,h!n ,! s!! th!( ta*! th!ir p ac! on a conc!pt+a !"! b!t,!!n th! stat!(!nts o' si(p ! !arning an# thos! o' g!sta t psycho ogy. 8! can, 'or !-a(p !, p+t o+r 'ing!r "!ry si(p y on th! proc!ss ,hich !a#s to trag!#y an# #isi +sion ,h!n!"!r (!n #!ci#! that th! 9!n# J+sti'i!s th! (!ans9 in th!ir !''orts to achi!"! !ith!r a Christian or a b +!print!# h!a"!nConC!arth. :h!y ignor! th! 'act that in socia (anip+ ation, th! too s ar! not ha((!rs an# scr!,#ri"!rs. A scr!,#ri"!r is not s!rio+s y a''!ct!# ,h!n, in an !(!rg!ncy, ,! +s! it as a ,!#g!L an# a ha((!rIs o+t oo* on i'! is not a''!ct!# b!ca+s! ,! so(!ti(!s +s! its han# ! as a si(p ! !"!r. 0+t in socia (anip+ ation o+r too s ar! p!op !, an# p!op ! !arn, an# th!y ac.+ir! habits ,hich ar! (or! s+bt ! an# p!r"asi"! than th! tric*s ,hich th! b +!print!r t!ach!s th!(. 8ith th! b!st int!ntions in th! ,or #, h! (ay train chi #r!n to spy +pon th!ir par!nts in or#!r to !ra#icat! so(! t!n#!ncy pr!J+#icia to th! s+cc!ss o' his b +!print, b+t b!ca+s! th! chi #r!n ar! p!op ! th!y ,i #o (or! than !arn this si(p ! tric*;th!y ,i b+i # this !-p!ri!nc! into th!ir ,ho ! phi osophy o' i'!L it ,i co or a th!ir '+t+r! attit+#!s toC,ar#

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a+thority. 8h!n!"!r th!y (!!t c!rtain sorts o' conCt!-t, th!y ,i t!n# to s!! th!s! cont!-ts as str+ct+r!# on an !ar i!r 'a(i iar patt!rn. :h! b +!print!r (ay #!ri"! an initia a#"antag! 'ro( th! chi #r!nIs tric*sL b+t th! + ti(at! s+cc!ss o' his b +!print (ay b! #!stroy!# by th! habits o' (in# ,hich ,!r! !arn!# ,ith th! tric*. 2%n'ort+nat! y, th!r! is no r!ason to b! i!"! that th! )a/i b +!print ,i br!a* #o,n 'or th!s! r!asons. It is probab ! that th! +nC p !asant attit+#!s h!r! r!'!rr!# to ar! !n"isag!# as basic -ot* to th! p an its! ' an# to th! (!ans o' achi!"ing it. :h! roa# to h! can a so b! pa"!# ,ith ba# int!ntions, tho+gh ,! Cint!ntion!# p!op ! 'in# this har# to b! i!"!.3 8! ar! #!a ing, appar!nt y, ,ith a sort o' habit ,hich is a byC pro#+ct o' th! !arning proc!ss. 8h!n ?r. A!a# t! s +s that ,! sho+ # !a"! o'' thin*ing in t!r(s o' b +!Cprints an# sho+ # inst!a# !"a +at! o+r p ann!# acts in t!r(s o' th!ir i((!#iat! i(p icit "a +!, sh! is saying that in th! +pbringing an# !#+cation o' chi #r!n, ,! o+ght to try to inc+ cat! a sort o' byCpro#+ct habit rath!r #i''!r!nt 'ro( that ,hich ,! ac.+ir!# an# ,hich ,! #ai y r!in'orc! in o+rs! "!s in o+r contacts ,ith sci!nc!, po itics, n!,spap!rs, an# so on. &h! stat!s p!r'!ct y c !ar y that this n!, shi't in th! !(phasis or g!sta t o' o+r thin*ing ,i b! a s!tting 'orth into +nchart!# ,at!rs. 8! cannot *no, ,hat (ann!r o' h+(an b!ings ,i r!s+ t 'ro( s+ch a co+rs!, nor can ,! b! s+r! that ,! o+rs! "!s ,o+ # '!! at ho(! in th! ,or # o' 1980. ?r. A!a# can on y t! +s that i' ,! proc!!# on th! co+rs! ,hich ,o+ # s!!( (ost nat+ra , p anning o+r app ications o' socia sci!nc! as a (!ans o' attaining a #!'in!# goa , ,! sha s+r! y hit a roc*. &h! has chart!# th! roc* 'or +s, an# a#"is!s that ,! !(bar* on a co+rs! in a #ir!ction ,h!r! th! roc* is notL b+t in a n!,, sti +nchart!# #ir!ction. E!r pap!r rais!s th! .+!stion o' ho, ,! ar! to chart this n!, #ir!ction. Act+a y, sci!nc! can gi"! +sC so(!thing approaching a chart. I in#icat!# abo"! that ,! (ight s!! a (i-!# b+nch o' abstract t!r(s ;'r!! ,i , pr!#!stination, r!sponsibi ity, constr+cti"!n!ss, passi"ity, #o(inanc!, !tc.;as a o' th!( #!scripti"! o' app!rc!pti"! habits, habit+a ,ays o' oo*ing at th! str!a( o' !"!nts o' ,hich o+r o,n b!ha"ior is a part, an# '+rth!r that th!s! habits (ight a b!, in so(! s!ns!, byCpro#+cts o' th! !arning

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proc!ss. 5+r n!-t tas*, i' ,! ar! to achi!"! so(! sort o' chart, is c !ar y to g!t so(!thing b!tt!r than a ran#o( ist o' th!s! possib ! habits. 8! (+st r!#+c! this ist to a c assi'ication ,hich sha sho, ho, !ach o' th!s! habits is syst!(atica y r! at!# to th! oth!rs. 8! (!!t in co((on agr!!(!nt that a s!ns! o' in#i"i#+a a+tono(y, a habit o' (in# so(!ho, r! at!# to ,hat I ha"! ca !# 9'r!! ,i ,9 is an !ss!ntia o' #!(ocracy, b+t ,! ar! sti not p!r'!ct y c !ar as to ho, this a+tono(y sho+ # b! #!'in!# op!rationa y. 8hat, 'or !-a(p !, is th! r! ation b!t,!!n 9a+tono(y9 an# co(p+ si"! n!gati"is(D :h! gas stations ,hich r!'+s! to con'or( to th! c+r'!,;ar! th!y or ar! th!y not sho,ing a 'in! #!(ocratic spiritD :his sort o' 9n!gati"is(9 is +n#o+bt!# y o' th! sa(! #!gr!! o' abstraction as 9'r!! ,i 9 or 9#!t!r(inis(9L i*! th!( it is an habit+a ,ay o' app!rc!i"ing cont!-ts, !"!nt s!.+!nc!s an# o,n b!ha"iorL b+t it is not c !ar ,h!th!r this n!gati"is( is a 9s+bsp!ci!s9 o' in#i"i#+a a+tono(yL or is it rath!r so(! !ntir! y #i''!r!nt habitD &i(i ar y, ,! n!!# to *no, ho, th! n!, habit o' tho+ght ,hich ?r. A!a# a#"ocat!s is r! at!# to th! oth!rs. ="i#!nt y o+r n!!# is 'or so(!thing b!tt!r than a ran#o( ist o' th!s! habits o' (in#. 8! n!!# so(! syst!(atic 'ra(!C,or* or c assi'ication ,hich sha sho, ho, !ach o' th!s! habits is r! at!# to th! oth!rs, an# s+ch a c assi'ication (ight pro"i#! +s ,ith so(!thing approaching th! chart ,! ac*. ?r. A!a# t! s +s to sai into as y!t +nchart!# ,at!rs, a#opting a n!, habit o' tho+ghtL b+t i' ,! *n!, ho, this habit is r! at!# to oth!rs, ,! (ight b! ab ! to J+#g! o' th! b!n!'its an# #ang!rs, th! possib ! pit'a s o' s+ch a co+rs!. &+ch a chart (ight pro"i#! +s ,ith th! ans,!rs to so(! o' th! .+!stions ,hich ?r. A!a# rais!s;as to ho, ,! ar! to J+#g! o' th! 9#ir!ction9 an# "a +! i(p icit in o+r p ann!# acts. Fo+ (+st not !-p!ct th! socia sci!ntist to pro#+c! s+ch a chart or c assi'ication at a (o(!ntIs notic!, i*! a rabbit o+t o' a hat, b+t I thin* ,! can ta*! a 'irst st!p in this #ir!ctionL ,! can s+gg!st so(! o' th! basic th!(!s;th! car#ina points, i' yo+ i*!;+pon ,hich th! 'ina c assi'ication (+st b! b+i t. 8! ha"! not!# that th! sorts o' habit ,ith ,hich ,! ar! conc!rn!# ar!, in so(! s!ns!, byCpro#+cts o' . th! !arning proc!ss!s, an# it is th!r!'or! nat+ra that ,! oo* 'irst to th!

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ph!no(!na o' si(p ! !arning as i*! y to pro"i#! +s ,ith a c +!. 8! ar! raising .+!stions on! #!gr!! (or! abstract than thos! chi!' y st+#i!# by th! !-p!ri(!nta psycho ogists, b+t it is sti to th!ir aboratori!s that ,! (+st oo* 'or o+r ans,!rs. )o, it so happ!ns that in th! psycho ogica aboratori!s th!r! is a co((on ph!no(!non o' a so(!,hat high!r #!gr!! o' abstraction or g!n!ra ity than thos! ,hich th! !-p!ri(!nts ar! p ann!# to ! +ci#at!. It is a co((onp ac! that th! !-p!ri(!nta s+bJ!ct; ,h!th!r ani(a or (an, b!co(!s a b!tt!r s+bJ!ct a't!r r!p!at!# !-p!ri(!nts. E! not on y !arns to sa i"at! at th! appropriat! (o(!nts, or to r!cit! th! appropriat! nons!ns! sy ab !sL h! a so, in so(! ,ay, learns to learn. E! not on y so "!s th! prob !(s s!t hi( by th! !-p!ri(!nt!r, ,h!r! !ach so "ing is a pi!c! o' si(p ! !arningL b+t, (or! than this, h! b!co(!s (or! an# (or! s*i !# in th! so "ing o' prob !(s. In s!(ig!sta t or s!(ianthropo(orphic phras!o ogy, ,! (ight say that th! s+bJ!ct is !arning to ori!nt hi(s! ' to c!rtain typ!s o' cont!-ts, or is ac.+iring 9insight9 into th! cont!-ts o' prob !( so "ing. In th! Jargon o' this pap!r, ,! (ay say that th! s+bJ!ct has ac.+ir!# a habit o' oo*ing 'or cont!-ts an# s!.+!nc!s o' on! typ! rath!r than anoth!r, a habit o' 9p+nct+ating9 th! str!a( o' !"!nts to gi"! r!p!titions o' a c!rtain typ! o' (!aning'+ s!.+!nc!. :h! in! o' arg+(!nt ,hich ,! ha"! 'o o,!# has bro+ght +s to a point at ,hich stat!(!nts abo+t si(p ! !arning (!!t stat!(!nts abo+t g!sta t an# cont!-t+a str+ct+r!, an# ,! ha"! r!ach!# th! hypoth!sis that 9 !arning to !arn9 is a synony( 'or th! ac.+isition o' that c ass o' abstract habits o' tho+ght ,ith ,hich this pap!r is conc!rn!#L that th! stat!s o' (in# ,hich ,! ca 9'r!! ,i ,9 instr+(!nta thin*ing, #o(inanc!, passi"ity, !tc., ar! ac.+ir!# by a proc!ss ,hich ,! (ay !.+at! ,ith 9 !arning to !arn.9

173

:his hypoth!sis is to so(! !-t!nt n!,2 to psycho ogists as ,! as to ay(!n, an# th!r!'or! I (+st #igr!ss at this point to s+pp y t!chnica r!a#!rs ,ith a (or! pr!cis! stat!(!nt o' (y (!aning. I (+st #!(onstrat! at !ast (y ,i ingn!ss to stat! this bri#g! b!t,!!n si(p ! !arning an# g!sta t in op!rationa t!r(s. @!t +s coin t,o ,or#s, 9protoC !arning9 an# 9#!+t!ro !arning,9 to a"oi# th! abor o' #!'ining op!rationa y a th! oth!r t!r(s in th! 'i! # 2trans'!r o' !arning, g!n!ra i/ation, !tc., !tc.3. @!t +s say that th!r! ar! t,o sorts o' gra#i!nt #isc!rnib ! in a contin+!# !arning. :h! gra#i!nt at any point on a si(p ! !arning c+r"! 2!.g., a c+r"! o' rot! !arning3 ,! ,i say chi!' y r!pr!s!nts rat! o' protoC !arning. I', ho,!"!r, ,! in' ict a s!ri!s o' si(i ar !arning !-p!ri(!nts on th! sa(! s+bJ!ct, ,! sha 'in# that in !ach s+cc!ssi"! !-p!ri(!nt th! s+bJ!ct has a so(!,hat st!!p!r protoC !arning gra#i!nt, that h! !arns so(!,hat (or! rapi# y. :his prog!ssi"! chang! in rat! o' protoC !arning ,! ,i ca 9#!+t!roC !arning.9 7ro( this point ,! can !asi y go on to r!pr!s!nt #!+t!ro !arning graphica y ,ith a c+r"! ,hos! gra#i!nt sha r!pr!s!nt rat! o' #!+t!roC !arning. &+ch a r!pr!s!ntation (ight b! obtain!#, 'or !-a(p !, by int!rs!cting th! s!ri!s o' proto !arning c+r"!s at so(! arbitari y chos!n n+(b!r o' tria s, an# noting ,hat proportion o' s+cc!ss'+ r!spons!s occ+rr!# in !ach !-p!ri(!nt at this point. :h! c+r"! o' #!+t!roC !arning ,o+ # th!n b! obtain!# by p otting th!s! n+(b!rs against th! s!ria n+(b!rs o' th! !-p!ri(!nts.3
2 $sycho ogica pap!rs b!aring +pon this prob !( o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n g!sta t an# si(p ! !arning ar! "!ry n+(!ro+s, i' ,! inc +#! a ,ho ha"! ,or*!# on th! conc!pts o' trans'!r o' !arning, g!n!ra i/ation, irra#iation, r!action thr!sho # 2E+ 3, insight, an# th! i*!. Eistorica y, on! o' th! 'irst to pos! th!s! .+!stions ,as Ar. 7ran* 2@. <. 7ran*, 9:h! $rob !(s o' @!arning,9 $sych. 4!"i!,, 1926, 336 329Y51L an# $ro'!ssor Aai!r has r!c!nt y intro#+c!# a conc!pt o' 9#ir!ction9 ,hich is c os! y r! at!# to th! notion o' 9#!+t!roC !arning.9 E! says6 9#ir!ction ... is th! 'orc! ,hich int!grat!s (!(ori!s in a partic+ ar (ann!r ,itho+t b!ing a (!(ory its! '.9 2). 4. 7. Aai!r, 9:h! 0!ha"ior A!chanis(s Conc!rn!# ,ith $rob !( &o "ing,9C $sych. 4!"i!,, 1940, 476 43Y58.3 I' 'or 9'orc!9 ,! s+bstit+t! 9habit,9 an# 'or 9(!(ory9 ,! s+bstit+t! 9!-p!ri!nc! o' th! str!a( o' !"!nts,9 th! conc!pt o' #!+t!roC !arning can b! s!!n as a (ost synony(o+s ,ith $ro'!ssor Aai!rIs conc!pt o' 9#ir!ction.9 3 It ,i b! not!# that th! op!rationa #!'inition o' #!+t!roC !arning is n!c!ssari y so(!,hat !asi!r than that o' protoC !arning. Act+a y, no si(p ! !arning c+r"! r!pr!s!nts protoC !arning a on!. ="!n ,ithin th! #+ration o' th!

174

In this #!'inition o' protoC an# #!+t!roC !arning, on! phras! r!(ains conspic+o+s y "ag+!, th! phras! 9a s!ri!s o' si(i ar !-p!ri(!nts.9 7or p+rpos!s o' i +stration, I i(agin!# a s!ri!s o' !-p!ri(!nts in rot! !arning, !ach !-p!ri(!nt si(i ar to th! ast, !-c!pt 'or th! s+bstit+tion o' a n!, s!ri!s o' nons!ns! sy ab !s in
sing ! !arning !-p!ri(!nt ,! (+st s+ppos! that so(! #!+t!roC !arning ,i occ+r, an# this ,i (a*! th! gra#i!nt at any point so(!,hat st!!p!r than th! hypoth!tica gra#i!nt o' 9p+r!9 protoC !arning.

175

p ac! o' thos! a r!a#y !arn!#. In this !-a(p !, th! c+r"! o' [#!+t!roC !arning r!pr!s!nt!# inCcr!asing pro'ici!ncy in th! b+sin!ss o' rot! !arning, an#, as an !-p!ri(!nta 'act, s+ch incr!as! in rot! pro'ici!ncy can b! #!(onstrat!#.4 Apart 'ro( rot! !arning, it is (+ch (or! #i''ic+ t to #!C'in! ,hat ,! (!an by saying that on! !arning cont!-t is 9si(i ar9 to anoth!r, +n !ss ,! ar! cont!nt to r!'!r th! (att!r bac* to th! !-p!ri(!nta ists by saying that !arning cont!-ts sha b! consi#!r!# to b! 9si(i ar9 on! to anoth!r ,h!n!"!r it can b! sho,n !-p!ri(!nta y that !-p!ri!nc! o' !arning in on! cont!-t #o!s, as a (att!r o' 'act, pro(ot! sp!!# o' !arning in anoth!r, an# as*ing th! !-p!ri(!nta ists to 'in# o+t 'or +s ,hat sort o' c assi'ication th!y can b+i # +p by +s! o' this crit!rion. 8! (ay hop! that th!y ,i #o thisL b+t ,! cannot hop! 'or i((!#iat! ans,!rs to o+r .+!stions, b!ca+s! th!r! ar! "!ry s!rio+s #i''ic+ ti!s in th! ,ay o' s+ch !-p!ri(!ntation. =-p!ri(!nts in si(p ! !arning ar! a r!a#y #i''ic+ t !no+gh to contro an# to p!rC'or( ,ith critica !-actn!ss, an# !-p!ri(!nts in #!+t!ro !arning ar! i*! y to pro"! a (ost i(possib !. :h!r! is, ho,!"!r, an a t!rnati"! co+rs! op!n to +s. 8h!n ,! !.+at!# 9 !arning to !arn9 ,ith ac.+iring app!rc!pti"! habits, this #i# not !-c +#! th! possibi ity that s+ch habits (ight b! ac.+ir!# in oth!r ,ays. :o s+gg!st that th! on y (!tho# o' ac.+iring on! o' th!s! habits is thro+gh r!p!at!# !-p!ri!nc! o' !arning cont!-ts o' a gi"!n *in# ,o+ # b! ogica y ana ogo+s to saying that th! on y ,ay to roast pig is by b+rning th! ho+s! #o,n. It is ob"io+s that in h+(an !#+cation s+ch habits ar! ac.+ir!# in "!ry "ario+s ,ays. 8! ar! not conc!rn!# ,ith a hypoth!tica iso at!# in#i"i#+a in contact ,ith an i(p!rsona !"!nts str!a(, b+t rath!r ,ith r!a in#i"i#+a s ,ho ha"! co(p !- !(otiona patt!rns o' r! ationship ,ith oth!r in#i"i#+a s. In s+ch a r!a ,or #, th! in#i"i#+a ,i b! !# to ac.+ir! or r!J!ct app!rc!pti"! habits by th! "!ry co(p !ph!no(!na o' p!rsona !-a(p !, ton! o' "oic!, hosti ity, o"!, !tc. Aany s+ch habits, too, ,i b! con"!y!# to hi(, not thro+gh his o,n na*!# !-p!ri!nc! o' th! str!a( o' !"!nts, 'or no h+(an
C. E+ , ,at*ematico%8educti&e !*eory of $ote /earning, )!, Ea"!n, Fa ! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1940.
4

176

b!ings 2not !"!n sci!ntists3 ar! na*!# in this s!ns!. :h! !"!nts str!a( is (!#iat!# to th!( thro+gh ang+ag!, art, t!chno ogy, an# oth!r c+ t+ra (!#ia ,hich ar! str+ct+r!# at !"!ry point by tra( in!s o' app!rc!pti"! habit. It th!r!'or! 'o o,s that th! psycho ogica aboratory is not th! on y possib ! so+rc! o' *no, !#g! abo+t th!s! habitsL ,! (ay t+rn inst!a# to th! contrasting patt!rns i(p icit an# !-p icit in th! "ario+s c+ t+r!s o' th! ,or # st+#i!# by th! anthropo ogists. 8! can a(p i'y o+r ist o' th!s! obsc+r! habits by a##ing thos! ,hich ha"! b!!n #!"! op!# in c+ t+r!s oth!r than o+r o,n. Aost pro'itab y, I b! i!"!, ,! can co(bin! th! insights o' th! !-p!ri(!nta psycho ogists ,ith thos! o' th! anthropo ogists, ta*ing th! cont!-ts o' !-p!ri(!nta !arning in th! aboratory an# as*ing o' !ach ,hat sort o' app!rc!pti"! habit ,! sho+ # !-p!ct to 'in# associat!# ,ith itL th!n oo*ing aro+n# th! ,or # 'or h+(an c+ t+r!s in ,hich this habit has b!!n #!"! op!#. In"!rs! y, ,! (ay b! ab ! to g!t a (or! #!'init!;(or! op!rationa ;#!'inition o' s+ch habits as 9'r!! ,i 9 i' ,! as* abo+t !ach, 98hat sort o' !-p!ri(!nta !arning cont!-t ,o+ # ,! #!"is! in or#!r to inc+ cat! this habitD9 9Eo, ,o+ # ,! rig th! (a/! or prob !(Cboso that th! anthropo(orphic rat sha obtain a r!p!at!# an# r!in'orc!# i(pr!ssion o' his o,n 'r!! ,i D9 :h! c assi'ication o' cont!-ts o' !-p!ri(!nta !arning is as y!t "!ry inco(p !t!, b+t c!rtain #!'init! a#"anc!s ha"! b!!n (a#!. 5 It
5 Gario+s c assi'ications ha"! b!!n #!"is!# 'or p+rpos!s o' !-position. E!r! I 'o o, that o' Ei gar# an# Aar.+is 2=. 4. Ei gar# an# ?. 1. Aar.+is, "onditioning and /earning, )!, For*, App !ton C!nt+ry Co., 19403. :h!s! a+thors s+bJ!ct th!ir o,n c assi'ication to a bri iant critica ana ysis, an# to this ana ysis I a( in#!bt!# 'or on! o' th! 'or(ati"! i#!as +pon ,hich this pap!r is bas!#. :h!y insist that any !arning cont!-t can b! #!scrib!# in t!r(s o' any th!ory o' !arning, i' ,! ar! ,i ing to str!tch an# o"!r!(phasi/! c!rtain asp!cts o' th! cont!-t to 'it onto th! $rocr+st!an b!# o' th! th!ory. I ha"! ta*!n this notion as a corn!rston! o' (y thin*ing, s+bC stit+ting 9app!rc!pti"! habits9 'or 9th!ori!s o' !arning,9 an# arg+ing that a (ost any s!.+!nc! o' !"!nts can b! str!tch!# an# ,arp!# an# p+nct+at!# to 'it in ,ith any typ! o' app!rc!pti"! habit. +2e may suppose t*at e.% perimental neurosis is '*at *appens '*en t*e su-=ect fails to ac*ie&e t*is assimilation.4 I a( a so in#!bt!# to @!,inIs topo ogica ana ysis o' th! cont!-ts o' r!,ar# an# p+nish(!nt. 2<. @!,in, A 8ynamic !*eory of 6ersonality, )!,

177

is possib ! to c assi'y th! principa cont!-ts o' positi"! !arning 2as #istinct 'ro( n!gati"! !arning or inhibition, !arning not to #o things3 +n#!r 'o+r h!a#s, as 'o o,s6
213C assica $a" o"ian cont!-ts

:h!s! ar! charact!ri/!# by a rigi# ti(! s!.+!nc! in ,hich th! con#ition!# sti(+ +s 2!.g., b+//!r3 a ,ays pr!Cc!#!s th! +ncon#ition!# sti(+ +s 2!.g., (!at po,#!r3 by a 'i-!# int!r"a o' ti(!. :his rigi# s!.+!nc! o' !"!nts is not a t!r!# by anything that th! ani(a (ay #o. In th!s! conCt!-ts, th! ani(a !arns to r!spon# to th! con#ition!# sti(+ +s ,ith b!ha"ior 2!.g., sa i"ation3 ,hich ,as 'or(!r y !"o*!# on y by th! +ncon#ition!# sti(+ +s.
223Cont!-ts o' instr+(!nta r!,ar# or !scap!

:h!s! ar! charact!ri/!# by a s!.+!nc! ,hich #!p!n#s +pon th! ani(a Is b!ha"ior. :h! +ncon#ition!# sti(+ +s in th!s! cont!-ts is +s+a y "ag+! 2!.g., th! ,ho ! s+( o' circ+(stanc!s in ,hich th! ani(a is p+t, th! prob !(Cbo-3 an# (ay b! int!rna to th! ani(a 2!.g., h+ng!r3. I' an# ,h!n, +n#!r th!s! circ+(stanc!s, th! ani(a p!r'or(s so(! act ,ithin its b!ha"iora r!p!rtoir! an# pr!"io+s y s! !ct!# by th! !-p!ri(!nt!r 2!.g., i'ts its !g3, it is i((!#iat! y r!,ar#!#.
233Cont!-ts o' instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!

:h!s! ar! a so charact!ri/!# by a con#itiona s!.+!nc!. :h! +ncon#ition!# sti(+ +s is +s+a y #!'init! 2!.g., a ,arning b+//!r3 an# this is 'o o,!# by an +np !asant !-p!ri!nc! 2!.g., ! !ctric shoc*3 unl e s s in th! int!r"a th! ani(a p!rC'or(s so(! s! !ct!# act 2!.g., i'ts !g3. 243Cont!-ts o' s!ria a n d rot! !arning :h!s! ar! charact!ri/!# by th! pr!#o(inant con#ition!# sti(+ +s b!ing an act o' th! s+bJ!ct. E! !arns, 'or !-a(p !, a ,ays to gi"! th! con#ition!# r!spons! 2nons!ns! sy ab ! < 4 a't!r h! has hi(s! ' +tt!r!# th! con#ition!# sti(+ +s 2nons!ns! sy ab ! A3,.

For*, Ac1ra,CEi 0oo* Co., 1936.3

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:his s(a b!ginning o' a c assi'ication6 ,i b! s+''ici!nt to i +strat! th! princip !s ,ith ,hich ,! ar! conc!rn!# an# ,! can no, go on to as* abo+t th! occ+rr!nc! o' th! appropriat! app!rc!pti"! habits a(ong (!n o' "ario+s c+ t+r!s. 5' gr!at!st int!r!st;b!ca+s! !ast 'a(i iar;ar! th! $a" o"ian patCt!rns an# th! patt!rns o' rot!. It is a itt ! har# 'or (!(b!rs o' 8!st!rn ci"i i/ation to b! i!"! that ,ho ! syst!(s o' b!ha"ior can b! b+i t on pr!(is!s oth!r than o+r o,n (i-t+r! o' instr+(!nta r!,ar# an# instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!. :h! :robrian# Is an#!rs, ho,!"!r, app!ar to i"! a i'! ,hos! coh!r!nc! an# s!ns! is bas!# +pon oo*ing at !"!nts thro+gh $a" o"ian sp!ctac !s, on y s ight y tint!# ,ith th! hop! o' instr+(!nta r!,ar#, ,hi ! th! i'! o' th! 0a in!s! is s!nsib ! i' ,!
Aany p!op ! '!! that th! cont!-ts o' !-p!ri(!nta !arning ar! so o"!rsi(p i'i!# as to ha"! no b!aring +pon th! ph!no(!na o' th! r!a ,or #. Act+a y, !-pansion o' this c assi'ication ,i gi"! (!ans o' #!'ining syst!(atica y (any h+n#r!#s o' possib ! cont!-ts o' !arning ,ith th!ir associat!# app!rc!pti"! habits. :h! sch!(! (ay b! !-pan#!# in th! 'o o,ing ,ays6 a.Inc +sion o' cont!-ts o' n!gati"! !arning 2inhibition3. b.Inc +sion o' (i-!# typ!s 2!.g., cas!s in ,hich sa i"ation, ,ith its physio ogica r! !"anc! to (!at po,#!r, is a so instr+(!nta in obtaining th! (!at po,#!r3. c.Inc +sion o' th! cas!s in ,hich th! s+bJ!ct is ab ! to #!#+c! so(! sort o' r! !"anc! 2oth!r than th! physio ogica 3 b!t,!!n so(! t,o or (or! ! !(!nts in th! s!.+!nc!. 7or this to b! tr+!, th! s+bJ!ct (+st ha"! !-p!ri!nc! o' cont!-ts #i''!ring syst!(atica y on! 'ro( anoth!r, !.g., cont!-ts in ,hich so(! typ! o' chang! in on! ! !(!nt is constant y acco(pani!# by a constant typ! o' chang! in anoth!r ! !(!nt. :h!s! cas!s can b! spr!a# o+t on a attic! o' possibi iti!s, accor#ing to ,hich pair o' ! !(!nts th! s+bJ!ct s!!s as int!rr! at!#. :h!r! ar! on y 'i"! ! !(!nts 2conC #ition!# sti(+ +s, con#ition!# r!spons!, r!,ar# or p+nish(!nt, an# t,o ti(! int!r"a s3, b+t any pair o' th!s! (ay b! int!rr! at!#, an# o' th! int!rr! at!# pair, !ith!r (ay b! s!!n by th! s+bJ!ct as #!t!r(ining th! oth!r. :h!s! possibi iti!s, (+ tip i!# 'or o+r 'o+r basic cont!-ts, gi"! 'ortyC!ight typ!s. #.:h! ist o' basic typ!s (ay b! !-t!n#!# by inc +#ing thos! cas!s 2not as y!t in"!stigat!# in !arning !-p!ri(!nts b+t co((on in int!rp!rsona r! ationships3 in ,hich th! ro !s o' s+bJ!ct an# !-p!ri(!nt!r ar! r!"!rs!#. In th!s!, th! !arning partn!r pro"i#!s th! initia an# 'ina ! !(!nts, ,hi ! so(! oth!r p!rson 2or circ+(stanc!3 pro"i#!s th! (i## ! t!r(. In th!s! typ!s, ,! s!! th! b+//!r an# th! (!at po,#!r as th! b!ha"ior o' a p!rson an# as*6 98hat #o!s this p!rson !arnD9 A gr!at part o' th! ga(+t o' app!rc!pti"! habits associat!# ,ith a+thority an# par!nthoo# is bas!# on cont!-ts o f this g!n!ra typ!.
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acc!pt pr!(is!s bas!# +pon co(bining rot! ,ith instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!. C !ar y, to th! 9p+r!9 $a" o"ian, on y a "!ry i(it!# 'ata Cis( ,o+ # b! possib !. E! ,o+ # s!! a !"!nts as pr!or#ain!# an# h! ,o+ # s!! hi(s! ' as 'at!# on y to s!arch 'or o(!ns, not ab ! to in' +!nc! th! co+rs! o' !"!nts;ab !, at (ost, 'ro( his r!a#ing o' th! o(!ns, to p+t hi(s! ' in th! prop!r y r!c!pti"! stat!, !.g., by sa i"ation, b!'or! th! in!"itab ! occ+rr!#. :robrian# c+ t+r! is not so p+r! y $a" o"ian as this, b+t ?r. @!!,7 ana y/ing $ro'!ssor Aa ino,s*iIs rich obs!r"ations, has sho,n that :robrian# phrasings o' p+rpos!, ca+s!, an# !''!ct ar! pro'o+n# y #i''!r!nt 'ro( o+r o,nL an# tho+gh ?r. @!! #o!s not +s! th! sort o' c assi'ication h!r! propos!#, it app!ars 'ro( :robrian# (agic that th!s! p!op ! contin+a y !-hibit a habit o' thin*ing that to act as i' a thing ,!r! so ,i (a*! it so. In this s!ns!, ,! (ay #!scrib! th!( as s!(iC $a" o"ians ,ho ha"! #!ci#!# that 9sa i"ation9 is instr+(!nta to obtaining 9(!at po,#!r.9 Aa ino,s*i, 'or !-a(p !, gi"!s +s a #ra(atic #!scription o' th! a (ost physio ogica !-tr!(!s o' rag!8 ,hich th! :robrian# b ac* (agician practic!s in his incantations, an# ,! (ay ta*! this as an i +stration o' th! s!(iC$a" o"ian 'ra(! o' (in# in contrast ,ith th! "!ry "ario+s typ!s o' (agica proc!#+r! in oth!r parts o' th! ,or #, ,h!r!, 'or !-a(p !, th! !''icacy o' a sp! (ay b! associat!# not ,ith th! int!nsity b+t ,ith th! !-tr!(! rot! acc+racy o' th! r!citation. A(ong th! 0a in!s!9 ,! 'in# anoth!r patt!rn ,hich contrasts sharp y both ,ith o+r o,n an# ,ith that o' th! :robrian#!rs. :h!
7 ?orothy @!!, 9A $ri(iti"! &yst!( o' Ga +!s,9 Journal 6*ilos. of Science, 1940, 7# ?55%7F. 8 A It is possib ! that s!(iC$a" o"ian phrasings o' th! str!a( o' !"!nts t!n#, i*! th! !-p!ri(!nts ,hich ar! th!ir prototyp!s, to hing! partic+ ar y +pon a+tono(ic r!actions ;that thos! ,ho s!! !"!nts in th!s! t!r(s t!n# to s!! th!s! r!actions, ,hich ar! on y partia y s+bJ!ct to "o +ntary contro , as p!c+ iar y !''!cti"! an# po,!r'+ ca+s!s o' o+tsi#! !"!nts. :h!r! (ay b! so(! ironica ogic in $a" o"ian 'ata is( ,hich pr!#ispos!s +s to b! i!"! that ,! can a t!r th! co+rs! o' !"!nts only -y (!ans o' thos! b!ha"iors ,hich ,! ar! !ast ab ! to contro . 9 :h! 0a in!s! (at!ria co !ct!# by ?r. A!a# an# (yCs! ' has not y!t b!!n p+b ish!# in e.tenso, b+t a bri!' o+tC in! o' th! th!ory h!r! s+gg!st!# is a"ai ab !;c'. 1. 0at!son, 9:h! 7r+strationCAggr!ssion Eypoth!sis an# C+ t+r!,9 6syc*ological $e&ie', 1941, 486 ?5C%55.

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tr!at(!nt o' chi #r!n is s+ch that th!y !arn not to s!! i'! as co(pos!# o' connati"! s!.+!nc!s !n#ing in satis'action, b+t rath!r to s!! it as co(pos!# o' rot! s!.+!nc!s inh!r!nt y satis'ying in th!(s! "!s;a patt!rn ,hich is to so(! !-t!nt r! at!# to that patt!rn ,hich ?r. A!a# has r!co((!n#!#, o' oo*ing 'or "a +! in th! act its! ' rath!r than r!gar#ing th! .act as a (!ans to an !n#. :h!r! is, ho,C!"!r, on! "!ry i(portant #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! 0a in!s! patt!rn an# that r!co((!n#!# by ?r. A!a#. :h! 0a in!s! patt!rn is !ss!ntia y #!ri"ati"! 'ro( cont!-ts o' instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!L th!y s!! th! ,or # as #ang!ro+s, an# th!(s! "!s as a"oi#ing, by th! !n# !ss rot! b!ha"ior o' rit+a an# co+rt!sy, th! !"!rCpr!s!nt ris* o' fau. pas. :h!ir i'! is b+i t +pon '!ar, a b!it that in g!n!ra th!y !nJoy '!ar. :h! positi"! "a +! ,ith ,hich th!y !n#o, th!ir i((!#iat! acts, not oo*ing 'or a goa , is so(!ho, associat!# ,ith this !nJoy(!nt o' '!ar. It is th! acrobatIs !nJoy(!nt both o' th! thri an# o' his o,n "irt+osity in a"oi#ing #isast!r. 8! ar! no,, a't!r a so(!,hat ong an# t!chnica !-c+rsion into psycho ogica aboratori!s an# 'or!ign c+ t+r!s, in a position to !-a(in! ?r. A!a#Is proposa in so(!,hat (or! concr!t! t!r(s. &h! a#"is!s that ,h!n ,! app y th! socia sci!nc!s ,! oo* 'or 9#ir!ction9 an# 9"a +!9 in o+r "!ry acts, rath!r than ori!nt o+rs! "!s to so(! b +!print!# goa . &h! is not t! ing +s that ,! o+ght to b! i*! th! 0a in!s!, !-c!pt in o+r ti(! ori!ntation, an# sh! ,o+ # b! th! 'irst to #isparag! any s+gg!stion that '!ar 2!"!n !nJoy!# '!ar3 sho+ # b! o+r basis 'or assigning "a +! to o+r acts. 4ath!r, as I +n#!rstan# it, this basis sho+ # b! so(! sort o' hop!; not oo*ing to so(! 'arCo'' '+t+r!, b+t sti so(! sort o' hop! or opti(is(. In 'act, ,! (ight s+((ari/! th! r!co((!n#!# attit+#! by saying that it o+ght to b! 'or(a y r! at!# to instr+(!nta r!,ar#, as th! 0a in!s! attit+#! is r! at!# to instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!. &+ch an attit+#! is, I b! i!"!, '!asib !. :h! 0a in!s! attit+#! (ight b! #!'in!# as a habit o' rot! s!.+!nc!s inspir!# by a thri ing s!ns! o' !"!rCi((in!nt b+t in#!'init! #ang!r, an# I thin* that ,hat ?r. A!a# is +rging +s to,ar# (ight b! #!'in!# in i*! t!r(s, as a habit o' rot! s!.+!nc!s inspir!# by a thri ing s!ns! o' !"!rC i((in!nt b+t +n#!'in!# r!,ar#.

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As to th! rot! co(pon!nt, ,hich is a (ost c!rtain y a n!c!ssary conco(itant o' th! p!c+ iar ti(! ori!ntation a#"ocat!# by ?r. A!a#, 1, p!rsona y, ,o+ # ,! co(! it, an# I b! i!"! that it ,o+ # b! in'init! y pr!'!rab ! to th! co(p+ si"! typ! o' acc+racy a't!r ,hich ,! stri"!. An-io+s ta*ingCcar! an# a+to(atic, rot! ca+tion ar! a t!rnati"! habits ,hich p!r'or( th! sa(! '+nction. 8! can !ith!r ha"! th! habit o' a+to(atica y oo*ing b!'or! ,! cross th! str!!t, or th! habit o' car!'+ y r!(!(b!ring to oo*. 5' th! t,o I pr!'!r th! a+to(atic, an# I thin* that, i' ?r. A!a#Is r!cC o((!n#ation i(p i!s as incr!as! in rot! a+to(atis(, ,! o+ght to acc!pt it. A r!a#y, in#!!#, o+r schoo s ar! inc+ cating (or! an# (or! a+to(atis( in s+ch proc!ss!s as r!a#ing, ,riting, arith(!tic, an# ang+ag!s. As to th! r!,ar# co(pon!nt, this, too, sho+ # not b! b!yon# o+r r!ach. I' th! 0a in!s! is *!pt b+sy an# happy by a na(! !ss, shap! !ss '!ar, not ocat!# in spac! or ti(!, ,! (ight b! *!pt on o+r to!s by a na(! !ss, shap! !ss, +n ocat!# hop! o' !nor(o+s achi!"!(!nt. 7or s+ch a hop! to b! !''!cti"!, th! achi!"!(!nt n!!# scarc! y b! #!'in!#. A ,! n!!# to b! s+r! o' is that, at any (o(!nt, achi!"!(!nt (ay b! J+st aro+n# th! corn!r, an#, tr+! or 'a s!, this can n!"!r b! t!st!#. 8! ha"! got to b! i*! thos! '!, artists an# sci!ntists ,ho ,or* ,ith this +rg!nt sort o' inspiration, th! +rg!ncy that co(!s 'ro( '!! ing that gr!at #isco"!ry, th! ans,!r to a o+r prob !(s, or gr!at cr!ation, th! p!r'!ct sonn!t, is a ,ays on y J+st b!yon# o+r r!ach, or i*! th! (oth!r o' a chi # ,ho '!! s that, pro"i#!# sh! pay constant !no+gh att!ntion, th!r! is a r!a hop! that h!r chi # (ay b! that in'init! y rar! ph!no(!non, a gr!at an# happy p!rson.

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A Theo&y o5 Play an# Fanta!y%


:his r!s!arch ,as p ann!# an# start!# ,ith an hypoth!sis to g+i#! o+r in"!stigations, th! tas* o' th! in"!stigators b!ing to co !ct r! !"ant obs!r"ationa #ata an#, in th! proc!ss, to a(p i'y an# (o#i'y th! hypoth!sis. :h! hypoth!sis ,i h!r! b! #!scrib!# as it has gro,n in o+r thin*ing. =ar i!r '+n#a(!nta ,or* o' 8hit!h!a#, 4+ss! ,10 8ittC g!nst!in,11 Carnap,12 8hor',13 !tc., as ,! as (y o,n atCt!(pt14 to +s! this !ar i!r thin*ing as an !pist!(o ogica bas! 'or psychiatric th!ory, !# to a s!ri!s o' g!n!ra i/ations6 213 :hat h+(an "!rba co((+nication can op!rat! an# a ,ays #o!s op!rat! at (any contrasting !"! s o' abstraction. :h!s! rang! in t,o #ir!ctions 'ro( th! s!!(ing y si(p ! #!notati"! !"! 29:h! cat is on th! (at93. 5n! rang! or s!t o' th!s! (or! abstract !"! s inc +#!s thos! !-p icit or i(p icit (!ssag!s ,h!r! th! s+bJ!ct o' #isco+rs! is th! ang+ag!. 8! ,i ca th!s! (!ta ing+istic 2'or !-a(p !, 9:h! "!rba so+n# NcatI stan#s 'or any (!(b!r o' s+ch an# s+ch c ass o' obJ!cts,9 or 9:h! ,or#, Ncat,I has no '+r an# cannot scratch93. :h! oth!r s!t o' !"! s o' abstraction ,! ,i ca (!taco((+nicati"! 2!.g., 9,y t! ing yo+ ,h!r! to 'in# th! cat ,as 'ri!n# y,9 or 9:his is p ay93. In th!s!, th! s+bJ!ct o' #isco+rs! is th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! sp!a*!rs.
:his !ssay ,as r!a# 2by Jay Ea !y3 at th! A.$.A. 4!giona 4!s!arch Con'!r!nc! in A!-ico City, Aarch 11, 1954. It is h!r! r!print!# 'ro( A.6.A. 6syc*iatric $esearc* $eports, II, 1955, by p!r(ission o' th! A(!rican $sychiatric Association. 10 A. ). 8hit!h!a# an# 0. 4+ss! , $rincipia Aath!(atica, 3 "o s., 2n# !#., Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1910C13. 11 @. 8ittg!nst!in, :ractat+s @ogicoC$hi osophic+s, @onC#on, Earco+rt 0rac!, 1922. 12 4. Carnap, :h! @ogica &ynta- o' @ang+ag!, )!, For*, Earco+rt 0rac!, 1937. 13 0. @. 8hor', 9&ci!nc! an# @ing+istics,9 :!chno ogy 4!"i!,, 1940, 446 229C 48. 14 J. 4+!sch an# 1. 0at!son, Co((+nication6 :h! &ocia Aatri- o' $sychiatry, )!, For*, )orton, 1951.
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It ,i b! not!# that th! "ast (aJority o' both (!ta ing+istic an# (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s r!(ain i(p icitL an# a so that, !sp!cia y in th! psychiatric int!r"i!,, th!r! occ+rs a '+rth!r c ass o' i(p icit (!ssag!s abo+t ho, (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s o' 'ri!n#ship an# hosti ity ar! to b! int!rpr!t!#. 223 I' ,! sp!c+ at! abo+t th! !"o +tion o' co((+nication, it is !"i#!nt that a "!ry i(portant stag! in this !"o +tion occ+rs ,h!n th! organis( gra#+a y c!as!s to r!spon# .+it! 9a+to(atica y9 to th! (oo#Csigns o' anoth!r an# b!co(!s ab ! to r!cogni/! th! sign as a signa 6 that is, to r!cogni/! that th! oth!r in#i"i#+a Is an# its o,n signa s ar! on y signa s, ,hich can b! tr+st!#, #istr+st!#, 'a si'i!#, #!ni!#, a(p i'i!#, corr!ct!#, an# so 'orth. C !ar y this r!a i/ation that signa s ar! signa s is by no (!ans co(p !t! !"!n a(ong th! h+(an sp!ci!s. 8! a too o't!n r!spon# a+to(atica y to n!,spap!r h!a# in!s as tho+gh th!s! sti(+ i ,!r! #ir!ct obJ!ctCin#ications o' !"!nts in o+r !n"iron(!nt inst!a# o' signa s concoct!# an# trans(itt!# by cr!at+r!s as co(p !- y (oti"at!# as o+rs! "!s. :h! nonh+(an (a((a is a+to(atica y !-cit!# by th! s!-+a o#or o' anoth!rL an# right y so, inas(+ch as th! s!cr!tion o' that sign is an 9in"o +ntary9 (oo#CsignL i.!., an o+t,ar# y p!rc!ptib ! !"!nt ,hich is a part o' th! physio ogica proc!ss ,hich ,! ha"! ca !# a (oo#. In th! h+(an sp!ci!s a (or! co(p !- stat! o' a''airs b!gins to b! th! r+ !. ?!o#orants (as* th! in"o +ntary o 'actory signs, an# in th!ir p ac! th! cos(!tic in#+stry pro"i#!s th! in#i"i#+a ,ith p!r'+(!s ,hich ar! not in"o +ntary signs b+t "o +ntary signa s, r!cogni/ab ! as s+ch. Aany a (an has b!!n thro,n o'' ba anc! by a ,hi'' o' p!r'+(!, an# i' ,! ar! to b! i!"! th! a#"!rtis!rs, it s!!(s that th!s! signa s, "o +ntari y ,orn, ha"! so(!ti(!s an a+to(atic an# a+tos+gg!sti"! !''!ct !"!n +pon th! "o +ntary ,!ar!r. 0! that as it (ay, this bri!' #igr!ssion ,i s!r"! to i +strat! a stag! o' !"o +tion;th! #ra(a pr!cipitat!# ,h!n organis(s, ha"ing !at!n o' th! 'r+it o' th! :r!! o' <no, !#g!, #isco"!r that th!ir signa s ar! signa s. )ot on y th! charact!ristica y h+(an in"!ntion o' ang+ag! can th!n 'o o,, b+t a so a th! co(p !-iti!s o' !(pathy, i#!nti'ication, proJ!ction, an# so on. An# ,ith th!s! co(!s th! possibi ity o' co((+nicating at th! (+ tip icity o' !"! s o' abstraction (!ntion!# abo"!.

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233 :h! 'irst #!'init! st!p in th! 'or(+ ation o' th! hypoth!sis g+i#ing this r!s!arch occ+rr!# in Jan+ary, 1952, ,h!n I ,!nt to th! 7 !ishhac*!r Moo in &an 7rancisco to oo* 'or b!ha"iora crit!ria ,hich ,o+ # in#icat! ,h!th!r any gi"!n organis( is or is not ab ! to r!cogni/! that th! signs !(itt!# by its! ' an# oth!r (!(b!rs o' th! sp!ci!s ar! signa s. In th!ory, I ha# tho+ght o+t ,hat s+ch crit!ria (ight oo* i*!;that th! occ+rr!nc! o' (!taco((+nicati"! signs 2or signa s3 in th! str!a( o' int!raction b!t,!!n th! ani(a s ,o+ # in#icat! that th! ani(a s ha"! at !ast so(! a,ar!n!ss 2conscio+s or +nconscio+s3 that th! signs abo+t ,hich th!y (!taco((+nicat! ar! signa s. I *n!,, o' co+rs!, that th!r! ,as no i*! ihoo# o' 'in#ing #!notati"! (!ssag!s a(ong nonh+(an (a((a s, b+t I ,as sti not a,ar! that th! ani(a #ata ,o+ # r!.+ir! an a (ost tota r!"ision o' (y thin*ing. 8hat I !nco+nt!r!# at th! /oo ,as a ph!no(!non ,! *no,n to !"!rybo#y6 I sa, t,o yo+ng (on*!ys playing, i.e., !ngag!# in an int!racti"! s!.+!nc! o' ,hich th! +nit actions or signa s ,!r! si(i ar to b+t not th! sa(! as thos! o' co(bat. It ,as !"i#!nt, !"!n to th! h+(an obs!r"!r, that th! s!.+!nc! as a ,ho ! ,as not co(bat, an# !"i#!nt to th! h+(an obs!r"!r that to th! participant (on*!ys this ,as 9not co(bat.9 )o,, this ph!no(!non, p ay, co+ # on y occ+r i' th! participant organis(s ,!r! capab ! o' so(! #!gr!! o' (!taCco((+nication, i.!., o' !-changing signa s ,hich ,o+ # carry th! (!ssag! 9this is p ay.9 243 :h! n!-t st!p ,as th! !-a(ination o' th! (!ssag! 9:his is p ay,9 an# th! r!a i/ation that this (!ssag! contains thos! ! !(!nts ,hich n!c!ssari y g!n!rat! a para#o- o' th! 4+ss! ian or =pi(!ni#!s typ! Ca n!gati"! stat!(!nt containing an i(p icit n!gati"! (!tastat!(!nt. =-pan#!#, th! stat!(!nt 9:his is p ay9 oo*s so(!thing i*! this6 9:h!s! actions in ,hich ,! no, !ngag! #o not #!not! ,hat thos! actions for '*ic* t*ey stand ,o+ # #!not!.9 8! no, as* abo+t th! ita ici/!# ,or#s, 9for '*ic* t*ey stand.9 8! say th! ,or# 9cat9 stan#s 'or any (!(b!r o' a c!rtain c ass. :hat is, th! phras! 9stan#s 'or9 is a n!ar synony( o' 9#!not!s.9 I' ,! no, s+bstit+t! 9,hich th!y #!not!9 'or th! ,or#s 9'or ,hich th!y stan#9 in th! !-pan#!# #!'inition o' p ay, th! r!s+ t is6 9:h!s! actions, in

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,hich ,! no, !ngag!, #o not #!not! ,hat ,o+ # b! #!Cnot!# by thos! actions ,hich th!s! actions #!not!.9 :h! p ay'+ nip #!not!s th! bit!, b+t it #o!s not #!not! ,hat ,o+ # b! #!not!# by th! bit!. Accor#ing to th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s s+ch a (!ssag! is o' co+rs! ina#(issab !, b!ca+s! th! ,or# 9#!not!9 is b!ing +s!# in t,o #!gr!!s o' abstraction, an# th!s! t,o +s!s ar! tr!at!# as synony(o+s. 0+t a that ,! !arn 'ro( s+ch a criticis( is that it ,o+ # b! ba# nat+ra history to !-p!ct th! (!nta proc!ss!s an# co((+nicati"! habits o' (a((a s to con'or( to th! ogicianIs i#!a . In#!!#, i' h+(an tho+ght an# co((+nication a ,ays con'or(!# to th! i#!a , 4+ss! ,o+ # n o t in 'act co+ # n o t ha"! 'or(+ at!# th! i#!a . 253 A r! at!# prob !( in th! !"o +tion o' co((+nication conc!rns th! origin o' ,hat <or/ybs*i15 has ca !# th! (apCt!rritory r! ation6 th! 'act that a (!ssag!, o' ,hat!"!r *in#, #o!s not consist o' thos! obJ!cts ,hich it #!not!s 29:h! ,or# NcatI cannot scratch +s93. 4ath!r, ang+ag! b!ars to th! obJ!cts ,hich it #!not!s a r! ationship co(parab ! to that ,hich a (ap b!ars to a t!rritory. ?!notati"! co((+nication as it occ+rs at th! h+(an !"! is on y possib ! after th! !"o +tion o' a co(p !- s!t o' (!ta ing+istic 2b+t not "!rba i/!#316 r+ !s ,hich go"!rn ho, ,or#s an# s!nt!nc!s sha b! r! at!# to obJ!cts an# !"!nts. It is th!r!'or! appropriat! to oo* 'or th! !"o +tion o' s+ch (!ta ing+istic an#Kor (!taCco((+nicati"! r+ !s at a pr!h+(an an# pr!"!rba !"! . It app!ars 'ro( ,hat is sai# abo"! that p ay is a ph!no(!non in ,hich th! actions o' 9p ay9 ar! r! at!# to, or #!not!, oth!r actions o' 9not p ay.9 8! th!r!'or! (!!t in p ay ,ith an instanc! o' signa s stan#ing 'or oth!r !"!nts, an# it app!ars, th!r!'or!, that th! !"o +tion o' p ay (ay ha"! b!!n an i(portant st!p in th! !"o +tion o' co((+nication. 263 :hr!at is anoth!r ph!no(!non ,hich r!s!(b !s p ay in that actions #!not!, b+t ar! #i''!r!nt 'ro(, oth!r actions. :h! c !nch!# 'ist o' thr!at is #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! p+nch, b+t it r!'!rs to a possib !
15 16

A. <or/ybs*i, Science and Sanity, )!, For*, &ci!nc! $r!ss, 1941.

:h! "!rba i/ation o' th!s! (!ta ing+istic r+ !s is a (+ch at!r achi!"!(!nt ,hich can on y occ+r a't!r th! !"o +tion o' a non"!rba i/!# (!taC(!ta ing+istics.

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'+t+r! 2b+t at pr!s!nt non!-ist!nt3 p+nch. An# thr!at a so is co((on y r!cogni/ab ! a(ong nonCh+(an (a((a s. In#!!# it has at! y b!!n arg+!# that a gr!at part o' ,hat app!ars to b! co(bat a(ong (!(b!rs o' a sing ! sp!ci!s is rath!r to b! r!gar#!# as thr!at 2:inb!rg!n,17 @or!n/183. 273 Eistrionic b!ha"ior an# #!c!it ar! oth!r !-a(p !s o' th! pri(iti"! occ+rr!nc! o' (apCt!rritory #i''!r!ntiation. An# th!r! is !"i#!nc! that #ra(ati/ation occ+rs a(ong bir#s6 a Jac*#a, (ay i(itat! h!r o,n (oo#Csigns 2@or!n/193, an# #!c!it has b!!n obs!r"!# a(ong ho, !r (on*!ys 2Carp!nt!r203. 283 8! (ight !-p!ct thr!at, p ay, an# histrionics to b! thr!! in#!p!n#!nt ph!no(!na a contrib+ting to th! !"o +tion o' th! #iscri(ination b!t,!!n (ap an# t!rritory. 0+t it s!!(s that this ,o+ # b! ,rong, at !ast so 'ar as (a((a ian co((+nication is conc!rn!#. G!ry bri!' ana ysis o' chi #hoo# b!ha"ior sho,s that s+ch co(binations as histrionic p ay, b +'', p ay'+ thr!at, t!asing p ay in r!spons! to thr!at, histrionic thr!at, an# so on 'or( tog!th!r a sing ! tota co(p !- o' ph!no(!na. An# s+ch a#+ t ph!no(!na as ga(b ing an# p aying ,ith ris* ha"! th!ir roots in th! co(bination o' thr!at an# p ay. It is !"i#!nt a so that not on y thr!at b+t th! r!ciproca o' thr!at;th! b!ha"ior o' th! thr!at!n!# in#i"i#+a ;ar! a part o' this co(p !-. It is probab ! that not on y histrionics b+t a so sp!ctatorship sho+ # b! inc +#!# ,ithin this 'i! #. It is a so appropriat! to (!ntion s! 'Cpity. 293 A '+rth!r !-t!nsion o' this thin*ing !a#s +s to inc +#! rit+a ,ithin this g!n!ra 'i! # in ,hich th! #iscri(ination is #ra,n, b+t not co(p !t! y, b!t,!!n #!notati"! action an# that ,hich is to b! #!not!#. Anthropo ogica st+#i!s o' p!ac!C(a*ing c!r!(oni!s, to cit! on y on! !-a(p !, s+pCport this conc +sion. In th! An#a(an Is an#s, p!ac! is conc +#!# a't!r !ach si#! has b!!n gi"!n c!r!(onia 'r!!#o( to stri*! th! oth!r. :his !-a(p !, ho,!"!r, a so i +strat!s th! abi ! nat+r! o' th! 'ra(! 9:his is p ay, 9
17 ). :inb!rg!n, &ocia 0!ha"ior in Ani(a s ,ith &p!cia 4!'!r!nc! to G!rt!brat!s, @on#on, A!th+!n, 1953. 18 <. M. @or!n/, <ing &o o(onIs 4ing, )!, For*, Cro,! , 1952. 19 Ibi#. 20 C. 4. Carp!nt!r, 9A 7i! # &t+#y o' th! 0!ha"ior an# &ocia 4! ations o' Eo, ing Aon*!ys,9 Co(p. $sycho . Aonogr., 1934, 106 1C168.

187

or 9:his is rit+a .9 :h! #iscri(ination b!t,!!n (ap an# t!rritory is a ,ays iab ! to br!a* #o,n, an# th! rit+a b o,s o' p!ac!C(a*ing ar! a ,ays iab ! to b! (ista*!n 'or th! 9r!a 9 b o,s o' co(bat. In this !"!nt, th! p!ac!C(a*ing c!r!(ony b!co(!s a batt ! 24a#c i''!C 0ro,n213 . 2103 0+t this !a#s +s to r!cognition o' a (or! co(p !- 'or( o' p ayL th! ga(! ,hich is constr+ct!# not +pon th! pr!(is! 9:his is p ay9 b+t rath!r aro+n# th! .+!stion 9Is this p ayD9 An# this typ! o' int!raction a so has its rit+a 'or(s, !.g., in th! ha/ing o' initiation. 2113 $ara#o- is #o+b y pr!s!nt in th! signa s ,hich ar! !-chang!# ,ithin th! cont!-t o' p ay, 'antasy, thr!at, !tc. )ot on y #o!s th! p ay'+ nip not #!not! ,hat ,o+ # b! #!not!# by th! bit! 'or ,hich it stan#s, b+t, in a##ition, th! bit! its! ' is 'ictiona . )ot on y #o th! p aying ani(a s not .+it! (!an ,hat th!y ar! saying b+t, a so, th!y ar! +s+a y co((+nicating abo+t so(!thing ,hich #o!s not !-ist. At th! h+(an !"! , this !a#s to a "ast "ari!ty o' co(p ications an# in"!rsions in th! 'i! #s o' p ay, 'antasy, an# art. ConJ+r!rs an# paint!rs o' th! trompe lDoeil schoo conc!ntrat! +pon ac.+iring a "irt+osity ,hos! on y r!,ar# is r!ach!# a't!r th! "i!,!r #!t!cts that h! has b!!n #!c!i"!# an# is 'orc!# to s(i ! or (ar"! at th! s*i o' th! #!c!i"!r. Eo y,oo# 'i (C(a*!rs sp!n# (i ions o' #o ars to incr!as! th! r!a is( o' a sha#o,. 5th!r artists, p!rhaps (or! r!a istica y, insist that art b! nonr!pr!s!ntationa L an# po*!r p ay!rs achi!"! a strang! a##icti"! r!a is( by !.+ating th! chips 'or ,hich th!y p ay ,ith #o ars. :h!y sti insist, ho,!"!r, that th! os!r acc!pt his oss as part o' th! ga(!. 7ina y, in th! #i( r!gion ,h!r! art, (agic, an# r! igion (!!t an# o"!r ap, h+(an b!ings ha"! !"o "!# th! 9(!taphor that is (!ant,9 th! ' ag ,hich (!n ,i #i! to sa"!, an# th! sacra(!nt that is '! t to b! (or! than 9an o+t,ar# an# "isib ! sign, gi"!n +nto +s.9 E!r! ,! can r!cogni/! an att!(pt to #!ny th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n (ap an# t!rritory, an# to g!t bac* to th! abso +t! innoc!nc! o' co((+nication by (!ans o' p+r! (oo#Csigns. 2123 8! 'ac! th!n t,o p!c+ iariti!s o' p ay6 +a4 that th! (!ssag!s or signa s !-chang!# in p ay ar! in a c!rtain s!ns! +ntr+! or not
A. 4. 4a#c i''!C0ro,n, !*e Andaman Islanders, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1922.
21

188

(!antL an# +-4 that that ,hich is #!not!# by th!s! signa s is non!-ist!nt. :h!s! t,o p!c+ iariti!s so(!ti(!s co(bin! strang! y to a r!"!rs! a conc +sion r!ach!# abo"!. It ,as stat!# 243 that th! p ay'+ nip #!Cnot!s th! bit!, b+t #o!s not #!not! that ,hich ,o+ # b! #!not!# by th! bit!. 0+t th!r! ar! oth!r instanc!s ,h!r! an opposit! ph!no(!non occ+rs. A (an !-p!ri!nc!s th! '+ int!nsity o' s+bJ!cti"! t!rror ,h!n a sp!ar is ' +ng at hi( o+t o' th! 3? scr!!n or ,h!n h! 'a s h!a# ong 'ro( so(! p!a* cr!at!# in his o,n (in# in th! int!nsity o' night(ar!. At th! (o(!nt o' t!rror th!r! ,as no .+!stioning o' 9r!a ity,9 b+t sti th!r! ,as no sp!ar in th! (o"i! ho+s! an# no c i'' in th! b!#roo(. :h! i(ag!s #i# not #!not! that ,hich th!y s!!(!# to #!not!, b+t th!s! sa(! i(ag!s #i# r!a y !"o*! that t!rror ,hich ,o+ # ha"! b!!n !"o*!# by a r!a sp!ar or a r!a pr!cipic!. 0y a si(i ar tric* o' s! 'Ccontra#iction, th! 'i (C (a*!rs o' Eo y,oo# ar! 'r!! to o''!r to a p+ritanica p+b ic a "ast rang! o' ps!+#os!-+a 'antasy ,hich oth!r,is! ,o+ # not b! to !rat!#. In 8a&id and <at*s*e-a, 0athsh!ba can b! a :roi istic in* b!t,!!n ?a"i# an# %riah. An# in 1ans "*ristian Andersen, th! h!ro starts o+t acco(pani!# by a boy. E! tri!s to g!t a ,o(an, b+t ,h!n h! is #!'!at!# in this att!(pt, h! r!t+rns to th! boy. In a o' this, th!r! is, o' co+rs!, no ho(os!-+a ity, b+t th! choic! o' th!s! sy(bo is(s is associat!# in th!s! 'antasi!s ,ith c!rtain charact!ristic i#!as, !.g., abo+t th! hop! !ssn!ss o' th! h!t!ros!-+a (asc+ in! position ,h!n 'ac!# ,ith c!rtain sorts o' ,o(!n or ,ith c!rtain sorts o' (a ! a+thority. In s+(, th! ps!+#oho(os!-+a ity o' th! 'antasy #o!s not stan# 'or any r!a ho(os!-+a ity, b+t #o!s stan# 'or an# !-pr!ss attit+#!s ,hich (ight acco(pany a r!a ho(os!-+a ity or '!!# its !tio ogica roots. :h! sy(bo s #o not #!not! ho(os!-+a ity, b+t #o #!not! i#!as 'or ,hich ho(os!-+a ity is an appropriat! sy(bo . ="i#!nt y it is n!c!ssary to r!C!-a(in! th! pr!cis! s!(antic "a i#ity o' th! int!rpr!tations ,hich th! psychiatrist o''!rs to a pati!nt, an#, as pr! i(inary to this ana ysis, it ,i b! n!c!ssary to !-a(in! th! nat+r! o' th! 'ra(! in ,hich th!s! int!rpr!tations ar! o''!r!#. 2133 8hat has pr!"io+s y b!!n sai# abo+t p ay can b! +s!# as an intro#+ctory !-a(p ! 'or th! #isc+ssion o' 'ra(!s an# cont!-ts. In s+(, it is o+r hypoth!sis that th! (!ssag! 9:his is p ay9 !stab ish!s

189

a para#o-ica 'ra(! co(parab ! to =pi(!ni#!sI para#o-. :his 'ra(! (ay b! #iagra((!# th+s6

:h! 'irst stat!(!nt ,ithin this 'ra(! is a s! 'Ccontra#ictory proposition abo+t its! '. I' this 'irst stat!(!nt is tr+!, th!n it (+st b! 'a s!. I' it b! 'a s!, th!n it (+st b! tr+!. 0+t this 'irst stat!(!nt carri!s ,ith it a th! oth!r stat!(!nts in th! 'ra(!. &o, i' th! 'irst stat!(!nt b! tr+!, th!n a th! oth!rs (+st b! 'a s!L an# "ic! "!rsa, i' th! 'irst stat!(!nt b! +ntr+! th!n a th! oth!rs (+st b! tr+!. 2143 :h! ogica y (in#!# ,i notic! a non%se5uitur. It co+ # b! +rg!# that !"!n i' th! 'irst sta!(!nt is 'a s!, th!r! r!(ains a ogica possibi ity that so(! o' th! oth!r stat!(!nts in th! 'ra(! ar! +ntr+!. It is, ho,!"!r, a charact!ristic o' +nconscio+s or 9pri(aryCproc!ss9 thin*ing that th! thin*!r is +nab ! to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n 9so(!9 an# 9a ,9 an# +nab ! to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n 9not a 9 an# 9non!.9 It s!!(s that th! achi!"!(!nt o' th!s! #iscri(inations is p!r'or(!# by high!r or (or! conscio+s (!nta proc!ss!s ,hich s!r"! in th! nonpsychotic in#i"i#+a to corr!ct th! b ac*Can#C,hit! thin*ing o' th! o,!r !"! s. 8! ass+(!, an# this s!!(s to b! an ortho#oass+(ption, that pri(ary proc!ss is contin+a y op!rating, an# that th! psycho ogica "a i#ity o' th! para#o-ica p ay 'ra(! #!p!n#s +pon this part o' th! (in#. 2153 0+t, con"!rs! y, ,hi ! it is n!c!ssary to in"o*! th! pri(ary proc!ss as an !-p anatory princip ! in or#!r to #! !t! th! notion o' 9so(!9 'ro( b!t,!!n 9a 9 an# 9non!,9 this #o!s not (!an that p ay is si(p y a pri(aryCproc!ss ph!no(!non. :h! #iscri(ination b!t,!!n 9p ay9 an# 9nonp ay,9 i*! th! #iscri(ination b!t,!!n 'antasy an# non'antasy, is c!rtain y a '+nction o' s!con#ary proc!ss, or 9!go.9 8ithin th! #r!a( th! #r!a(!r is +s+a y +na,ar! that h! is #r!a(ing, an# ,ithin 9p ay9 h! (+st o't!n b! r!(in#!# that 9:his is p ay.9

190

&i(i ar y, ,ithin #r!a( or 'antasy th! #r!a(!r #o!s not op!rat! ,ith th! conc!pt 9+ntr+!.9 E! op!rat!s ,ith a sorts o' stat!(!nts b+t ,ith a c+rio+s inabi ity to achi!"! (!taCstat!(!nts. E! cannot, +n !ss c os! to ,a*ing, #r!a( a stat!(!nt r!'!rring to 2i.!., 'ra(ing3 his #r!a(. It th!r!'or! 'o o,s that th! p ay 'ra(! as h!r! +s!# as an !-p anatory princip ! i(p i!s a sp!cia co(bination o' pri(ary an# s!con#ary proc!ss!s. :his, ho,!"!r, is r! at!# to ,hat ,as sai# !ar i!r, ,h!n it ,as arg+!# that p ay (ar*s a st!p 'or,ar# in th! !"o +tion o' co((+nication;th! cr+cia st!p in th! #isco"!ry o' (apCt!rritory r! ations. In pri(ary proc!ss, (ap an# t!rritory ar! !.+at!#L in s!con#ary proc!ss, th!y can b! #iscri(inat!#. In p ay, th!y ar! both !.+at!# an# #iscri(inat!#. 2163 Anoth!r ogica ano(a y in this syst!( (+st b! (!ntion!#6 that th! r! ationship b!t,!!n t,o propositions ,hich is co((on y #!scrib!# by th! ,or# 9pr!(is!9 has b!co(! intransiti"!. In g!n!ra , a asy((!trica r! ationships ar! transiti"!. :h! r! ationship 9gr!at!r than9 is typica in this r!sp!ctL it is con"!ntiona to arg+! that i' A is gr!at!r than 0, an# 0 is gr!at!r than C, th!n A is gr!at!r than C. 0+t in psycho ogica proc!ss!s th! transiti"ity o' asy((!trica r! ations is not obs!r"!#. :h! proposition $ (ay b! a pr!(is! 'or VL V (ay b! a pr!(is! 'or 4L an# 4 (ay b! a pr!(is! 'or $. &p!ci'ica y, in th! syst!( ,hich ,! ar! consi#!ring, th! circ ! is sti (or! contract!#. :h! (!ssag!, 9A stat!(!nts ,ithin this 'ra(! ar! +ntr+!9 is its! ' to b! ta*!n as a pr!(is! in !"a +ating its o,n tr+th or +ntr+th. 2C'. th! inCtransiti"ity o' psycho ogica pr!'!r!nc! #isc+ss!# by AcC+ och.22 :h! para#ig( 'or a para#o-!s o' this g!n!ra typ! is 4+ss! Is23 9c ass o' c ass!s ,hich ar! not (!(b!rs o' th!(Cs! "!s.9 E!r! 4+ss! #!(onstrat!s that para#o- is g!n!rat!# by tr!ating th! r! ationship, 9is a (!(b!r o',9 as an inCtransiti"!.3 8ith this ca"!at, that th! 9pr!(is!9 r! ation in psycho ogy is i*! y to b! intransiti"!, ,! sha +s! th! ,or# 9pr!(is!9 to #!not! a #!p!n#!ncy o' on! i#!a or (!ssag! +pon anoth!r co(parab ! to th! #!p!n#!ncy o' on! proposition +pon
22 8. &. AcC+ och, 9A E!t!rarchy o' Ga +!s, !tc.,9 <ulletin of Math. Biophys., 1945, 7# 89-93. 23 8hit!h!a# an# 4+ss! , op. cit.

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anoth!r ,hich is r!'!rr!# to in ogic by saying that th! proposition $ is a pr!(is! 'or V. 2173 A this, ho,!"!r, !a"!s +nc !ar ,hat is (!ant by 9'ra(!9 an# th! r! at!# notion o' 9cont!-t.9 :o c ari'y th!s!, it is n!c!ssary to insist 'irst that th!s! ar! psycho ogica conc!pts. 8! +s! t,o sorts o' ana ogy to #isc+ss th!s! notions6 th! physica ana ogy o' th! pict+r! 'ra(! an# th! (or! abstract, b+t sti not psycho ogica , ana ogy o' th! (ath!(atica s!t. In s!t th!ory th! (ath!(aticians ha"! #!"! op!# a-io(s an# th!or!(s to #isc+ss ,ith rigor th! ogica i(p ications o' (!(b!rship in o"!r apping cat!gori!s or 9s!ts.9 :h! r! ationships b!t,!!n s!ts ar! co((on y i +strat!# by #iagra(s in ,hich th! it!(s or (!(b!rs o' a arg!r +ni"!rs! ar! r!pr!s!nt!# by #ots, an# th! s(a !r s!ts ar! #! i(it!# by i(aginary in!s !nc osing th! (!(b!rs o' !ach s!t. &+ch #iagra(s th!n i +strat! a topo ogica approach to th! ogic o' c assi'ication. :h! 'irst st!p in #!'ining a psycho ogica 'ra(! (ight b! to say that it is 2or #! i(its3 a c ass or s!t o' (!ssag!s 2or (!aning'+ actions3. :h! p ay o' t,o in#i"i#+a s on a c!rtain occasion ,o+ # th!n b! #!'in!# as th! s!t o' a (!ssag!s !-chang!# by th!( ,ithin a i(it!# p!rio# o' ti(! an# (o#i'i!# by th! para#o-ica pr!(is! syst!( ,hich ,! ha"! #!scrib!#. In a s!tCth!or!tica #iagra( th!s! (!ssag!s (ight b! r!pr!s!nt!# by #ots, an# th! 9s!t9 !nc os!# by a in! ,hich ,o+ # s!parat! th!s! 'ro( oth!r #ots r!pr!s!nting nonp ay (!ssag!s. :h! (ath!(atica ana ogy br!a*s #o,n, ho,!"!r, b!ca+s! th! psycho ogica 'ra(! is not satis'actori y r!pr!s!nt!# by an i(aginary in!. 8! ass+(! that th! psycho ogica 'ra(! has so(! #!gr!! o' r!a !-ist!nc!. In (any instanc!s, th! 'ra(! is conscio+s y r!cogni/!# an# !"!n r!pr!s!nt!# in "ocab+ ary 29p ay,9 9(o"i!,9 9int!r"i!,,9 9Job,9 9 ang+ag!,9 !tc.3. In oth!r cas!s, th!r! (ay b! no !-p icit "!rba r!'!r!nc! to th! 'ra(!, an# th! s+bJ!ct (ay ha"! no conscio+sn!ss o' it. :h! ana yst, ho,!"!r, 'in#s that his o,n thin*ing is si(p i'i!# i' h! +s!s th! notion o' an +nconscio+s 'ra(! as an !-p anatory princip !L +s+a y h! go!s '+rth!r than this an# in'!rs its !-ist!nc! in th! s+bJ!ctIs +nconscio+s. 0+t ,hi ! th! ana ogy o' th! (ath!(atica s!t is p!rhaps o"!r abstract, th! ana ogy o' th! pict+r! 'ra(! is !-c!ssi"! y concr!t!. :h! psycho ogica conc!pt ,hich ,! ar! trying to #!'in! is n!ith!r physica nor ogica . 4ath!r, th! act+a physica 'ra(! is, ,! b! i!"!,

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a##!# by h+(an b!ings to physica pict+r!s b!ca+s! th!s! h+(an b!ings op!rat! (or! !asi y in a +ni"!rs! in ,hich so(! o' th!ir psycho ogica charact!ristics ar! !-t!rna i/!#. It is th!s! charact!ristics ,hich. ,! ar! trying to #isc+ss, +sing th! !-t!rna i/aC tion as an i +strati"! #!"ic!. 2183 :h! co((on '+nctions an# +s!s o' psycho ogica 'ra(!s (ay no, b! ist!# an# i +strat!# by r!'!r!nc! to th! ana ogi!s ,hos! i(itations ha"! b!!n in#icat!# in th! pr!"io+s paragraph6 2a3$sycho ogica 'ra(!s ar! !-c +si"!, i.!., by inc +#ing c!rtain (!ssag!s 2or (!aning'+ actions3 ,ithin a 'ra(!, c!rtain oth!r (!ssag!s ar! !-c +#!#. 2b3$sycho ogica 'ra(!s ar! inc +si"!, i.!., by !-c +#ing c!rtain (!ssag!s c!rtain oth!rs ar! inc +#!#. 7ro( th! point o' "i!, o' s!t th!ory th!s! t,o '+nctions ar! synony(o+s, b+t 'ro( th! point o' "i!, o' psycho ogy it is n!c!ssary to ist th!( s!parat! y. :h! 'ra(! aro+n# a pict+r!, i' ,! consi#!r this 'ra(! as a (!ssag! int!n#!# to or#!r or organi/! th! p!rc!ption o' th! "i!,!r, says, 9Att!n# to ,hat is ,ithin an# #o not att!n# to ,hat is o+tsi#!.9 7ig+r! an# gro+n#, as th!s! t!r(s ar! +s!# by g!sta t psycho ogists, ar! not sy((!trica y r! at!# as ar! th! s!t an# nons!t o' s!t th!ory. $!rc!ption o' th! gro+n# (+st b! positi"! y inhibit!# an# p!rc!ption o' th! 'ig+r! 2in this cas! th! pict+r!3 (+st b! positi"! y !nhanc!#. 2c3$sycho ogica 'ra(!s ar! r! at!# to ,hat ,! ha"! ca !# 9pr!(is!s.9 :h! pict+r! 'ra(! t! s th! "i!,!r that h! is not to +s! th! sa(! sort o' thin*ing in int!rpr!ting th! pict+r! that h! (ight +s! in int!rpr!ting th! ,a pap!r o+tsi#! th! 'ra(!. 5r, in t!r(s o' th! ana ogy 'ro( s!t th!ory, th! (!ssag!s !nc os!# ,ithin th! i(aginary in! ar! #!'in!# as (!(b!rs o' a c ass by "irt+! o' th!ir sharing co((on pr!(is!s or (+t+a r! !"anc!. :h! 'ra(! its! ' th+s b!co(!s a part o' th! pr!(is! syst!(. =ith!r, as in th! cas! o' th! p ay 'ra(!, th! 'ra(! is in"o "!# in th! !"a +ation o' th! (!ssag!s ,hich it contains, or th! 'ra(! (!r! y assists th! (in# in +n#!rstan#ing th! contain!# (!ssag!s by r!(in#ing th! thin*!r that th!s! (!ssag!s ar! (+t+a y r! !"ant an# th! (!ssag!s o+tsi#! th! 'ra(! (ay b! ignor!#. 2#3In th! s!ns! o' th! pr!"io+s paragraph, a 'ra(! is (!taco((+nicati"!. Any (!ssag!, ,hich !ith!r !-p icit y or i(p icit y #!'in!s a 'ra(!, ipso facto gi"!s th! r!c!i"!r instr+ctions

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or ai#s in his att!(pt to +n#!rstan# th! (!ssag!s inc +#!# ,ithin th! 'ra(!. 2!3:h! con"!rs! o' +d4 is a so tr+!. ="!ry (!taCco((+nicati"! or (!ta ing+istic (!ssag! #!'in!s, !ith!r !-p icit y or i(p icit y, th! s!t o' (!ssag!s abo+t ,hich it co((+nicat!s, i.!., !"!ry (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag! is or #!C'in!s a psycho ogica 'ra(!. :his, 'or !-a(p !, is "!ry !"i#!nt in r!gar# to s+ch s(a (!taco((+nicati"! signa s as p+nct+ation (ar*s in a print!# (!ssag!, b+t app i!s !.+a y to s+ch co(p !- (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s as th! psychiatristIs #!'inition o' his o,n c+rati"! ro ! in t!r(s o' ,hich his contrib+tions to th! ,ho ! (ass o' (!ssag!s in psychoth!rapy ar! to b! +n#!rstoo#. 2'3:h! r! ation b!t,!!n psycho ogica 'ra(! an# p!rc!pt+a g!sta t n!!#s to b! consi#!r!#, an# h!r! th! ana ogy o' th! pict+r! 'ra(! is +s!'+ . In a painting by 4o+a t or 0 a*!, th! h+(an 'ig+r!s an# oth!r obJ!cts r!pr!s!nt!# ar! o+t in!#. 98is! (!n s!! o+t in!s an# th!r!'or! th!y #ra, th!(.9 0+t o+tsi#! th!s! in!s, ,hich #! i(it th! p!rc!pt+a g!sta t or 9'ig+r!,9 th!r! is a bac*gro+n# or 9gro+n#9 ,hich in t+rn is i(it!# by th! pict+r! 'ra(!. &i(i ar y, in s!tCth!or!tica #iagra(s, th! arg!r +ni"!rs! ,ithin ,hich th! s(a !r s!ts ar! #ra,n is its! ' !nc os!# in a 'ra(!. :his #o+b ! 'ra(ing is, ,! b! i!"!, not (!r! y a (att!r o' 9'ra(!s ,ithin 'ra(!s9 b+t an in#ication that (!nta proc!ss!s r!s!(b ! ogic in needing an o+t!r 'ra(! to #! i(it th! gro+n# against ,hich th! 'ig+r!s ar! to b! p!rc!i"!#. :his n!!# is o't!n +nsatis'i!#, as ,h!n ,! s!! a pi!c! o' sc+ pt+r! in a J+n* shop ,in#o,, b+t this is +nco('ortab !. 8! s+gg!st that th! n!!# 'or this o+t!r i(it to th! gro+n# is r! at!# to a pr!'!r!nc! 'or a"oi#ing th! para#o-!s o' abstraction. 8h!n a ogica c ass or s!t o' it!(s is #!'in!#;'or !-a(p !, th! c ass o' (atchbo-!s;it is n!c!ssary to #! i(it th! s!t o' it!(s ,hich ar! to b! !-c +#!#, in this cas!, a thos! things ,hich ar! not (atchbo-!s. 0+t th! it!(s to b! inc +#!# in th! bac*gro+n# s!t (+st b! o' th! sa(! #!gr!! o' abstraction, i.!., o' th! sa(! 9 ogica typ!9 as thos! ,ithin th! s!t its! '. &p!ci'ica y, i' para#o- is to b! a"oi#!#, th! 9c ass o' (atchbo-!s9 an# th! 9c ass o' non(atchbo-!s9 2!"!n tho+gh both th!s! it!(s ar! c !ar y not (atchbo-!s3 (+st not b! r!gar#!# as (!(b!rs o' th! c ass o' non(atchbo-!s. )o c ass can b! a (!(b!r, o' its! '. :h! pict+r!

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'ra(! th!n, b!ca+s! it #! i(its a bac*gro+n#, is h!r! r!gar#!# as an !-t!rna r!pr!s!ntation o' a "!ry sp!cia an# i(portant typ! o' psychoC ogica 'ra(!;na(! y a 'ra(! ,hos! '+nction is to #! i(it a ogica typ!. :his, in 'act, is ,hat ,as in#icat!# abo"! ,h!n it ,as sai# that th! pict+r! 'ra(! is an instr+ction to th! "i!,!r that h! sho+ # not !-t!n# th! pr!(is!s ,hich obtain b!t,!!n th! 'ig+r!s ,ithin th! pict+r! to th!., ,a pap!r b!hin# it. 0+t, it is pr!cis! y this sort o' 'ra(! that pr!cipitat!s para#o-. :h! r+ ! 'or a"oi#ing para#o-!s insists that th! it!(s o+tsi#! any !nc osing in! b! o' th! sa(! ogica typ! as thos! ,ithin, b+t th! pict+r! 'ra(!, as ana y/!# abo"!, is a in! #i"i#ing it!(s o' on! ogica typ! 'ro( thos! o' anoth!r. In passing, it is int!r!sting to not! that 4+ss! Is r+ ! cannot b! stat!# ,itho+t br!a*ing th! r+ !. 4+ss! insists that a it!(s o' inappropriat! ogica typ! b! !- +#!# 2i.!., by an i(aginary in!3 'ro( th! bac*gro+n# o' any c ass, i.!., h! insists +pon th! #ra,ing o' an i(aginary in! o' pr!cis! y th! sort ,hich h! prohibits. 2193 :his ,ho ! (att!r o' 'ra(!s an# para#o-!s (ay b! i +strat!# in t!r(s o' ani(a b!ha"ior, ,h!r! thr!! typ!s o' (!ssag! (ay b! r!cogni/!# or #!#+c!#6 2a3 A!ssag!s o' th! sort ,hich ,! h!r! ca (oo#CsignsL 2b3 (!ssag!s ,hich si(+ at! (oo#Csigns 2in p ay, thr!at, histrionics, !tc.3 L an# 2c3 (!ssag!s ,hich !nab ! th! r!c!i"!r to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n (oo#Csigns an# thos! oth!r signs ,hich r!s!(b ! th!(. :h! (!ssag! 9:his is p ay9 is o' this thir# typ!. It t! s th! r!c!i"!r that c!rtain nips an# oth!r (!aning'+ actions ar! not (!ssag!s o' th! 'irst typ!. :h! (!ssag! 9:his is p ay9 th+s s!ts a 'ra(! o' th! sort ,hich is i*! y to pr!cipitat! para#o-6 it is an att!(pt to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n, or to #ra, a in! b!t,!!n, cat!gori!s o' #i''!r!nt ogica typ!s. 2203 :his #isc+ssion o' p ay an# psycho ogica 'ra(!s !stab ish!s a typ! o' tria#ic const! ation 2or syst!( o' r! ationships3 b!t,!!n (!ssag!s. 5n! instanc! o' this const! ation is ana y/!# in paragraph 19, b+t it is !"i#!nt that const! ations o' this sort occ+r not on y at th! nonh+(an !"! b+t a so in th! (+ch (or! co(p !co((+nication o' h+(an b!ings. A 'antasy or (yth (ay si(+ at! a #!notati"! narrati"!, an#, to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n th!s! typ!s o' #isco+rs!, p!op ! +s! (!ssag!s o' th! 'ra(!Cs!tting typ!, an# so on.

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2213 In conc +sion, ,! arri"! at th! co(p !- tas* o' app ying this th!or!tica approach to th! partic+ ar ph!no(!na o' psychoth!rapy. E!r! th! in!s o' o+r thin*ing (ay (ost bri!' y b! s+((ari/!# by pr!s!nting an# partia y ans,!ring th!s! .+!stions6 2a3Is th!r! any in#ication that c!rtain 'or(s o' psychoCpatho ogy ar! sp!ci'ica y charact!ri/!# by abnor(a iti!s in th! pati!ntIs han# ing o' 'ra(!s an# para#o-!sD 2b3Is th!r! any in#ication that th! t!chni.+!s o' psychoCth!rapy n!c!ssari y #!p!n# +pon th! (anip+ ation o' 'ra(!s an# para#o-!sD 2c3Is it possib ! to #!scrib! th! proc!ss o' a gi"!n psychoth!rapy in t!r(s o' th! int!raction b!t,!!n th! pati!ntIs abnor(a +s! o' 'ra(!s an# th! th!rapistIs (anip+ ation o' th!(D 2223 In r!p y to th! 'irst .+!stion, it s!!(s that th! 9,or# sa a#9 o' schi/ophr!nia can b! #!scrib!# in t!r(s o' ,th! pati!ntIs 'ai +r! to r!cogni/! th! (!taphoric nat+r! o' his 'antasi!s. In ,hat sho+ # b! tria#ic const! ations o' (!ssag!s., th! 'ra(!Cs!tting (!ssag! 2!.g., th! phras! 9as i'93 is o(itt!#, an# th! (!taphor or 'antasy is narrat!# an# act!# +pon in a (ann!r ,hich ,o+ # b! appropriat! i' th! 'antasy ,!r! a (!ssag! o' th! (or! #ir!ct *in#. :h! abs!nc! o' (!taco((+nicati"! 'ra(ing ,hich ,as not!# in th! cas! o' #r!a(s 2153 is charact!ristic o' th! ,a*ing co((+nications o' th! schi/ophr!nic. 8ith th! oss o' th! abi ity to s!t (!taco((+nicati"! 'ra(!s, th!r! is a so a oss o' abi ity to achi!"! th! (or! pri(ary or pri(iti"! (!ssag!. :h! (!taphor is tr!at!# #ir!ct y as a (!ssag! o' th! (or! pri(ary typ!. 2:his (att!r is #isc+ss!# at gr!at!r !ngth in th! pap!r gi"!n by Jay Ea !y at this Con'!r!nc!.3 2233 :h! #!p!n#!nc! o' psychoth!rapy +pon th! (anip+ ation o' 'ra(!s 'o o,s 'ro( th! 'act that th!rapy is an att!(pt to chang! th! pati!ntIs (!taco((+nicati"! habits. 0!'or! th!rapy, th! pati!nt thin*s an# op!rat!s in t!r(s o' a c!rtain s!t o' r+ !s 'or th! (a*ing an# +n#!rstan#ing o' (!ssag!s. A't!r s+cc!ss'+ th!rapyL h! op!rat!s in t!r(s o' a #i''!r!nt s!t o' s+ch r+ !s. 24+ !s o' this sort ar! in g!n!ra , +n"!rba i/!#, an# +nconscio+s both b!'or! an# a't!r.3 It 'o o,s that, in th! proc!ss o' th!rapy, th!r! (+st ha"! b!!n co((+nication at a !"! meta to th!s! r+ !s. :h!r! (+st ha"! b!!n co((+nication abo+t a c*ange in r+ !s. 0+t s+ch a co((+nication abo+t chang! co+ # not conc!i"ab y occ+r in (!ssag!s o' th! typ! p!r(itt!# by th! pati!ntIs

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(!taco((+nicati"! r+ !s as th!y !-ist!# !ith!r b!C'or! or a't!r th!rapy. It ,as s+gg!st!# abo"! that th! para#o-!s o' p ay ar! charact!ristic o' an !"o +tionary st!p. E!r! ,! s+gg!st that si(i ar para#o-!s ar! a n!c!ssary ingr!#i!nt in that proc!ss o' chang! ,hich ,! ca psychoth!rapy. :h! r!s!(b anc! b!t,!!n th! proc!ss o' th!rapy an# th! ph!no(!non o' p ay is, in 'act, pro'o+n#. 0oth occ+r ,ithin a #! i(it!# psycho ogica 'ra(!, a spatia an# t!(pora bo+n#ing o' a s!t o' int!racti"! (!ssag!s. In both p ay an# th!rapy, th! (!ssag!s ha"! a sp!cia an# p!c+ iar r! ationship to a (or! concr!t! or basic r!a ity. J+st as th! ps!+#oco(bat o' p ay is not r!a co(bat, so a so th! ps!+#o o"! an# ps!+#ohat! o' th!rapy ar! not r!a o"! an# hat!. :h! 9trans'!r9 is #iscri(inat!# 'ro( r!a o"! an# hat! by signa s in"o*ing th! psycho ogica 'ra(!L an# in#!!# it is this 'ra(! ,hich p!r(its th! trans'!r to r!ach its '+ int!nsity an# to b! #isc+ss!# b!t,!!n pati!nt an# th!rapist. :h! 'or(a charact!ristics o' th! th!rap!+tic proc!ss (ay b! i +strat!# by b+i #ing +p a (o#! in stag!s. I(agin! 'irst t,o p ay!rs ,ho !ngag! in a ga(! o' canasta accor#ing to a stan#ar# s!t o' r+ !s. &o ong as th!s! r+ !s go"!rn an# ar! +n.+!stion!# by both p ay!rs, th! ga(! is +nchanging, i.!6, no th!rap!+tic chang! ,i occ+r. 2In#!!# (any atCt!(pts at psychoth!rapy 'ai 'or this r!ason.3 8! (ay i(agin!, ho,!"!r, that at a c!rtain (o(!nt th! t,o canasta p ay!rs c!as! to p ay canasta an# start a #isc+ssion o' th! r+ !s. :h!ir #isco+rs! is no, o' a #i''!r!nt ogica typ! 'ro( that o' th!ir p ay. At th! !n# o' this #isc+ssion, ,! can i(agin! that th!y r!t+rn to p aying b+t ,ith (o#i'i!# r+ !s. :his s!.+!nc!C o' !"!nts is, ho,!"!r, sti an i(p!r'!ct (o#! o' th!rap!+tic int!raction, tho+gh it i +strat!s o+r cont!ntion that th!rapy n!c!ssari y in"o "!s a co(bination o' #iscr!pant ogica typ!s o' #isco+rs!. 5+r i(aginary p ay!rs a"oi#!# para#o- by s!parating th!ir #isc+ssion o' th! r+ !s 'ro( th!ir p ay, an# it is pr!cis! y this s!paration that is i(possib ! in psychoth!rapy. As ,! s!! it, th! proc!ss o' psychoth!rapy is a 'ra(!# int!raction b!t,!!n t,o p!rsons, in ,hich th! r+ !s ar! i(p icit b+t s+bJ!ct to chang!. &+ch chang! can on y b! propos!# by !-p!ri(!nta action, b+t !"!ry s+ch !-p!ri(!nta action, in ,hich a proposa to chang!

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th! r+ !s is i(p icit, is its! ' a part o' th! ongoing ga(!. It is this co(bination o' ogica typ!s ,ithin th! sing ! (!aning'+ act that gi"!s to th!rapy th! charact!r not o' a rigi# ga(! i*! canasta b+t, inst!a#, that o' an !"o "ing syst!( o' int!raction. :h! p ay o' *itt!ns or ott!rs has this charact!r. 2243 In r!gar# to th! sp!ci'ic r! ationship b!t,!!n th! ,ay in ,hich th! pati!nt han# !s 'ra(!s an# th! ,ay in ,hich th! th!rapist (anip+ at!s th!(, "!ry itt ! can at pr!s!nt b! sai#. It is, ho,!"!r, s+gg!sti"! to obs!r"! that th! psycho ogica 'ra(! o' th!rapy is an ana og+! o' th! 'ra(!Cs!tting (!ssag! ,hich th! schi/ophr!nic is +nab ! to achi!"!. :o ta * in 9,or# sa a#9 ,ithin th! psycho ogica 'ra(! o' th!rapy is, in a s!ns!, not patho ogica . In#!!# th! n!+rotic is sp!ci'ica y !nco+rag!# to #o pr!cis! y this, narrating his #r!a(s an# 'r!! associations so that pati!nt an# th!rapist (ay achi!"! an +n#!rstan#ing o' this (at!ria . 0y th! proc!ss o' int!rpr!tation, th! n!+rotic is #ri"!n to ins!rt an 9as i'9 c a+s! into th! pro#+ctions o' his pri(ary proc!ss thin*ing, ,hich pro#+ctions h! ha# pr!"io+s y #!pr!cat!# or r!Cpr!ss!#. E! (+st !arn that 'antasy contains tr+th. 7or th! schi/ophr!nic th! prob !( is so(!,hat #i''!r!nt. Eis !rror is in tr!ating th! (!taphors o' pri(ary proc!ss ,ith th! '+ int!nsity o' it!ra tr+th. :hro+gh th! #isco"!ry o' ,hat th!s! (!taphors stan# 'or h! (+st #isco"!r that th!y ar! on y (!taphors. 2253 7ro( th! point o' "i!, o' th! proJ!ct, ho,!"!r, psychoth!rapy constit+t!s on y on! o' th! (any 'i! #s ,hich ,! ar! att!(pting to in"!stigat!. 5+r c!ntra th!sis (ay b! s+((!# +p as a stat!(!nt o' th! n!c!ssity o' th! para#o-!s o' abstraction. It is not (!r! y ba# nat+ra history to s+gg!st that p!op ! (ight or sho+ # ob!y th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s in th!ir co((+nicationsL th!ir 'ai +r! to #o this is not #+! to (!r! car! !ssn!ss or ignoranc!. 4ath!r, ,! b! i!"! that th! para#o-!s o' abstraction (+st (a*! th!ir app!aranc! in a co((+nication (or! co(p !- than that o' (oo#C signa s, an# that ,itho+t th!s! para#o-!s th! !"o +tion o' co((+nication ,o+ # b! at an !n#. @i'! ,o+ # th!n b! an !n# !ss int!rchang! o' sty i/!# (!ssag!s, a ga(! ,ith rigi# r+ !s, +nr! i!"!# by chang! or h+(or.

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E2i#e(iolo y o5 a +'hi7o2h&enia%
I' ,! ar! to #isc+ss th! !pi#!(io ogy o' (!nta con#itions, i.!., con#itions part y in#+c!# by !-p!ri!nc!, o+r 'irst tas* is to pinpoint a #!'!ct o' an i#!ationa syst!( s+''ici!nt y so that ,! can go on 'ro( that pinpointing to post+ at! ,hat sort o' cont!-ts o' !arning (ight in#+c! this 'or(a #!'!ct. It is con"!ntiona y sai# that schi/ophr!nics ha"! 9!go ,!a*n!ss.9 I no, #!'in! !go ,!a*n!ss as tro+b ! in i#!nti'ying an# int!rpr!ting thos! signa s ,hich sho+ # t! th! in#i"i#+a ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! a (!ssag! is, i.!., tro+b ! ,ith th! signa s o' th! sa(! ogica typ! as th! signa 9:his is p ay.9 7or !-a(p !, a pati!nt co(!s into th! hospita canCt!!n an# th! gir b!hin# th! co+nt!r says, 98hat can I #o 'or yo+D9 :h! pati!nt is in #o+bt as to ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! this is;is it a (!ssag! abo+t #oing hi( inD Is it an in#ication that sh! ,ants hi( to go to b!# ,ith h!rD 5r is it an o''!r o' a c+p o' co''!!D E! h!ars th! (!ssag! an# #o!s not *no, ,hat sort or or#!r o' a (!ssag! it is. E! is +nab ! to pic* +p th! (or! abstract ab! s ,hich ,! ar! (ost o' +s ab ! to +s! con"!ntiona y b+t ar! (ost o' +s +nab ! to i#!nti'y in th! s!ns! that ,! #onIt *no, ,hat to # +s ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! it ,as. It is as i' ,! so(!Cho, (a*! a corr!ct g+!ss. 8! ar! act+a y .+it! +nconscio+s o' r!c!i"ing th!s! (!ssag!s ,hich t! +s ,hat sorts o' (!ssag! ,! r!c!i"!. ?i''ic+ ty ,ith signa s o' this sort s!!(s to b! th! c!nt!r o' a syn#ro(! ,hich is charact!ristic 'or a gro+p o' schi/ophr!nics, so th!r!'or! ,! can r!asonab y oo* 'or an !tio ogy starting 'ro( this sy(pto(ato ogy as 'or(a y #!'in!#. 8h!n yo+ b!gin thin*ing in this ,ay, a gr!at #!a o' ,hat th! schi/ophr!nic says 'a s into p ac! as a #!scription o' his
:his is an !#it!# "!rsion o' a ta *, 9Eo, th! ?!"iant &!!s Eis &oci!ty,9 gi"!n in Aay, 1955, at a con'!r!nc! on 9:h! =pi#!(io ogy o' A!nta E!a th9 h! # at 0righton, %tah, sponsor!# by th! ?!part(!nts o' $sychiatry an# $sycho ogy o' th! %ni"!rsity o' %tah, an# th! G!t!rans A#(inistration Eospita , 7ort ?o+g as ?i"ision, o' &a t @a*! City, %tah. A ro+gh transcript o' th! ta *s at this con'!r!nc! ,as (i(!ograph!# an# circ+ at!# by th! organi/!rs.
H

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!-p!ri!nc!. :hat is, ,! ha"! a s!con# !a# to,ar# th! th!ory o' !tio ogy or trans(ission. :h! 'irst !a# is 'ro( th! sy(pto(. 8! as*, 9Eo, #o!s a h+(an in#i"i#+a ac.+ir! an i(p!r'!ct abi ity to #iscri(inat! th!s! sp!ci'ic signa sD9 an# ,h!n ,! oo* at his sp!!ch!s, ,! 'in# that, in that p!c+ iar ang+ag! ,hich is schi/ophr!nic sa a#, h! is #!Cscribing a 6tra+(atic sit+ation ,hich in"o "!s a (!taco((+nicati"! tang !. A pati!nt, 'or !-a(p !, has a c!ntra notion, that 9so(!Cthing (o"!# in spac!,9 an# that that is ,hy h! crac*!# +p. I so(!ho,, 'ro( th! ,ay h! spo*! abo+t 9spac!,9 got an i#!a that spac! is his (oth!r an# sai# so. E! sai#, 9)o, spac! is t*e (oth!r.9 I s+gg!st!# to hi( that sh! (ight b! in so(! ,ay a ca+s! o' his tro+b !s. E! sai#, 9I n!"!r con#!(n!# h!r.9 At a c!rtain point h! got angry, an# h! sai#;this is "!rbati(;9I' ,! say sh! ha# (o"!(!nt in h!r b!ca+s! o' ,hat sh! ca+s!#, ,! ar! on y con#!(ning o+rs! "!s.9 &o(!thing (o"!# in spac! that (a#! hi( crac* +p. &pac! is not his (oth!r, it is t*e (oth!r. 0+t no, ,! 'oc+s +pon his (oth!r ,ho( h! says h! n!"!r con#!(n!#. An# h! no, says, 9I' ,! say that sh! ha# (o"!(!nt in h!r b!ca+s! o' ,hat sh! ca+s!#, ,! ar! on y con#!(ning o+rCs! "!s.9 @oo* "!ry car!'+ y at th! ogica str+ct+r! o' that ast .+otation. It is circ+ ar. It i(p i!s a ,ay o' int!raction an# chronic crossCp+rpos!s ,ith th! (oth!r s+ch that 'or th! chi # to (a*! thos! (o"!s ,hich (ight straight!n o+t th! (is+n#!rstan#ing ,as a so prohibit!#. 5n anoth!r occasion h! ha# s*ipp!# his th!rapy s!ssion in th! (orning, an# I ,!nt o"!r to th! #ining ha at s+pp!r ti(! to s!! hi( an# ass+r! hi( that h! ,o+ # s!! (! n!-t #ay. E! r!'+s!# to oo* at (!. E! oo*!# a,ay. I (a#! so(! r!(ar* abo+t 9.30 th! n!-t (orning;no ans,!r. :h!n, ,ith gr!at #i''ic+ ty, h! sai#, 9:h! J+#g! #isappro"!s.9 0!C'or! I !'t hi(, I sai#, 9Fo+ n!!# a #!'!ns! attorn!y,9 an# ,h!n I 'o+n# hi( on th! gro+n#s n!-t (orning I sai#, 9E!r! is yo+r #!'!ns! attorn!y,9 an# ,! ,!nt into s!ssion tog!th!r. I start!# o+t by saying, 9A( I right in s+pposing that th! J+#g! not on y #isappro"!s o' yo+r ta *ing to (! b+t a so #isappro"!s o' yo+r t! ing (! that h! #isappro"!sD9 E! sai#, 9F!sO9 :hat is, ,! ar! #!a ing ,ith t,o !"! s h!r!. :h! 9J+#g!9 #isappro"!s o' th! att!(pt to straight!n o+t th! con'+sions an#

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#isappro"!s o' co((+nicating th! 'act o' his 2th! J+#g!Is3 #isappro"a . 8! ha"! to oo* 'or an !tio ogy in"o "ing (+ tip ! !"! s o' tra+(a. I a( not ta *ing at a abo+t th! cont!nt o' th!s! tra+(atic s!.+!nc!s, ,h!th!r th!y b! s!-+a , or ora . )or a( I ta *ing abo+t th! ag! o' th! s+bJ!ct at th! ti(! o' tra+(a, nor abo+t ,hich par!nt is in"o "!#. :hat is a !piso#ic as 'ar as II( conc!rn!#. II( on y b+i #ing +p to,ar# th! stat!(!nt that th! tra+(a (+st ha"! ha# 'or(a str+ct+r! in th! s!ns! that (+ tip ! ogica typ!s ,!r! p ay!# against !ach oth!r to g!n!rat! this partic+ ar patho ogy in this in#i"i#+a . )o,, i' yo+ oo* at o+r con"!ntiona co((+nication ,ith on! anoth!r, ,hat yo+ 'in# is that ,! ,!a"! th!s! ogica typ!s ,ith incr!#ib ! co(p !-ity an# .+it! s+rprising 'aci ity. 8! !"!n (a*! Jo*!s, an# th!s! (ay b! #i''ic+ t 'or a 'or!ign!r to +n#!rstan#. Aost Jo*!s, both cann!# an# spontan!o+s, an# n!ar y any,h!r!, ar! ,!a"ings o' (+ tip ! ogica typ!s. <i##ing an# ha/ing si(i ar y #!p!n# +pon th! +nr!so "!# .+!stion ,h!th!r th! *i#C!! can i#!nti'y that this is *i##ing. In any c+ t+r!, th! in#i"i#+a s ac.+ir! .+it! !-traor#inary s*i in han# ing not on y th! ' at i#!nti'ication o' ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! a (!ssag! is b+t in #!a ing in (+ tip ! i#!nti'ications o' ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! a (!ssag! is. 8h!n ,! (!!t th!s! (+ tip ! i#!nti'ications ,! a+gh, an# ,! (a*! n!, psycho ogica #isco"!ri!s abo+t ,hat go!s on insi#! o+rs! "!s, ,hich is p!rhaps th! r!,ar# o' r!a h+(or. 0+t th!r! ar! p!op ! ,ho ha"! th! +t(ost #i''ic+ ty ,ith this prob !( o' (+ tip ! !"! s, an# it s!!(s to (! that this +n!.+a #istrib+tion o' abi ity is a ph!no(!non ,hich ,! can approach ,ith th! .+!stions an# t!r(s o' !pi#!(io ogy. 8hat is n!!#!# 'or a chi # to ac.+ir!, or to not ac.+ir!, a s*i in th! ,ays o' int!rpr!ting th!s! signa sD :h!r! is not on y th! (irac ! that any o' th!( ac.+ir! th! s*i s ;an# a ot o' th!( #o;th!r! is a so th! oth!r si#!, that a gr!at (any p!op ! ha"! #i''ic+ ty. :h!r! ar! p!op !, 'or !-a(p !, ,ho, ,h!n 0ig &ist!r in th! soap op!ra s+''!rs 'ro( a co #, ,i s!n# a bott ! o' aspirin to th! ra#io station or r!co((!n# a c+r! 'or 0ig &ist!rIs co #, in spit! o' th! 'act that 0ig &ist!r is a 'ictitio+s

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charact!r ,ithin a ra#io soap op!ra. :h!s! partic+ ar (!(b!rs o' th! a+#i!nc! ar! appar!nt y a itt ! bit as*!, in th!ir i#!nti'ication o' ,hat sort o' a co((+nication this is that is co(ing 'ro( th!ir ra#io. 8! a (a*! !rrors o' that *in# at "ario+s ti(!s. II( not s+r! that II"! !"!r (!t anybo#y that #o!snIt s+''!r 'ro( 9schi/ophr!nia $9 (or! or !ss. 8! a ha"! so(! #i''ic+ ty in #!ci#ing so(!ti(!s ,h!th!r a #r!a( ,as a #r!a( or not, an# it ,o+ # not b! "!ry !asy 'or (ost o' +s to say *o' ,! *no, that a pi!c! o' o+r o,n 'antasy is 'antasy an# not !-p!ri!nc!. :h! abi ity to p ac! an !-p!ri!nc! in ti(! is on! o' th! i(portant c+!s, an# r!'!rring it to a s!ns! organ is anoth!r. 8h!n yo+ oo* at th! (oth!rs an# 'ath!rs o' pati!nts 'or an ans,!r to this !tio ogica .+!stion, yo+ (!!t ,ith s!"!ra sorts o' ans,!rs. 7irst o' a th!r! ar! ans,!rs conn!ct!# ,ith ,hat ,! (ay ca th! int!nsi'ying 'actors. Any #is!as! is (a#! ,ors! or (or! probab ! by "ario+s circ+(stanc!s, s+ch as 'atig+!, co #, th! n+(b!r o' #ays o' co(bat, th! pr!s!nc! o' oth!r #is!as!s, !tc. :h!s! s!!( to ha"! a .+antitati"! !''!ct +pon th! inci#!nc! o' a (ost any patho ogy. :h!n th!r! ar! thos! 'actors ,hich I (!ntion!#;th! h!r!#itary charact!ristics an# pot!ntia iti!s. :o g!t con'+s!# abo+t th! ogica typ!s, on! pr!s+(ab y has to b! int! ig!nt !no+gh to *no, that th!r! is so(!thing ,rong, an# not so int! ig!nt as to b! ab ! to see ,hat it is that is ,rong. I pr!s+(! that th!s! charact!ristics ar! h!r!#itari y #!t!r(in!#. 0+t th! n+b o' th! prob !(, it s!!(s to (!, is to i#!nti'y ,hat r!a circ+(stanc!s !a# to th! sp!ci'ic patho ogy. I ac*no, !#g! that th! bact!ria ar! not r!a y by any (!ans th! so ! #!t!r(inant o' a bact!ria #is!as!, an# grant a so th!r!'or! that th! occ+rr!nc! o' s+ch tra+(atic s!.+!nc!s or cont!-ts is not by any (!ans th! so ! #!t!r(inant o' (!nta i n!ss. 0+t sti it s!!(s to (! that th! i#!nti'ication o' thos! cont!-ts is th! n+b o' +n#!rstan#ing th! #is!as!, as i#!nti'ying th! bact!ria is !ss!ntia to +n#!rstan#ing a bact!ria #is!as!. I ha"! (!t th! (oth!r o' th! pati!nt ,ho( I (!ntion!# !ar i!r. :h! 'a(i y is not ba# y o''. :h!y i"! in a nic! tract ho+s!. I ,!nt th!r! ,ith th! pati!nt, an# ,h!n ,! arri"!# nobo#y ,as ho(!. :h!

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n!,spap!r boy ha# toss!# th! !"!ning pap!r o+t in th! (i## ! o' th! a,n, an# (y pati!nt ,ant!# to g!t that pap!r 'ro( th! (i## ! o' that p!r'!ct a,n. E! ca(! to th! !#g! o' th! a,n an# start!# to tr!(b !. :h! ho+s! oo*s i*! ,hat is ca !# a 9(o#! 9 ho(!;a ho+s! ,hich has b!!n '+rnish!# by th! r!a !stat! p!op ! in or#!r to s! oth!r ho+s!s to th! p+b ic. )ot a ho+s! '+rnish!# to i"! in, b+t rath!r '+rnish!# to oo* i*! a '+rnish!# house. I #isc+ss!# his (oth!r ,ith hi( on! #ay, an# s+gg!st!# that p!rhaps sh! ,as a rath!r 'right!n!# p!rson. E! sai#, 9F!s.9 I sai#, 98hat is sh! 'right!n!# o'D9 E! sai#, 9:h! app!ari!ntia s!c+riti!s.9 :h!r! is a b!a+ti'+ , p!r'!ct y c!nt!r!# (ass o' arti'icia , p astic "!g!tation on th! (i## ! o' th! (ant !. A china ph!asant h!r! an# a china ph!asant th!r!, sy((!trica y arrang!#. :h! ,a CtoC,a carp!t is !-act y as it sho+ # b!. A't!r his (oth!r arri"!#, I '! t a itt ! +nco('ortab !, intr+#ing in this ho+s!. E! ha# not "isit!# th!r! 'or abo+t 'i"! y!ars, b+t things s!!(!# to b! going a right, so I #!ci#!# to !a"! hi( th!r! an# to co(! bac* ,h!n it ,as ti(! to go bac* to th! hospita . :hat ga"! (! an ho+r in th! str!!ts ,ith abso +t! y nothing to #o, an# I b!gan to thin* ,hat I ,o+ # i*! to #o to this s!t+p. 8hat an# ho, co+ # I co((+nicat!D I #!ci#!# that I ,o+ # i*! to p+t into it so(!thing that ,as both b!a+ti'+ an# +nti#y. In trying to i(p !(!nt that #!cision, I #!ci#!# that ' o,!rs ,!r! th! ans,!r, so I bo+ght so(! g a#io +s!s. I too* th! g a#io +s!s, an#, ,h!n I ,!nt to g!t hi(, I pr!s!nt!# th!( to th! (oth!r ,ith a sp!!ch that I ,ant!# h!r to ha"! in h!r ho+s! so(!thing that ,as 9both b!a+ti'+ an# +nti#y.9 95h 9 sh! sai#, 9:hos! ar! not +nti#y ' o,!rs. As !ach on! ,ith!rs, yo+ can snip it o''.9 )o,, as I s!! it, ,hat is int!r!sting is not so (+ch th! castrati"! stat!(!nt in that sp!!ch, b+t th! p+tting (! in th! position o' ha"ing apo ogi/!# ,h!n in 'act I ha# not. :hat is, sh! too* (y (!ssag! an# r!c assi'i!# it. &h! chang!# th! ab! ,hich in#icat!# ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! it ,as, an# that is, I b! i!"!, ,hat sh! #o!s a th! ti(!. An !n# !ss ta*ing o' th! oth!r p!rsonIs (!ssag! an# r!p ying to it as i' it ,!r! !ith!r a stat!(!nt o' ,!a*n!ss on th!

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part o' th! sp!a*!r or an attac* on h!r ,hich sho+ # b! t+rn!# into a ,!a*n!ss on th! part o' th! sp!a*!rL an# so on. 8hat th! pati!nt is +p against to#ay;an# ,as +p against in chi #hoo#;is th! 'a s! int!rpr!tation o' his (!ssag!s. I' h! says, 9:h! cat is on th! tab !,9 sh! r!p i!s ,ith so(! r!p y ,hich (a*!s o+t that his (!ssag! is not th! sort o' (!ssag! that h! tho+ght it ,as ,h!n h! ga"! it. Eis o,n (!ssag! i#!nti'i!r is obsc+r!# or #istort!# by h!r ,h!n th! (!ssag! co(!s bac*. An# h!r o,n (!ssag! i#!nti'i!r sh! contin+a y contra#icts. &h! a+ghs ,h!n sh! is saying that ,hich is !ast '+nny to h!r, an# so on. )o, th!r! is a r!g+ ar (at!rna #o(inanc! pict+r! in this 'a(i y, b+t I a( not conc!rn!# at th! (o(!nt to say that this is th! n!c!ssary 'or( o' th! tra+(a. I a( on y conc!rn!# ,ith th! p+r! y 'or(a asp!cts o' this tra+(atic const! ationL an# I pr!s+(! th! const! ation co+ # b! (a#! +p ,ith 'ath!r ta*ing c!rtain parts o' it, (oth!r ta*ing c!rtain oth!r parts o' it, an# so 'orth. I a( trying to (a*! on y on! point6 that th!r! is h!r! a probabi ity o' tra+(a ,hich ,i contain c!rtain 'or(a charC act!ristics. It ,i propagat! a sp!ci'ic syn#ro(! in th! pati!nt b!ca+s! th! tra+(a its! ' has i(pact +pon a c!rtain ! !(!nt in th! co((+nicationa proc!ss. :hat ,hich is atCtac*!# is th! +s! o' ,hat I ha"! ca !# th! 9(!ssag!Ci#!nti'ying signa s9;thos! signa s ,itho+t ,hich th! 9!go9 #ar! not #iscri(inat! 'act 'ro( 'antasy or th! it!ra 'ro( th! (!taphoric. 8hat I tri!# to #o ,as pinpoint a gro+p o' syn#ro(ata, na(! y thos! syn#ro(ata r! at!# to an inabi ity to *no, ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! a (!ssag! is. At on! !n# o' th! c assi'ication o' thos!, th!r! ,i b! (or! or !ss h!b!phr!nic in#i"i#+a s 'or ,ho( no (!ssag! is o' any partic+ ar #!'init! typ! b+t ,ho i"! in a sort o' chronic shaggyC#og story. At th! oth!r !n# ar! thos! ,ho try to o"!ri#!nti'y, to (a*! an o"!r y rigi# i#!nti'ication o' ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! !"!ry (!ssag! is. :his ,i gi"! a (+ch (or! paranoi# typ! o' pict+r!. 8ith#ra,a is anoth!r possibi ity. 7ina y, it s!!(s to (! that ,ith a hypoth!sis o' this *in#, on! co+ # oo* 'or th! #!t!r(inants in a pop+ ation ,hich (ight !a# to th! occ+rr!nc! o' that sort o' const! ation. :his ,o+ # s!!( to (! an appropriat! (att!r 'or !pi#!(io ogica st+#y.

204

To-a&# a Theo&y o5 +'hi7o2h&enia%


&chi/ophr!nia;its nat+r!, !tio ogy, an# th! *in# o' th!rapy to +s! 'or it;r!(ains on! o' th! (ost p+// ing o' th! (!nta i n!ss!s. :h! th!ory o' schi/ophr!nia pr!s!nt!# h!r! is bas!# on co((+nications ana ysis, an# sp!ci'ica y on th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s. 7ro( this th!ory an# 'ro( obs!r"ations o' schi/ophr!nic pati!nts is #!ri"!# a #!scription, an# th! n!c!ssary con#itions 'or, a sit+ation ca !# th! 9#o+b ! bin#9;a sit+ation in ,hich no (att!r ,hat a p!rson #o!s, h! 9canIt ,in.9 It is hypoth!si/!# that a p!rson ca+ght in th! #o+b ! bin# (ay #!"! op schi/ophr!nic sy(pto(s. Eo, an# ,hy th! #o+b ! bin# (ay aris! in a 'a(i y sit+ation is #isC c+ss!#, tog!th!r ,ith i +strations 'ro( c inica an# !-p!ri(!nta #ata. :his is a r!port24 on a r!s!arch proJ!ct ,hich has b!!n 'or(+ ating an# t!sting a broa#, syst!(atic "i!, o' th! nat+r!, !tio ogy, an# th!rapy o' schi/ophr!nia. 5+r r!s!arch in this 'i! # has proc!!#!# by #isc+ssion o' a "ari!# bo#y o' #ata an# i#!as, ,ith a o' +s contrib+ting accor#ing to o+r "ari!# !-p!ri!nc! in anthropo ogy, co((+nications ana ysis, psychoth!rapy, psychiatry, an# psychoana ysis. 8! ha"! no,
:his pap!r by 1r!gory 0at!son, ?on ?. Jac*son, Jay Ea !y, an#. John E. 8!a* an# is h!r! r!pro#+c!# 'ro( <e*a&ioral Science, Go . I, ;o. 4, 1956, by p!r(ission o' <e*a&ioral Science 24 :his pap!r #!ri"!s 'ro( hypoth!s!s 'irst #!"! op!# in a r!s!arch proJ!ct 'inanc!# by th! 4oc*'! !r 7o+n#ation 'ro( 1952C54, a#(inist!r!# by th! ?!part(!nt o' &ocio ogy an# Anthropo ogy at &tan'or# %ni"!rsity an# #ir!ct!# by 1r!gory 0at!son. &inc! 1954 th! proJ!ct has 'inanc!# by th! Josiah Aacy, Jr. 7o+n#ation. :o Jay Ea !y is #+! cr!#it 'or r!cogni/ing that th! sy(pto(s o' schi/ophr!nia ar! s+gg!sti"! o' an inabi ity to #iscri(inat! th! @ogica :yp!s, an# this ,as a(p i'i!# by 0at!son, ,ho a##!# th! notion that th! sy(pto(s an# !tio ogy co+ # b! 'or(a y #!scrib!# in t!r(s o' a #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis. :h! hypoth!sis ,as co((+nicat!# to ?. ?. Jac*son an# 'o+n# to 'it c os! y ,ith his i#!as o' 'a(i y ho(!ostasis. &inc! th!n ?r. Jac*son has ,or*!# c os! y ,ith th! proJ!ct. :h! st+#y o' th! 'or(a ana ogi!s b!t,!!n hypnosis an# schi/ophr!nia has b!!n th! ,or* o' John E. 8!a* an# an# Jay Ea !y.
H

205

r!ach!# co((on agr!!(!nt on th! broa# o+t in!s o' a co((+nicationa th!ory o' th! origin an# nat+r! o' schi/ophr!niaL this pap!r is a pr! i(inary r!port on o+r conC tin+ing r!s!arch. The Base in Co##!nications Theory

5+r approach is bas!# on that part o' co((+nications th!ory ,hich 4+ss! has ca !# th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s.25 :h! c!ntra th!sis o' this th!ory is that th!r! is a #iscontin+ity b!t,!!n a c ass an# its (!(b!rs. :h! c ass cannot b! a (!(b!r o' its! ' nor can on! o' th! (!(b!rs -e th! c ass, sinc! th! t!r( +s!# 'or th! c ass is o' a different le&el of a-straction7a #i''!r!nt @ogica :yp!;'ro( t!r(s +s!# 'or (!(b!rs. A tho+gh in 'or(a ogic th!r! is an atC t!(pt to (aintain this #iscontin+ity b!t,!!n a c ass an# its (!(b!rs, ,! arg+! that in th! psycho ogy o' r!a co((+nications this #iscontin+ity is contin+a y an# in!"itab y br!ach!#,26 an# that a priori ,! (+st !-p!ct a patho ogy to occ+r in th! h+(an organis( ,h!n c!rtain 'or(a patCt!rns o' th! br!aching occ+r in th! co((+nication b!t,!!n (oth!r an# chi #. 8! sha arg+! that this patho ogy at its !-tr!(! ,i ha"! sy(pto(s ,hos! 'or(a charact!ristics ,o+ # !a# th! patho ogy to b! c assi'i!# as a schi/ophr!nia. I +strations o' ho, h+(an b!ings han# ! co((+nication in"o "ing (+ tip ! @ogica :yp!s can b! #!ri"!# 'ro( th! 'o o,ing 'i! #s6 1. !*e use of &arious communicational modes in *uman communication. =-a(p !s ar! p ay, nonp ay, 'antasy, sacra(!nt, (!taphor, !tc. ="!n a(ong th! o,!r (a((a s th!r! app!ars to b! an !-chang! o' signa s ,hich i#!nti'y c!rtain (!aning'+ b!ha"ior as 9p ay,9 !tc.27 :h!s! signa s ar! !"i#!nt y o' high!r @ogica :yp! than th! (!ssag!s th!y c assi'y. A(ong h+(an b!ings this 'ra(ing
25 A. ). 8hit!h!a# an# 0. 4+ss! , 6rincipia ,at*ematica, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1910. 26 1. 0at!son, 9A :h!ory o' $ ay an# 7antasy,9 6syc*iatric $esearc* $eports, 1955, ># 39C51.

206

an# ab! ing o' (!ssag!s an# (!aning'+ actions r!ach!s consi#!rab ! co(p !-ity, ,ith th! p!c+ iarity that o+r "ocab+ ary 'or s+ch #iscri(ination is sti "!ry poor y #!"! op!#, an# ,! r! y pr!pon#!rant y +pon non"!rba (!#ia o' post+r!, g!st+r!, 'acia !-C pr!ssion, intonation, an# th! cont!-t 'or th! co((+nication o' th!s! high y abstract, b+t "ita y i(portant, ab! s. >. 1umor. :his s!!(s to b! a (!tho# o' !-p oring th! i(p icit th!(!s in tho+ght or in a r! ationship. :h! (!tho# o' !-p oration in"o "!s th! +s! o' (!ssag!s ,hich ar! charact!ri/!# by a con#!nsation o' @ogica :yp!s or co((+nicationa (o#!s. A #isco"!ry, 'or !-a(p !, occ+rs ,h!n it s+##!n y b!co(!s p ain that a (!ssag! ,as not on y (!taphoric b+t a so (or! it!ra , or "ic! "!rsa. :hat is to say, th! !-p osi"! (o(!nt in h+(or is th! (o(!nt ,h!n th! ab! ing o' th! (o#! +n#!rgo!s a #isso +tion an# r!synth!sis. Co((on y, th! p+nch in! co(p! s a r!C!"a +ation o' !ar i!r signa s ,hich ascrib!# to c!rtain (!ssag!s a partic+ ar (o#! 2!.g., it!ra n!ss or 'antasy3. :his has th! p!c+ iar !''!ct o' attrib+ting mode to thos! signa s ,hich ha# pr!"io+s y th! stat+s o' that high!r @ogica :yp! ,hich c assi'i!s th! (o#!s. ?. !*e falsification of mode%identifying signals. A(ong h+(an b!ings (o#! i#!nti'i!rs can b! 'a si'i!#, an# ,! ha"! th! arti'icia a+gh, th! (anip+ ati"! si(+ ation o' 'ri!n# in!ss, th! con'i#!nc! tric*, *i##ing, an# th! i*!. &i(i ar 'a si'ications ha"! b!!n r!cor#!# a(ong (a((a s.28 A(ong h+(an b!ings ,! (!!t ,ith a strang! ph!no(!non;th! +nconscio+s 'a si'ication o' th!s! signa s. :his (ay occ+r ,ithin th! s! ';th! s+bJ!ct (ay conc!a 'ro( hi(s! ' his o,n r!a hosti ity +n#!r th! g+is! o' (!taphoric p ay;or it (ay occ+r as an +nconscio+s 'a si'ication o' th! s+bJ!ctIs +n#!rstan#ing o' th! oth!r p!rsonIs (o#!Ci#!nti'ying signa s. E! (ay (ista*! shyn!ss 'or cont!(pt, !tc. In#!!# (ost o' th! !rrors o' s! 'Cr!'!r!nc! 'a +n#!r this h!a#. 4. /earning. :h! si(p !st !"! o' this ph!no(!non is !-!(p i'i!# by a sit+ation in ,hich a s+bJ!ct r!c!i"!s a (!ssag! an#
A 'i ( pr!par!# by this proJ!ct, 9:h! )at+r! o' $ ayL $art I, 4i"!r 5tt!rs,9 is a"ai ab !. 28 C. 4. Carp!nt!r, 9A 7i! # &t+#y o' th! 0!ha"ior an# &ocia 4! ations o' Eo, ing Aon*!ys,9 "omp. 6syc*ol. ,onogr., 1934, 1C# 1Y168L a so <. M. @or!n/, Bing SolomonDs $ing, )!, For*, Cro,! , 195>.
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207

acts appropriat! y on it6 9I h!ar# th! c oc* stri*! an# *n!, it ,as ti(! 'or +nch. &o I ,!nt to th! tab !.9 In !arning !-p!ri(!nts th! ana og+! o' this s!.+!nc! o' !"!nts is obs!r"!# by th! !-p!ri(!nt!r an# co((on y tr!at!# as a sing ! (!ssag! o' a high!r typ!. 8h!n th! #og sa i"at!s b!t,!!n b+//!r an# (!at po,#!r, this s!.+!nc! is acc!pt!# by th! !-p!ri(!nt!r as a (!ssag! in#icating that 9:h! #og has learned that b+//!r (!ans (!at po,#!r.9 0+t this is not th! !n# o' th! hi!rarchy o' typ!s in"o "!#. :h! !-p!ri(!nta s+bJ!ct (ay b!co(! (or! s*i !# in !arning. E! (ay learn to learn,>9 an# it is not inconc!i"ab ! that sti high!r or#!rs o' !arning (ay occ+r in h+(an b!ings. 5. ,ultiple le&els of learning and t*e /ogical !yping of signa s. :h!s! ar! t,o ins!parab ! s!ts o' ph!no(!na;ins!parab ! b!ca+s! th! abi ity to han# ! th! (+ tip ! typ!s o' signa s is its! ' a learned s*i an# th!r!'or! a '+nction o' th! (+ tip ! !"! s o' !arning. Accor#ing to o+r hypoth!sis, th! t!r( 9!go '+nction9 2as this t!r( is +s!# ,h!n a schi/ophr!nic is #!scrib!# as ha"ing 9,!a* !go '+nction93 is pr!cis! y t*e process of discriminating communicational modes eit*er 'it*in t*e self or -et'een t*e self and ot*ers. :h! schi/ophr!nic !-hibits ,!a*n!ss in thr!! ar!as o' s+ch '+nction6 2a3 E! has #i''ic+ ty in assigning th! corr!ct co((+nicationa (o#! to th! (!ssag!s h! r!c!i"!s 'ro( oth!r p!rsons. +-4 E! has #i''ic+ ty in assigning th! corr!ct co((+nicationa (o#! to thos! (!ssag!s ,hich h! hi(s! ' +tt!rs or !(its non"!rba y. 2c3 E! has #i''ic+ ty in assigning th! corr!ct co((+nicationa (o#! to his o,n tho+ghts, s!nsations, an# p!rc!pts. At this point it is appropriat! to co(par! ,hat ,as sai# in th! pr!"io+s paragraph ,ith "on ?o(ar+sI7 approach to th! syst!(atic #!scription o' schi/ophr!nic +tt!ranc!. E! s+gg!sts that th! (!ssag!s 2an# tho+ght3 o' th! schi/ophr!nic ar! #!"iant in sy ogistic str+ct+r!. In p ac! o' str+ct+r!s ,hich #!ri"! 'ro( th! sy ogis(, 0arbara, th! schi/ophr!nic, accor#ing to this th!ory, +s!s
1. 0at!son, 9&ocia $ anning an# th! Conc!pt o' ?!+t!roC@!arning,9 "onference on Science, 6*ilosop*y and $eligion, Second Symposium, )!, For*, Earp!r, 1942. 2&!! abo"!, p. 1594 0 a so E. 7. Ear o,, 9:h! 7or(ation o' @!arning &!ts,9 6syc*ol. $e&ie', 1949, 5G# 51Y65L a so C. @. E+ , et al., ,at*ematico% deducti&e !*eory of $ote /earning, )!, Ea"!n, Fa ! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1940.
29

208

str+ct+r!s ,hich i#!nti'y pr!#icat!s. An !-a(p ! o' s+ch a #istort!# sy ogis( is6 A!n #i!. 1rass #i!s. A!n ar! grass. 0+t as ,! s!! it, "on ?o(ar+s30 'or(+ ation is on y a (or! pr!cis!;an# th!r!'or! "a +ab !;,ay o' saying that schi/ophr!nic +tt!ranc! is rich in (!taphor. 8ith that g!n!ra i/ation ,! agr!!. 0+t (!taphor is an in#isp!nsab ! too o' tho+ght an# !-pr!ssion;a charact!ristic o' a h+(an co((+nication, !"!n o' that o' th! sci!ntist. :h! conc!pt+a (o#! s o' cyb!rn!tics an# th! !n!rgy th!ori!s o' psychoCana ysis ar!, a't!r a , on y ab! !# (!taphors. :h! p!c+ iarity o' th! schi/ophr!nic is not that h! +s!s (!taphors, b+t that h! +s!s unla-eled (!taphors. E! has sp!cia #i''ic+ ty in han# ing signa s o' that c ass ,hos! (!(b!rs assign @ogica :yp!s to oth!r signa s. I' o+r 'or(a s+((ary o' th! sy(pto(ato ogy is corr!ct an# i' th! schi/ophr!nia o' o+r hypoth!sis is !ss!ntia y a r!s+ t o' 'a(i y int!raction, it sho+ # b! possib ! to arri"! a priori at a 'or(a #!scription o' th!s! s!.+!nc!s o' !-p!ri!nc! ,hich ,o+ # in#+c! s+ch a sy(pto(ato ogy. 8hat is *no,n o' !arning th!ory co(bin!s ,ith th! !"i#!nt 'act that h+(an b!ings +s! conte.t as a g+i#! 'or (o#! #iscri(ination. :h!r!'or!, ,! (+st oo* not 'or so(! sp!ci'ic tra+(atic !-p!ri!nc! in th! in'anti ! !tio ogy b+t rath!r 'or charact!ristic s!.+!ntia patt!rns. :h! sp!ci'icity 'or ,hich ,! s!arch is to b! at an abstract or 'or(a !"! . :h! s!.+!nc!s (+st ha"! this charact!ristic6 that 'ro( th!( th! pati!nt ,i ac.+ir! th! (!nta habits ,hich ar! !-!(p i'i!# in schi/ophr!nic co((+nication. :hat is to say, *e must li&e in a uni&erse '*ere t*e se5uences of e&ents are suc* t*at *is uncon&entional communicational *a-its 'ill -e in some sense appropriate. :h! hypoth!sis ,hich ,! o''!r is that s!.+!nc!s o' this *in# in th! !-t!rna !-p!ri!nc! o' th! pati!nt ar! r!sponsib ! 'or th! inn!r
30 =. "on ?o(ar+s, 9:h! &p!ci'ic @a,s o' @ogic in &chi/ophr!nia,9 /anguage and hought in S!hi"ophrenia, J. &. <asanin, !#., 0!r*! !y, %ni"!rsity o' Ca i'ornia $r!ss, 1944.

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con' icts o' @ogica :yping. 7or s+ch +nr!so "ab ! s!.+!nc!s o' !-p!ri!nc!s, ,! +s! th! t!r( 9#o+b ! bin#.9 The Do!$le Bind

:h! n!c!ssary ingr!#i!nts 'or a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation, as ,! s!! it, ar!6 1. !'o or more persons. 5' th!s!, ,! #!signat! on!, 'or p+rpos!s o' o+r #!'inition, as th! 9"icti(.9. 8! #o not ass+(! that th! #o+b ! bin# is in' ict!# by th! (oth!r a on!, b+t that it (ay b! #on! !ith!r by (oth!r a on! or by so(! co(bination o' (oth!r, 'ath!r, an#Kor sib ings. >. $epeated e.perience. 8! ass+(! that th! #o+b ! bin# is a r!c+rr!nt th!(! in th! !-p!ri!nc! o' th! "icti(. 5+r hypoth!sis #o!s not in"o*! a sing ! tra+(atic !-p!ri!nc!, b+t s+ch r!p!at!# !-p!ri!nc! that th! #o+b ! bin# str+ct+r! co(!s to b! an habit+a !-p!ctation. 3. A primary negati&e in=unction. :his (ay ha"! !ith!r o' t,o 'or(s6 2a3 9?o not #o so an# so, or I ,i p+nish yo+,9 or 2b3 9I' yo+ #o not #o so an# so, I ,i p+nish yo+. 9 E!r! ,! s! !ct a cont!-t o' !arning bas!# on a"oi#anc! o' p+nish(!nt rath!r than a cont!-t o' r!,ar# s!!*ing. :h!r! is p!rhaps no 'or(a r!ason 'or this s! !ction. 8! ass+(! that th! p+nish(!nt (ay b! !ith!r th! ,ith#ra,a o' o"! or th! !-pr!ssion o' hat! or ang!r;or (ost #!"astating;th! *in# o' aban#on(!nt that r!s+ ts 'ro( th! par!ntIs !-pr!ssion o' !-tr!(! h! p !ssn!ss.31 4. A s!con#ary inJ+nction con' icting ,ith th! 'irst at a(or! abstract !"! , an# i*! th! 'irst !n'orc!# by p+nish(!nts or signa s ,hich thr!at!n s+r"i"a . :his s!con#ary inJ+nction is (or! #i''ic+ t to #!scrib! than th! pri(ary 'or t,o r!asons. 7irst, th! s!con#ary inJ+nction is co((on y co((+nicat!# to th! chi # by non"!rba (!ans. $ost+r!, g!st+r!, ton! o' "oic!, (!aning'+ action, an# th! i(p ications conc!a !# in "!rba co((!nt (ay a b! +s!# to
31 5+r conc!pt o' p+nish(!nt is b!ing r!'in!# at pr!s!nt. It app!ars to +s to in"o "! p!rc!pt+a !-p!ri!nc! in a ,ay that cannot b! !nco(pass!# by th! notion o' 9tra+(a.9

210

con"!y this (or! abstract (!ssag!. &!con#, th! s!con#ary inJ+ncC tion (ay i(ping! +pon any ! !(!nt o' th! pri(ary prohibition. G!rba i/ation o' th! s!con#ary inJ+nction (ay, th!r!C'or!, inc +#! a ,i#! "ari!ty o' 'or(sL 'or !-a(p !, 9?o not s!! this as p+nish(!nt9L 9?o not s!! (! as th! p+nishing ag!nt9L 9?o not s+b(it to (y prohibitions9L 9?o not thin* o' ,hat yo+ (+st not #o9L 9?o not .+!stion (y o"! o' ,hich th! pri(ary prohibition is 2or is not3 an !-a(p !9L an# so on. 5th!r !-a(p !s b!co(! possib ! ,h!n th! #o+b ! bin# is in' ict!# not by on! in#i"i#+a b+t by t,o. 7or !-C a(p !, on! par!nt (ay n!gat! at a (or! abstract !"! th! inJ+nctions o' th! oth!r. 5. A tertiary negati&e in=unction pro*i-iting t*e &ictim from escaping from t*e field. In a 'or(a s!ns! it is p!rhaps +nn!c!ssary to ist this inJ+nction as a s!parat! it!( sinc! th! r!in'orc!(!nt at th! oth!r t,o !"! s in"o "!s a thr!at to s+r"i"a , an# i' th! #o+b ! bin#s ar! i(pos!# #+ring in'ancy, !scap! is nat+ra y i(possib !. Eo,!"!r, it s!!(s that in so(! cas!s th! !scap! 'ro( th! 'i! # is (a#! i(possib ! by c!rtain #!"ic!s ,hich ar! not p+r! y n!gati"!, !.g., capricio+s pro(is!s o' o"!, an# th! i*!. 6. 7ina y, th! co(p !t! s!t o' ingr!#i!nts is no ong!r n!c!ssary ,h!n th! "icti( has !arn!# to p!rc!i"! his +ni"!rs! in #o+b ! bin# patt!rns. A (ost any part o' a #o+b ! bin# s!.+!nc! (ay th!n b! s+''ici!nt to pr!cipitat! panic or rag!. :h! patt!rn o' con' icting inJ+nctions (ay !"!n b! ta*!n o"!r by ha +cinatory "oic!s.32

The Effect of the Do!$le Bind

In th! =ast!rn r! igion, M!n 0+##his(, th! goa is to achi!"! !n ight!n(!nt. :h! M!n (ast!r att!(pts to bring abo+t
J. $!rc!"a , A )arrati"! o' th! :r!at(!nt =-p!ri!nc!# by a 1!nt !(an ?+ring a &tat! o' A!nta ?!rang!(!nt, ?!sign!# to =-p ain th! Ca+s!s an# )at+r! o' Insanity, !tc., @on#on, =''ingha( 8i son, 1836 an# 1840. 2&!! bib iographic it!(, 1961 a.3
32

211

!n ight!n(!nt in his p+pi in "ario+s ,ays. 5n! o' th! things h! #o!s is to ho # a stic* o"!r th! p+pi Is h!a# an# say 'i!rc! y, 9I' yo+ say this stic* is r!a , I ,i stri*! yo+ ,ith it. I' yo+ say this stic* is not r!a , I ,i stri*! yo+ ,ith it. I' yo+ #onIt say anything, I ,i stri*! yo+ ,ith it.9 8! '!! that th! schi/ophr!nic 'in#s hi(s! ' contin+a y in th! sa(! sit+ation as th! p+pi , b+t h! achi!"!s so(!thing i*! #isori!ntation rath!r than !n ight!n(!nt. :h! M!n p+pi (ight r!ach +p an# ta*! th! stic* a,ay 'ro( th! (ast!r;,ho (ight acc!pt this r!spons!, b+t th! schi/ophr!nic has no s+ch choic! sinc! ,ith hi( th!r! is no not caring abo+t th! r! ationship, an# his (oth!rIs ai(s an# a,ar!n!ss ar! not i*! th! (ast!rIs. 8! hypoth!si/! that th!r! ,i b! a br!a*#o,n in any in#i"i#+a Is abi ity to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n @ogica :yp!s ,h!n!"!r a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation occ+rs. :h! g!n!ra charact!ristics o' this sit+ation ar! th! 'o o,ing6 2A3 8h!n th! in#i"i#+a is in"o "!# in an int!ns! r! ationshipL that is, a r! ationship in ,hich h! '!! s it is "ita y i(portant that h! #iscri(inat! acc+rat! y ,hat sort o' (!ssag! is b!ing co((+nicat!# so that h! (ay r!spon# appropriat! y. 203 An#, th! in#i"i#+a is ca+ght in a sit+ation in ,hich th! oth!r p!rson in th! r! ationship is !-pr!ssing t,o or#!rs o' (!ssag! an# on! o' th!s! #!ni!s th! oth!r. 2C3 An#, th! in#i"i#+a is +nab ! to co((!nt on th! (!ssag!s b!ing !-pr!ss!# to corr!ct his #iscri(ination o' ,hat or#!r o' (!ssag! to r!spon# to, i.!., *e cannot (a*! a (!taco((+nicati"! stat!(!nt. 8! ha"! s+gg!st!# that this is th! sort o' sit+ation ,hich occ+rs b!t,!!n th! pr!schi/ophr!nic an# his (oth!r, b+t it a so occ+rs in nor(a r! ationships. 8h!n a p!rson is ca+ght in a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation, h! ,i r!spon# #!'!nsi"! y in a (ann!r si(i ar to th! schi/ophr!nic. An in#i"i#+a ,i ta*! a (!taphorica stat!(!nt it!ra y ,h!n h! is in a sit+ation ,h!r! h! (+st r!spon#, ,h!r! h! is 'ac!# ,ith contra#ictory (!ssag!s, an# ,h!n h! is +nab ! to co((!nt on th! contra#ictions. 7or !-a(p !, on! #ay an !(p oy!! ,!nt ho(! #+ring o''ic! ho+rs. A '! o, !(p oy!! ca !# hi( at his ho(!, an# sai# ight y, 98! , ho, #i# yo+ g!t t*ereH9 :h! !(p oy!! r!p i!#, 90y a+to(obi !.9 E! r!spon#!# it!ra y b!ca+s! h! ,as 'ac!# ,ith a (!ssag! ,hich as*!# hi( ,hat h! ,as #oing at

212

ho(! ,h!n h! sho+ # ha"! b!!n at th! o''ic!, b+t ,hich #!ni!# that this .+!stion ,as b!ing as*!# by th! ,ay it ,as phras!#. 2&inc! th! sp!a*!r '! t it ,asnIt r!a y his b+sin!ss, h! spo*! (!taphorica y.3 :h! r! ationship ,as int!ns! !no+gh so that th! "icti( ,as in #o+bt ho, th! in'or(ation ,o+ # b! +s!#, an# h! th!r!'or! r!spon#!# it!ra y. :his is charact!ristic o' anyon! ,ho '!! s 9on th! spot,9 as #!(onstrat!# by th! car!'+ it!ra r!p i!s o' a ,itn!ss on th! stan# in a co+rt tria . :h! schi/ophr!nic '!! s so t!rrib y on th! spot at a ti(!s that h! habit+a y r!spon#s ,ith a #!'!nsi"! insist!nc! on th! it!ra !"! ,h!n it is .+it! inappropriat!, !.g., ,h!n so(!on! is Jo*ing. &chi/ophr!nics a so con'+s! th! it!ra an# (!taphoric in th!ir o,n +tt!ranc! ,h!n th!y '!! th!(s! "!s ca+ght in a #o+b ! bin#. 7or !-a(p !, a pati!nt (ay ,ish to critici/! his th!rapist 'or b!ing at! 'or an appoint(!nt, b+t h! (ay b! +ns+r! ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! that act o' b!ing at! ,as;partic+ ar y i' th! th!rapist has anticipat!# th! pati!ntIs r!action an# apo ogi/!# 'or th! !"!nt. :h! pati!nt cannot say, 98hy ,!r! yo+ at!D Is it b!ca+s! yo+ #on It ,ant to s!! (! to#ayD9 :his ,o+ # b! an acc+sation, an# so h! shi'ts to a (!taphorica stat!(!nt. E! (ay th!n say, 9I *n!, a '! o, onc! ,ho (iss!# a boat, his na(! ,as &a( an# th! boat a (ost s+n*, . . . !tc.,9 :h+s h! #!"! ops a (!taphorica story an# th! th!rapist (ay or (ay not #isco"!r in it a co((!nt on his b!ing at!. :h! con"!ni!nt thing abo+t a (!taphor is that it !a"!s it +p to th! th!rapist 2or (oth!r3 to s!! an acc+sation in th! stat!(!nt i' h! choos!s, or to ignor! it i' h! choos!s. &ho+ # th! th!rapist acc!pt th! acc+sation in th! (!taphor, th!n th! pati!nt can acc!pt th! stat!(!nt h! has (a#! abo+t &a( as (!taphorica . I' th! th!rapist points o+t that this #o!snIt so+n# i*! a tr+! stat!(!nt abo+t &a(, as a ,ay o' a"oi#ing th! acc+sation in th! story, th! pati!nt can arg+! that th!r! r!a y ,as a (an na(!# &a(. As an ans,!r to th! #o+b ! bin# sit+ation, a shi't to a (!taphorica stat!(!nt brings sa'!ty. Eo,!"!r, it a so pr!"!nts th! pati!nt 'ro( (a*ing th! acc+sation h! ,ants to (a*!. 0+t inst!a# o' g!tting o"!r his acc+sation by in#icating that this is a (!taphor, th! schi/ophr!nic pati!nt s!!(s to try to g!t o"!r th! 'act that it is a (!taphor by (a*ing it (or! 'antastic. I' th! th!rapist sho+ # ignor! th! acc+sation in th! story abo+t &a(, th! schi/ophr!nic (ay th!n t! a story abo+t going to Aars in a roc*!t

213

ship as a ,ay o' p+tting o"!r his acc+sation. :h! in#ication that it is a (!taphorica stat!(!nt i!s in th! 'antastic asp!ct o' th! (!taphor, not in th! signa s ,hich +s+a y acco(pany (!taphors to t! th! ist!n!r that a (!taphor is b!ing +s!#. It is not on y sa'!r 'or th! "icti( o' a #o+b ! bin# to shi't to a (!taphorica or#!r o' (!ssag!, b+t in an i(possib ! sit+ation it is b!tt!r to shi't an# b!co(! so(!bo#y ! s!, or shi't an# insist that h! is so(!,h!r! ! s!. :h!n th! #o+b ! bin# cannot ,or* on th! "icti(, b!ca+s! it isnIt h! an# b!si#!s h! is in a #i''!r!nt p ac!. In oth!r ,or#s, th! stat!(!nts ,hich sho, that a pati!nt is #isori!nt!# can b! int!rpr!t!# as ,ays o' #!'!n#ing hi(s! ' against th! sit+ation h! is in. :h! patho ogy !nt!rs ,h!n th! "icti( hi(s! ' !ith!r #o!s not *no, that his r!spons!s ar! (!taphorica or cannot say so. :o r!cogni/! that h! ,as sp!a*ing (!taphorica y h! ,o+ # n!!# to b! a,ar! that h! ,as #!'!n#ing hi(s! ' an# th!r!'or! ,as a'rai# o' th! oth!r p!rson. :o hi( s+ch an a,ar!n!ss ,o+ # b! an in#ict(!nt o' th! oth!r p!rson an# th!r!'or! pro"o*! #isast!r. I' an in#i"i#+a has sp!nt his i'! in th! *in# o' #o+b ! bin# r! ationship #!scrib!# h!r!, his ,ay o' r! ating to p!op ! a't!r a psychotic br!a* ,o+ # ha"! a syst!(atic patCt!rn. 7irst, h! ,o+ # not shar! ,ith nor(a p!op ! thos! signa s ,hich acco(pany (!ssag!s to in#icat! ,hat a p!rson (!ans. Eis (!taco((+nicati"! syst!(;th! co((+nications abo+t co((+nication;,o+ # ha"! bro*!n #o,n, an# h! ,o+ # not *no, ,hat *in# o' (!ssag! a (!ssag! ,as. I' a p!rson sai# to hi(, 98hat ,o+ # yo+ i*! to #o to#ayD9 h! ,o+ # b! +nab ! to J+#g! acc+rat! y by th! cont!-t or by th! ton! o' "oic! or g!st+r! ,h!th!r h! ,as b!ing con#!(n!# 'or ,hat h! #i# y!st!r#ay, or b!ing o''!r!# a s!-+a in"itation, or J+st ,hat ,as (!ant. 1i"!n this inCabi ity to J+#g! acc+rat! y ,hat a p!rson r!a y (!ans an# an !-c!ssi"! conc!rn ,ith ,hat is r!a y (!ant, an in#i"i#+a (ight #!'!n# hi(s! ' by choosing on! or (or! o' s!"!ra a t!rnati"!s. E! (ight, 'or !-a(p !, ass+(! that b!hin# !"!ry stat!(!nt th!r! is a conc!a !# (!aning ,hich is #!tri(!nta to his ,! 'ar!. E! ,o+ # th!n b! !-c!ssi"! y conc!rn!# ,ith hi##!n (!anings an# #!t!r(in!# to #!(onstrat! that h! co+ # not b! #!c!i"!#;as h! ha# b!!n a his i'!. I' h! choos!s this a t!rnati"!, h! ,i b! contin+a y s!arching 'or (!anings b!hin# ,hat p!op !

214

say an# b!hin# chanc! occ+rr!nc!s in th! !n"iron(!nt, an# h! ,i b! charact!ristica y s+spicio+s an# #!'iant. E! (ight choos! anoth!r a t!rnati"!, an# t!n# to acc!pt it!ra y !"!rything p!op ! say to hi(L ,h!n th!ir ton! or g!st+r! or cont!-t contra#ict!# ,hat th!y sai#, h! (ight !stab ish a patt!rn o' a+ghing o'' th!s! (!taco((+nicati"! signa s. E! ,o+ # gi"! +p trying to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n !"! s o' (!ssag! an# tr!at a (!ssag!s as +ni(portant or to b! a+gh!# at. I' h! #i#nIt b!co(! s+spicio+s o' (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s or att!(pt to a+gh th!( o'', h! (ight choos! to try to ignor! th!(. :h!n h! ,o+ # 'in# it n!c!ssary to s!! an# h!ar !ss an# !ss o' ,hat ,!nt on aro+n# hi(, an# #o his +t(ost to a"oi# pro"o*ing a r!spons! in his !n"iron(!nt. E! ,o+ # try to #!tach his int!r!st 'ro( th! !-t!rna ,or # an# conc!ntrat! on his o,n int!rna proc!ss!s an#, th!r!'or!, gi"! th! app!aranc! o' b!ing a ,ith#ra,n, p!rhaps (+t!, in#i"i#+a . :his is anoth!r ,ay o' saying that i' an in#i"i#+a #o!snIt *no, ,hat sort o' (!ssag! a (!ssag! is, h! (ay #!'!n# hi(s! ' in ,ays ,hich ha"! b!!n #!scrib!# as paranoi#, h!b!phr!nic, or catatonic. :h!s! thr!! a t!rnati"!s ar! not th! on y on!s. :h! point is that h! cannot choos! th! on! a t!rnati"! ,hich ,o+ # h! p hi( to #isco"!r ,hat p!op ! (!anL h! cannot, ,itho+t consi#!rab ! h! p, #isc+ss th! (!ssag!s o' oth!rs. 8itho+t b!ing ab ! to #o that, th! h+(an b!ing is i*! any s! 'Ccorr!cting syst!( ,hich has ost acc!pt th! acc+sation in th! (!taphor, th!n th! pati!nt can acc!pt th! stat!(!nt h! has (a#! abo+t &a( as (!taphorica . I' th! th!rapist points o+t that this #o!snIt so+n# i*! a tr+! stat!(!nt abo+t &a(, as a ,ay o' a"oi#ing th! acc+sation in th! story, th! pati!nt can arg+! that th!r! r!a y ,as a (an na(!# &a(. As an ans,!r to th! #o+b ! bin# sit+ation, a shi't to a (!taphorica stat!(!nt brings sa'!ty. Eo,!"!r, it a so pr!"!nts th! pati!nt 'ro( (a*ing th! acc+sation h! ,ants to (a*!. 0+t inst!a# o' g!tting o"!r his acc+sation by in#icating that this is a (!taphor, th! schi/ophr!nic pati!nt s!!(s to try to g!t o"!r th! 'act that it is a (!taphor by (a*ing it (or! 'antastic. I' th! th!rapist sho+ # ignor! th! acc+sation in th! story abo+t &a(, th! schi/ophr!nic (ay th!n t! a story abo+t going to Aars in a roc*!t ship as a ,ay o' p+tting o"!r his acc+sation. :h! in#ication that it is a (!taphorica

215

stat!(!nt i!s in th! 'antastic asp!ct o' th! (!taphor, not in th! signa s ,hich +s+a y acco(pany (!taphors to t! th! ist!n!r that a (!taphor is b!ing +s!#. It is not on y sa'!r 'or th! "icti( o' a #o+b ! bin# to shi't to a (!taphorica or#!r o' (!ssag!, b+t in an i(possib ! sit+ation it is b!tt!r to shi't an# b!co(! so(!bo#y ! s!, or shi't an# insist that h! is so(!,h!r! ! s!. :h!n th! #o+b ! bin# cannot ,or* on th! "icti(, b!ca+s! it isnIt h! an# b!si#!s h! is in a #i''!r!nt p ac!. In oth!r ,or#s, th! stat!(!nts ,hich sho, that a pati!nt is #isori!nt!# can b! int!rpr!t!# as ,ays o' #!'!n#ing hi(s! ' against th! sit+ation h! is in. :h! patho ogy !nt!rs ,h!n th! "icti( hi(s! ' !ith!r #o!s not *no, that his r!spons!s ar! (!taphorica or cannot say so. :o r!cogni/! that h! ,as sp!a*ing (!taphorica y h! ,o+ # n!!# to b! a,ar! that h! ,as #!'!n#ing hi(s! ' an# th!r!'or! ,as a'rai# o' th! oth!r p!rson. :o hi( s+ch an a,ar!n!ss ,o+ # b! an in#ict(!nt o' th! oth!r p!rson an# th!r!'or! pro"o*! #isast!r. I' an in#i"i#+a has sp!nt his i'! in th! *in# o' #o+b ! bin# r! ationship #!scrib!# h!r!, his ,ay o' r! ating to p!op ! a't!r a psychotic br!a* ,o+ # ha"! a syst!(atic patCt!rn. 7irst, h! ,o+ # not shar! ,ith nor(a p!op ! thos! signa s ,hich acco(pany (!ssag!s to in#icat! ,hat a p!rson (!ans. Eis (!taco((+nicati"! syst!(;th! co((+nications abo+t co((+nication;,o+ # ha"! bro*!n #o,n, an# h! ,o+ # not *no, ,hat *in# o' (!ssag! a (!ssag! ,as. I' a p!rson sai# to hi(, 98hat ,o+ # yo+ i*! to #o to#ayD9 h! ,o+ # b! +nab ! to J+#g! acc+rat! y by th! cont!-t or by th! ton! o' "oic! or g!st+r! ,h!th!r h! ,as b!ing con#!(n!# 'or ,hat h! #i# y!st!r#ay, or b!ing o''!r!# a s!-+a in"itation, or J+st ,hat ,as (!ant. 1i"!n this inCabi ity to J+#g! acc+rat! y ,hat a p!rson r!a y (!ans an# an !-c!ssi"! conc!rn ,ith ,hat is r!a y (!ant, an in#i"i#+a (ight #!'!n# hi(s! ' by choosing on! or (or! o' s!"!ra a t!rnati"!s. E! (ight, 'or !-a(p !, ass+(! that b!hin# !"!ry stat!(!nt th!r! is a conc!a !# (!aning ,hich is #!tri(!nta to his ,! 'ar!. E! ,o+ # th!n b! !-c!ssi"! y conc!rn!# ,ith hi##!n (!anings an# #!t!r(in!# to #!(onstrat! that h! co+ # not b! #!c!i"!#;as h! ha# b!!n a his i'!. I' h! choos!s this a t!rnati"!, h! ,i b! contin+a y s!arching 'or (!anings b!hin# ,hat p!op ! say an# b!hin# chanc! occ+rr!nc!s in th! !n"iron(!nt, an# h! ,i b! charact!ristica y s+spicio+s an# #!'iant.

216

E! (ight choos! anoth!r a t!rnati"!, an# t!n# to acc!pt it!ra y !"!rything p!op ! say to hi(L ,h!n th!ir ton! or g!st+r! or cont!-t contra#ict!# ,hat th!y sai#, h! (ight !stab ish a patt!rn o' a+ghing o'' th!s! (!taco((+nicati"! signa s. E! ,o+ # gi"! +p trying to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n !"! s o' (!ssag! an# tr!at a (!ssag!s as +ni(portant or to b! a+gh!# at. I' h! #i#nIt b!co(! s+spicio+s o' (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s or att!(pt to a+gh th!( o'', h! (ight choos! to try to ignor! th!(. :h!n h! ,o+ # 'in# it n!c!ssary to s!! an# h!ar !ss an# !ss o' ,hat ,!nt on aro+n# hi(, an# #o his +t(ost to a"oi# pro"o*ing a r!spons! in his !n"iron(!nt. E! ,o+ # try to #!tach his int!r!st 'ro( th! !-t!rna ,or # an# conc!ntrat! on his o,n int!rna proc!ss!s an#, th!r!'or!, gi"! th! app!aranc! o' b!ing a ,ith#ra,n, p!rhaps (+t!, in#i"i#+a . :his is anoth!r ,ay o' saying that i' an in#i"i#+a #o!snIt *no, ,hat sort o' (!ssag! a (!ssag! is, h! (ay #!'!n# hi(s! ' in ,ays ,hich ha"! b!!n #!scrib!# as paranoi#, h!b!phr!nic, or catatonic. :h!s! thr!! a t!rnati"!s ar! not th! on y on!s. :h! point is that h! cannot choos! th! on! a t!rnati"! ,hich ,o+ # h! p hi( to #isco"!r ,hat p!op ! (!anL h! cannot, ,itho+t consi#!rab ! h! p, #isc+ss th! (!ssag!s o' oth!rs. 8itho+t b!ing ab ! to #o that, th! h+(an b!ing is i*! any s! 'Ccorr!cting syst!( ,hich has ost its go"!rnorL it spira s into n!"!rC!n#ing, b+t a ,ays syst!(atic, #istortions. A Description of the Famil Situation

:h! th!or!tica possibi ity o' #o+b ! bin# sit+ations sti(+ at!# +s to oo* 'or s+ch co((+nication s!.+!nc!s in th! schi/ophr!nic pati!nt an# in his 'a(i y sit+ation. :o,ar# this !n# ,! ha"! st+#i!# th! ,ritt!n an# "!rba r!ports o' psychoth!rapists ,ho ha"! tr!at!# s+ch pati!nts int!nsi"! yL ,! ha"! st+#i!# tap! r!cor#ings o' psychoth!rap!+tic int!rC"i!,s, both o' o+r o,n pati!nts an# oth!rsL ,! ha"! int!rC"i!,!# an# tap!# par!nts o' schi/ophr!nicsL ,! ha"! ha# t,o (oth!rs an# on! 'ath!r participat! in int!nsi"! psyC choth!rapyL an# ,! ha"! int!r"i!,!# an# tap!# par!nts an# pati!nts s!!n conJoint y.

217

5n th! basis o' th!s! #ata ,! ha"! #!"! op!# a hypoth!sis abo+t th! 'a(i y sit+ation ,hich + ti(at! y !a#s to an in#i"i#+a s+''!ring 'ro( schi/ophr!nia. :his hypoth!sis has not b!!n statistica y t!st!#L it s! !cts an# !(phasi/!s a rath!r si(p ! s!t o' int!ractiona ph!no(!na an# #o!s not att!(pt to #!scrib! co(pr!h!nsi"! y th! !-traor#inary co(p !-ity o' a 'a(i y r! ationship. 8! hypoth!si/! that th! 'a(i y sit+ation o' th! schi/ophr!nic has th! 'o o,ing g!n!ra charact!ristics6 213 A chi # ,hos! (oth!r b!co(!s an-io+s an# ,ithC#ra,s i' th! chi # r!spon#s to h!r as a o"ing (oth!r. :hat is, th! chi #Is "!ry !-ist!nc! has a sp!cia (!aning to th! (oth!r ,hich aro+s!s h!r an-i!ty an# hosti ity ,h!n sh! is in #ang!r o' inti(at! contact ,ith th! chi #. 223 A (oth!r to ,ho( '!! ings o' an-i!ty an# hosti ity to,ar# th! chi # ar! not acc!ptab !, an# ,hos! ,ay o' #!nying th!( is to !-pr!ss o"!rt o"ing b!ha"ior to p!rs+a#! th! chi # to r!spon# to h!r as a o"ing (oth!r an# to ,ithC#ra, 'ro( hi( i' h! #o!s not. 9@o"ing b!ha"ior9 #o!s not n!c!ssari y i(p y 9a''!ction9L it can, 'or !-a(p !, b! s!t in a 'ra(!,or* o' #oing th! prop!r thing, insti ing 9goo#n!ss,9 an# th! i*!. 233 :h! abs!nc! o' anyon! in th! 'a(i y, s+ch as a strong an# insight'+ 'ath!r, ,ho can int!r"!n! in th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! (oth!r an# chi # an# s+pport th! chi # in th! 'ac! o' th! contra#ictions in"o "!#. &inc! this is a 'or(a #!scription ,! ar! not sp!ci'ica y conc!rn!# ,ith ,hy th! (oth!r '!! s this ,ay abo+t th! chi #, b+t ,! s+gg!st that sh! co+ # '!! this ,ay 'or "ario+s r!asons. It (ay b! that (!r! y ha"ing a chi # aro+s!s an-i!ty abo+t h!rs! ' an# h!r r! ationships to h!r o,n 'a(i yL or it (ay b! i(portant to h!r that th! chi # is a boy or a gir , or that th! chi # ,as born on th! anni"!rsary o' on! o' h!r o,n sib ings,33 or th! chi # (ay b! in th! sa(! sib ing position in th! 'a(i y that sh! ,as, or th! chi # (ay b! sp!cia to h!r 'or oth!r r!asons r! at!# to h!r o,n !(otiona prob !(s.
33 4. Ei gar#, 9Anni"!rsary 4!actions in $ar!nts $r!cipitat!# by Chi #r!n,9 6syc*iatry, 1953, 1G# 7?%FC.

218

1i"!n a sit+ation ,ith th!s! charact!ristics, ,! hypoth!si/! that th! (oth!r o' a schi/ophr!nic ,i b! si(+ tan!o+s y !-pr!ssing at !ast t,o or#!rs o' (!ssag!. 27or si(p icity in this pr!s!ntation ,! sha con'in! o+rs! "!s to t,o or#!rs.3 :h!s! or#!rs o' (!ssag! can b! ro+gh y charact!ri/!# as 2a3 hosti ! or ,ith#ra,ing b!ha"ior ,hich is aro+s!# ,h!nC!"!r th! chi # approach!s h!r, an# 2b3 si(+ at!# o"ing or approaching b!ha"ior ,hich is aro+s!# ,h!n th! chi # r!spon#s to h!r hosti ! an# ,ith#ra,ing b!ha"ior, as a ,ay o' #!nying that sh! is ,ith#ra,ing. E!r prob !( is to contro h!r an-i!ty by contro ing th! c os!n!ss an# #istanc! b!t,!!n h!rs! ' an# h!r chi #. :o p+t this anoth!r ,ay, i' th! (oth!r b!gins to '!! a''!ctionat! an# c os! to h!r chi #, sh! b!gins to '!! !n#ang!r!# an# (+st ,ith#ra, 'ro( hi(L b+t sh! cannot acc!pt this hosti ! act an# to #!ny it (+st si(+ at! a''!ction an# c os!n!ss ,ith h!r chi #. :h! i(portant point is that h!r o"ing b!ha"ior is th!n a co((!nt on 2sinc! it is co(p!nsatory 'or3 h!r hosti ! b!ha"ior an# cons!.+!nt y it is o' a #i''!r!nt order o' (!ssag! than th! hosti ! b!ha"ior;it is a (!ssag! abo+t a s!.+!nc! o' (!ssag!s. F!t by its nat+r! it #!ni!s th! !-ist!nc! o' thos! (!ssag!s ,hich it is abo+t, i.!., th! hosti ! ,ith#ra,a . :h! (oth!r +s!s th! chi #Is r!spons!s to a''ir( that h!r b!ha"ior is o"ing, an# sinc! th! o"ing b!ha"ior is si(+ at!#, th! chi # is p ac!# in a position ,h!r! h! (+st not acc+rat! y int!rpr!t h!r co((+nication i' h! is to (aintain his r! ationship ,ith h!r. In oth!r ,or#s, h! (+st not #iscri(inat! acc+rat! y b!t,!!n or#!rs o' (!ssag!, in this cas! th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! !-pr!ssion o' si(+ at!# '!! ings 2on! @ogica :yp!3 an# r!a '!! ings 2anoth!r @ogica :yp!3. As a r!s+ t th! chi # (+st syst!(atica y #istort his p!rc!ption o' (!taco((+nicati"! signa s. 7or !-Ca(p !, i' (oth!r b!gins to '!! hosti ! 2or a''!ctionat!3 toC,ar# h!r chi # an# a so '!! s co(p! !# to ,ith#ra, 'ro( hi(, sh! (ight say, 91o to b!#, yo+Ir! "!ry tir!# an# I ,ant yo+ to g!t yo+r s !!p.9 :his o"!rt y o"ing stat!(!nt is int!n#!# to #!ny a '!! ing ,hich co+ # b!. "!rba i/!# as 91!t o+t o' (y sight b!ca+s! II( sic* o' yo+.9 I' th! chi # corr!ct y #iscri(inat!s h!r (!taco((+nicati"! signa s, h! ,o+ # ha"! to 'ac! th! 'act that sh! both #o!snIt ,ant hi( an# is #!c!i"ing hi( by h!r o"ing b!ha"ior. E! ,o+ # b! 9p+nish!#9 'or !arning to #iscri(inat! or#!rs o' (!ssag!s acc+rat! y. E!

219

th!r!'or! ,o+ # t!n# to acc!pt th! i#!a that h! is tir!# rath!r than r!cogni/! his (oth!rIs #!c!ption. :his (!ans that h! (+st #!c!i"! hi(s! ' abo+t his o,n int!rna stat! in or#!r to s+pport (oth!r in h!r #!c!ption. :o s+r"i"! ,ith h!r h! (+st 'a s! y #iscri(inat! his o,n int!rna (!ssag!s as ,! as 'a s! y #iscri(inat! th! (!ssag!s o' oth!rs. :h! prob !( is co(po+n#!# 'or th! chi # b!ca+s! th! (oth!r is 9b!n!"o !nt y9 #!'ining 'or hi( ho, h! '!! sL sh! is !-pr!ssing o"!rt (at!rna conc!rn o"!r th! 'act that h! is tir!#. :o p+t it anoth!r ,ay, th! (oth!r is contro ing th! chi #Is #!'initions o' his o,n (!ssag!s, as ,! as th! #!'inition o' his r!spons!s to h!r 2!.g., by saying, 9Fo+ #onIt r!a y (!an to say that,9 i' h! sho+ # critici/! h!r3 by insisting that sh! is not conc!rn!# abo+t h!rs! ' b+t on y abo+t hi(. Cons!.+!nt y, th! !asi!st path 'or th! chi # is to acc!pt (oth!rIs si(+ at!# o"ing b!ha"ior as r!a , an# his #!sir!s to int!rpr!t ,hat is going on ar! +n#!r(in!#. F!t th! r!s+ t is that th! (oth!r is ,ith#ra,ing 'ro( hi( an# #!'ining this ,ith#ra,a as th! ,ay a o"ing r! ationship sho+ # b!. Eo,!"!r, acc!pting (oth!rIs si(+ at!# o"ing b!ha"ior as r!a a so is no so +tion 'or th! chi #. &ho+ # h! (a*! this 'a s! #iscri(ination, h! ,o+ # approach h!rL this (o"! toC,ar# c os!n!ss ,o+ # pro"o*! in h!r '!! ings o' '!ar an# h! p !ssn!ss, an# sh! ,o+ # b! co(p! !# to ,ith#ra,. 0+t i' h! th!n ,ith#r!, 'ro( h!r, sh! ,o+ # ta*! his ,ith#ra,a as a stat!(!nt that sh! ,as not a o"ing (oth!r an# ,o+ # !ith!r p+nish hi( 'or ,ith#ra,ing or approach hi( to bring hi( c os!r. I' h! th!n approach!#, sh! ,o+ # r!spon# by p+tting hi( at a #istanc!. !*e c*ild is punis*ed for discriminating accurately '*at s*e is e.pressing, and *e is punis*ed for discriminating inaccurately7*e is caug*t in a dou-le -ind. :h! chi # (ight try "ario+s (!ans o' !scaping 'ro( this sit+ation. E! (ight, 'or !-a(p !, try to !an on his 'ath!r or so(! oth!r (!(b!r o' th! 'a(i y. Eo,!"!r, 'ro( o+r pr! i(inary obs!r"ations ,! thin* it is i*! y that th! 'ath!rs o' schi/ophr!nics ar! not s+bstantia !no+gh to !an on. :h!y ar! a so in th! a,*,ar# position ,h!r! i' th!y agr!!# ,ith th! chi # abo+t th! nat+r! o' (oth!rIs #!c!ptions, th!y ,o+ # n!!# to r!cogni/! th! nat+r! o' th!ir o,n r! ationCships to th! (oth!r, ,hich th!y co+ # not #o an# r!(ain attach!# to h!r in th! modus operandi th!y ha"! ,or*!# o+t.

220

:h! n!!# o' th! (oth!r to b! ,ant!# an# o"!# a so pr!"!nts th! chi # 'ro( gaining s+pport 'ro( so(! oth!r p!rson in th! !n"iron(!nt, a t!ach!r, 'or !-a(p !. A (oth!r ,ith th!s! charact!ristics ,o+ # '!! thr!at!n!# by any oth!r attach(!nt o' th! chi # an# ,o+ # br!a* it +p an# bring th! chi # bac* c os!r to h!r ,ith cons!.+!nt an-i!ty ,h!n th! chi # b!ca(! #!p!n#!nt on h!r. :h! on y ,ay th! chi # can r!a y !scap! 'ro( th! sit+ation is to co((!nt on th! contra#ictory position his (oth!r has p+t hi( in. Eo,!"!r, i' h! #i# so, th! (oth!r ,o+ # ta*! this as an acc+sation that sh! is +n o"ing an# both p+nish hi( an# insist that his p!rc!ption o' th! sit+ation is #istort!#. 0y pr!"!nting th! chi # 'ro( ta *ing abo+t th! sit+ation, th! (oth!r 'orbi#s hi( +sing th! (!taco((+nicati"! !"! ;th! !"! ,! +s! to corr!ct o+r p!rc!ption o' co((+nicati"! b!ha"ior. :h! abi ity to co((+nicat! abo+t co((+nication, to co((!nt +pon th! (!aning'+ actions o' on!s! ' an# oth!rs, is !ss!ntia 'or s+cc!ss'+ socia int!rCco+rs!. In any nor(a r! ationship th!r! is a constant int!rCchang! o' (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s s+ch as 98hat #o yo+ (!anD9 or 98hy #i# yo+ #o thatD9 or 9Ar! yo+ *i##ing (!D9 an# so on. :o #iscri(inat! acc+rat! y ,hat p!op ! ar! r!a y !-pr!ssing, ,! (+st b! ab ! to co((!nt #ir!ct y or in#ir!ct y on that !-pr!ssion. :his (!taco((+nicati"! !"! th! schi/ophr!nic s!!(s +nab ! to +s! s+cc!ss'+ y.34 1i"!n th!s! charact!ristics o' th! (oth!r, it is appar!nt ,hy. I' sh! is #!nying on! or#!r o' (!ssag!, th!n any stat!(!nt abo+t h!r stat!(!nts !n#ang!rs h!r an# sh! (+st 'orbi# it. :h!r!'or!, th! chi # gro,s +p +ns*i !# in his abi ity to co(C (+nicat! abo+t co((+nication an#, as a r!s+ t, +ns*i !# in #!t!r(ining ,hat p!op ! r!a y (!an an# +ns*i !# in !-pr!ssing ,hat h! r!a y (!ans, ,hich is !ss!ntia 'or nor(a r! ationships. In s+((ary, th!n, ,! s+gg!st that th! #o+b ! bin# nat+r! o' th! 'a(i y sit+ation o' a schi/ophr!nic r!s+ ts in p acing th! chi # in a position ,h!r!, i' h! r!spon#s to his (oth!rIs si(+ at!# a''!ction, h!r an-i!ty ,i b! aro+s!# an# sh! ,i p+nish hi( 2or insist, to prot!ct h!rs! ', that h i s o"!rt+r!s ar! si(+ at!#, th+s con'+sing hi( abo+t th! nat+r! o' his o,n (!ssag!s3 to #!'!n# h!rs! ' 'ro( c os!C
34

1. 0at!son, 9. . . $ ay an# 7antasy,9 op. cit.

221

n!ss ,ith hi(. :h+s th! chi # is b oc*!# o'' 'ro( inti(at! an# s!c+r! associations ,ith his (oth!r. Eo,!"!r, i' h! #o!s not (a*! o"!rt+r!s o' a''!ction, sh! ,i '!! that this (!ans sh! is not a o"ing (oth!r an# h!r an-i!ty ,i b! aro+s!#. :h!r!'or!, sh! ,i !ith!r p+nish hi( 'or ,ithC#ra,ing or (a*! o"!rt+r!s to,ar# th! chi # to insist that h! #!(onstrat! that h! o"!s h!r. I' h! th!n r!spon#s an# sho,s h!r a''!ction, sh! ,i not on y '!! !n#ang!r!# again, b+t sh! (ay r!s!nt th! 'act that sh! ha# to 'orc! hi( to r!spon#. In !ith!r cas! in a r! ationship, th! (ost i(portant in his i'! an# th! (o#! 'or a oth!rs, h! is p+nish!# i' h! in#icat!s o"! an# a''!ction an# p+nish!# i' h! #o!s notL an# his !scap! ro+t!s 'ro( th! sit+ation, s+ch as gaining s+pport 'ro( oth!rs, ar! c+t o''. :his is th! basic nat+r! o' th! #o+b ! bin# r! ationship b!t,!!n (oth!r an# chi #. :his #!scription has not #!pict!#, o' co+rs!, th! (or! co(p icat!# int!r oc*ing g!sta t that is th! 9'a(i y9 o' ,hich th! 9(oth!r9 is on! i(portant part.35 (ll!strations fro# Clinical Data

An ana ysis o' an inci#!nt occ+rring b!t,!!n a schi/ophr!nic pati!nt an# his (oth!r i +strat!s th! #o+b ! bin# sit+ation. A yo+ng (an ,ho ha# 'air y ,! r!co"!r!# 'ro( an ac+t! schi/ophr!nic !piso#! ,as "isit!# in th! hospita by his (oth!r. E! ,as g a# to s!! h!r an# i(p+ si"! y p+t his ar( aro+n# h!r sho+ #!rs, ,h!r!+pon sh! sti''!n!#. E! ,ith#r!, his ar( an# sh! as*!#, 9?onIt yo+ o"! (! any (or!D9 E! th!n b +sh!#, an# sh! sai#, 9?!ar, yo+ (+st not b! so !asi y !(barrass!# an# a'rai# o' yo+r '!! ings.9 :h! pati!nt ,as ab ! to stay ,ith h!r on y a '!, (in+t!s (or! an# 'o o,ing h!r #!part+r! h! assa+ t!# an ai#! an# ,as p+t in th! t+bs. 5b"io+s y, this r!s+ t co+ # ha"! b!!n a"oi#!# i' th! yo+ng (an ha# b!!n ab ! to say, 9Aoth!r, it is ob"io+s that yo+ b!co(! +nco('ortab ! ,h!n I p+t (y ar( aro+n# yo+, an# that yo+ ha"!
35 ?. ?. Jac*son, 9:h! V+!stion o' 7a(i y Eo(!ostasis,9 pr!s!nt!# at th! A(!rican $sychiatric Association A!!ting, &t. /ouis, Aay 7, 1954L a so Jac*son, 9&o(! 7actors In' +!ncing th! 5!#ip+s Co(p !-,9 6syc*oanalytic Auarterly, 1954, >?# 566C81.

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#i''ic+ ty acc!pting a g!st+r! o' a''!ction 'ro( (!.9 Eo,!"!r, th! schi/ophr!nic pati!nt #o!snIt ha"! this possibi ity op!n to hi(. Eis int!ns! #!p!n#!ncy an# training pr!"!nts hi( 'ro( co((!nting +pon his (oth!rIs co((+nicati"! b!ha"ior, tho+gh sh! co((!nts on his an# 'orc!s hi( to acc!pt an# to att!(pt to #!a ,ith th! co(C p icat!# s!.+!nc!. :h! co(p ications 'or th! pati!nt inc +#! th! 'o o,ing6 213 :h! (oth!rIs r!action o' not acc!pting h!r sonIs a''!ctionat! g!st+r! is (ast!r'+ y co"!r!# +p by h!r con#!(nation o' hi( 'or ,ith#ra,ing, an# th! pati!nt #!ni!s his p!rc!ption o' th! sit+ation by acc!pting h!r con#!(nation. 223 :h! stat!(!nt 9?onIt yo+ o"! (! any (or!9 in this cont!-t s!!(s to i(p y6 2a3 9I a( o"ab !.9 2b3 9Fo+ sho+ # o"! (! an# i' yo+ #onIt yo+ ar! ba# or at 'a+ t.9 2c3 98h!r!as yo+ #i# o"! (! pr!"io+s y yo+ #onIt any ong!r,9 an# th+s 'oc+s is shi't!# 'ro( his !-pr!ssing a''!ction to his inabi ity to b! a''!ctionat!. &inc! th! pati!nt has a so hat!# h!r, sh! is on goo# gro+n# h!r!, an# h! r!spon#s appropriat! y ,ith g+i t, ,hich sh! th!n attac*s. 2#3 98hat yo+ J+st !-pr!ss!# 'as not a''!ction,9 an# in or#!r to acc!pt this stat!(!nt, th! pati!nt (+st #!ny ,hat sh! an# th! c+ t+r! ha"! ta+ght hi( abo+t ho, on! !-pr!ss!s a''!ction. E! (+st a so .+!stion th! ti(!s ,ith h!r, an# ,ith oth!rs, ,h!n h! tho+ght h! ,as !-p!ri!ncing a''!ction an# ,h!n th!y seeme! to tr!at th! sit+ation as i' h! ha#. E! !-p!ri!nc!s h!r! ossCo'Cs+pport ph!no(C !na an# is p+t in #o+bt abo+t th! r! iabi ity o' past !-p!ri!nc!. 233 :h! stat!(!nt, 9Fo+ (+st not b! so !asi y !(barrass!# an# a'rai# o' yo+r '!! ings,9 s!!(s to i(p y6 2a3 9Fo+ ar! not i*! (! an# ar! #i''!r!nt 'ro( oth!r nic! or nor(a p!op ! b!ca+s! ,! !-pr!ss o+r '!! ings.9 2b3 9:h! '!! ings yo+ !-pr!ss ar! a right, itIs on y that ou canIt acc!pt th!(.9 Eo,!"!r, i' th! sti''!ning on h!r part ha# in#icat!# 9:h!s! ar! +nacc!ptab ! '!! ings,9 th!n th! boy is to # that h! sho+ # not b! !(barrass!# by +nacc!ptab ! '!! ings. &inc! h! has ha# a ong training in ,hat is an# is not acc!ptab ! to both h!r an# soci!ty, h! again co(!s into con' ict ,ith th! past. I' h! is +na'rai# o' his o,n '!! ings 2,hich (oth!r i(p i!s is goo#3, h! sho+ # b!

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+na'rai# o' his a''!ction an# ,o+ # th!n notic! it ,as sh! ,ho ,as a'rai#, b+t h! (+st not notic! that b!Cca+s! h!r ,ho ! approach is ai(!# at co"!ring +p this shortCco(ing in h!rs! '. :h! i(possib ! #i !((a th+s b!co(!s6 9I' I a( to *!!p (y ti! to (oth!r, I (+st not sho, h!r that I o"! h!r, b+t i' I #o not sho, h!r that I o"! h!r, th!n I ,i os! h!r.9 :h! i(portanc! to th! (oth!r o' h!r sp!cia (!tho# o' contro is stri*ing y i +strat!# by th! int!r'a(i y sit+ation o' a yo+ng ,o(an schi/ophr!nic ,ho gr!!t!# th! th!rapist on th!ir 'irst (!!ting ,ith th! r!(ar*, 9Aoth!r ha# to g!t (arri!# an# no, II( h!r!.9 :his stat!(!nt (!ant to th! th!rapist that6 213 :h! pati!nt ,as th! r!s+ t o' an i !giti(at! pr!gnancy. 223 :his 'act ,as r! at!# to h!r pr!s!nt psychosis 2in h!r opinion3. 233 9E!r!9 r!'!rr!# to th! psychiatristIs o''ic! an# to th! pati!ntIs pr!s!nc! on !arth 'or ,hich sh! ha# to b! !t!rna y in#!bt!# to h!r (oth!r, !sp!cia y sinc! h!r (oth!r ha# sinn!# an# s+''!r!# in or#!r to bring h!r into th! ,or #. 243 9Ea# to g!t (arri!#9 r!'!rr!# to th! shotg+n nat+r! o' (oth!rIs ,!##ing an# to th! (oth!rIs r!spons! to pr!ss+r! that sh! (+st (arry, an# th! r!ciproca , that sh! r!s!nt!# th! 'orc!# nat+r! o' th! sit+ation an# b a(!# th! pati!nt 'or it. Act+a y, a th!s! s+ppositions s+bs!.+!nt y pro"!# to b! 'act+a y corr!ct an# ,!r! corroborat!# by th! (oth!r #+ring an aborti"! att!(pt at psychoth!rapy. :h! ' a"or o' th! (oth!rIs co((+nications to th! pati!nt s!!(!# !ss!ntia y this6 9I a( o"ab !, o"ing, an# satis'i!# ,ith (ys! '. Fo+ ar! o"ab ! ,h!n yo+ ar! i*! (! an# ,h!n yo+ #o ,hat I say.9 At th! sa(! ti(! th! (oth!r in#icat!# to th! #a+ght!r both by ,or#s an# b!ha"ior6 9Fo+ ar! physica y #! icat!, +nint! ig!nt, an# #i''!r!nt 'ro( (! 2Nnot nor(a I3. Fo+ n!!# (! an# (! a on! b!ca+s! o' th!s! han#icaps, an# I ,i ta*! car! o' yo+ an# o"! yo+.9 :h+s th! pati!ntIs i'! ,as a s!ri!s o' b!ginnings, o' att!(pts at !-p!ri!nc!, ,hich ,o+ # r!s+ t in 'ai +r! an# ,ith#ra,a bac* to th! (at!rna h!arth an# boso( b!ca+s! o' th! co +sion b!t,!!n h!r an# h!r (oth!r. It ,as not!# in co aborati"! th!rapy that c!rtain ar!as i(portant to th! (oth!rIs s! 'C!st!!( ,!r! !sp!cia y con' ict+a sit+ations 'or th! pati!nt. 7or !-a(p !, th! (oth!r n!!#!# th! 'iction that sh! ,as

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c os! to h!r 'a(i y an# that a #!!p o"! !-ist!# b!t,!!n h!r an# h!r o,n (oth!r. 0y ana ogy th! r! ationship to th! gran#(oth!r s!r"!# as th! prototyp! 'or th! (oth!rIs r! ationship to h!r o,n #a+ght!r. 5n on! occasion ,h!n th! #a+ght!r ,as s!"!n or !ight y!ars o #, th! gran#(oth!r in a rag! thr!, a *ni'! ,hich bar! y (iss!# th! itt ! gir . :h! (oth!r sai# nothing to th! gran#(oth!r b+t h+rri!# th! itt ! gir 'ro( th! roo( ,ith th! ,or#s, 91ran#(o((y r!a y o"!s yo+.9 It is signi'icant that th! gran#(oth!r too* th! attit+#! toC ,ar# th! pati!nt that sh! ,as not ,! !no+gh contro !#, an# sh! +s!# to chi#! h!r #a+ght!r 'or b!ing too !asy on th! chi #. :h! gran#(oth!r ,as i"ing in th! ho+s! #+ring on! o' th! pati!ntIs psychotic !piso#!s, an# th! gir too* gr!at #! ight in thro,ing "ario+s obJ!cts at th! (oth!r an# gran#(oth!r ,hi ! th!y co,!r!# in '!ar. Aoth!r '! t h!rs! ' "!ry attracti"! as a gir , an# sh! '! t that h!r #a+ght!r r!s!(b !# h!r rath!r c os! y, a tho+gh by #a(ning ,ith 'aint prais!, it ,as ob"io+s that sh! '! t th! #a+ght!r #!'init! y ran s!con#. 5n! o' th! #a+ght!rIs 'irst acts #+ring a psychotic p!rio# ,as to anno+nc! to h!r (oth!r that sh! ,as going to c+t o'' a h!r hair. &h! proc!!#!# to #o this ,hi ! th! (oth!r p !a#!# ,ith h!r to stop. &+bs!.+!nt y th! (oth!r ,o+ # sho, a pict+r! o' *erself as a gir an# !-p ain to p!op ! ho, th! pati!nt ,o+ # oo* i' sh! on y ha# h!r b!a+ti'+ hair. :h! (oth!r, appar!nt y ,itho+t a,ar!n!ss o' th! signi'icanc! o' ,hat sh! ,as #oing, ,o+ # !.+at! th! #a+ght!rIs i n!ss ,ith not b!ing "!ry bright an# ,ith so(! sort o' organic brain #i''ic+ ty. &h! ,o+ # in"ariab y contrast this ,ith h!r o,n int! ig!nc! as #!(onstrat!# by h!r o'n scho astic r!cor#. &h! tr!at!# h!r #a+ght!r ,ith a co(p !t! y patroni/ing an# p acating (ann!r ,hich ,as insinc!r!. 7or !-a(p !, in th! psychiatristIs pr!s!nc! sh! pro(is!# h!r #a+ght!r that sh! ,o+ # not a o, h!r to ha"! '+rth!r shoc* tr!at(!nts, an# as soon as th! gir ,as o+t o' th! roo( sh! as*!# th! #octor i' h! #i#nIt '!! sh! sho+ # b! hospita i/!# an# gi"!n ! !ctric shoc* tr!at(!nts. 5n! c +! to this #!c!pti"! b!ha"ior aros! #+ring th! (oth!rIs th!rapy. A tho+gh th! #a+ght!r ha# ha# thr!! pr!"io+s hospita i/ations, th! (oth!r ha# n!"!r (!ntion!# to th! #octors that sh! h!rs! ' ha# ha# a psychotic !piso#! ,h!n sh! #isco"!r!# that sh! ,as pr!gnant. :h! 'a(i y

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,his*!# h!r a,ay to a s(a sanitari+( in a n!arby to,n, an# sh! ,as, accor#ing to h!r o,n stat!(!nt, strapp!# to a b!# 'or si,!!*s. E!r 'a(i y #i# not "isit h!r #+ring this ti(!, an# no on! !-c!pt h!r par!nts an# h!r sist!r *n!, that sh! ,as hospita i/!#. :h!r! ,!r! t,o ti(!s #+ring th!rapy ,h!n th! (oth!r sho,!# int!ns! !(otion. 5n! ,as in r! ating h!r o,n psychotic !-p!ri!nc!L th! oth!r ,as on th! occasion o' h!r ast "isit ,h!n sh! acc+s!# th! th!rapist o' trying to #ri"! h!r cra/y by 'orcing h!r to choos! b!t,!!n h!r #a+ght!r an# h!r h+sban#. Against (!#ica a#"ic!, sh! too* h!r #a+ght!r o+t o' th!rapy. :h! 'ath!r ,as as in"o "!# in th! ho(!ostatic asp!cts o' th! intra'a(i y sit+ation as th! (oth!r. 7or !-a(p !, h! stat!# that h! ha# to .+it his position as an i(portant attorn!y in or#!r to bring his #a+ght!r to an ar!a ,h!r! co(p!t!nt psychiatric h! p ,as a"ai ab !. &+bs!.+!nt y, acting on c+!s 'ro( th! pati!nt 2!.g., sh! 'r!.+!nt y r!'!rr!# to a charact!r na(!# 9)!r"o+s )!#93, th! th!rapist ,as ab ! to ! icit 'ro( hi( that h! ha# hat!# his Job an# 'or y!ars ha# b!!n trying to 9g!t o+t 'ro( +n#!r.9 Eo,!"!r, th! #a+ght!r ,as (a#! to '!! that th! (o"! ,as initiat!# 'or h!r. 5n th! basis o' o+r !-a(ination o' th! c inica #ata, ,! ha"! b!!n i(pr!ss!# by a n+(b!r o' obs!r"ations inc +#ing6 213 :h! h! p !ssn!ss, '!ar, !-asp!ration, an# rag! ,hich a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation pro"o*!s in th! pati!nt, b+t ,hich th! (oth!r (ay s!r!n! y an# +nC+n#!rstan#ing y pass o"!r. 8! ha"! not!# r!actions in th! 'ath!r that both cr!at! #o+b ! bin# sit+ations, or !-t!n# an# a(p i'y thos! cr!at!# by th! (oth!r, an# ,! ha"! s!!n th! 'ath!r, passi"! an# o+trag!#, b+t h! p !ss, b!co(! !nsnar!# in a si(i ar (ann!r to th! pati!nt. 223 :h! psychosis s!!(s, in part, a ,ay o' #!a ing ,ith #o+b ! bin# sit+ations to o"!rco(! th!ir inhibiting an# conCtro ing !''!ct. :h! psychotic pati!nt (ay (a*! ast+t!, pithy, o't!n (!taphorica r!(ar*s that r!"!a an insight into th! 'orc!s bin#ing hi(. Contrari,is!, h! (ay b!co(! rath!r !-p!rt in s!tting #o+b ! bin# sit+ations hi(s! '. 233 Accor#ing to o+r th!ory, th! co((+nication sit+ation #!scrib!# is !ss!ntia to th! (oth!rIs s!c+rity, an# by in'!r!nc! to th! 'a(i y ho(!ostasis. I' this b! so, th!n ,h!n psychoth!rapy o' th! pati!nt h! ps hi( b!co(! !ss "+ n!rab ! to (oth!rIs att!(pts at

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contro , an-i!ty ,i b! pro#+c!# in th! (oth!r. &i(i ar y, i' th! th!rapist int!rpr!ts to th! (oth!r th! #yna(ics o' th! sit+ation sh! is s!tting +p ,ith th! pati!nt, this sho+ # pro#+c! an an-i!ty r!spons! in h!r. 5+r i(pr!ssion is that ,h!n th!r! is a p!r#+ring conCtact b!t,!!n pati!nt an# 'a(i y 2!sp!cia y ,h!n th! pati!nt i"!s at ho(! #+ring psychoth!rapy3, this !a#s to a #ist+rbanc! 2o't!n s!"!r!3 in th! (oth!r an# so(!ti(!s in both (oth!r an# 'ath!r an# oth!r sib ings.36 C!rrent %osition and +!t!re %rospects

Aany ,rit!rs ha"! tr!at!# schi/ophr!nia in t!r(s o' th! (ost !-tr!(! contrast ,ith any oth!r 'or( o' h+(an thin*ing an# b!ha"ior. 8hi ! it is an iso ab ! ph!no(!non, so (+ch !(phasis on th! #i''!r!nc!s 'ro( th! nor(a ;rath!r i*! th! '!ar'+ physica s!gr!gation o' psychotics;#o!s not h! p in +n#!rstan#ing th! prob !(s. In o+r approach ,! ass+(! that schi/ophr!nia in"o "!s g!n!ra princip !s ,hich ar! i(portant in a co((+nication an# th!r!'or! (any inC'or(ati"! si(i ariti!s can b! 'o+n# in 9nor(a 9 co((+nication sit+ations. 8! ha"! Cb!!n partic+ ar y int!r!st!# in "ario+s sorts o' co((+nication ,hich in"o "! both !(otiona signi'icanc! an# th! n!c!ssity o' #iscri(inating b!t,!!n or#!rs o' (!ssag!. &+ch sit+ations inc +#! p ay, h+(or, rit+a , po!try, an# 'iction. $ ay, !sp!cia y a(ong ani(a s, ,! ha"! st+#i!# at so(! !ngth.37 It is a sit+ation ,hich stri*ing y i +strat!s th! occ+rr!nc! o' (!ta(!ssag!s ,hos! corr!ct #iscri(ination is "ita to th! coop!ration o' th! in#i"i#+a s in"o "!#L 'or !-Ca(p !, 'a s! #iscri(ination co+ # !asi y !a# to co(bat. 4ath!r c os! y r! at!# to p ay is h+(or, a contin+ing s+bJ!ct o' o+r C r!s!arch. It in"o "!s s+##!n shi'ts in @ogica :yp!s as ,! as #iscri(ination o' thos! shi'ts. 4it+a is a 'i! # in ,hich +n+s+a y r!a or it!ra ascriptions o' @ogica :yp! ar! (a#! an#
36 ?. ?. Jac*son, 9An =piso#! o' & !!p,a *ing,9 Jo+rna o' th! A(!rican $sychoana ytic Association, 1954, 26 503;508L a so Jac*son, 9&o(! 7actors . . . ,9 $sychoCana ytic V+art!r y, 1954, 236 566;581. 37 0at!son, 9 A :h!ory o' $ ay ...9 op. cit.

227

#!'!n#!# as "igoro+s y as th! schi/ophr!nic #!'!n#s th! 9r!a ity9 o' his #! +sions. $o!try !-!(p i'i!s th! co((+nicati"! po,!r o' (!taphor;!"!n "!ry +n+s+a (!taphor;,h!n ab! !# as s+ch by "ario+s signs, as contrast!# to th! obsc+rity o' +n ab! !# schi/ophr!nic (!taphor. :h! !ntir! 'i! # o' 'ictiona co((+nication, #!'in!# as th! narration or #!piction o' a s!ri!s o' !"!nts ,ith (or! or !ss o' a ab! o' act+a ity, is (ost r! !"ant to th! in"!stigation o' schi/ophr!nia. 8! ar! not so (+ch conc!rn!# ,ith th! cont!nt int!rpr!tation o' 'iction;a tho+gh ana ysis o' ora an# #!str+cti"! th!(!s is i +(inating to th! st+#!nt o' schi/ophr!nia;as ,ith th! 'or(a prob !(s in"o "!# in si(+ tan!o+s !-ist!nc! o' (+ tip ! !"! s o' (!ssag! in th! 'ictiona pr!s!ntation o' 9r!a ity.9 :h! #ra(a is !sp!cia y int!r!sting in this r!sp!ct, ,ith both p!r'or(!rs an# sp!ctators r!spon#ing to (!ssag!s abo+t both th! act+a an# th! th!atrica r!a ity. 8! ar! gi"ing !-t!nsi"! att!ntion to hypnosis. A gr!at array o' ph!no(!na that occ+r as schi/ophr!nic sy(pto(s;ha +cinations, #! +sions, a t!rations o' p!rsona ity, a(n!sias, an# so on;can b! pro#+c!# t!(porari y in nor(a s+bJ!cts ,ith hypnosis. :h!s! n!!# not b! #ir!ct y s+gg!st!# as sp!ci'ic ph!no(!na, b+t can b! th! 9spontan!o+s9 r!s+ t o' an arrang!# co((+nication s!.+!nc!. 7or !-a(p !, =ric*son38 ,i pro#+c! a ha +cination by 'irst in#+cing cata !psy in a s+bJ!ctIs han# an# th!n saying, 9:h!r! is no conc!i"ab ! ,ay in ,hich yo+r han# can (o"!, y!t ,h!n I gi"! th! signa , it (+st (o"!.9 :hat is, h! t! s th! s+bJ!ct his han# ,i r!(ain in p ac!, y!t it ,i (o"!, an# in no ,ay th! s+bJ!ct can conscio+s y conc!i"!. 8h!n =ric*son gi"!s th! signa , th! s+bJ!ct ha +cinat!s th! han# (o"!#, or ha +cinat!s hi(s! ' in a #i''!r!nt p ac! an# th!r!'or! th! han# ,as (o"!#. :his +s! o' ha +cination to r!so "! a prob !( pos!# by contra#ictory co((an#s ,hich cannot b! #isc+ss!# s!!(s to +s to i +strat! th! so +tion o' a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation "ia a shi't in @ogica :yp!s. Eypnotic r!spons!s to #ir!ct s+gg!stions or stat!(!nts a so co((on y in"o "! shi'ts in typ!, as in acc!pting th! ,or#s 9E!r!Is a g ass o' ,at!r9 or 9Fo+ '!! tir!#9 as !-t!rna or int!rna r!a ity, or in it!ra r!spons! to (!taphorica
38

A. E. =ric*son, $!rsona co((+nication, 1955.

228

stat!(!nts, (+ch i*! schi/ophr!nics. 8! hop! that '+rth!r st+#y o' hypnotic in#+ction, ph!no(!na, an# ,a*ing ,i , in this conC tro ab ! sit+ation, h! p sharp!n o+r "i!, o' th! !ss!ntia co((+nicationa s!.+!nc!s ,hich pro#+c! ph!no(!na i*! thos! o' schi/ophr!nia. Anoth!r =ric*son !-p!ri(!nt s!!(s to iso at! a #o+b ! bin# co((+nicationa s!.+!nc! ,itho+t th! sp!ci'ic +s! o' hypnosis. =ric*son arrang!# a s!(inar so as to ha"! a yo+ng chain s(o*!r sit n!-t to hi( an# to b! ,itho+t cigar!tt!sL oth!r participants ,!r! bri!'!# on ,hat to #o. A ,as or#!r!# so that =ric*son r!p!at!# y t+rn!# to o''!r th! yo+ng (an a cigar!tt!, b+t ,as a ,ays int!rr+pt!# by a .+!stion 'ro( so(!on! so that h! t+rn!# a,ay, 9ina#"!rt!nt y9 ,ith#ra,ing th! cigar!tt!s 'ro( th! yo+ng (anIs r!ach. @at!r anoth!r participant as*!# this yo+ng (an i' h! ha# r!c!i"!# th! cigar!tt! 'ro( ?r. =ric*son. E! r!Cp i!#, 98hat cigar!tt!D9, sho,!# c !ar y that h! ha# 'orgotCt!n th! ,ho ! s!.+!nc!, an# !"!n r!'+s!# a cigar!tt! o''!r!# by anoth!r (!(b!r, saying that h! ,as too int!r!st!# in th! s!(inar #isc+ssion to s(o*!. :his yo+ng (an s!!(s to +s to b! in an !-p!ri(!nta sit+ation para ! ing th! schi/ophr!nicIs #o+b ! bin# sit+ation ,ith (oth!r6 an i(portant r! ationship, contra#ictory (!ssag!s 2h!r! o' gi"ing an# ta*ing a,ay3, an# co((!nt b oc*!#;b!ca+s! th!r! ,as a s!(inar going on, an# any,ay it ,as a 9ina#"!rt!nt. 9 An# not! th! si(i ar o+tco(!6 a(n!sia 'or th! #o+b ! bin# s!.+!nc! an# r!"!rsa 'ro( 9E! #o!snIt gi"!9 to 9I #onIt ,ant.9 A tho+gh ,! ha"! b!!n !# into th!s! co at!ra ar!as, o+r (ain 'i! # o' obs!r"ation has b!!n schi/ophr!nia its! '. A o' +s ha"! ,or*!# #ir!ct y ,ith schi/ophr!nic pati!nts an# (+ch o' this cas! (at!ria has b!!n r!cor#!# on tap! 'or #!tai !# st+#y. In a##ition, ,! ar! r!cor#ing int!r"i!,s h! # Joint y ,ith pati!nts an# th!ir 'a(i i!s, an# ,! ar! ta*ing so+n# (otion pict+r!s o' (oth!rs an# #ist+rb!#, pr!s+(ab y pr!schi/ophr!nic, chi #r!n. 5+r hop! is that th!s! op!rations ,i pro"i#! a c !ar y !"i#!nt r!cor# o' th! conC tin+ing, r!p!titi"! #o+b ! bin#ing ,hich ,! hypoth!si/! go!s on st!a#i y 'ro( in'anti ! b!ginnings in th! 'a(i y sit+ation o' in#i"i#+a s ,ho b!co(! schi/ophr!nic. :his basic 'a(i y sit+ation, an# th! o"!rt y co((+nicationa charact!ristics o' schi/ophr!nia, ha"! b!!n th! (aJor 'oc+s o' this pap!r. Eo,!"!r, ,! !-p!ct o+r

229

conc!pts an# so(! o' th!s! #ata ,i a so b! +s!'+ in '+t+r! ,or* on oth!r prob !(s o' schi/ophr!nia, s+ch as th! "ari!ty o' oth!r sy(pto(s, th! charact!r o' th! 9a#J+st!# stat!9 b!'or! schi/ophr!nia b!co(!s (ani'!st, an# th! nat+r! an# circ+(stanc!s o' th! psychotic br!a*. Therape!tic (#plications of this ,ypothesis

$sychoth!rapy its! ' is a cont!-t o' (+ ti !"! co((+nication, ,ith !-p oration o' th! a(big+o+s in!s b!t,!!n th! it!ra an# (!taphoric, or r!a ity an# 'antasy, an# in#!!#, "ario+s 'or(s o' p ay, #ra(a, an# hypnosis ha"! b!!n +s!# !-t!nsi"! y in th!rapy. 8! ha"! b!!n int!r!st!# in th!rapy, an# in a##ition to o+r o,n #ata ,! ha"! b!!n co !cting an# !-a(ining r!cor#ings, "!rbati( transcripts, an# p!rsona acco+nts o' th!rapy 'ro( oth!r th!rapists. In this ,! pr!'!r !-act r!cor#s sinc! ,! b! i!"! that ho, a schi/ophr!nic ta *s #!p!n#s gr!at y, tho+gh o't!n s+bt y, on ho, anoth!r p!rson ta *s to hi(L it is (ost #i''ic+ t to !sti(at! ,hat ,as r!a y occ+rring in a th!rap!+tic int!r"i!, i' on! has on y a #!scription o' it, !sp!cia y i' th! #!scription is a r!a#y in th!or!tica t!r(s. =-c!pt 'or a '!, g!n!ra r!(ar*s an# so(! sp!c+ ation, ho,!"!r, ,! ar! not y!t pr!par!# to co((!nt on th! r! ation o' th! #o+b ! bin# to psychoth!rapy. At pr!s!nt ,! can on y not!6 213 ?o+b ! bin# sit+ations ar! cr!at!# by an# ,ithin th! psychoth!rap!+tic s!tting an# th! hospita (i i!+. 7ro( th! point o' "i!, o' this hypoth!sis, ,! ,on#!r abo+t th! !''!ct o' (!#ica 9b!n!"o !nc!9 on th! schi/ophr!nic pati!nt. &inc! hospita s !-ist 'or th! b!n!'it o' p!rsonn! as ,! as;as (+ch as;(or! than;'or th! pati!ntIs b!n!'it, th!r! ,i b! contra#ictions at ti(!s in s!.+!nc!s ,h!r! actions ar! ta*!n 9b!n!"o !nt y9 'or th! pati!nt ,h!n act+a y th!y ar! int!n#!# to *!!p th! sta'' (or! co('ortab !. 8! ,o+ # ass+(! that ,h!n!"!r th! syst!( is organi/!# 'or hospita p+rpos!s an# it is anno+nc!# to th! pati!nt that th! actions ar! 'or his b!n!'it, th!n th! schi/ophr!nog!nic sit+ation is b!ing

230

p!rp!t+at!#. :his *in# o' #!c!ption ,i pro"o*! th! pati!nt to r!spon# to it as a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation, an# his r!spons! ,i b! 9schi/ophr!nic9 in th! s!ns! that it ,i b! in#ir!ct an# th! pati!nt ,i b! +nab ! to co((!nt on th! 'act that h! '!! s that h! is b!ing #!c!i"!#. 5n! "ign!tt!, 'ort+nat! y a(+sing, i +strat!s s+ch a r!spons!. 5n a ,ar# ,ith a #!#icat!# an# 9b!n!"o !nt9 physician in charg! th!r! ,as a sign on th! physicianIs #oor ,hich sai# 9?octorIs 5''ic!. $ !as! <noc*.9 :h! #octor ,as #ri"!n to #istraction an# 'ina y capit+ ation by th! ob!#i!nt pati!nt ,ho car!'+ y *noc*!# !"!ry ti(! h! pass!# th! #oor. 223 :h! +n#!rstan#ing o' th! #o+b ! bin# an# its co((+nicati"! asp!cts (ay !a# to inno"ations in th!rap!+tic t!chni.+!. J+st ,hat th!s! inno"ations (ay b! is #i''ic+ t to say, b+t on th! basis o' o+r in"!stigation ,! ar! ass+(ing that #o+b ! bin# sit+ations occ+r consist!nt y in psychoth!rapy. At ti(!s th!s! ar! ina#"!rt!nt in th! s!ns! that th! th!rapist is i(posing a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation si(i ar to that in th! pati!ntIs history, or th! pati!nt is i(posing a #o+b ! bin# sit+ation on th! th!rapist. At oth!r ti(!s th!rapists s!!( to i(pos! #o+b ! bin#s, !ith!r #! ib!rat! y or int+iti"! y, ,hich 'orc! th! pati!nt to r!spon# #i''!r!nt y than h! has in th! past. An inci#!nt 'ro( th! !-p!ri!nc! o' a gi't!# psychoth!rapist i +strat!s th! int+iti"! +n#!rstan#ing o' a #o+b ! bin# co((+nicationa s!.+!nc!. ?r. 7ri!#a 7ro((C4!ich(ann39 ,as tr!ating a yo+ng ,o(an ,ho 'ro( th! ag! o' s!"!n ha# b+i t a high y co(p !- r! igion o' h!r o,n r!p !t! ,ith po,!r'+ go#s. &h! ,as "!ry schi/ophr!nic an# .+it! h!sitant abo+t !nt!ring into a th!rap!+tic sit+ation. At th! b!Cginning o' th! tr!at(!nt sh! sai#, 91o# 4 says I sho+ #nIt ta * ,ith yo+.9 ?r. 7ro((C4!ich(ann r!p i!#, 9@oo*, !tIs g!t so(!thing into th! r!cor#. :o (! 1o# 4 #o!snIt !-ist, an# that ,ho ! ,or # o' yo+rs #o!snIt !-ist. :o yo+ it #o!s, an# 'ar b! it 'ro( (! to thin* that I can ta*! that a,ay 'ro( yo+, I ha"! no i#!a ,hat it (!ans. &o II( ,i ing to ta * ,ith yo+ in t!r(s o' that ,or #, i' on y yo+ *no, I #o it so that ,! ha"! an +n#!rstan#ing that it #o!snIt !-ist 'or (!. )o, go to 1o# 4 an# t! hi( that ,! ha"! to ta * an# h! sho+ # gi"! yo+ p!r(ission. A so yo+ (+st t! hi( that I a( a #octor an# that yo+ ha"! i"!# ,ith
39

7. 7ro((C4!ich(ann, $!rsona co((+nication, 1956

231

hi( in his *ing#o( no, 'ro( s!"!n to si-t!!n;thatIs nin! y!ars ; an# h! hasnIt h! p!# yo+. &o no, h! (+st p!r(it (! to try an# s!! ,h!th!r yo+ an# I can #o that Job. :! hi( that I a( a #octor an# this is ,hat I ,ant to try.9 :h! th!rapist has h!r pati!nt in a 9th!rap!+tic #o+b ! bin#.9 I' th! pati!nt is r!n#!r!# #o+bt'+ abo+t h!r b! i!' in h!r go#, th!n sh! is agr!!ing ,ith ?r. 7ro((C4!ich(ann, an# is a#(itting h!r attach(!nt to th!rapy. I' sh! insists that 1o# 4 is r!a , th!n sh! (+st t! hi( that ?r. 7ro((C4!ich(ann is 9(or! po,!r'+ 9 than h!; again a#(itting h!r in"o "!(!nt ,ith th! th!rapist. :h! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! th!rap!+tic bin# an# th! origina #o+b ! bin# sit+ation is in part th! 'act that th! th!rapist is not in"o "!# in a i'! an# #!ath str+gg ! hi(s! '. E! can th!r!'or! s!t +p r! ati"! y b!n!"o !nt bin#s an# gra#+a y ai# th! pati!nt in his !(ancipation 'ro( th!(. Aany o' th! +ni.+! y appropriat! th!rap!+tic ga(bits arrang!# by th!rapists s!!( to b! int+iti"!. 8! shar! th! goa o' (ost psychoth!rapists ,ho stri"! to,ar# th! #ay ,h!n s+ch stro*!s o' g!ni+s ,i b! ,! !no+gh +n#!rstoo# to b! syst!(atic an# co((onp ac!. Additional -eferences

J. Ea !y, 9$ara#o-!s in $ ay, 7antasy, an# $sychoth!rapy,9 6syc*iatric $esearc* $eports, 1955, ># 5>%F. J. 4+!sch an# 1. 0at!son, "ommunication# !*e Social ,atri. of 6syc*iatry, )!, For*, )orton, 1951.

232

The "&ou2 Dyna(i'! o5 +'hi7o2h&enia%


7irst, I int!n# to attach "!ry sp!ci'ic (!aning to th! tit ! o' this pap!r. An !ss!ntia notion attach!# to th! ,or# 9gro+p9 as I sha +s! it is th! i#!a o' r! at!#n!ss b!t,!!n (!(b!rs. 5+r conc!rn is not ,ith th! sort o' ph!no(!na ,hich occ+r in !-p!ri(!nta y 'or(!# gro+ps o' gra#+at! st+#!nts ,ho ha"! no pr!"io+s y #!t!r(in!# habits o' co((+nication;no habit+a #i''!r!ntiations o' ro !. :h! gro+p to ,hich I (ost y r!'!r is th! 'a(i yL in g!n!ra , thos! 'a(iC i!s in ,hich th! par!nts (aintain an a#J+st(!nt to th! ,or # aro+n# th!( ,itho+t b!ing r!cogni/!# as gross y #!"iant, ,hi ! on! or (or! o' th!ir o''spring #i''!r conspic+o+s y 'ro( th! nor(a pop+ ation in th! 'r!.+!ncy an# ob"io+s nat+r! o' th!ir r!spons!s. I sha a so b! thin*ing o' oth!r gro+ps ana ogo+s to th!s!, i.!., ,ar# organi/ations, ,hich ,or* in s+ch a ,ay as to pro(ot! schi/ophr!nic or schi/ophr!noi# b!ha"ior in so(! o' th! (!(b!rs. :h! ,or# 9#yna(ics9 is oos! y an# con"!ntiona y +s!# 'or a st+#i!s o' p!rsona int!raction an# !sp!cia y ,h!n th!y str!ss chang! or !arning !-hibit!# by th! s+bJ!cts. ?!Cspit! o+r 'o o,ing its con"!ntiona +s!, this ,or# is a (isno(!r. It !"o*!s ana ogi!s ,ith physics ,hich ar! tota y 'a s!. 9?yna(ics9 is principa y a ang+ag! #!"is!# by physicists an# (ath!(aticians 'or th! #!scription o' c!rtain !"!nts. In this strict s!ns!, th! i(pact o' on! bi iar# ba +pon anCoth!r is s+bJ!ct (att!r 'or #yna(ics, b+t it ,o+ # b! an !rror o' ang+ag! to say that bi iar# ba s 9b!ha"!.9 ?yna(ics appropriat! y #!scrib! thos! !"!nts ,hos! #!scriptions can b! ch!c*!# by as*ing ,h!th!r th!y contra"!n! th! 7irst @a, o' :h!r(o#yna(ics, th! @a, o' th!
H :h! i#!as in this !ct+r! r!pr!s!nt th! co(bin!# thin*ing o' th! sta'' o' :h! $roJ!ct 'or th! &t+#y o' &chi/ophr!nic Co((+nication. :h! sta'' consist!# o' 1r!gory 0at!son, Jay Ea !y, John E. 8!a* an#, ?on ?. Jac*son, A.?., an# 8i ia( 7. 7ry, A.? :h! artic ! is r!print!# 'ro( "*ronic Sc*i:op*renia# .plorations in !*eory and !reatment, !#it!# by @. App !by, J. A. &ch!r, an# J. C+((ing, :h! 7r!! $r!ss, 1 !nco!, I inois, 1960L r!print!# by p!r(ission.

233

Cons!r"ation o' =n!rgy. 8h!n on! bi iar# ba stri*!s anoth!r, th! (otion o' th! s!con# is !n!rgi/!# by th! i(pact o' th! 'irst, an# s+ch trans'!r!nc!s o' !n!rgy ar! th! c!ntra s+bJ!ct (att!r o' #yna(ics. 8!, ho,!"!r, ar! not conc!rn!# ,ith !"!nt s!.+!nc!s ,hich ha"! this charact!ristic. I' I *ic* a ston!, th! (o"!(!nt o' th! ston! is !n!rgi/!# by th! act, b+t i' I *ic* a #og, th! b!ha"ior o' th! #og (ay in#!!# b! part y cons!r"ati"!;h! (ay tra"! a ong a )!,tonian traJ!ctory i' *ic*!# har# !no+gh, b+t this is (!r! physics. 8hat is i(portant is that h! (ay !-hibit r!spons!s ,hich ar! !n!rgi/!# not by th! *ic* b+t by his (!tabo is(L h! (ay t+rn an# bit!. :his, I thin*, is ,hat p!op ! (!an by (agic. :h! r!a ( o' ph!no(!na in ,hich ,! ar! int!r!st!# is a ,ays charact!ri/!# by th! 'act that 9i#!as9 (ay in' +!nc! !"!nts. :o th! physicist, this is a gross y (agica hypoth!sis. It is on! ,hich cannot b! t!st!# by as*ing .+!stions abo+t th! cons!r"ation o' !n!rgy. A this, ho,!"!r, has b!!n b!tt!r an# (or! rigoro+s y sai# by 0!rta an''y, ,hich (a*!s it !asi!r 'or (! to '+rth!r !-p or! this r!a ( o' ph!no(!na in ,hich communication occ+rs. 8! sha s!tt ! 'or th! con"!ntiona t!r( 9#yna(ics9 pro"i#!# it is c !ar y +n#!rstoo# that ,! ar! not ta *ing abo+t #yna(ics in th! physica s!ns!. 4ob!rt @o+is &t!"!nson40 in 9:h! $oor :hing9 has achi!"!# p!rhaps th! (ost "i"i# charact!ri/ation o' this (agica r!a (6 9In (y tho+ght on! thing is as goo# as anoth!r in this ,or #L an# a sho! o' a hors! ,i #o.9 :h! ,or# 9y!s9 or a ,ho ! p!r'or(anc! o' 1amlet, or an inJ!ction o' !pin!phrin! in th! right p ac! on th! s+r'ac! o' th! brain (ay b! int!rchang!ab ! obJ!cts. Any on! o' th!( (ay, acCcor#ing to th! con"!ntions o' co((+nication !stab ish!# at that (o(!nt, b! an a''ir(ati"! 2or a n!gati"!3 ans,!r to any .+!stion. In th! 'a(o+s (!ssag!, 95n! i' by an#L t,o i' by s!a,9 th! obJ!cts act+a y +s!# ,!r! a(ps, b+t 'ro( th! point o' "i!, o' co((+nications th!ory, th!y co+ # ha"! b!!n anything 'ro( aar#"ar*s to /ygo(atic arch!s.

4. @. &t!"!nson, 9:h! $oor :hing,9 ;o&els and !ales of $o-ert /ouis Ste&enson, Go . >C, )!, For*, &cribn!rs, 1918, pp. 49G%5C>.

40

234

It (ight ,! b! s+''ici!nt y con'+sing to b! to # that, accor#ing to th! con"!ntions o' co((+nication in +s! at th! (o(!nt, anything can stan# 'or anything ! s!. 0+t this r!a ( o' (agic is not that si(p !. )ot on y can th! sho! o' a hors! stan# 'or anything ! s! accor#ing to th! con"!ntions o' co((+nication, it can a so an# si(+ tan!o+s y b! a signa ,hich ,i a t!r th! con"!ntions o' co((+nication. Ay 'ing!rs cross!# b!hin# (y bac* (ay a t!r th! ,ho ! ton! an# i(p ication o' !"!rything. I r!ca a schi/ophr!nic pati!nt ,ho, i*! (any oth!r schi/ophr!nics, ha# #i''ic+ ty ,ith th! 'irst p!rson prono+nL in partic+ ar, h! #i# not i*! to sign his na(!. E! ha# a n+(b!r o' a ias!s, a t!rnati"! na(!# asp!cts o' s! '. :h! ,ar# organi/ation, o' ,hich h! ,as a part, r!.+ir!# that h! sign his na(! to obtain a pass, an# 'or on! or t,o ,!!*!n#s h! #i# not r!c!i"! a pass b!ca+s! h! insist!# on signing on! o' his a ias!s. 5n! #ay h! r!(ar*!# that h! ,as going o+t th! n!-t ,!!*!n#. I sai#, 9 5h, #i# yo+ signD9 E! sai#, 9F!s,9 ,ith an o## grin. Eis r!a na(!, ,! ,i say, ,as =#,ar# 8. Jon!s. 8hat h! ha# act+a y sign!# ,as 98. =#,ar# Jon!s.9 :h! ,ar# o''icia s #i# not notic! th! #i''!r!nc!. It app!ar!# to th!( that th!y ha# ,on a batt ! an# ha# s+cc!!#!# in 'orcing hi( to act san! y. 0+t to hi(s! ' th! (!ssag! ,as, 9E! 2th! r!a (!3 #i# not sign.9 E! ha# ,on th! batt !. It ,as as i' his 'ing!rs ,!r! cross!# b!hin# his bac*. A co((+nication has this charact!ristic;it can b! (agica y (o#i'i!# by acco(panying co((+nication. In this con'!r!nc!, ,! ha"! b!!n #isc+ssing "ario+s ,ays o' int!racting ,ith pati!nts, #!scribing ,hat ,! #o an# ,hat o+r strat!gy s!!(s to +s to b!. It ,o+ # ha"! b!!n (or! #i''ic+ t to #isc+ss o+r actions 'ro( th! pati!ntsI point o' "i!,. Eo, #o ,! .+a i'y o+r co((+nications to th! pati!nts, so that th! !-p!ri!nc! ,hich th!y r!c!i"! ,i b! th!rap!+ticD App !by, 'or !-a(p !, #!scrib!# a s!t o' proc!#+r!s on his ,ar#, an# i' I ,!r! a schi/ophr!nic ist!ning to hi(, I ,o+ # ha"! b!!n t!(pt!# to say, 9It a so+n#s i*! occ+pationa th!rapy to (!.9 E! t! s +s "!ry con"incing y an# ,ith 'ig+r!s that his progra( is s+cc!ss'+ , an# in #oc+(!nting his s+cc!ss h! is no #o+bt t! ing th! tr+th. I' this is so, th!n his #!scription o' th! progra( (+st n!c!ssari y b! inco(p !t!. :h! !-p!ri!nc!s ,hich th! progra( pro"i#!s 'or th! pati!nts (+st b! so(!thing a itt !

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(or! a i"! than th! #ry bon!s o' th! progra( ,hich h! has #!scrib!#. :h! ,ho ! s!ri!s o' th!rap!+tic proc!#+r!s (+st ha"! b!!n .+a i'i!#, possib y ,ith !nth+sias( or ,ith h+(or, ,ith so(! s!t o' signa s ,hich a t!r!# th! (ath!(atica sign;p +s or (in+s ;o' ,hat ,as b!ing #on!. App !by has to # +s on y abo+t th! sho! o' th! hors!, not abo+t th! (+ tit+#! o' r!a iti!s ,hich #!t!r(in!# 'or ,hat that hors!sho! stoo#. It is as i' h! ha# r! at!# that a gi"!n (+sica co(position ,as s!t in th! *!y o' C (aJor, an# as*!# +s to b! i!"! that this s*! !ta stat!(!nt ,as a s+''ici!nt #!scription to !nab ! +s to +n#!rstan# ,hy this partic+ ar co(position a t!r!# th! (oo# o' th! ist!n!r in a partic+ ar ,ay. 8hat is o(itt!# in a s+ch #!scriptions is th! !nor(o+s co(p !-ity o' (o#+ ation o' co((+nication. It is this (o#+ ation ,hich is (+sic. @!t (! shi't 'ro( a (+sica to a ,i#! bio ogica ana ogy in or#!r to !-a(in! '+rth!r this (agica r!a ( o' co((+nication. A organis(s ar! partia y #!t!r(in!# by g!n!tics, i.!., -y co(p !const! ations o' (!ssag!s carri!# principa y in th! chro(oso(!s. 8! ar! pro#+cts o' a co((+nicationa proc!ss, (o#i'i!# an# .+a i'i!# in "ario+s ,ays by !n"iron(!nta i(pact. It 'o o,s, th!r!'or!, that th! #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n r! at!# organis(s, say, a crab an# a obst!r, or b!t,!!n a ta p!a an# a short p!a, (+st a ,ays b! th! sort o' #i''!r!nc!s that can b! cr!at!# by chang!s an# (o#+ ations in a const! ation o' (!ssag!s. &o(!ti(!s th!s! chang!s in th! (!ssag! syst!( ,i b! r! ati"! y concr!t!;a shi't 'ro( 9y!s9 to 9no9 in th! ans,!r to so(! .+!stion go"!rning a r! ati"! y s+p!r'icia #!tai o' th! anato(y. :h! tota pict+r! o' th! ani(a (ay b! a t!r!# by as itt ! as on! spot in th! ,ho ! ha 'ton! b oc*, or th! chang! (ay b! on! ,hich (o#i'i!s or (o#+ at!s th! ,ho ! syst!( o' g!n!tic (!ssag!s, so that !"!ry (!ssag! in th! syst!( ta*!s on a #i''!r!nt oo* ,hi ! r!taining its 'or(!r r! ationC ship to a n!ighboring (!ssag!s. It is, I b! i!"!, this stabi ity o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (!ssag!s +n#!r th! i(pact o' th! chang! in on! part o' th! const! ation that pro"i#!s a basis 'or th! 7r!nch aphoris( 9$ +s g!t c*ange, plus cDest la mIme c*ose.9 It is a r!cogni/!# 'act that th! s*+ s o' th! "ario+s anthropoi#s can b! #ra,n +pon #i"!rs! y s*!,!# coor#inat!s Ito #!(onstrat! th!

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'+n#a(!nta si(i arity o' r! ations an# th! syst!(atic nat+r! o' th! trans'or(ation 'ro( on! sp!ci!s to anoth!r.41 Ay 'ath!r ,as a g!n!ticist, an# h! +s!# to say, 9ItIs a "ibrations,942 an# to i +strat! this h! ,o+ # point o+t that th! striping o' th! co((on /!bra is an octa"! high!r than that o' 1r!"yIs /!bra. 8hi ! it is tr+! that in this partic+ ar cas! th! 9'r!.+!ncy9 is #o+b !#, I #onIt thin* that it is !ntir! y a (att!r o' "ibrations as h! !n#!a"or!# to !-Cp ain it. 4ath!r, h! ,as trying to say that it is a a (att!r o' th! sort o' (o#i'ications ,hich co+ # b! !-p!ct!# a(ong syst!(s ,hos! #!t!r(inants ar! not a (att!r o' physics in th! cr+#! s!ns!, b+t a (att!r o' (!ssag!s an# (o#+ at!# syst!(s o' (!ssag!s. It is ,orth noting, too, that p!rhaps organic 'or(s ar! b!a+ti'+ to +s an# th! syst!(atic bio ogist can 'in# a!sth!tic satis'action in th! differences b!t,!!n r! at!# organis(s si(p y b!ca+s! th! #i''!r!nc!s ar! #+! to (o#+ ations o' co((+nication, ,hi ! ,! o+rs! "!s ar! both organis(s ,ho co((+nicat! an# ,hos! 'or(s ar! #!t!r(in!# by const! ations o' g!n!tic (!ssag!s. :his is not th! p ac!, ho,!"!r, 'or s+ch a r!"ision o' a!sth!tic th!ory. An !-p!rt in th! th!ory o' (ath!(atica gro+ps co+ # (a*! a (aJor contrib+tion in this 'i! #. A (!ssag!s an# parts o' (!ssag!s ar! i*! phras!s or s!g(!nts o' !.+ations ,hich a (ath!(atician p+ts in brac*!ts. 5+tsi#! th! brac*!ts th!r! (ay a ,ays b! a .+a i'i!r or (+ tip i!r ,hich ,i a t!r th! ,ho ! t!nor o' th! phras!. Aor!Co"!r, th!s! .+a i'i!rs can a ,ays b! a##!#, !"!n y!ars at!r. :h!y #o not ha"! to pr!c!#! th! phras! insi#! th! brac*!ts. 5th!r,is!, th!r! co+ # b! no psychoth!rapy. :h! pati!nt ,o+ # b! !ntit !# an# !"!n co(p! !# to arg+!, 9Ay (oth!r s app!# (! #o,n in s+ch an# s+ch ,ays, an#, th!r!'or!, I a( no, sic*L an# b!ca+s! thos! tra+(ata occ+r!# in th! past th!y cannot b! a t!r!#, an# I, th!r!'or!, cannot g!t ,! .9 In th! r!a ( o' co((+nication, th! e&ents o' th! past constit+t! a chain o' o # hors!sho!s so that th!
? . 8. :ho(pson, @n (ro't* and Jorm, Go . >, @.%'or#, 5-'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1952. 42 0!atric! C. 0at!son, 2illiam <ateson, ;aturalist, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1928.
41

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(!aning o' that chain can b! chang!# an# is contin+a y b!ing chang!#. 8hat !-ists to#ay ar! on y (!ssag!s abo+t th! past ,hich ,! ca (!(ori!s, an# th!s! (!ssag!s can a C,ays b! 'ra(!# an# (o#+ at!# 'ro( (o(!nt to (o(!nt. %p to this point th! r!a ( o' co((+nication app!ars to b! (or! an# (or! co(p !-, (or! ' !-ib !, an# !ss a(!nab ! to ana ysis. )o, th! intro#+ction o' th! gro+p conc!pt;th! consi#!ration o' (any p!rsons;s+##!n y si(p i'i!s this con'+s!# r!a ( o' s ipping an# s i#ing (!anings. I' ,! sha*! +p a n+(b!r o' irr!g+ ar ston!s in a bag, or s+bJ!ct th!( to an a (ost ran#o( b!ating by th! ,a"!s on th! s!ashor!, !"!n at th! cr+#! y physica !"! , th!r! ,i b! a gra#+a si(p i'ication o' th! syst!(;th! ston!s ,i r!s!(b ! !ach oth!r. In th! !n#, th!y ,i a b!co(! sph!rica , b+t in practic! ,! +s+a y !nco+nt!r th!( as part y ro+n#!# p!bb !s. C!rtain 'or(s o' ho(og!ni/ation r!s+ t 'ro( (+ tip ! i(pact !"!n at th! cr+#! physica !"! , an# ,h!n th! i(pacting !ntiti!s ar! organis(s capab ! o' co(p !- !arning an# co((+nication, th! tota syst!( op!rat!s rapi# y toC,ar# !ith!r +ni'or(ity or to,ar# syst!(atic #i''!r!ntiation;an incr!as! o' si(p icity;,hich ,! ca organi/ation. I' th!r! ar! #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n th! i(pacting !ntiti!s, th!s! #i''!r!nc!s ,i +n#!rgo chang!, !ith!r in th! #ir!ction o' r!#+cing th! #i''!r!nc!, or in th! #ir!ction o' achi!"ing a (+t+a 'itting or co(p !(!ntarity. A(ong gro+ps o' p!op !, ,h!th!r th! #ir!ction o' chang! is to,ar# ho(og!n!ity or to,ar# co(p !(!ntarity, th! achi!"!(!nt is a sharing o' pr!(is!s r!gar#ing th! (!aning an# appropriat!n!ss o' (!ssag!s an# oth!r acts in th! cont!-t o' th! r! ationship. I sha not go into th! co(p !- prob !(s o' !arning in"o "!# in this proc!ss b+t sha proc!!# to th! prob !( o' schi/ophr!nia. An in#i"i#+a , i.!., th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt, !-ists ,ithin a 'a(i y s!tting, b+t ,h!n ,! "i!, hi( sing+ ar y, c!rtain p!c+ ariti!s o' his co((+nicationa habits ar! not!#. :h!s! p!c+ iariti!s (ay b! part y #!t!r(in!# by g!n!tics or physio ogica acci#!nt, b+t it is sti r!asonab ! to .+!stion th! '+nction o' th!s! p!c+ iariti!s ,ithin th! co((+nicationa syst!( o' ,hich th!y ar! a p a r t th! 'a(i y. A n+(b!r o' i"ing cr!at+r!s ha"! b!!n, in a s!ns!, sha*!n +p tog!th!r an# on! o' th!( has co(! o+t appar!nt y #i''!r!nt 'ro( th! r!stL ,! ha"! to as* not on y abo+t

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#i''!r!nc!s in th! (at!ria o' ,hich this partic+ ar in#i"i#+a (ay b! (a#!, b+t a so ho, his partic+ ar charact!ristics ,!r! #!"! op!# in this 'a(i y syst!(. Can th! p!c+ iariti!s o' th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt b! s!!n as appropriate, i.e., as !ith!r ho(og!n!o+s ,ith, or co(p !(!ntary to, th! charact!ristics o' th! oth!r (!(b!rs o' th! gro+pD 8! #o not #o+bt that a arg! part o' schi/ophr!nic. sy(pto(ato ogy is, in so(! s!ns!, !arn!# or #!t!r(in!# by !-p!ri!nc!, b+t an organis( can !arn on y that ,hich it is ta+ght by th! circ+(stanc!s o' i"ing an# th! !-p!ri!nc!s o' !-changing (!ssag!s ,ith thos! aro+n# hi(. E! cannot !arn at ran#o(, b+t on y to b! i*! or +n i*! thos! aro+n# hi(. 8! ha"!, th!r!'or!, th! n!c!ssary tas* o' oo*ing at th! !-p!ri!ntia s!tting o' schi/ophr!nia. 8! sha o+t in! bri!' y ,hat ,! ha"! b!!n ca ing th! #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis, ,hich has b!!n (or! '+ y #!scrib!# ! s!,h!r!.43 :his hypoth!sis contains t,o partsL a 'or(a #!scription o' th! co((+nicationa habits o' th! schi/ophr!nic, an# a 'or(a #!scription o' th! s!.+!nc!s o' !-p!ri!nc! ,hich ,o+ # +n#!rstan#ab y train th! in#i"i#+a in his p!c+ iar #istortions o' co((+nication. =(pirica y ,! 'in# that on! #!scription o' th! sy(pto(s is, on th! ,ho !, satis'actory, an# that th! 'a(i i!s o' schi/ophr!nics ar! charact!ri/!# by th! b!ha"iora s!.+!nc!s ,hich ar! pr!#ict!# by th! hypoth!sis. :ypica y, th! schi/ophr!nic ,i ! i(inat! 'ro( his (!ssag!s !"!rything that r!'!rs !-p icit y or i(p icit y to th! r! ationship
43 1. 0at!son, ?. ?. Jac*son, J. Ea !y, an# J. E. 8!a*C an#, 9:o,ar# a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 <e*a&ioral Science, 1956, 1# 251Y64L a so 1. 0at!son, 9@ang+ag! an# $sychoth!rapy, 7ri!#a 7ro((C4!ich(annIs @ast $roJ!ct,9 6syc*iatry, 1958, >1# 9GK1CC0 a so 1. 0at!son 2(o#!rator3, 9&chi/ophr!nic ?istortions o' Co((+nication,9 6syc*ot*erapy of "*ronic Sc*i:op*renic 6atients, C. A. 8hitac*!r, !#., 0oston an# :oronto, @itt !, 0ro,n an# Co., 195F, pp. 31Y56L a so 1. 0at!son, 9Ana ysis o' 1ro+p :h!rapy in an A#(ission 8ar#, %nit!# &tat!s )a"a Eospita , 5a* an#, Ca i'ornia,9 Social 6syc*iatry in Action, E. A. 8i (!r, &pring'i! #, I ., Char !s C. :ho(as, 195F, pp. 334Y49L a so J. Ea !y, 9:h! Art o' $sychoana ysis,9 etc., 1958, .15# 19CK>CC0 a so J. Ea !y, 9An Int!ractiona =-p anation o' Eypnosis,9 American Journal of "linical 1ypnosis, 195F, 16 41K570 a so J. E. 8!a* an# an# ?. ?. Jac*son, 9$ati!nt an# :h!rapist 5bs!r"ations on th! Circ+(stanc!s o' a &chi/ophr!nic =piso#!,9 A,A Arc*i&es of ;eurological 6syc*iatry, 195F, 79# 554K74.

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b!t,!!n hi(s! ' an# th! p!rson h! is a##r!ssing. &chi/ophr!nics co((on y a"oi# th! 'irst an# s!con# p!rson prono+ns. :h!y a"oi# t! ing yo+ ,hat sort o' a (!ssag! th!y ar! trans(itting;,h!th!r it b! it!ra or (!taphoric, ironic or # i r ! c t an# th!y ar! i*! y to ha"! #i''ic+ ty ,ith a (!ssag!s an# (!aning'+ acts ,hich i(p y inti(at! contact b!t,!!n th! s! ' an# so(! oth!r. :o r!c!i"! 'oo# (ay b! a (ost i(possib !, b+t so a so (ay b! th! r!p+#iation o' 'oo#. 8h!n !a"ing 'or th! A.$.A. (!!tings in Eono + +, I to # (y pati!nt that I ,o+ # b! a,ay an# ,h!r! I ,as going. E! oo*!# o+t th! ,in#o, an# sai#, 9:hat p an! ' i!s a,'+ y s o, y.9 E! co+ # not say, 9I sha (iss yo+,9 b!ca+s! h! ,o+ # th+s b! i#!nti'ying hi(s! ' in a r! ationship to (!, or (! in r! ationship to hi(s! '. :o say, 9I sha (iss yo+9 ,o+ # b! to ass!rt a basic pr!(is! abo+t o+r (+t+a r! ationship by #!'ining th! sorts o' (!ssag!s ,hich sho+ # b! charact!ristic o' that r! ationship. 5bs!r"ab y, th! schi/ophr!nic a"oi#s or #istorts anything ,hich (ight s!!( to i#!nti'y !ith!r hi(s! ' or th! p!rson ,ho( h! is a##r!ssing. E! (ay ! i(inat! anything ,hich i(p i!s that his (!ssag! r!'!rs to, an# is a part o', a r! ationship b!t,!!n t,o i#!nti'iab ! p!op !, ,ith c!rtain sty !s an# pr!(is!s go"!rning th!ir b!ha"ior in that r! ationship. E! (ay a"oi# anything ,hich (ight !nab ! th! oth!r to int!rpr!t ,hat h! says. E! (ay obsc+r! th! 'act that h! is sp!a*ing in (!taphor or in so(! sp!cia co#!, an# h! is i*! y to #istort or o(it a r!'!r!nc! to ti(! an# p ac!. I' ,! +s! a 8!st!rn %nion t! !gra( 'or( as an ana ogy, ,! (ight say that h! o(its ,hat ,o+ # b! p+t on th! proc!#+ra parts o' th! t! !graph 'or( an# ,i (o#i'y th! t!-t o' his (!ssag! to #istort or o(it any in#ication o' th!s! (!taco((+nicati"! ! !(!nts in th! tota nor(a (!ssag!. 8hat r!(ains is i*! y to b! a (!taphoric stat!(!nt +n ab! !# as to cont!-t. 5r, in !-tr!(! cas!s, th!r! (ay b! nothing !'t b+t a sto i# acting o+t o' th! (!ssag!, 9:h!r! is no r! ationship b!t,!!n +s.9 :his (+ch is obs!r"ab ! an# (ay b! s+((ari/!# by saying that th! schi/ophr!nic co((+nicat!s as i' h! !-p!ct!# to b! p+nish!# !"!ry ti(! h! in#icat!s that h! is right in his "i!, o' th! cont!-t o' his o,n (!ssag!.

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:h! 9#o+b ! bin#,9 ,hich is c!ntra to th! !tio ogica ha ' o' o+r hypoth!sis, (ay no, si(p y b! s+((ari/!# by saying that it is an !-p!ri!nc! o' b!ing p+nish!# pr!cis! y 'or b!ing right in on!Is o,n "i!, o' th! cont!-t. 5+r hypoth!sis ass+(!s that r!p!at!# !-p!ri!nc! o' p+nish(!nt in s!.+!nc!s o' this *in# ,i !a# th! in#i"i#+a to b!ha"! habit+a y as i' h! !-p!ct!# s+ch p+nish(!nt. :h! (oth!r o' on! o' o+r pati!nts po+r!# o+t b a(! +pon h!r h+sban# 'or r!'+sing 'or 'i't!!n y!ars to han# o"!r contro o' th! 'a(i y 'inanc!s to h!r. :h! 'ath!r o' th! pati!nt sai#, 9I a#(it that it ,as a gr!at (ista*! o' (! not to !t yo+ han# ! it, I a#(it that. I ha"! corr!ct!# that. Ay r!asons 'or thin*ing it ,as a (ista*! ar! !ntir! y #i''!r!nt 'ro( yo+rs, b+t I a#(it that it ,as a "!ry s!rio+s !rror on (y part.9 "other# )o,, yo+Ir! J+st b!ing 'ac!tio+s. Father# )o, I a( not b!ing 'ac!tio+s. "other# 8! , any,ay I #onIt car! b!ca+s! ,h!n yo+ co(! right #o,n to it th! #!bts ,!r! inc+rr!#, sti th!r! is no r!ason ,hy a p!rson ,o+ # not b! to # o' th!(. I thin* th! ,o(an sho+ # b! to #. Father# It (ay b! th! sa(! r!ason ,hy ,h!n Jo! 2th!ir psychotic son3 co(!s ho(! 'ro( schoo an# h! has ha# tro+b ! h! #o!snIt t! yo+. ,ot*er# 8! , thatIs a goo# #o#g!. :h! patt!rn o' s+ch a s!.+!nc! is si(p y th! s+cc!ssi"! #is.+a i'ication o' !ach o' th! 'ath!rIs contrib+tions to th! r! ationship. E! is contin+o+s y b!ing to # that th! (!ssag!s ar! not "a i#. :h!y ar! r!c!i"!# as i' th!y ,!r! in so(! ,ay #i''!r!nt 'ro( that ,hich h! tho+ght h! int!n#!#. 8! (ay say that h! is p!na i/!# !ith!r 'or b!ing right abo+t his "i!,s o' his o,n int!ntions, or h! is p!na i/!# ,h!n!"!r his r!p y is appropriat! to ,hat sh! sai#. 0+t, p!r contra, 'ro( h!r "i!,point, it s!!(s that h! is !n# !ss y (isint!rpr!ting h!r, an# this is on! o' th! (ost p!c+ iar charact!ristics o' th! #yna(ic syst!( ,hich s+rro+n#s;or is; schi/ophr!nia. ="!ry th!rapist ,ho has #!a t ,ith schi/ophr!nics ,i r!cogni/! th! r!c+rr!nt trap. :h! pati!nt !n#!a"ors to p+t th! th!rapist in th! ,rong by his int!rpr!tation o' ,hat th! th!rapist sai#, an# th! pati!nt #o!s this b!ca+s! h! !-p!cts th! th!rapist to (isint!rpr!t ,hat h! 2th! pati!nt3 sai#. :h! bin# b!co(!s (+t+a . A

241

stag! is r!ach!# in th! r! ationship in ,hich n!ith!r p!rson can a''or# to r!c!i"! or !(it (!taco((+nicati"! (!ssag!s ,itho+t #istortion. :h!r! is, ho,!"!r, +s+a y, an asy((!try in s+ch r! ationships. :his (+t+a #o+b !bin#ing is a typ! o' str+gg ! an# co((on y on! or th! oth!r has th! +pp!r han#. 8! ha"! #! ib!rat! y chos!n to ,or* ,ith 'a(i i!s ,h!r! on! o' th! o''spring is th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt, an#, part y 'or this r!ason, in o+r #ata, it is th! s+ppos!# y nor(a par!nts ,ho ha"! th! +pp!r han# o"!r an i#!nti'iab y psychotic yo+ng!r (!(b!r o' th! gro+p. In s+ch cas!s, th! asy((!try ta*!s th! c+rio+s 'or( that th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt sacri'ic!s hi(s! ' to (aintain th! sacr!# i +sion that ,hat th! par!nt says (a*!s s!ns!. :o b! c os! to that par!nt, h! (+st sacri'ic! his right to in#icat! that h! s!!s any (!taco((+nicati"! incongr+!nci!s, !"!n ,h!n his p!rc!ption o' th!s! incongr+!nci!s is corr!ct. :h!r! is, th!r!'or!, a c+rio+s #isparity in th! #istrib+tion o' a,ar!n!ss o' ,hat is happ!ning. :h! pati!nt (ay *no, b+t (+st not t! , an# th!r!by !nab !s th! par!nt to not *no, ,hat h! or sh! is #oing. :h! pati!nt is an acco(p ic! in th! par!ntIs +nconscio+s hypocrisy. :h! r!s+ t (ay b! "!ry gr!at +nhappin!ss an# "!ry gross, b+t a C,ays syst!(atic, #istortions o' co((+nication. Aor!o"!r, th!s! #istortions ar! a ,ays pr!cis! y thos! ,hich ,o+ # s!!( appropriat! ,h!n th! "icti(s ar! 'ac!# ,ith a trap to a"oi# ,hich ,o+ # b! to #!stroy th! "!ry nat+r! o' th! s! '. :his para#ig( is n!at y i +strat!# by a pasCsag! ,hich is ,orth .+oting in '+ 'ro( 7!sting Jon!sI i'! o' &a(+! 0+t !r.44 0+t !r ,!nt to #inn!r at Ar. &!!boh(Is ,h!r! h! (!t &*!rtch !y, ,ho to # th!( abo+t a ratCtrap in"!nt!# by Ar. :y orIs coach(an. ?%)<=::I& 4A:C:4A$ Ar. ?+n*!tt 'o+n# a his traps 'ai on! a't!r anoth!r, an# ,as in s+ch #!spair at th! ,ay th! corn got !at!n that h! r!so "!# to in"!nt a ratCtrap. E! b!gan by p+tting hi(s! ' as n!ar y as possib ! in th! ratIs p ac!.
44

E. 7. Jon!s, Samuel <utler# A ,emoir, Lol. 1, @onC#on, Aac(i an,

1919.

242

"Is th!r! anything,9 h! as*!# hi(s! ', 9in ,hich, i' I ,!r! a rat, I sho+ # ha"! s+ch co(p !t! con'i#!nc! that I co+ # not s+sp!ct it ,itho+t s+sp!cting !"!rything in th! ,or # an# b!ing +nab ! h!nc!'orth to (o"! '!ar !ss y in any #ir!ctionD9 E! pon#!r!# 'or a ,hi ! an# ha# no ans,!r, ti on! night th! roo( s!!(!# to b!co(! '+ o' ight an# h! h!ars a "oic! 'ro( h!a"!n saying6 9?rainCpip!s.9 :h!n h! sa, his ,ay. :o s+sp!ct a co((on #rainCpip! ,o+ # b! to c!as! to b! a rat. E!r! &*!rtch !y !n arg!# a itt !, !-p aining that a spring ,as to b! conc!a !# insi#!, b+t that th! pip! ,as to b! op!n at both !n#sL i' th! pip! ,!r! c os!# at on! !n#, a rat ,o+ # nat+ra y not i*! going into it, 'or h! ,o+ # not '!! s+r! o' b!ing ab ! to g!t o+t againL on ,hich I >0+t !rB int!rr+pt!# an# sai#6 9Ah, it ,as J+st this ,hich stopp!# (! 'ro( going inCto th! Ch+rch.9 8h!n h! >0+t !rB to # (! this I >Jon!sB *n!, ,hat ,as in his (in#, an# that, i' h! ha# not b!!n in s+ch r!sp!ctab ! co(pany, h! ,o+ # ha"! sai#6 9It ,as J+st this ,hich stopp!# (! 'ro( g!tting (arri!#.9 )otic! that ?+n*!tt co+ # on y in"!nt this #o+b ! bin# 'or rats by ,ay o' an ha +cinatory !-p!ri!nc!, an# that both 0+t !r an# Jon!s i((!#iat! y r!gar#!# th! trap as a para#ig( 'or h+(an r! ations. In#!!#, this sort o' #i !((a is not rar! an# is not con'in!# to th! cont!-ts o' schi/ophr!nia. :h! .+!stion ,hich ,! (+st 'ac!, th!r!'or!, is ,hy th!s! s!.+!nc!s ar! !ith!r sp!cia y 'r!.+!nt or sp!cia y #!str+cti"! in thos! 'a(i i!s ,hich contain schi/ophr!nics. I #o not ha"! th! statistics to ass!rt thisL ho,!"!r, 'ro( i(it!# b+t int!ns! obs!r"ation o' a '!, o' th!s! 'a(i i!s, I can o''!r an hypoth!sis abo+t th! gro+p #yna(ics ,hich ,o+ # #!t!rC(in! a syst!( o' int!raction, s+ch that #o+b ! bin# !-p!ri!nc!s (+st r!c+r ad nauseam. :h! prob !( is to constr+ct a (o#! ,hich ,i n!c!ssari y cycle to r!cr!at! th!s! patt!rn!# s!.+!nc!s o"!r an# o"!r again.

243

&+ch a (o#! is pro"i#!# in Gon )!+(annIs an# AorC g!nst!rnIs45 th!ory o' ga(!s, pr!s!nt!# h!r! not, in#!!#, ,ith its '+ (ath!(atica rigor, b+t at !ast in t!r(s so(!C,hat t!chnica . Gon )!+(ann ,as conc!rn!# ,ith (ath!(atica st+#y o' th! 'or(a con#itions +n#!r ,hich !ntiti!s, ,ith tota int! ig!nc! an# a pr!'!r!nc! 'or gain, ,o+ # 'or( coa itions a(ong th!(s! "!s in or#!r to (a-i(i/! th! pro'its ,hich coa ition (!(b!rs (ight r!c!i"! at th! !-p!ns! o' th! nonC(!(b!rs. E! i(agin!# th!s! !ntiti!s as !ngag!# in so(!Cthing i*! a ga(! an# proc!!#!# to as* abo+t th! 'or(a charact!ristics o' th! r+ !s ,hich ,o+ # co(p! th! tota y int! ig!nt b+t gainCori!nt!# p ay!rs to 'or( coa itions. A "!ry c+rio+s conc +sion !(!rg!#, an# it is this conc +sion ,hich I ,o+ # propos! as a (o#! . ="i#!nt y, coa ition b!t,!!n p ay!rs can on y !(!rg! ,h!n th!r! ar! at !ast thr!! o' th!(. Any t,o (ay th!n g!t tog!th!r to !-p oit th! thir#, an# i' s+ch a ga(! b! sy((!trica y #!"is!#, it !"i#!nt y has thr!! so +tions ,hich ,! (ay r!pr!s!nt as A< &s. " <" &s. A A" &s. < 7or this thr!!Cp!rson syst!(, Gon )!+(ann #!(onstrat!s that onc! 'or(!#, any on! o' th!s! coa itions ,i b! stab !. I' A an# < ar! in a ianc!, th!r! is nothing C can #o abo+t it. An#, int!r!sting y !no+gh, A an# < ,i n!c!ssari y #!"! op con"!ntions 2s+pp !(!ntary to th! r+ !s3 ,hich ,i , 'or !-a(p !, 'orbi# th!( 'ro( ist!ning to CIs approach!s. In th! 'i"!Cp!rson ga(!, th! position b!co(!s .+it! #i''!r!ntL th!r! ,i b! a "ari!ty o' possibi iti!s. It (ay b! that 'o+r p ay!rs cont!(p at! a co(bination against on!, i +strat!# in th! 'o o,ing 'i"! patt!rns6
A $s. %CDE % $s. ACDE C $s. A%DE
J. Gon )!+(ann an# 5. Aorg!nst!rn, !*eory of (ames and <e*a&ior, $rinc!ton, $rinc!ton %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1944.
45

conomic

244

D $s. A%CE E $s. A%CD

0+t non! o' th!s! ,o+ # b! stab !. :h! 'o+r p ay!rs ,ithin th! coa ition (+st, n!c!ssari y, !ngag! in a s+bga(! in ,hich th!y (an!+"!r against !ach oth!r to achi!"! an +n!.+a #i"ision o' th! gains ,hich th! coa ition co+ # s.+!!/! o+t o' th! 'i'th p ay!r. :his (+st !a# to a coa ition patt!rn ,hich ,! (ay #!scrib! as > &s. > &s. 1, i.!., <" &s. 8 &s. A. In s+ch a sit+ation, it ,o+ # b!co(! possib ! 'or A to approach an# Join on! o' th!s! pairs, so that th! coa ition syst!( ,i b!co(! ? &s. >. 0+t in th! syst!( ? &s. >, it ,o+ # b! a#"antag!o+s 'or th! thr!! to r!cr+it o"!r to th!ir si#! on! o' th! t,o, in or#!r to (a*! th!ir gains (or! c!rtain. )o, ,! ar! bac* to a 4 "s. 1 syst!(;not n!c!ssari y th! partic+ ar in!C+p that ,! start!# 'ro( b+t at any rat! a syst!( ha"ing th! sa(! g!n!ra prop!rti!s. It, in t+rn, (+st br!a* #o,n into 2 "s. 2 "s. 1, an# so on. In oth!r ,or#s, 'or !"!ry possib ! patt!rn o' coa itions, th!r! is at !ast on! oth!r patt!rn ,hich ,i 9#o(inat!9 it;to +s! Gon )!+(annIs t!r(;an# th! r! ationship o' #o(ination b!t,!!n so +tions is intransiti"!. :h!r! ,i a C,ays b! a circ+ ar ist o' a t!rnati"! so +tions so that th! syst!( ,i n!"!r c!as! 'ro( passing on 'ro( so +tion to so +tion, a ,ays s! !cting anoth!r so +tion ,hich is pr!'!rab ! to that ,hich pr!c!#!# it. :his (!ans, in 'act, that th! robots 2o,ing to th!ir tota int! ig!nc!3 ,i b! +nab ! to #!ci#! +pon a sing ! 9p ay9 o' th! ga(!. I o''!r this (o#! as b!ing r!(inisc!nt o' ,hat happ!ns in schi/ophr!nic 'a(i i!s. )o t,o (!(b!rs s!!( ab ! to g!t tog!th!r in a coa ition stab ! !no+gh to b! #!cisi"! at th! gi"!n (o(!nt. &o(! oth!r (!(b!r or (!(b!rs o' th! 'a(i y ,i a ,ays int!r"!n!. 5r, ac*ing s+ch int!r"!ntion, th! t,o (!(b!rs ,ho cont!(p at! a coa ition ,i '!! g+i ty "isCaC"is ,hat th! thir# (ight #o or say, an# ,i #ra, bac* 'ro( th! coa ition. )otic! that it ta*!s 'i"! hypoth!tica !ntiti!s ,ith tota int! ig!nc! to achi!"! this partic+ ar sort o' instabi ity or osci ation in a Gon )!+(annian ga(!. 0+t thr!! h+(an b!ings s!!( to b! !no+gh. $!rhaps th!y ar! not tota y int! ig!nt or p!rhaps th!y ar!

245

syst!(atica y inconsist!nt r!gar#ing th! sort o' 9gain9 in t!r(s o' ,hich th!y ar! (oti"at!#. I ,ant to str!ss that in s+ch a syst!(, th! !-p!ri!nc! o' !ach s!parat! in#i"i#+a ,i b! o' this *in#6 !"!ry (o"! ,hich h! (a*!s is th! co((onCs!ns! (o"! in th! sit+ation as h! corr!ct y s!!s it at that (o(!nt, b+t his !"!ry (o"! is s+bs!.+!nt y #!(onstrat!# to ha"! b!!n ,rong by th! (o"!s ,hich oth!r (!(b!rs o' th! syst!( (a*! in r!spons! to his 9right9 (o"!. :h! in#i"i#+a is th+s ca+ght in a p!rp!t+a s!.+!nc! o' ,hat ,! ha"! ca !# #o+b ! bin# !-p!ri!nc!s. I #o not *no, ho, "a i# this (o#! (ay b!, b+t I o''!r it 'or t,o r!asons. 7irst, it is propos!# as a sa(p ! o' trying to ta * abo+t th! arg!r syst!(;th! 'a(i y;inst!a# o' ta *ing, as ,! habit+a y #o, abo+t th! in#i"i#+a . I' ,! ar! to +n#!rstan# th! #yna(ics o' schi/ophr!nia, ,! (+st #!"is! a ang+ag! a#!.+at! to th! ph!no(!na ,hich ar! !(!rg!nt in this arg!r syst!(. ="!n i' (y (o#! is inappropriat!, it is sti ,orth,hi ! to try to ta * in th! sort o' ang+ag! ,hich ,! sha n!!# 'or #!scribing th!s! !(!rg!nt ph!no(!na. &!con# y, conc!pt+a (o#! s, !"!n ,h!n incorr!ct, ar! +s!'+ to th! !-t!nt that criticis( o' th! (o#! (ay point to n!, th!or!tica #!"! op(!nts. @!t (!, th!r!'or!, point o+t on! criticis( o' this (o#! , an# consi#!r to ,hat i#!as it ,i !a#. :h!r! is no th!or!( in Gon )!+(annIs boo* ,hich ,o+ # in#icat! that his !ntiti!s or robots, !ngag!# in this in'init! #anc! o' changing coa itions, ,o+ # !"!r b!co(! schi/ophr!nic. Accor#ing to th! abstract th!ory, th! !ntiti!s si(p y r!(ain tota y int! ig!nt ad infinitum. )o,, th! (aJor #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n p!op ! an# "on )!+(annIs robots i!s in th! 'act o' !arning. :o b! in'init! y int! ig!nt i(p i!s to b! in'init! y ' !-ib !, an# th! p ay!rs in th! #anc! ,hich I ha"! #!scrib!# co+ # n!"!r e.perience th! pain ,hich h+(an b!ings ,o+ # '!! i' contin+a ypro"!n ,rong ,h!n!"!r th!y ha# b!!n ,is!. E+(an b!ings ha"! a co((it(!nt to th! so +tions ,hich th!y #isco"!r, an# it is this psycho ogica co((it(!nt that (a*!s it possib ! 'or th!( to b! h+rt in th! ,ay (!(b!rs o' a schi/ophr!nic 'a(i y ar! h+rt. It app!ars th!n, 'ro( consi#!ration o' th! (o#! , that th! #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis, to b! !-p anatory o' schi/ophr!nia, (+st

246

#!p!n# +pon c!rtain psycho ogica ass+(ptions abo+t th! nat+r! o' th! h+(an in#i"i#+a as a !arning organis(. 7or th! in#i"i#+a to b! pron! to schi/ophr!nia, in#i"i#+ation (+st co(pris! t'o contrasting psycho ogica (!chanis(s. :h! 'irst is a (!chanis( o' a#aptation to #!(an#s o' th! p!rsona !n"iron(!ntL an# th! s!con#, a proc!ss or (!chanis( ,h!r!by th! in#i"i#+a b!co(!s !ith!r bri!' y or !n#+ring y co((itt!# to th! a#aptations ,hich th! 'irst proc!ss has #isco"!r!#. I thin* that ,hat a( ca ing a bri!' co((it(!nt to an a#aptation is ,hat 0!rta an''y ca !# th! immanent state of action0 an# that th! (or! !n#+ring co((it(!nt to a#aptation is si(p y ,hat ,! +s+a y ca 9habit.9 8hat is a p!rsonD 8hat #o I (!an ,h!n I say 9ID9 $!rhaps ,hat !ach o' +s (!ans by th! 9s! '9 is in 'act an aggr!gat! o' habits o' p!rc!ption an# a#apti"! action plus, 'ro( (o(!nt to (o(!nt, o+r 9i((an!nt stat!s o' action.9 I' so(!bo#y attac*s th! habits an# i((an!nt stat!s ,hich charact!ri/! (! at th! gi"!n (o(!nt o' #!a ing ,ith that so(!bo#y;that is, i' th!y attac* th! "!ry habits an# i((an!nt stat!s ,hich ha"! b!!n ca !# into b!ing as part o' (y r! ationship to th!( at that (o(!nt;th!y ar! n!gating (!. I' I car! #!!p y abo+t that oth!r p!rson, th! n!gation o' (! ,i b! sti (or! pain'+ . 8hat ,! ha"! sai# so 'ar is !no+gh to in#icat! th! sorts o' strat!gy;or p!rhaps ,! sho+ # say sy(pto(s;,hich ar! to b! !-p!ct!# in that strang! instit+tion, th! schi/ophr!nic 'a(i y. 0+t it is sti s+rprising to obs!r"! ho, th!s! strat!gi!s (ay b! contin+a y an# habit+a y practic!# ,itho+t 'ri!n#s an# n!ighbors noticing that so(!thing is ,rong. 7ro( th!ory ,! (ay pr!#ict that !"!ry participant (!(b!r o' s+ch an instit+tion (+st b! #!'!nsi"! o' his or h!r o,n i((an!nt stat!s o' action an# !n#+ring a#apti"! habitsL prot!cti"!, that is, o' th! s! '. :o i +strat! ,ith on! !-a(p !6 a co !ag+! ha# b!!n ,or*ing 'or so(! ,!!*s ,ith on! o' th!s! 'a(i i!s, partic+ ar y ,ith th! 'ath!r, th! (oth!r, an# th!ir a#+ t schi/ophr!nic son. Eis (!!tings ,!r! on th! conJoint patt!rn;th! (!(b!rs o' th! 'a(i y b!ing pr!s!nt tog!th!r. :his appar!nt y pro"o*!# so(! an-i!ty in th! (oth!r an# sh! r!.+!st!# 'ac!CtoC'ac! int!r"i!,s ,ith (!. :his (o"! ,as #isc+ss!# at th! n!-t conJoint (!!ting an# in #+! co+rs! sh! ca(! to

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h!r 'irst s!ssion. %pon arri"a sh! (a#! a co+p ! o' con"!rsationa r!(ar*s, an# th!n op!n!# h!r p+rs! an# 'ro( it han#!# (! a pi!c! o' pap!r, saying, 9It s!!(s (y h+sban# ,rot! this.9 I +n'o #!# th! pap!r an# 'o+n# it to b! a sing ! sh!!t o' sing !Cspac!# typ!script, starting ,ith th! ,or#s, 9Ay h+sban# an# I (+ch appr!ciat! th! opport+nity o' #isc+ssing o+r prob !(s ,ith yo+,9 !tc. :h! #oc+(!nt th!n ,!nt on to o+t in! c!rtain sp!ci'ic .+!stions ,hich 9I ,o+ # i*! to rais!. It app!ar!# that th! h+sban# ha#, in 'act, sat #o,n at his typ!,rit!r th! night b!'or! an# ha# ,ritt!n this !tt!r to me as tho+gh it ,!r! ,ritt!n by his ,i'!, an# in it h! o+t in!# th! .+!stions 'or h!r to #isc+ss ,ith (!. In nor(a #ai y i'! this sort o' thing is co((on !no+ghL it pass!s (+st!r. 8h!n att!ntion is 'oc+s!# +pon th! charact!ristic strat!gi!s, ho,!"!r, th!s! s! 'Cprot!cting an# s! 'C#!stroying (an!+"!rs b!co(! conspic+o+s. 5n! s+##!n y #isco"!rs that in s+ch 'a(i i!s th!s! strat!gi!s s!!( to pr!C#o(inat! o"!r a oth!rs. It b!co(!s har# y s+rprising that th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt !-hibits b!ha"ior ,hich is a (ost a caricat+r! o' that oss o' i#!ntity ,hich is charact!ristic o' a th! 'a(i y (!(b!rs. I b! i!"! that this is th! !ss!nc! o' th! (att!r, that th! schi/ophr!nic 'a(i y is an organi/ation ,ith gr!at ongoing stabi ity ,hos! #yna(ics an# inn!r ,or*ings ar! s+ch that !ach (!(b!r is contin+a y +n#!rgoing th! !-p!ri!nc! o' n!gation o' s! '.

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Mini(al Requi&e(ent! 5o& a Theo&y o5 +'hi7o2h&enia%


="!ry sci!nc!, i*! !"!ry p!rson, has a #+ty to,ar# its n!ighbors, not p!rhaps to o"! th!( as its! ', b+t sti to !n# th!( its too s, to borro, too s 'ro( th!(, an#, g!n!ra y, to *!!p th! n!ighboring sci!nc!s straight. 8! (ay p!rhaps J+#g! o' th! i(portanc! o' an a#"anc! in any on! sci!nc! in t!r(s o' th! chang!s ,hich this a#"anc! co(p! s th! n!ighCboring sci!nc!s to (a*! in th!ir (!tho#s an# in th!ir thin*ing. 0+t a ,ays th!r! is th! r+ ! o' parsi(ony. :h! chang!s ,hich ,! in th! b!ha"iora sci!nc!s (ay as* 'or in g!n!tics, or in phi osophy, or in in'or(ation th!ory (+st a ,ays b! (ini(a . :h! +nity o' sci!nc! as a ,ho ! is achi!"!# by this syst!( o' (ini(a #!(an#s i(pos!# by !ach sci!nc! +pon its n!ighbors, an#;not a itt !;by th! !n#ing o' conc!pt+a too s an# patt!rns ,hich occ+rs a(ong th! "ario+s sci!nc!s. Ay p+rpos!, th!r!'or!, in th! pr!s!nt !ct+r! is not so (+ch to #isc+ss th! partic+ ar th!ory o' schi/ophr!nia ,hich ,! ha"! b!!n #!"! oping at $a o A to. 4ath!r, I ,ant to in#icat! to yo+ that this th!ory an# oth!rs i*! it ha"! i(pact +pon i#!as abo+t th! "!ry nat+r! o' !-p anation. I ha"! +s!# th! tit ! 9Aini(a 4!.+ir!(!nts 'or a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 an# ,hat I ha# in (in# in choosing this tit ! ,as a #isc+ssion o' th! i(p ications o' th! #o+b ! bin# th!ory 'or th! ,i#!r 'i! # o' b!ha"iora sci!nc! an# !"!n, b!yon# that, its !''!ct +pon !"o +tionary th!ory an# bio ogica !pist!C (o ogy. 8hat (ini(a chang!s #o!s this th!ory #!(an# in r! at!# sci!nc!sD I ,ant to #!a ,ith .+!stions abo+t th! i(pact o' an !-p!ri!ntia th!ory o' schi/ophr!nia +pon that tria# o' r! at!# sci!nc!s, !arning th!ory, g!n!tics, an# !"o +tion.
&!con# Ann+a A b!rt ?. @as*!r A!(oria @!ct+r!, #! i"!r!# at th! Instit+t! 'or $sychoso(atic an# $sychiatric 4!s!arch an# :raining o' th! Aicha! 4!!s! Eospita , Chicago, Apri 7, 1959. :his !ct+r! is h!r! r!print!# by p!r(ission o' th! #.M.#. Arc*i&es of (eneral 6syc*iatry ,h!r! it app!ar!# in 1960, Go . 2, pp. 477C491.
H

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:h! hypoth!sis (ay 'irst b! bri!' y #!scrib!#. In its !ss!ntia s, th! i#!a app!a s on y to !"!ry#ay !-p!ri!nc!, an# ! !(!ntary co((on s!ns!. :h! 'irst proposition 'ro( ,hich th! hypoth!sis is #!ri"!# is that !arning occ+rs a ,ays in so(! cont!-t ,hich has 'or(a charact!ristics. Fo+ (ay thin*, i' yo+ ,i , o' th! 'or(a charact!ristics o' an instr+(!nta a"oi#anc! s!.+!nc!, or o' th! 'or(a charact!ristics o' a $a" o"ian !-p!ri(!nt. :o !arn to i't a pa, in a $a" o"ian cont!-t is #i''!r!nt 'ro( !arning th! sa(! action in a cont!-t o' instr+(!nta r!,ar#. 7+rth!r, th! hypoth!sis #!p!n#s +pon th! i#!a that this str+ct+r!# cont!-t a so occ+rs ,ithin a ,i#!r cont!-t;a (!tacont!-t i' yo+ ,i ;an# that this s!.+!nc! o' cont!-ts is an op!n, an# conc!i"ab y in'init!, s!ri!s. :h! hypoth!sis a so ass+(!s that ,hat occ+rs ,ithin th! narro, cont!-t 2!.g., instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!3 ,i b! a''!ct!# by th! ,i#!r cont!-t ,ithin ,hich this s(a !r on! has its b!ing. :h!r! (ay b! incongr+!nc! or con' ict b!t,!!n cont!-t an# (!tacont!-t. A cont!-t o' $a" o"ian !arning (ay, 'or !-a(p !, b! s!t ,ithin a (!tacont!-t ,hich ,o+ # p+nish !arning o' this *in#, p!rhaps by insisting +pon insight. :h! organis( is th!n 'ac!# ,ith th! #i !((a !ith!r o' b!ing ,rong in th! pri(ary cont!-t or o' b!ing right 'or th! ,rong r!asons or in a ,rong ,ay. :his is th! soCca !# #o+b ! bin#. 8! ar! in"!stigating th! hypoth!sis that schi/ophr!nic co((+nication is !arn!# an# b!Cco(!s habit+a as a r!s+ t o' contin+a tra+(ata o' this *in#. :hat is a th!r! is to it. 0+t !"!n th!s! 9co((onCs!ns!9 ass+(ptions br!a* a,ay 'ro( th! c assica r+ !s o' sci!nti'ic !pist!(o ogy. 8! ha"! !arn!# 'ro( th! para#ig( o' th! 'r!! y 'a ing bo#y;an# 'ro( (any si(i ar para#ig(s in (any oth!r sci!nc!s;to approach sci!nti'ic prob !(s in a p!c+ iar ,ay6 th! prob !(s ar! to b! si(p i'i!# by ignoring;or postponing consi#!ration o';th! possibi ity that th! arg!r cont!-t (ay in' +!nc! th! s(a !r. 5+r hypoth!sis r+ns co+nt!r to this r+ !, an# is 'oc+s!# pr!cis! y +pon th! #!t!r(ining r! ations b!t,!!n arg!r an# s(a !r cont!-ts. ="!n (or! shoc*ing is th! 'act that o+r hypoth!sis s+gg!sts ; b+t #o!s not stan# or 'a ,ith th! s+gg!stion;that th!r! (ay b! an in'init! r!gr!ss o' s+ch r! !"ant cont!-ts.

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In a o' this, th! hypoth!sis r!.+ir!s an# r!in'orc!s that r!"ision in sci!nti'ic tho+ght ,hich has b!!n occ+rring in (any 'i! #s, 'ro( physics to bio ogy. :h! obs!r"!r (+st b! inc +#!# ,ithin th! 'oc+s o' obs!r"ation, an# ,hat can b! st+#i!# is a ,ays a r! ationship or an in'init! r!gr!ss o' r! ationships. )!"!r a 9thing.9 An !-a(p ! ,i (a*! c !ar th! r! !"anc! o' th! arg!r cont!-ts. @!t +s consi#!r th! arg!r cont!-t ,ithin ,hich a !arning !-p!ri(!nt (ight b! con#+ct!# +sing a schi/ophr!nic as a s+bJ!ct. :h! schi/ophr!nic is ,hat is ca !# a pati!nt, "isCaC"is a (!(b!r o' a s+p!rior an# +n o"!# organi/ation, th! hospita sta''. I' th! pati!nt ,!r! a goo# prag(atic )!,tonian, h! ,o+ # b! ab ! to say to hi(s! '6 9:h! cigar!tt!s ,hich I can g!t by #oing ,hat this '! o, !-p!cts (! to #o ar! a't!r a on y cigar!tt!s, an# as an app i!# sci!ntist I ,i go ah!a# an# #o ,hat h! ,ants (! to #o. I ,i so "! th! !-p!ri(!nta prob !( an# obtain th! cigar!tt!s.9 0+t h+(an b!ings, an# !sp!cia y schi/ophr!nics, #o not a ,ays s!! th! (att!r this ,ay. :h!y ar! a''!ct!# by th! circ+(stanc! that th! !-p!ri(!nt is b!ing con#+ct!# by so(!bo#y ,ho( th!y ,o+ # rath!r not p !as!. :h!y (ay !"!n '!! that th!r! ,o+ # b! a c!rtain sha(! !ssn!ss abo+t s!!*ing to p !as! so(! on! ,ho( th!y #is i*!. It th+s co(!s abo+t that th! sign o' th! signa ,hich th! !-p!ri(!nt!r !(its, gi"ing or ,ithho #ing cigar!tt!s, is r!"!rs!#. 8hat th! !-p!ri(!nt!r tho+ght ,as a r!,ar# t+rns o+t to b! a (!ssag! o' partia in#ignity, an# ,hat th! !-p!ri(!nt!r tho+ght ,as a p+nish(!nt b!co(!s in part a so+rc! o' satis'action. Consi#!r th! ac+t! pain o' th! (!nta pati!nt in a arg! hospita ,ho is (o(!ntari y tr!at!# as a h+(an b!ing by a (!(b!r o' th! sta''. :o !-p ain th! obs!r"!# ph!no(!na ,! al'ays ha"! to consi#!r th! ,i#!r cont!-t o' th! !arning !-p!ri(!nt, an# e&ery transaction b!t,!!n p!rsons is a cont!-t o' !arning. :h! #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis, th!n, #!p!n#s +pon attrib+ting c!rtain charact!ristics to th! !arning proc!ss. I' this hypoth!sis is !"!n appro-i(at! y tr+!, roo( (+st b! (a#! 'or it ,ithin th! th!ory o' !arning. In partic+ ar, !arning th!ory (+st b! (a#! #iscontin+o+s so as to acco((o#at! th! #iscontin+iti!s o' th! hi!rarchy o' th! cont!-ts o' !arning to ,hich I ha"! r!'!rr!#.

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Aor!o"!r, th!s! #iscontin+iti!s ar! o' a p!c+ iar nat+r!. I ha"! sai# that th! arg!r cont!-t (ay chang! th! sign o' th! r!in'orc!(!nt propos!# by a gi"!n (!ssag!, an# !"i#!nt y th! arg!r cont!-t (ay a so chang! th! (o#!;(ay p ac! th! (!ssag! in th! cat!gory o' h+(or, (!taphor, !tc. :h! s!tting (ay (a*! th! (!ssag! inappropriat!. :h! (!ssag! (ay b! o+t o' t+n! ,ith th! arg!r cont!-t, an# so on. 0+t th!r! ar! i(its to th!s! (o#i'ications. :h! cont!-t (ay t! th! r!cipi!nt anything a-out th! (!ssag!, b+t it cannot !"!r #!stroy or #ir!ct y contra#ict th! att!r. 9I ,as ying ,h!n I sai# N:h! cat is on th! (atI 9 t! s th! "isCaC"is nothing abo+t th! ocation o' th! cat. It t! s hi( on y so(!thing abo+t th! r! iabi ity o' his pr!"io+s in'or(ation. :h!r! is a g+ ' b!t,!!n cont!-t an# (!ssag! 2or b!t,!!n (!ta(!ssag! an# (!ssag!3 ,hich is o' th! sa(! nat+r! as th! g+ ' b!t,!!n a thing an# th! ,or# or sign ,hich stan#s 'or it, or b!t,!!n th! (!(b!rs o' a c ass an# th! na(! o' th! c ass. :h! cont!-t 2or (!ta(!ssag!3 classifies th! (!ssag!, b+t can n!"!r (!!t it on !.+a t!r(s. In or#!r to 'it th!s! #iscontin+iti!s into !arning th!ory, it is n!c!ssary to !n arg! th! scop! o' ,hat is to b! inc +#!# ,ithin th! conc!pt o' learning. 8hat th! !-p!ri(!nt!rs ha"! #!scrib!# as 9 !arning9 ar! in g!n!ra chang!s in ,hat an organis( #o!s in r!spons! to a gi"!n signa . :h! !-p!ri(!nt!r obs!r"!s, 'or !-a(p !, that at 'irst th! b+//!r !"o*!s no r!g+ ar r!spons!, b+t that a't!r r!p!at!# tria s in ,hich th! b+//!r has b!!n 'o o,!# by (!at po,#!r, th! ani(a ,i b!gin to sa i"at! ,h!n!"!r it h!ars th! b+//!r. 8! (ay say oos! y that th! ani(a has b!g+n to attach signi'icanc! or (!aning to th! b+//!r. A chang! has occ+rr!#. In or#!r to constr+ct a hi!rarchic s!ri!s, ,! pic* on th! ,or# 9chang!.9 &!ri!s s+ch as ,! ar! int!r!st!# in ar! in g!n!ra b+i t in t,o ,ays. 8ithin th! 'i! # o' p+r! co((+nications th!ory, th! st!ps o' an hi!rarchic s!ri!s (ay b! constr+ct!# by s+cc!ssi"! +s! o' th! ,or# 9abo+t,9 or 9(!ta.9 5+r hi!rarchic s!ri!s ,i th!n consist o' (!ssag!, (!ta(!ssag!, (!taC (!ta(!ssag!, an# so on. 8h!r! ,! #!a ,ith ph!no(!na (argina to co((+nications th!ory, si(i ar hi!rarchi!s (ay b! constr+ct!# by th! pi ing +p o' 9chang!9 +pon 9chang!.9 In c assica physics, th! s!.+!nc!6 positionL "! ocity 2i.!., chang! in position3L acc! !ration

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2i.!., chang! in "! ocity or chang! in chang! o' position3L chang! o' acc! !ration, !tc., is an !-a(p ! o' s+ch a hi!rarchy. 7+rth!r co(p ications ar! a##!#;rar! y in c assica physics b+t co((on y in h+(an co((+nication;by noting that (!ssag!s (ay b! abo+t 2or 9(!ta9 to3 th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (!ssag!s o' #i''!r!nt !"! s. :h! s(! o' th! !-p!ri(!nta harn!ss (ay t! th! #og that th! b+//!r ,i (!an (!at po,#!r. 8! ,i th!n say that th! (!ssag! o' th! harn!ss is (!ta to th! (!ssag! o' th! b+//!r. 0+t in h+(an r! ations anoth!r sort o' co(p !-ity (ay b! g!n!rat!#L !.g., (!ssag!s (ay b! !(itt!# 'orbi##ing th! s+bJ!ct to (a*! th! (!ta conn!ction. An a coho ic par!nt (ay p+nish a chi # 'or sho,ing that h! *no,s that h! sho+ # oo* o+t 'or stor(s ,h!n!"!r th! par!nt g!ts th! bott ! o+t o' th! c+pboar#. :h! hi!rarchy o' (!ssag!s an# cont!-ts th+s b!co(!s a co(p !- branching str+ct+r!. &o ,! can constr+ct a si(i ar hi!rarchic c assi'ication ,ithin !arning th!ory in s+bstantia y th! sa(! ,ay as th! physicists. 8hat th! !-p!ri(!nt!rs ha"! in"!stigat!# is c*ange in th! r!c!ipt o' a signa . 0+t, c !ar y, to r!c!i"! a signa a r!a#y #!not!s c*ange7a chang! o' a si(p !r or o,!r or#!r than that ,hich th! !-p!ri(!nt!rs ha"! in"!stigat!#. :his gi"!s +s th! t,o 'irst st!ps in a hi!rarchy o' !arning, an# abo"! th!s! an in'init! s!ri!s can b! i(agin!#. :his hi!rarchy46 can no, b! ai# o+t as 'o o,s 6 213 !*e $eceipt of a Signal I a( ,or*ing at (y #!s* on ,hich th!r! is a pap!r bag, containing (y +nch. I h!ar th! hospita ,hist !, an# 'ro( this I *no, that it is t,! "! oIc oc*. I r!ach o+t an# ta*! (y +nch. :h! ,hist ! (ay b! r!gar#!# as an ans,!r to a .+!stion ai# #o,n in (y (in# by pr!"io+s !arning o' th! s!con# or#!rL b+t th! sing ! !"!nt;th! r!c!i"ing o' this pi!c! o' in'or(ation;is a pi!c! o' !arning, an# is #!(onstrat!# to b! so by th! 'act that ha"ing r!c!i"!# it, I a( no, chang!# an# r!spon# in a sp!cia ,ay to th! pap!r bag. 223 !*ose /earnings 2*ic* Are "*anges in +14 :h!s! ar! !-!(p i'i!# by th! c assica !arning !-p!ri(!nts o' "ario+s *in#s6
I 1971. In (y 'ina "!rsion o' this hi!rarchy o' or#!rs o' !arning, p+b ish!# in this "o +(! as 9:h! @ogica Cat!gori!s o' @!arning an# Co((+nication,9 2s!! p. 2833 I ha"! +s!# a #i''!r!nt syst!( o' n+(b!ring. :h! r!c!ipt o' a signa is th!r! ca !# 9M!ro @!arning9L chang!s in M!ro @!arning ar! ca !# @!arning IL 9#!+t!roC !arning9 is ca !# @!arning II, !tc
46

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$a" o"ian, instr+(!nta r!,ar#, instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!, rot!, an# so on. 233 !*ose /earnings 2*ic* "onstitute "*anges in Second%@rder /earning I ha"! in th! past, +n'ort+nat! y, ca !# th!s! ph!no(!na 9#!+t!roC !arning,9 an# ha"! trans at!# this as 9 !arning to !arn.9 It ,o+ # ha"! b!!n (or! corr!ct to coin th! ,or# tritoC !arning an# to trans at! it as 9 !arning to !arn to r!c!i"! signa s.9 :h!s! ar! th! ph!no(!na in ,hich th! psychiatrist is pr!pon#!rant y int!r!st!#, na(! y, th! chang!s ,h!r!by an in#i"i#+a co(!s to !-p!ct his ,or # to b! str+ct+r!# in on! ,ay rath!r than anCoth!r. :h!s! ar! th! ph!no(!na ,hich +n#!r i! 9trans'!r!nc!9;th! !-p!ctation on a pati!ntIs part that th! r! ationship ,ith th! th!rapist ,i contain th! sa(! sorts o' cont!-ts o' !arning that th! pati!nt has pr!"io+s y (!t ,ith in #!a ing ,ith his par!nts. 243 "*anges in !*ose 6rocesses of "*ange $eferred to in 233 8h!th!r !arning o' this 'o+rth or#!r occ+rs in h+(an b!ings is +n*no,n. 8hat th! psychoth!rapist att!(pts to pro#+c! in his pati!nt is +s+a y a thir#Cor#!r !arning, b+t it is possib !, an# c!rtain y conc!i"ab !, that so(! o' th! s o, an# +nconscio+s chang!s (ay b! shi'ts in sign o' so(! high!r #!ri"ati"! in th! !arning proc!ss. At this point it is n!c!ssary to co(par! thr!! typ!s o' hi!rarchy ,ith ,hich ,! ar! 'ac!#6 +a4 th! hi!rarchy o' orders o' !arningL 2b3 th! hi!rarchy o' cont!-ts o' !arning, an# 2c3 hi!rarchi!s o' circ+it str+ct+r! ,hich ,! (ay;in#!!#, (+st;!-p!ct to 'in# in a t! !nc!pha i/!# brain. It is (y cont!ntion that +a4 an# 2b3 ar! synony(o+s in th! s!ns! that a stat!(!nts (a#! in t!r(s o' cont!-ts o' !arning co+ # b! trans at!# 2,itho+t oss or gain3 into stat!(!nts in t!r(s o' or#!rs o' !arning, an#, '+rth!r, that th! c assi'ication or hi!rarchy o' cont!-ts (+st b! iso(orphic ,ith th! c assi'ication or hi!rarchy o' or#!rs o' !arning. 0!yon# this, I b! i!"! that ,! sho+ # oo* 'or,ar# to a c assi'ication or hi!rarchy o' n!+rophysio ogica str+ct+r!s ,hich ,i b! iso(orphic ,ith th! oth!r t,o c assi'ications. :his synony(y b!t,!!n stat!(!nts abo+t cont!-t an# stat!(!nts abo+t or#!rs o' !arning s!!(s to (! to b! s! 'C!"i#!nt, b+t !-p!ri!nc! sho,s that it (+st b! sp! !# o+t. 9:h! tr+th cannot b!

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sai# so as to b! +n#!rstoo#, an# not b! b! i!"!#,9 b+t, con"!rs! y, it cannot b! b! i!"!# until it is sai# so as to b! +n#!rstoo#. It is n!c!ssary 'irst to insist that in th! ,or # o' co((+nication th! on y r! !"ant !ntiti!s or 9r!a iti!s9 ar! (!ssag!s, inc +#ing in this t!r( parts o' (!ssag!s, r! ations b!t,!!n (!ssag!s, signi'icant gaps in (!ssag!s, an# so on. !*e perception o' an !"!nt or obJ!ct or r! ation is r!a . It is a n!+rophysio ogica (!ssag!. 0+t th! I!"!nt its! ' or th! obJ!ct its! ' cannot !nt!r this ,or # an# is, th!r!'or!, irr! !"ant an#, to that !-t!nt, +nr!a . Con"!rs! y, a (!ssag! has no r!a ity or r! !"anc! .+a (!ssag!, in th! )!,tonian ,or #6 it th!r! is r!#+c!# to so+n# ,a"!s or print!rIs in*. 0y th! sa(! to*!n, th! 9cont!-ts9 an# 9cont!-ts o' conCt!-ts9 +pon ,hich I a( insisting ar! on y r!a or r! !"ant inso'ar as th!y ar! co((+nicationa y !''!cti"!, i.!., '+nction as (!ssag!s or (o#i'i!rs o' (!ssag!s. :h! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! )!,tonian ,or # an# th! ,or # o' co((+nication is si(p y this6 that th! )!,tonian ,or # ascrib!s r!a ity to obJ!cts an# achi!"!s its si(p icity by !-c +#ing th! cont!-t o' th! cont!-t;!-c +#ing in#!!# a (!tar! ationships;a 'ortiori !-c +#ing an in'init! r!gr!ss o' s+ch r! ations. In contrast, th! th!orist o' co((+nication insists +pon !-a(ining th! (!tar! ationships ,hi ! achi!"ing its si(p icity by !-c +#ing a obJ!cts. :his ,or #, o' co((+nication, is a 0!r*! !yan ,or #, b+t th! goo# bishop ,as g+i ty o' +n#!rstat!(!nt. 4! !"anc! or r!a ity (+st b! #!ni!# not on y to th! so+n# o' th! tr!! ,hich 'a s +nh!ar# in th! 'or!st b+t a so to this chair ,hich I can s!! an# on ,hich I a( sitting. Ay p!rc!ption o' th! chair is co((+nicationa y r!a , an# that on ,hich I sit is, 'or (!, on y an i#!a, a (!ssag! in ,hich I p+t (y tr+st. 9In (y t*oug*t, on! thing is as goo# as anoth!r in this ,or #, an# th! sho! o' a hors! ,i #o,9 b!ca+s! in tho+ght an# in !-p!ri!nc! th!r! ar! no things, b+t on y (!ssag!s an# th! i*!. In this ,or #, in#!!#, I, as a (at!ria obJ!ct, ha"! no r! !"anc! an#, in this s!ns!, no r!a ity. 9I,9 ho,!"!r, !-ist in th! co((+nicationa ,or # as an !ss!ntia ! !(!nt in th! synta- o' (y !-p!ri!nc! an# in th! !-p!ri!nc! o' oth!rs, an# th! co((+nications

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o' oth!rs (ay #a(ag! (y i#!ntity, !"!n to th! point o' br!a*ing +p th! organi/ation o' (y !-p!ri!nc!. $!rhaps on! #ay, an + ti(at! synth!sis ,i b! achi!"!# to co(bin! th! )!,tonian an# th! co((+nicationa ,or #s. 0+t that is not th! p+rpos! o' th! pr!s!nt #isc+ssion. E!r! I a( conc!rn!# to (a*! c !ar th! r! ation b!t,!!n th! conCt!-ts an# th! or#!rs o' !arning, an# to #o this it ,as 'irst n!c!ssary to bring into 'oc+s th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n )!,tonian an# co((+nicationa #isco+rs!. 8ith this intro#+ctory stat!(!nt, ho,!"!r, it b!co(!s c !ar that th! s!paration b!t,!!n cont!-ts an# or#!rs o' !arning is on y an arti'act o' th! contrast b!t,!!n th!s! t,o sorts o' #isco+rs!. :h! s!paration is on y (aintain!# by saying that th! cont!-ts ha"! ocation o+tsi#! th! physica in#i"i#+a , ,hi ! th! or#!rs o' !arning ar! ocat!# insi#!. 0+t in th! co((+nicationa ,or #, this #ichoto(y is irr! !"ant an# (!aning !ss. :h! cont!-ts ha"! co((+nicationa r!a ity on y inso'ar as th!y ar! !''!cti"! as (!ssag!s, i.!., inso'ar as th!y ar! r!pr!s!nt!# or r!' !ct!# 2corr!ct y or ,ith #istortion3 in multiple parts o' th! co((+nicationa syst!( ,hich ,! ar! st+#yingL an# this syst!( is not th! physica in#i"i#+a b+t a ,i#! n!t,or* o' path,ays o' (!ssag!s. &o(! o' th!s! path,ays *appen to b! ocat!# o+tsi#! th! physica in#i"i#+a , oth!rs insi#!L b+t th! charact!ristics o' th! system ar! in no ,ay #!p!n#!nt +pon any bo+n#ary in!s ,hich ,! (ay s+p!rpos! +pon th! co((+nicationa (ap. It is not co((+nicationa y (!aning'+ to as* ,h!th!r th! b in# (anIs stic* or th! sci!ntistIs (icroscop! ar! 9parts9 o' th! (an ,ho +s!s th!(. 0oth stic* an# (icroscop! ar! i(portant path,ays o' co((+nication an#, as s+ch, ar! parts o' th! n!t,or* in ,hich ,! ar! int!r!st!#L b+t no bo+n#ary in!;!.g., ha ',ay +p th! stic*; can b! r! !"ant in a #!scription o' th! topo ogy o' this n!t. Eo,!"!r, this #iscar#ing o' th! bo+n#ary o' th! physica in#i"i#+a #o!s not i(p y 2as so(! (ight '!ar3 that co(C (+nicationa #isco+rs! is n!c!ssari y chaotic. 5n th! contrary, th! propos!# hi!rarchic c assi'ication o' !arning an#Kor cont!-t is an or#!ring o' ,hat to th! )!,tonian oo*s i*! chaos, an# it is this or#!ring that is #!(an#!# by th! #o+b !Cbin# hypoth!sis.

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Aan (+st b! th! sort o' ani(a ,hos! !arning is charact!ri/!# by hi!rarchic #iscontin+iti!s o' this sort, ! s! h! co+ # not b!co(! schi/ophr!nic +n#!r th! 'r+strations o' th! #o+b ! bin#. 5n th! !"i#!ntia si#!, th!r! is b!ginning to b! a bo#y o' !-p!ri(!nt #!(onstrating th! r!a ity o' thir#Cor#!r !arning47L b+t on th! pr!cis! point o' discontinuity b!t,!!n th!s! or#!rs o' !arning th!r! is, so 'ar as I *no,, "!ry itt ! !"i#!nc!. :h! !-p!ri(!nts o' John &tro+# ar! ,orth .+oting. :h!s! ,!r! trac*ing !-p!ri(!nts. :h! s+bJ!ct is 'ac!# ,ith a scr!!n on ,hich a spot (o"!s to r!pr!s!nt a (o"ing targ!t. A s!con# spot, r!pr!s!nting th! ai( o' a g+n, can b! contro !# by th! s+bJ!ct, ,ho op!rat!s a pair o' *nobs. :h! s+bJ!ct is cha !ng!# to (aintain coinci#!nc! b!t,!!n th! targ!t spot an# th! spot o"!r ,hich h! has contro . In s+ch an !-p!ri(!nt th! targ!t can b! gi"!n "ario+s sorts o' (otion, charact!ri/!# by s!con#C, thir#C, or high!rCor#!r #!ri"ati"!s. &tro+# sho,!# that, as th!r! is a #iscontin+ity in th! or#!rs o' th! !.+ations ,hich a (ath!(atician (ight +s! to #!scrib! th! (o"!(!nts o' th! targ!t spot, so a so th!r! is a #iscontin+ity in th! !arning o' th! !-p!ri(!nta s+bJ!ct. It is as i' a n!, !arning proc!ss ,!r! in"o "!# ,ith !ach st!p to a high!r or#!r o' co(p !-ity in th! (o"!(!nt o' th! targ!t. It is to (! 'ascinating to 'in# that ,hat on! ha# s+ppos!# ,as a p+r! arti'act o' (ath!(atica #!scription is a so appar!nt y an inb+i t charact!ristic o' th! h+(an brain, in spit! o' th! 'act that this brain c!rtain y #o!s not op!rat! by (!ans o' (ath!(atica !.+ations in s+ch a tas*. :h!r! is a so !"i#!nc! o' a (or! g!n!ra nat+r! ,hich ,o+ # s+pport th! notion o' #iscontin+ity b!t,!!n th! or#!rs o' !arning. :h!r! is, 'or !-a(p !, th! c+rio+s 'act that psycho ogists ha"! not habit+a y r!gar#!# ,hat I ca !arning o' th! 'irst or#!r, th! r!c!ipt o' a (!aning'+ signa , as !arning at a L an# th! oth!r c+rio+s 'act, that psycho ogists ha"! +nti r!c!nt y sho,n "!ry itt ! appr!ciation o' that thir# or#!r o' !arning, in ,hich th! psychiatrist is pr!#o(iC nant y int!r!st!#. :h!r! is a 'or(i#ab ! g+ ' b!t,!!n th! thin*ing o'
47 C. @. E+ , et al., ,at*ematico%deducti&e !*eory of $ote /earning# A Study in Scientific ,et*odology, 2Fa ! %ni"!rsity Instit+t! o' E+(an 4! ations3, )!, Ea"!n, Fa ! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 194C0 a so E. 7. Ear o,, 9:h! 7or(ation o' @!arning &!ts,9 6syc*ol. $e&ie', 1949, 5G# 51%G5.

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th! !-p!ri(!nta psycho ogist an# th! thin*ing o' th! psychiatrist or anthropo ogist. :his g+ ' I b! i!"! to b! #+! to th! #iscontin+ity in th! hi!rarchic str+ct+r!. *earnin&. enetics. and E"ol!tion

0!'or! ,! consi#!r th! i(pact o' th! #o+b ! bin# hypoth!sis +pon g!n!tics an# !"o +tionary th!ory, it is n!c!ssary to !-a(in! th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th!ori!s o' !arning an# th!s! t,o oth!r bo#i!s o' *no, !#g!. I r!'!rr!# !ar i!r to th! thr!! s+bJ!cts tog!th!r as a tria#. :h! str+ct+r! o' this tria# ,! (+st no, consi#!r. 1!n!tics, ,hich co"!rs th! co((+nicationa ph!no(!na o' "ariation, #i''!r!ntiation, gro,th, an# h!r!#ity, is co((on y r!cogni/!# as th! "!ry st+'' o' ,hich !"o +tionary th!ory is (a#!. :h! ?ar,inian th!ory, ,h!n p+rg!# o' @a(arc*ian i#!as, consist!# o' a g!n!tics in ,hich "ariation ,as pr!s+(!# to b! ran#o(, co(bin!# ,ith a th!ory o' nat+ra s! !ction ,o+ # i(part a#apti"! #ir!ction to th! acc+(+ ation o' chang!s. 0+t th! r! ation b!t,!!n !arning an# this th!ory has b!!n a (att!r o' "io !nt contro"!rsy ,hich has rag!# o"!r th! soCca !# 9inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics.9 ?ar,inIs position ,as ac+t! y cha !ng!# by &a(+! 0+t !r, ,ho arg+!# that h!r!#ity sho+ # b! co(par!# ,ith;!"!n i#!nti'i!# ,ith ;(!(ory. 0+t !r proc!!#!# 'ro( this pr!(is! to arg+! that th! proc!ss!s o' !"o +tionary chang!, an# !sp!cia y a#aptation, sho+ # b! r!gar#!# as th! achi!"!(!nts o' a #!!p c+nning in th! ongoing ' o, o' i'!, not as 'ort+ito+s bon+s!s con'!rr!# by +c*. E! #r!, a c os! ana ogy b!t,!!n th! ph!no(!na o' in"!ntion an# th! ph!C no(!na o' !"o +tionary a#aptation, an# ,as p!rhaps th! 'irst to point o+t th! !-ist!nc! o' r!si#+a organs in (achin!s. :h! c+rio+s ho(o ogy ,h!r!by th! !ngin! is ocat!# in th! 'ront o' an a+to(obi !, ,h!r! th! hors! +s!# to b!, ,o+ # ha"! #! ight!# hi(. E! a so arg+!# "!ry cog!nt y that th!r! is a proc!ss ,h!r!by th! n!,!r in"!ntions o' a#apti"! b!ha"ior ar! s+n* #!!p!r into th! bio ogica syst!( o' th! organis(. 7ro( p ann!# an# conscio+s actions th!y b!co(! habits, an# th! habits b!co(! !ss an# !ss

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conscio+s an# !ss an# !ss s+bJ!ct to "o +ntary contro . E! ass+(!#, ,ithCo+t !"i#!nc!, that this habit+a i/ation, or sin*ing proc!ss, co+ # go so #!!p as to contrib+t! to th! bo#y o' (!(ori!s, ,hich ,! ,o+ # ca th! g!notyp!, an# ,hich #!t!r(in! th! charact!ristics o' th! n!-t g!n!ration. :h! contro"!rsy abo+t th! inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics has t,o 'ac!ts. 5n th! on! han#, it app!ars to b! an arg+(!nt ,hich co+ # b! s!tt !# by 'act+a (at!ria . 5n! goo# cas! o' s+ch inh!ritanc! (ight s!tt ! th! (att!r 'or th! @a(arc*ian si#!. 0+t th! cas! against s+ch inh!ritanc!, b!ing n!gati"!, can n!"!r b! pro"!# by !"i#!nc! an# (+st r! y +pon an app!a to th!ory. %s+a y thos! ,ho ta*! th! n!gati"! "i!, arg+! 'ro( th! s!paration b!t,!!n g!r( p as( an# so(atic tiss+!, +rging that th!r! can b! no syst!(atic co((+nication 'ro( th! so(a to th! g!r( p as( in th! ight o' ,hich th! g!notyp! (ight r!"is! its! '. :h! #i''ic+ ty oo*s i*! this6 conc!i"ab y a bic!ps (+sc ! (o#i'i!# by +s! or #is+s! (ight s!cr!t! sp!ci'ic (!tabo it!s into th! circ+ ation, an# th!s! (ight conc!i"ab y s!r"! as ch!(ica (!ss!ng!rs 'ro( (+sc ! to gona#. 0+t +a4 it is #i''ic+ t to b! i!"! that th! ch!(istry o' bic!ps is so #i''!r!nt 'ro( that o', say, tric!ps that th! (!ssag! co+ # b! sp!ci'ic, an# 2b3 it is #i''ic+ t to b! i!"! that th! gona# tiss+! co+ # b! !.+ipp!# to b! appropriat! y a''!ct!# by s+ch (!ssag!s. A't!r a , th! r!c!i"!r o' any (!ssag! (+st *no, th! co#! o' th! s!n#!r, so that i' th! g!r( c! s ar! ab ! to r!c!i"! th! (!ssag!s 'ro( th! so(atic tiss+!, th!y (+st a r!a#y b! carrying so(! "!rsion o' th! so(atic co#!. :h! #ir!ctions ,hich !"o +tionary chang! co+ # ta*! ,ith th! ai# o' s+ch (!ssag!s 'ro( th! so(a ,o+ # ha"! to b! pr!'ig+r!# in th! g!r( p as(. :h! cas! against th! inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics th+s r!sts +pon a s!paration, an# th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! schoo s o' tho+ght crysta i/!s aro+n# phi osophic r!actions to s+ch a s!paration. :hos! ,ho ar! ,i ing to thin* o' th! ,or # as organi/!# +pon (+ tip ! an# s!parab ! princip !s ,i acc!pt th! notion that so(atic chang!s in#+c!# by !n"iron(!nt (ay b! co"!r!# by an !-p anation ,hich co+ # b! tota y s!parat! 'ro( th! !-p anation o' !"o +tionary chang!. 0+t thos! ,ho pr!'!r to s!! a +nity in nat+r! ,i hop! that th!s! t,o bo#i!s o' !-p anation can so(!ho, b! int!rr! at!#.

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Aor!o"!r, th! ,ho ! r! ationship b!t,!!n !arning an# !"o +tion has +n#!rgon! a c+rio+s chang! sinc! th! #ays ,h!n 0+t !r (aintain!# that !"o +tion ,as a (att!r o' c+nning rath!r than +c*, an# th! chang! ,hich has ta*!n p ac! is c!rtain y on! ,hich n!ith!r ?ar,in nor 0+t !r co+ # ha"! 'or!s!!n. 8hat . has happ!n!# is that (any th!orists no, ass+(! !arning to b! '+n#a(!nta y a stochastic or probabi istic a''air, an# in#!!#, apart 'ro( nonparsi(onio+s th!ori!s ,hich ,o+ # post+ at! so(! !nt! !chy at th! conso ! o' th! (in#, th! stochastic approach is p!rhaps th! on y organi/!# th!ory o' th! nat+r! o' !arning. :h! notion is that ran#o( chang!s occ+r, in th! brain or ! s!C,h!r!, an# that th! r!s+ ts o' s+ch ran#o( chang! ar! s! !ct!# 'or s+r"i"a by proc!ss!s o' r!in'orc!(!nt an# !-tinction. In basic th!ory, cr!ati"! tho+ght has co(! to r!s!(b ! th! !"o +tionary proc!ss in its '+n#a(!nta y stochastic nat+r!. 4!in'orc!(!nt is s!!n as gi"ing #ir!ction to th! acc+(+ ation o' ran#o( chang!s o' th! n!+ra syst!(, J+st as nat+ra s! !ction is s!!n as gi"ing #ir!ction to th! acc+(+ ation o' ran#o( chang!s o' "ariation. In both th! th!ory o' !"o +tion an# th! th!ory o' !arning, ho,!"!r, th! ,or# 9ran#o(9 is conspic+o+s y +n#!'in!#, an# th! ,or# is not an !asy on! to #!'in!. In both 'i! #s, it is ass+(!# that ,hi ! chang! (ay b! #!p!n#!nt +pon probabi istic ph!no(!na, th! probabi ity o' a gi"!n chang! is #!t!r(in!# by so(!thing #i''!r!nt 'ro( probabi ity. %n#!r ying both th! stochastic th!ory o' !"o +tion an# that o' !arning, th!r! ar! +nstat!# th!ori!s r!gar#ing th! #!t!r(inants o' th! probabi iti!s in .+!stion.48 I', ho,!"!r, ,! as* abo+t chang! in th!s! #!t!r(inants, ,! sha again b! gi"!n stochastic ans,!rs, so that th! ,or# 9ran#o(,9 +pCon ,hich a o' th!s! !-p anations t+rn, app!ars to b! a ,or# ,hos! (!aning is hi!rarchica y str+ct+r!#, i*! th! (!aning o' th! ,or# 9 !arning,9 ,hich ,as #isc+ss!# in th! 'irst part o' this !ct+r!. @ast y, th! .+!stion o' th! !"o +tionary '+nction o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics has b!!n r!op!n!# by 8a##ingtonIs ,or* on ph!nocopi!s in 8rosop*ila. At th! "!ry !ast, this ,or* in#icat!s that th! chang!s o' ph!notyp! ,hich can b! achi!"!# by th!
In this s!ns!, o' co+rs!, a th! th!ori!s of chang! ass+(! that th! ne.t chang! is in so(! #!gr!! pr!'ig+r!# in th! syst!( ,hich is to +n#!rgo that chang!.
48

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organis( +n#!r !n"iron(!nta str!ss ar! a "!ry i(portant part o' th! (achin!ry by ,hich th! sp!ci!s or h!r!#itary in! (aintains its p ac! in a str!ss'+ an# co(p!titi"! !n"iron(!nt, p!n#ing th! at!r app!aranc! o' so(! (+tation or oth!r g!n!tic chang! ,hich (ay (a*! th! sp!ci!s or in! b!tt!r ab ! to #!a ,ith th! ongoing str!ss. In this s!ns! at !ast, th! ac.+ir!# charact!ristics ha"! i(portant !"o +tionary '+nction. Eo,!"!r, th! act+a !-p!ri(!nta story in#icat!s so(!thing (or! than this an# is ,orth r!pro#+cing bri!' y. 8hat 8a##ington ,or*s ,ith is a ph!nocopy o' th! ph!notyp! bro+ght abo+t by th! g!n! bithora-. :his g!n! has "!ry pro'o+n# !''!cts +pon th! a#+ t ph!notyp!. In its pr!s!nc! th! thir# s!g(!nt o' th! thora- is (o#i'i!# to r!s!(b ! th! s!con#, an# th! itt ! ba ancing organs, or ha t!r!s, on this thir# s!g(!nt b!co(! ,ings. :h! r!s+ t is a 'o+rC,ing!# ' y. :his 'o+rC,ing!# charact!ristic can b! pro#+c!# arti'icia y in ' i!s ,hich #o not carry th! g!n! bithoraby s+bJ!cting th! p+pa! to a p!rio# o' into-ication ,ith !thy !th!r. 8a##ington ,or*s ,ith arg! pop+ ations o' 8rosop*ila ' i!s #!ri"!# 'ro( a ,i # strain b! i!"!# to b! 'r!! o' th! g!n! bithora-. E! s+bJ!cts th! p+pa! o' this pop+ ation in s+cc!ssi"! g!n!rations to th! !th!r tr!at(!nt, an# 'ro( th! r!s+ ting a#+ ts s! !cts 'or br!!#ing thos! ,hich sho, th! b!st appro-i(ation to bithora-. E! has contin+!# this !-p!ri(!nt o"!r (any g!n!rations, an# a r!a#y in th! t,!ntyCs!"!nth g!n!ration h! 'in#s that th! bithora- app!aranc! is achi!"!# by a i(it!# n+(b!r o' ' i!s ,hos! p+pa! ,!r! ,ith#ra,n 'ro( th! !-p!ri(!nta tr!at(!nt an# not s+bJ!ct!# to !th!r. %pon br!!#ing 'ro( th!s!, it t+rns o+t that th!ir bithoraapp!aranc! is not #+! to th! pr!s!nc! o' th! sp!ci'ic g!n!, bithora-, b+t is #+! to a const! ation o' g!n!s ,hich ,or* tog!th!r to gi"! this !''!ct. :h!s! "!ry stri*ing r!s+ ts can b! r!a# in "ario+s ,ays. 8! can say that in s! !cting th! b!st ph!nocopi!s, 8a##ingCton ,as in 'act s! !cting 'or a g!n!tic pot!ntia ity 'or achi!"ing this ph!notyp!. 5r ,! can say that h! ,as s! !cting to r!#+c! th! thr!sho # o' !th!r str!ss n!c!ssary to pro#+c! this r!s+ t. @!t (! s+gg!st a possib ! (o#! 'or th! #!scription o' th!s! ph!no(!na. @!t +s s+ppos! that th! ac.+ir!# charact!ristic is achi!"!# by so(! proc!ss o' '+n#a(!nta y stochastic nat+r!; p!rhaps so(! sort o' so(atic !arning;an# th! (!r! 'act that

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8a##ington is ab ! to s! !ct th! 9b!st9 ph!nocopi!s ,o+ # !n# s+pport to this ass+(ption. )o,, it is !"i#!nt that any s+ch proc!ss is, in th! nat+r! o' th! cas!, ,ast!'+ . :o achi!"! a r!s+ t by tria an# !rror ,hich co+ # ha"! b!!n achi!"!# in any (or! #ir!ct ,ay n!c!ssari y cons+(!s ti(! an# !''ort in so(! s!ns! o' th!s! ,or#s. Inso'ar as ,! thin* o' a#aptabi ity as achi!"!# by stochastic proc!ss, ,! !t in th! notion o' an !cono(ics o' a#aptabi ity. In th! 'i! # o' (!nta proc!ss, ,! ar! "!ry 'a(i iar ,ith this sort o' !cono(ics, an# in 'act a (aJor an# n!c!ssary sa"ing is achi!"!# by th! 'a(i iar proc!ss o' habit 'or(ation. 8! (ay, in th! 'irst instanc!, so "! a gi"!n prob !( by tria an# !rrorL b+t ,h!n si(i ar prob !(s r!c+r at!r, ,! t!n# to #!a ,ith th!( (or! an# (or! !cono(ica y by ta*ing th!( o+t o' th! rang! o' stochastic op!ration an# han#ing o"!r th! so +tions to a #!!p!r an# !ss ' !-ib ! (!chanis(, ,hich ,! ca 9habit.9 It is, th!r!'or!, p!r'!ct y conc!i"ab ! that so(! ana ogo+s ph!no(!non (ay obtain in r!gar# to th! pro#+ction o' bithora- charact!ristics. It (ay b! (or! !cono(ica to pro#+c! th!s! by th! rigi# (!chanis( o' g!n!tic #!t!r(ination rath!r than by th! (or! ,ast!'+ , (or! ' !-ib ! 2an# p!rhaps !ss pr!#ictab !3 (!tho# o' so(atic chang!. :his ,o+ # (!an that in 8a##ingtonIs pop+ ation o' ' i!s th!r! ,o+ # b! a s! !cti"! b!n!'it 'or any h!r!#itary in! o' ' i!s ,hich (ight contain appropriat! g!n!s 'or th! ,ho !;or 'or so(! part; o' th! bithora- ph!notyp!. It is a so possib ! that s+ch ' i!s ,o+ # ha"! an !-tra a#"antag! in that th!ir so(atic a#apti"! (achin!ry (ight th!n b! a"ai ab ! 'or #!a ing ,ith str!ss!s o' oth!r *in#s. It ,o+ # app!ar that in !arning, ,h!n th! so +tion o' th! gi"!n prob !( has b!!n pass!# on to habit, th! stochastic or !-p oratory (!chanis(s ar! s!t 'r!! 'or th! so +tion o' oth!r prob !(s, an# it is .+it! conc!i"ab ! that a si(i ar a#"antag! is achi!"!# by passing on th! b+sin!ss o' #!t!r(ining a so(atic charact!ristic to th! g!n!C script49
49 :h!s! consi#!rations a t!r so(!,hat th! o # prob !( o' th! !"o +tionary !''!ct o' +s! an# #is+s!. 5rtho#o- th!ory co+ # on y s+gg!st that a (+tation r!#+cing th! 2pot!ntia 3 si/! o' a #is+s!# organ ha# s+r"i"a "a +! in t!r(s o' th! r!s+ ting !cono(y o' tiss+!. :h! pr!s!nt th!ory ,o+ # s+gg!st that atrophy o' an organ, occ+rring at th! so(atic !"! , (ay constit+t! a #rain +pon th! tota a"ai ab ! a#aptabi ity o' th! organis(, an# that this ,ast! o' a#aptabi ity (ight b! sa"!# i'

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It (ay b! not!# that s+ch a (o#! ,o+ # b! charact!ri/!# by t'o stochastic (!chanis(s6 'irst, th! (or! s+p!r'icia (!chanis( by ,hich th! chang!s ar! achi!"!# at th! so(atic !"! , an#, s!con#, th! stochastic (!chanis( o' (+tation 2or th! sh+'' ing o' g!n! const! ations3 at th! chro(oso(a !"! . :h!s! t,o stochastic syst!(s ,i , in th! ong r+n under selecti&e conditions, b! co(p! !# to ,or* tog!th!r, !"!n tho+gh no (!ssag! can pass 'ro( th! (or! s+p!r'icia so(atic syst!( to th! g!r( p as(. &a(+! 0+tC !rIs h+nch that so(!thing i*! 9habit9 (ight b! cr+cia in !"o +tion ,as p!rhaps not too ,i#! o' th! (ar*. 8ith this intro#+ction ,! can no, proc!!# to oo* at th! prob !(s ,hich a #o+b ! bin# th!ory o' schi/ophr!nia ,o+ # pos! 'or th! g!n!ticist. enetic %ro$le#s %osed $y Do!$le Bind Theory

I' schi/ophr!nia b! a (o#i'ication or #istortion o' th! !arning proc!ss, th!n ,h!n ,! as* abo+t th! g!n!tics o' schi/ophr!nia, ,! cannot b! cont!nt J+st ,ith g!n!a ogi!s +pon ,hich ,! #iscri(inat! so(! in#i"i#+a s ,ho ha"! b!!n co((itt!# to hospita s, an# oth!rs ,ho ha"! not. :h!r! is no a priori !-p!ctation that th!s! #istortions o' th! !arning proc!ss, ,hich ar! high y 'or(a an# abstract in th!ir nat+r!, ,i n!c!ssari y app!ar ,ith that appropriat! cont!nt ,hich ,o+ # r!s+ t in hospita co((it(!nt. 5+r tas* as g!n!ticists ,i not b! th! si(p ! on! +pon ,hich th! A!n#! ians conc!ntrat!#, ass+(ing a on!CtoCon! r! ation b!t,!!n ph!notyp! an# g!notyp!. 8! cannot si(p y ass+(! that th! hospita i/!# (!(b!rs carry a g!n! 'or schi/ophr!nia an# that th! oth!rs #o not. 4ath!r, ,! ha"! to !-p!ct that s!"!ra g!n!s or const! ations o' g!n!s ,i a t!r patt!rns an# pot!ntia iti!s in th! !arning proc!ss, an# that c!rtain o' th! r!s+ tant patt!rns, ,h!n con'ront!# by appropriat! 'or(s o' !n"iron(!nta str!ss, ,i !a# to o"!rt schi/ophr!nia. In th! (ost g!n!ra t!r(s, any !arning, b! it th! absorption o' on! bit o' in'or(ation or a basic chang! in th! charact!r str+ct+r!
r!#+ction o' th! organ co+ # b! achi!"!# (or! #ir!ct y by g!n!tic #!t!r(inants.

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o' th! ,ho ! organis(, is, 'ro( th! point o' "i!, o' g!n!tics, th! ac.+isition o' an 9ac.+ir!# charact!ristic.9 It is a chang! in th! ph!notyp!, o' ,hich that ph!notyp! ,as capab ! than*s to a ,ho ! chain o' physio ogic an# !(bryo ogic proc!ss!s ,hich !a# bac* to th! g!notyp!. ="!ry st!p in this bac*,ar# !a#ing s!ri!s (ay 2conc!i"ab y3 b! (o#i'i!# or int!rr+pt!# by !n"iron(!nta i(pactsL b+t, o' co+rs!, (any o' th! st!ps ,i b! rigi# in th! s!ns! that !n"iron(!nta i(pact at that point ,o+ # #!stroy th! organis(. 8! ar! conc!rn!# on y ,ith thos! points in th! hi!rarchy at ,hich !n"iron(!nt can ta*! !''!ct an# th! organis( sti b! "iab !. Eo, (any s+ch points th!r! (ay b! ,! ar! 'ar 'ro( *no,ing. An# + ti(at! y, ,h!n ,! r!ach th! g!notyp!, ,! ar! conc!rn!# to *no, ,h!th!r th! g!notypic ! !(!nts in ,hich ,! ar! int!r!st!# ar! or ar! not "ariab !. ?o #i''!r!nc!s occ+r 'ro( g!notyp! to g!notyp! ,hich ,i a''!ct th! (o#i'iabi ity o' th! proc!ss!s !a#ing to th! ph!notypic b!ha"iors ,hich ,! obs!r"!D In th! cas! o' schi/ophr!nia 'e #!a !"i#!nt y ,ith a r! ati"! y ong an# co(p !- hi!rarchyL an# th! nat+ra history o' th! #is!as! in#icat!s that th! hi!rarchy is not (!r! y a chain o' ca+s!s an# !''!cts 'ro( g!n!Cscript to ph!notyp!, ,hich chain b!co(!s at c!rtain points con#itiona +pon !n"iron(!nta 'actors. 4ath!r, it s!!(s that in schi/ophr!nia th! !n"iro(!nta 'actors th!(s! "!s ar! i*! y to b! (o#i'i!# by th! s+bJ!ctIs b!ha"ior ,h!n!"!r b!ha"ior r! at!# to schi/ophr!nia starts to app!ar. :o i +strat! th!s! co(p !-iti!s, it is p!rhaps ,orth,hi ! to consi#!r 'or a (o(!nt th! g!n!tic prob !(s pr!s!nt!# by oth!r 'or(s o' co((+nicationa b!ha"ior;h+(or, (ath!(atica s*i , or (+sica co(position. $!rhaps in a th!s! cas!s, th!r! ar! consi#!rab ! g!n!tic #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n in#i"i#+a s in thos! 'actors ,hich (a*! 'or an abi ity to ac.+ir! th! appropriat! s*i s. 0+t th! s*i s th!(s! "!s an# th!ir partic+ ar !-pr!ssion a so #!p!n# arg! y +pon !n"iron(!nta circ+(stanc!s an# !"!n +pon sp!ci'ic training. In a##ition, ho,!"!r, to th!s! t,o co(pon!nts o' th! sit+ation, th!r! is th! 'act that th! in#i"i#+a ,ho sho,s abi ity, !.g., in (+sica co(position, is i*! y to (o # his !n"iron(!nt in a #ir!ction ,hich ,i 'a"or his #!"! oping his abi ity, an# that h! ,i , in t+rn, cr!at! an !n"iron(!nt 'or oth!rs ,hich ,i 'a"or th!ir #!"! op(!nt in th! sa(! #ir!ction.

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In th! cas! o' h+(or, th! sit+ation (ay !"!n b! on! #!gr!! (or! co(p icat!#. It is not c !ar that in this cas! th! r! ationship b!t,!!n h+(orist an# his h+(an !n"iron(!nt ,i n!c!ssari y b! sy((!trica . 1rant!# that in so(! cas!s th! h+(orist pro(ot!s h+(or in oth!rs, in (any oth!r cas!s th!r! occ+rs th! ,! C*no,n co(p !(!ntary r! ationship b!t,!!n h+(orist an# 9straight9 (an. In#!!#, th! h+(orist, inso'ar as h! hogs th! c!nt!r o' th! stag!, (ay r!#+c! oth!rs to th! position o' r!c!i"ing h+(or b+t not th!(s! "!s contrib+ting. :h!s! consi#!rations can b! app i!# +nchang!# to th! prob !( o' schi/ophr!nia. Anybo#y ,atching th! transCactions ,hich occ+r b!t,!!n th! (!(b!rs o' a 'a(i y containing an i#!nti'i!# schi/ophr!nic ,i p!rc!i"! i((!#iat! y that th! sy(pto(atic b!ha"ior o' th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt 'its ,ith this !n"iron(!nt an#, in#!!#, pro(ot!s in th! oth!r (!(b!rs thos! charact!ristics ,hich.!"o*! th! schi/ophr!nic b!ha"ior. :h+s, in a##ition to th! t,o stochastic (!chanis(s o+t in!# in th! pr!"io+s s!ction, ,! no, 'ac! a thir#, na(! y th! (!chanis( o' thos! chang!s ,h!r!by th! 'a(i y, p!rhaps gra#+a y, b!co(!s organi/!# 2i.!., i(its th! b!ha"iors o' th! co(pon!nt in#i"i#+a s3 in s+ch a ,ay as to 'it th! schi/ophr!nia. A .+!stion ,hich is 'r!.+!nt y as*!# is this6 9I' this 'a(i y is schi/ophr!nog!nic, ho, #o!s it happ!n that a o' th! sib ings ar! not #iagnosab ! as schi/ophr!nic pati!ntsD9 E!r! it is n!c!ssary to insist that th! 'a(i y, i*! any oth!r organi/ation, cr!at!s an# #!p!n#s +pon #i''!r!ntiation a(ong its (!(b!rs. As in (any organi/ations, th!r! is roo( on y 'or on! boss, in spit! o' th! 'act that th! organi/ation op!rat!s +pon thos! pr!(is!s ,hich ,o+ # in#+c! a#(inistrati"! s*i an# a(bition in its (!(b!rsL so a so in th! schi/ophr!nog!nic 'a(i y th!r! (ay b! roo( 'or on y on! schi/ophr!nic. :h! cas! o' th! h+(orist is .+it! co(parab !. :h! organi/ation o' th! Aar- 'a(i y, ,hich co+ # cr!at! 'o+r pro'!ssiona h+(orists, (+st ha"! b!!n .+it! !-c!ptiona . Aor! +s+a y on! s+ch in#i"i#+a ,o+ # s+''ic! to r!C#+c! th! oth!rs to (or! co((onp ac! b!ha"iora ro !s. 1!n!Ctics (ay p ay a ro ! in #!ci#ing ,hich o' s!"!ra sib ings sha b! th! schi/ophr!nic;or ,hich sha b! th! c o,n;b+t it is by no (!ans c !ar that s+ch

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h!r!#itary 'actors co+ # co(p !t! y #!t!r(in! th! !"o +tion or ro !s ,ithin th! 'a(i y organi/ation. A s!con# .+!stion;to ,hich ,! ha"! no 'ina ans,!r; conc!rns th! #!gr!! o' schi/ophr!nia 2g!n!tic an#Kor ac.+ir!#3 ,hich (+st b! assign!# to th! schi/ophr!nog!nic par!nt. @!t (!, 'or p+rpos!s o' th! pr!s!nt in.+iry, #!'in! t,o #!gr!!s o' schi/ophr!nic sy(pto(ato ogy, an# not! that th! soCca !# 9psychotic br!a*9 so(!ti(!s #i"i#!s th!s! t,o #!gr!!s. :h! (or! s!rio+s an# conspic+o+s #!gr!! o' sy(pto(ato ogy is ,hat is con"!ntiona y ca !# schi/ophr!nia. I ,i ca it 9o"!rt schi/ophr!nia.9 :h! p!rsons so a'' ict!# b!Cha"! in ,ays ,hich ar! gross y #!"iant 'ro( th! c+ t+ra C!n"iron(!nt. In partic+ ar, th!ir b!ha"ior s!!(s charact!ri/!# by conspic+o+s or !-agg!rat!# !rrors an# #istortions r!gar#ing th! nat+r! an# typing o' th!ir o,n (!ssag!s 2int!rna an# !-t!rna 3, an# o' th! (!ssag!s ,hich th!y r!c!i"! 'ro( oth!rs. I(agination is s!!(ing y con'+s!# ,ith p!rc!ption. :h! it!ra is con'+s!# ,ith th! (!taphoric. Int!rna (!ssag!s ar! con'+s!# ,ith !-t!rna . :h! tri"ia is con'+s!# ,ith th! "ita . :h! originator o' th! (!ssag! is con'+s!# ,ith th! r!cipi!nt an# th! p!rc!i"!r ,ith th! thing p!rc!i"!#. An# so on. In g!n!ra , th!s! #istortions boi #o,n to this6 that th! pati!nt b!ha"!s in s+ch a ,ay that h! sha b! r!sponsib ! 'or no (!taco((+nicati"! asp!ct o' his (!ssag!s. E! #o!s this, (or!o"!r, in a (ann!r ,hich (a*!s his con#ition conspic+o+s6 in so(! cas!s, ' oo#ing th! !n"iron(!nt ,ith (!ssag!s ,hos! ogica typing is !ith!r tota y obsc+r! or (is !a#ingL in oth!r cas!s, o"!rt y ,ith#ra,ing to s+ch a point that h! co((its hi(s! ' to no o"!rt (!ssag!. In th! 9co"!rt9 cas! th! b!ha"ior o' th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt is si(i ar y b+t !ss conspic+o+s y charact!ri/!# by a contin+a changing o' th! ogica typing o' his or h!r (!ssag!s, an# a t!n#!ncy to r!spon# to th! (!ssag!s o' oth!rs (esp!cia y to thos! o' oth!r 'a(i y (!(b!rs3 as tho+gh th!s! ,!r! o' ogica typ!, #i''!r!nt 'ro( that ,hich th! sp!a*!r int!n#!#. In this syst!( o' b!ha"ior th! (!ssag!s o' th! "isCaC"is ar! contin+a y #is.+a i'i!#, !ith!r by in#icating that th!y ar! inappropriat! r!p i!s to ,hat th! co"!rt schi/ophr!nic has sai# or by in#icating that th!y ar! th! pro#+ct o' so(! 'a+ t in th! charact!r or (oti"ation o' th! sp!a*!r.

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Aor!o"!r, this #!str+cti"! b!ha"ior is in g!n!ra (aintain!# in s+ch a ,ay as to b! +n#!t!ct!#. &o ong as th! co"!rt schi/ophr!nic can s+cc!!# in p+tting th! oth!r in th! ,rong, his or h!r patho ogy is obsc+r!# an# th! b a(! 'a s ! s!C,h!r!. :h!r! is so(! !"i#!nc! that th!s! p!rsons '!ar co C aps! into o"!rt schi/ophr!nia ,h!n 'ac!# by circ+(stanc!s ,hich ,o+ # 'orc! th!( to r!cogni/! th! patt!rn o' th!ir op!rations. :h!y ,i !"!n +s! th! thr!at, 9Fo+ ar! #ri"ing (! cra/y,9 as a #!'!ns! o' th!ir position. 8hat I a( h!r! ca ing co"!rt schi/ophr!nia is charact!ristic o' th! par!nts o' schi/ophr!nics in th! 'a(i i!s ,hich ,! ha"! st+#i!#. :his b!ha"ior, ,h!n it occ+rs in th! (oth!r, has b!!n !-t!nsi"! y caricat+r!#L so I sha +s! h!r! an !-a(p ! o' ,hich th! c!ntra 'ig+r! is th! 'ath!r. Ar. an# Ars. $. ha# b!!n (arri!# so(! !ight!!n y!ars an# ha"! a n!arCh!b!phr!nic son o' si-t!!n. :h!ir (arriag! is #i''ic+ t an# is charact!ri/!# by a (ost contin+a hosti ity. Eo,!"!r, sh! is a *!!n gar#!n!r, an# on a c!rtain &+n#ay a't!rnoon th!y ,or*!# tog!th!r p anting ros!s in ,hat ,as to b! h!r ros! gar#!n. &h! r!ca s that this ,as an +n+s+a y p !asant occasion. 5n Aon#ay (orning, th! h+sban# ,!nt to ,or* as +s+a , an# ,hi ! h! ,as gon! Ars. $. r!c!i"!# a phon! ca 'ro( a co(p !t! strang!r in.+iring, rath!r apo og!tica y, ,h!n Ars. $. ,as going to !a"! th! ho+s!. :his ca(! as so(!,hat o' a s+rpris!. &h! #i# not *no, that 'ro( h!r h+sban#Is point o' "i!, th! (!ssag!s o' shar!# ,or* on th! ros! gar#!n ,!r! 'ra(!# ,ithin th! arg!r cont!-t o' his ha"ing agr!!# #+ring th! pr!"io+s ,!!* to s! th! ho+s!. In so(! cas!s, it a (ost oo*s as tho+gh th! o"!rt schi/ophr!nic ,!r! a caricat+r! o' th! co"!rt. I' ,! ass+(! that both th! gross y schi/ophr!nic sy(pto(s o' th! i#!nti'i!# pati!nt an# th! 9co"!rt schi/ophr!nia9 o' th! par!nts ar! in part #!t!r(in!# by g!n!tic 'actors, i.!., that, gi"!n th! appropriat! !-p!ri!ntia s!tting, g!n!tics in so(! #!gr!! r!n#!rs th! pati!nt (or! iab ! to #!"! op th!s! partic+ ar patt!rns o' b!ha"ior, th!n ,! ha"! to as* ho, th!s! t,o #!gr!!s o' patho ogy (ight b! r! at!# in a g!n!tic th!ory. C!rtain y, no ans,!r to this .+!stion is at pr!s!nt a"ai Cab !, b+t it is c !ar y possib ! ,! h!r! 'ac! t,o .+it! #istinct prob !(s. In th! cas! o' th! o"!rt schi/ophr!nic, th! g!n!ticist ,i ha"! to i#!nti'y

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thos! 'or(a charact!ristics o' th! pati!nt ,hich ,i r!n#!r hi( (or! i*! y to b! #ri"!n to a psychotic br!a* by th! co"!rt y inconsist!nt b!ha"ior o' his par!nts 2or by this in conJ+nction an# contrast ,ith th! (or! consist!nt b!ha"ior o' p!op ! o+tsi#! th! 'a(i y3. It is too !ar y to (a*! a sp!ci'ic g+!ss at th!s! charact!ristics, b+t ,! (ay r!asonab y ass+(! that th!y ,o+ # inc +#! so(! sort o' rigi#ity. $!rhaps th! p!rson pron! to o"!rt schi/ophr!nia ,o+ # b! charact!ri/!# by so(! !-tra str!ngth o' psycho ogica co((it(!nt to th! status 5uo as h! at th! (o(!nt s!!s it, ,hich co((it(!nt ,o+ # b! h+rt or 'r+strat!# by th! par!ntsI rapi# shi'ts o' 'ra(! an# cont!-t. 5r p!rhaps this pati!nt (ight b! charact!ri/!# by th! high "a +! o' so(! para(!t!r #!t!r(ining th! r! ationship b!t,!!n prob !( so "ing an# habit 'or(ation. $!rhaps it is th! p!rson ,ho too r!a#i y han#s o"!r th! so +tions to habit ,ho is h+rt by thos! chang!s in cont!-t ,hich in"a i#at! his so +tions J+st at th! (o(!nt ,h!n h! has incorporat!# th!( into his habit str+ct+r!. In th! cas! o' co"!rt schi/ophr!nia, th! prob !( 'or th! g!n!ticist ,i b! #i''!r!nt. E! ,i ha"! to i#!nti'y thos! 'or(a charact!ristics ,hich ,! obs!r"! in th! par!nts o' th! schi/ophr!nic. E!r! ,hat is r!.+ir!# ,o+ # s!!( to b! a ' !-ibi ity rath!r than a rigi#ity. 0+t, ha"ing ha# so(! !-p!ri!nc! in #!a ing ,ith th!s! p!op !, II (+st con'!ss to '!! ing that th!y ar! rigi# y co((itt!# to th!ir patt!rns o' inconsist!ncy. 8h!th!r th! t,o .+!stions ,hich th! g!n!ticist (+st ans,!r can si(p y b! +(p!# tog!th!r by r!gar#ing th! co"!rt patt!rns as (!r! y a (i #!r "!rsion o' th! o"!rt, or can b! bro+ght +n#!r a sing ! h!a# by s+gg!sting that in so(! s!ns! th! sa(! rigi#ity op!rat!s at #i''!r!nt !"! s in th! t,o cas!s, I #o not *no,. 0! that as it (ay, th! #i''ic+ ti!s ,hich ,! h!r! 'ac! ar! !ntir! y charact!ristic o' any att!(pt to 'in# a g!n!tic bas! 'or any b!ha"iora charact!ristic. )otorio+s y, th! sign o' any (!ssag! or b!ha"ior is s+bJ!ct to r!"!rsa , an# this g!n!ra i/ation is on! o' th! (ost i(portant. contrib+tions o' psychoCana ysis, to o+r thin*ing. I' ,! 'in# that a s!-+a !-hibitionist is th! chi # o' a pr+#ish par!nt, ar! ,! J+sti'i!# in going to th! g!n!ticist to as* hi( to trac! o+t th! g!n!tics o' so(! basic charact!ristic ,hich ,i 'in# its ph!notypic !-pr!ssion both in th! pr+#ishn!ss o' th! par!nt an# in th! !-hibiC

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tionis( o' th! o''springD :h! ph!no(!na o' s+ppr!ssion an# o"!rco(p!nsation !a# contin+a y to th! #i''ic+ ty that an !-c!ss o' so(!thing at on! !"! 2!.g., in th! g!notyp!3 (ay !a# to a #!'ici!ncy o' th! #ir!ct !-pr!ssion o' that so(!thing at , so(! (or! s+p!r'icia !"! 2!.g,. in th! ph!notyp!3. An# con"!rs! y. 8! ar! "!ry 'ar, th!n, 'ro( b!ing ab ! to pos! sp!ci'ic .+!stions 'or th! g!n!ticistL b+t I b! i!"! that th! ,i#!r i(p ications o' ,hat I ha"! b!!n saying (o#i'y so(!,hat th! phi osophy o' g!n!tics. 5+r approach to th! prob !(s o' schi/ophr!nia by ,ay o' a th!ory o' !"! s or ogica typ!s has #isc os!# 'irst that th! prob !(s o' a#aptation an# !arning an# th!ir patho ogi!s (+st b! consi#!r!# in t!r(s o' a hi!rarchic syst!( in ,hich stochastic chang! occ+rs at th! bo+n#ary points b!t,!!n th! s!g(!nts o' th! hi!rarchy. 8! ha"! consi#!r!# thr!! s+ch r!gions o' stochastic chang! ;th! !"! o' g!n!tic (+tation, th! !"! o' !arning, an# th! !"! o' chang! in 'a(i y organi/ation. 8! ha"! #isc os!# th! possibi ity o' a r! ationship o' th!s! !"! s ,hich ortho#o- g!n!tics ,o+ # #!ny, an# ,! ha"! #isc os!# that at !ast in h+(an soci!ti!s th! !"o +tionary syst!( consists not (!r! y in th! s! !cti"! s+r"i"a o' thos! p!rsons ,ho happ!n to s! !ct appropriat! !n"iron(!nts b+t a so in th! (o#i'ication o' 'a(i y !n"iron(!nt in a #ir!ction ,hich (ight !nhanc! th! ph!notypic an# g!notypic charact!ristics o' th! in#i"i#+a (!(b!rs. What (s Man/

I' I ha# b!!n as*!# 'i't!!n y!ars ago ,hat I +n#!rstoo# by th! ,or# (at!ria is(, I thin* I sho+ # ha"! sai# that (at!ria is( is a th!ory abo+t th! nat+r! o' th! +ni"!rs!, an# I ,o+ # ha"! acc!pt!# as a (att!r o' co+rs! th! notion that this th!ory is in so(! s!ns! non(ora . I ,o+ # ha"! agr!!# that th! sci!ntist is an !-p!rt ,ho can pro"i#! hi(s! ' an# oth!rs ,ith insights an# t!chni.+!s, b+t that sci!nc! co+ # ha"! nothing to say abo+t ,h!th!r th!s! t!chni.+!s s*ould b! +s!#. In this, I ,o+ # ha"! b!!n 'o o,ing th! g!n!ra tr!n# o' sci!nti'ic phi osophy associat!# ,ith s+ch na(!s at

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?!(ocrit+s, 1a i !o, )!,ton,50 @a"oisi!r, an# ?ar,in. I ,o+ # ha"! b!!n #iscar#ing th! !ss r!sp!ctab ! "i!,s o' s+ch (!n as E!rac it+s, th! a ch!(ists, 8i ia( 0 a*!, @a(arc*, an# &a(+! 0+t !r. 7or th!s!, th! (oti"! 'or sci!nti'ic in.+iry ,as th! #!sir! to b+i # a co(pr!h!nsi"! "i!, o' th! +ni"!rs! ,hich sho+ # sho, ,hat Aan is an# ho, h! is r! at!# to th! r!st o' th! +ni"!rs!. :h! pict+r! ,hich th!s! (!n ,!r! trying to b+i # ,as !thica an# a!sth!tic. :h!r! is this (+ch conn!ction c!rtain y b!t,!!n sci!nti'ic tr+th, on th! on! han#, an# b!a+ty an# (ora ity, on th! oth!r6 that i' a (an !nt!rtain 'a s! opinions r!gar#ing his o,n nat+r!, h! ,i b! !# th!r!by to co+rs!s o' action ,hich ,i b! in so(! pro'o+n# s!ns! i((ora or +g y. :o#ay, i' as*!# th! sa(! .+!stion r!gar#ing th! (!aning o' (at!ria is(, I ,o+ # say that this ,or# stan#s in (y thin*ing 'or a co !ction o' r+ !s abo+t ,hat .+!stions sho+ # b! as*!# r!gar#ing th! nat+r! o' th! +ni"!rs!. 0+t I ,o+ # not s+ppos! that this s!t o' r+ !s has any c ai( to b! +ni.+! y right. :h! (ystic 9s!!s th! ,or # in a grain o' san#,9 an# th! ,or # ,hich h! s!!s is !ith!r (ora or a!sth!tic, or both. :h! )!,tonian sci!ntist s!!s a r!g+ arity in th! b!ha"ior o' 'a ing bo#i!s an# c ai(s to #ra, 'ro( this r!g+ arity no nor(ati"! conc +sions ,hatso!"!r. 0+t his c ai( c!as!s to b! consist!nt at th! (o(!nt ,h!n h! pr!ach!s that this is th! right ,ay to "i!, th! +ni"!rs!. :o pr!ach is possib ! on y in t!r(s o' nor(ati"! conc +sions. I ha"! to+ch!# +pon s!"!ra (att!rs in th! co+rs! o' this !ct+r! ,hich ha"! b!!n 'oci o' contro"!rsy in th! ong batt ! b!t,!!n a non(ora (at!ria is( an# a (or! ro(antic "i!, o' th! +ni"!rs!. :h! batt ! b!t,!!n ?ar,in an# &a(+! 0+t !r (ay ha"! o,!# so(! o' its bitt!rn!ss to ,hat oo*!# i*! p!rsona a''ronts, b+t b!hin# a this th! arg+(!nt conc!rn!# a .+!stion ,hich ha# r! igio+s stat+s.
:h! name o' )!,ton c!rtain y b! ongs in this ist. 0+t th! (an hi(s! ' ,as o' a #i''!r!nt *i#n!y. Eis (ystica pr!occ+pation ,ith a ch!(y an# apoca yptic ,ritings, an# his s!cr!t th!o ogica (onis( in#icat! that h! ,as not th! 'irst obJ!cti"! sci!ntist b+t, rath!r, th! 9 ast o' th! (agicians9 2s!! J. A. <!yn!s, 9)!,ton, th! Aan,9 :!rc!nt!nary C! !brations, @on#on, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1947, pp. 27C343. )!,ton an# 0 a*! ,!r! a i*! in #!"oting (+ch ti(! an# tho+ght to th! (ystica ,or*s o' Jacob 0o!h(!.
50

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:h! batt ! ,as r!a y abo+t 9"ita is(.9 It ,as a .+!stion o' ho, (+ch life an# ,hat or#!r o' i'! co+ # b! assign!# to organis(sL an# ?ar,inIs "ictory a(o+nt!# to this, that ,hi ! h! ha# not s+cc!!#!# in #!tracting 'ro( th! (yst!rio+s i"! in!ss o' th! in#i"i#+a organis(, h! ha# at !ast #!(onstrat!# that th! !"o +tionary pict+r! co+ # b! r!#+c!# to nat+ra 9 a,.9 It ,as, th!r!'or!, "!ry i(portant to #!(onstrat! that th! as y!t +ncon.+!r!# t!rritory;th! i'! o' th! in#i"i#+a organis(;co+ # not contain anything ,hich ,o+ # r!capt+r! this !"o +tionary t!rritory. It ,as sti (yst!rio+s that i"ing organis(s co+ # achi!"! a#apti"! chang! #+ring th!ir in#i"i#+a i"!s, an# at a costs th!s! a#apti"! chang!s, th! 'a(o+s ac.+ir!# charact!ristics, (+st not ha"! in' +!nc! +pCon th! !"o +tionary tr!!. :h! 9inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics9 thr!at!n!# a ,ays to r!capt+r! th! 'i! # o' !"o +tion 'or th! "ita ist si#!. 5n! part o' bio ogy (+st b! s!parat! 'ro( th! oth!r. :h! obJ!cti"! sci!ntists c ai(!#, o' co+rs!, to b! i!"! in a +nity in nat+r!;that + ti(at! y th! ,ho ! o' nat+ra ph!no(!na ,o+ # pro"! s+sc!ptib ! to th!ir ana ysis, b+t 'or abo+t a h+n#r!# y!ars it ,as con"!ni!nt to s!t +p an i(p!r(!ab ! scr!!n b!t,!!n th! bio ogy o' th! in#i"i#+a an# th! th!ory o' !"o +tion. &a(+! 0+t !rIs 9inh!rit!# (!(ory9 ,as an attac* +pon this scr!!n. :h! .+!stion ,ith ,hich I a( conc!rn!# in this conc +#ing s!ction o' th! !ct+r! co+ # b! p+t in "ario+s ,ays. Is th! batt ! b!t,!!n non(ora (at!ria is( an# th! (or! (ystica "i!, o' th! +ni"!rs! a''!ct!# by a chang! in th! '+nction assign!# to th! 9ac.+ir!# charact!risticsD9 ?o!s th! o #!r (at!ria ist th!sis r!a y #!p!n# +pon th! pr!(is! that cont!-ts ar! iso ab !D 5r is o+r "i!, o' th! ,or # chang!# ,h!n ,! a#(it an in'init! r!gr!ss o' cont!-ts, in*!# to !ach oth!r in a co(p !- n!t,or* o' (!tar! ationsD ?o!s th! possibi ity that th! s!parat! !"! s o' stochastic chang! 2in ph!notyp! an# g!notyp!3 (ay b! conn!ct!# in th! arg!r cont!-t o' th! !co ogica syst!( a t!r o+r a !gianc! in th! batt !D In br!a*ing a,ay 'ro( th! pr!(is! that cont!-ts ar! a C,ays conc!pt+a y iso ab !, I ha"! !t in th! notion o' a +ni"!rs! (+ch (or! +ni'i!#;an# in that s!ns! (+ch (or! (ystica ;than th! con"!ntiona +ni"!rs! o' non(ora (at!ria is(. ?o!s th! n!, position so achi!"!# gi"! +s n!, gro+n#s 'or hop! that sci!nc! (ight ans,!r (ora or a!sth!tic .+!stionsD

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I b! i!"! that th! position is signi'icant y chang!#, an# p!rhaps I can b!st (a*! this c !ar by consi#!ring a (att!r ,hich yo+ as psychiatrists ha"! tho+ght abo+t (any ti(!s. I (!an th! (att!r o' 9contro 9 an# th! ,ho ! r! at!# co(p !- s+gg!st!# by s+ch ,or#s as (anip+ ation, spontan!ity, 'r!! ,i , an# t!chni.+!. I thin* yo+ ,i agr!! ,ith (! that th!r! is no ar!a in ,hich 'a s! pr!(is!s r!gar#ing th! nat+r! o' th! s! ' an# its r! ation to oth!rs can b! so s+r! y pro#+cti"! o' #!str+ction an# +g in!ss as this ar!a o' i#!as abo+t contro . A h+(an b!ing in r! ation ,ith anoth!r has "!ry i(it!# contro o"!r ,hat happ!ns in that r! ationship. E! is a p ar t of a t,oCp!rson +nit, an# th!. contro ,hich any part can ha"! o"!r any ,ho ! is strict y i(it!#. :h! in'init! r!gr!ss o' cont!-ts ,hich I ha"! ta *!# abo+t is on y anoth!r !-a(p ! o' th! sa(! ph!no(!non. 8hat I ha"! contrib+t!# to this #isc+ssion is th! notion. that th! contrast b!t,!!n part an# ,ho !, ,h!n!"!r this contrast app!ars in th! r!a ( o' co((+nication, is si(p y a contrast in ogica typing. :h! ,ho ! is a ,ays in a (!tar! ationship ,ith its parts. As in ogic th! proposition can n!"!r #!t!r(in! th! (!ta proposition, so a so in (att!rs o' contro th! s(a !r cont!-t can n!"!r #!t!r(in! th! arg!r. I ha"! r!(ar*!# 2!.g., ,h!n #isc+ssing th! ph!no(!na o' ph!notypic co(p!nsation3 that in hi!rarchi!s o' ogica typing th!r! is o't!n so(! sort o' chang! o' sign at !ach !"! , ,h!n th! !"! s ar! r! at!# to !ach oth!r in s+ch a ,ay as to cr!at! a s! 'Ccorr!cti"! syst!(. :his app!ars in a si(p ! #iagra((atic 'or( in th! initiatory hi!rarchy ,hich I st+#i!# in a )!, 1+in!a trib!. :h! initiators ar! th! nat+ra !n!(i!s o' th! no"ic!s, b!ca+s! it is th!ir tas* to b+ y th! no"ic!s into shap!. :h! (!n ,ho initiat!# th! pr!s!nt initiators no, ha"! a ro ! o' critici/ing ,hat is no, b!ing #on! in th! initiaC tion c!r!(oni!s, an# this (a*!s th!( th! nat+ra a i!s o' th! pr!s!nt no"ic!s. An# so on. &o(!thing o' th! sa(! sort a so occ+rs in A(!rican co !g! 'rat!rniti!s, ,h!r! J+niors t!n# to b! a i!# ,ith 'r!sh(!n an# s!niors ,ith sopho(or!s. :his gi"!s +s a "i!, o' th! ,or # ,hich is sti a (ost +n!-p or!#. 0+t so(! o' its co(p !-iti!s (ay b! s+gg!st!# by a "!ry cr+#! an# i(p!r'!ct ana ogy. I thin* that th! '+nctioning o' s+ch hi!rarchi!s (ay b! co(par!# ,ith th! b+sin!ss o' trying to bac* a tr+c* to ,hich on! or (or! trai !rs ar! attach!#. =ach

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s!g(!ntation o' s+ch a syst!( #!not!s a r!"!rsa o' sign, an# !ach a##!# s!g(!nt #!not!s a #rastic #!cr!as! in th! a(o+nt o' contro that can b! !-!rt!# by th! #ri"!r o' th! tr+c*. I' th! syst!( is para ! to th! rightChan# si#! o' th! roa#, an# h! ,ants th! trai !r i((!#iat! y b!hin# hi( to approach th! rightChan# si#!, h! (+st t+rn his 'ront ,h!! s to th! !'t. :his ,i g+i#! th! r!ar o' th! tr+c* a,ay 'ro( th! rightChan# si#! o' th! roa# so that th! 'ront o' th! trai !r is p+ !# o"!r to its !'t. :his ,i no, ca+s! th! r!ar o' th! trai !r to point to,ar# th! right. An# so on. As anybo#y ,ho has att!(pt!# this ,i *no,, th! a(o+nt o' a"ai ab ! contro 'a s o'' rapi# y. :o bac* a tr+c* ,ith on! trai !r is a r!a#y #i''ic+ t b!ca+s! th!r! is on y a i(it!# rang! o' ang !s ,ithin ,hich th! contro can b! !-!rt!#. I' th! trai !r is in in!, or a (ost in in!, ,ith th! tr+c*, th! contro is !asy, b+t as th! ang ! b!t,!!n trai !r an# tr+c* #i(inish!s, a point is r!ach!# at ,hich contro is ost an# th! att!(pt to !-!rt it on y r!s+ ts in Jac**ni'ing o' th! syst!(. 8h!n ,! consi#!r th! prob !( o' contro ing a s!con# trai !r, th! thr!sho # 'or Jac**ni'ing is #rastica y r!#+c!#, an# contro b!co(!s, th!r!'or!, a (ost n!g igib !. As I s!! it, th! ,or # is (a#! +p o' a "!ry co(p !- n!tC,or* 2rath!r than a chain3 o' !ntiti!s ,hich ha"! this sort o' r! ationship to !ach oth!r, b+t ,ith this #i''!r!nc!, that (any o' th! !ntiti!s ha"! th!ir o,n s+pp i!s o' !n!rgy an# p!rhaps !"!n th!ir o,n i#!as o' ,h!r! th!y ,o+ # i*! to go. In s+ch a ,or # th! prob !(s o' contro b!co(! (or! a*in to art than to sci!nc!, not (!r! y b!ca+s! ,! t!n# to thin* o' th! #i''ic+ t an# th! +npr!#ictab ! as cont!-ts 'or art b+t a so b!ca+s! th! r!s+ ts o' !rror ar! i*! y to b! +g in!ss. @!t (! th!n conc +#! ,ith a ,arning that ,! socia sci!ntists ,o+ # #o ,! to ho # bac* o+r !ag!rn!ss to contro that ,or # ,hich ,! so i(p!r'!ct y +n#!rstan#. :h! 'act o' o+r i(p!r'!ct +n#!rstan#ing sho+ # not b! a o,!# to '!!# o+r an-i!ty an# so incr!as! th! n!!# to contro . 4ath!r, o+r st+#i!s co+ # b! inspir!# by a (or! anci!nt, b+t to#ay !ss honor!#, (oti"!6 a c+riosity abo+t th! ,or # o' ,hich ,! ar! part. :h! r!,ar#s o' s+ch ,or* ar! not po,!r b+t b!a+ty. It is a strang! 'act that !"!ry gr!at sci!nti'ic a#"anc!;not !ast th! a#"anc!s ,hich )!,ton achi!"!#;has b!!n ! !gant.

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Additional $eferences 8. 4. Ashby, 8esign for a <rain, )!, For*, John 8i !y X &ons, Inc., 1952. , Introduction to "y-ernetics, )!, For* an# @on#on, John 8i !y X &ons, Inc., 1956. 1. 0at!son, ?. ?. Jac*son, J. Ea !y, an# J. E. 8!a* an#, 9:o,ar# a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 <e*a&ioral Science, 1956, 16 251C64. 1. 0at!son, 9C+ t+ra $rob !(s $os!# by a &t+#y o' &chi/ophr!nic $roc!ss,9 Symposium on Sc*i:op*renia, an Integrated Approac*, by A 'r!# A+!rbac*, A. ?., !#., A(!rican $sychiatric Association, &y(posi+( o' th! Ea,aiian ?i"iC siona A!!ting, 1958, )!, For*, 4ona # $r!ss, 1959. , 9:h! )!, Conc!pt+a 7ra(!s 'or 0!ha"iora 4!Cs!arch,9 $roc!!#ings o' th! &i-th Ann+a $sychiatric Con'!r!nc! at th! )!, J!rs!y )!+roC$sychiatric Instit+t!, $rinc!ton, 1958, pp. 54C71. , 9:h! 1ro+p ?yna(ics o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 Chronic &chi/ophr!nia, @. App !by, J. A. &ch!r, an# J. E. C+((ings, !#s., 1 !nco!, I ., :h! 7r!! $r!ss, 1960. , 9&ocia $ anning an# th! Conc!pt o' ?!+t!roC @!arning,9 4! ation to th! ?!(ocratic 8ay o' @i'!, ConC '!r!nc! on &ci!nc!, $hi osophy an# 4! igion, &!con# &y(posi+(, !# by @. 0ryson an# @. 7in*! st!in, )!, For*, Earp!r X 0ros., 1942. , )a"!n, a &+r"!y o' $rob !(s &+gg!st!# by a Co(posit! $ict+r! o f C+ t+r! o f a )!, 1+in!a :rib! ?ra,n 'ro( :hr!! $oints o' Gi!,, =#. 2, &tan'or#, Ca i'., &tan'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1958. &. 0+t !r, :ho+ght an# @ang+ag!, 1890, p+b ish!# in th! &hr!,sb+ry =#ition o' th! ,or*s o' &a(+! 0+t !r, 1925, "o . -i-. , @+c* or C+nning as th! Aain A!ans o' 5rganic Ao#i'ication, @on#on, :r+bn!r, 1887. C. ?. ?ar ington, 9:h! 5rigins o' ?ar,inis(,9 &ci!nti'ic A(!rican, 1959, 2006 60C65.

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C. ?ar,in, 5n th! 5rigin o' &p!ci!s, by A!ans o' )at+ra &! !ction, @on#on, A+rray, 1859. C. C. 1iI ispi!, 9@a(arc* an# ?ar,in in th! Eistory o' &ci!nc!,9 A(!rican &ci!ntist, 1958, 466 388C409. J. &tro+#, 9$sycho ogica Ao(!nt in $!rc!ptionC?isc+ssion,9 Cyb!rn!tics6 Circ+ ar Ca+sa an# 7!!#bac* A!chanis(s in 0io ogica an# &ocia &yst!(s, :ransactions o' th! &i-th Con'!r!nc!, E. Gon 7o!rst!r, !t a 6, !#s., )!, For*, Josiah AacyL Jr. 7o+n#ation, 1949, pp. 27C63. C. E. 8a##ington, :h! &trat!gy o' th! 1!n!s, @on#on, 1!org! A !n X %n,in, @t#., 1957. , 9:h! Int!gration o' 1!n!CContro !# $roc!ss!s an# Its 0!aring on ="o +tion,9 Caryo ogia, &+pp !(!nt, 1954, pp. 232C45. , 91!n!tic Assi(i ation o' an Ac.+ir!# Charact!r,9 ="o +tion, 1953, 76 118C26. A. 8!is(ann, =ssays +pon E!r!#ity, a+thori/!# trans ation, =. 0. $o+ ton, !t a ., !#s., 5-'or#, C ar!n#on $r!ss, 1889.

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Dou)le *in#6 1989%

?o+b ! bin# th!ory ,as, 'or (!, an !-!(p i'ication o' ho, to thin* abo+t s+ch (att!rs an#, in this asp!ct at !ast, th! ,ho ! b+sin!ss is ,orth so(! r!C!-a(ination. &o(!ti(!s;o't!n in sci!nc! an# a ,ays in art;on! #o!s not *no, ,hat th! prob !(s ,!r! ti a't!r th!y ha"! b!!n so "!#. &o p!rhaps it ,i b! +s!'+ to stat! r!trosp!cti"! y ,hat prob !(s ,!r! so "!# 'or (! by #o+b ! bin# th!ory. 7irst th!r! ,as th! prob !( o' r!i'ication. C !ar y th!r! ar! in th! (in# no obJ!cts or !"!nts;no pigs, no cocon+t pa (s, an# no (oth!rs. :h! (in# contains on y trans'or(s, p!rc!pts, i(ag!s, !tc., an# r+ !s 'or (a*ing th!s! trans'or(s, p!rc!pts, !tc. In ,hat 'or( th!s! r+ !s !-ist ,! #o not *no,, b+t pr!s+(ab y th!y ar! !(bo#i!# in th! "!ry (achin!ry ,hich cr!at!s th! trans'or(s. :h! r+ !s ar! c!rtain y not co((on y !-p icit as conscio+s 9tho+ghts.9 In any cas!, it is nons!ns! to say that a (an ,as 'right!n!# by a ion, b!ca+s! a ion is not an i#!a. :h! (an (a*!s an idea o' th! ion. :h! !-p anatory ,or # o' su-stance can in"o*! no #i''!r!nc!s an# no i#!as b+t on y 'orc!s an# i(pacts. An#, p!r contra, th! ,or # o' form an# co((+nication in"o*!s no things, 'orc!s, or i(pacts b+t on y #i''!r!nc!s an# i#!as. 2A #i''!r!nc! ,hich (a*!s a #i''!r!nc! is an i#!a. It is a 9bit,9 a +nit o' in'or(ation.3 0+t th!s! things I !arn!# on y at!r;,as !nab !# to !arn th!( by #o+b ! bin# th!ory. An# y!t, o' co+rs!, th!y ar! i(p icit in th! th!ory ,hich co+ # har# y ha"! b!!n cr!at!# ,itho+t th!(. 5+r origina pap!r on th! #o+b ! bin# contains n+(!ro+s !rrors #+! si(p y to o+r ha"ing not y!t artic+ at! y !-a(in!# th!
H :his pap!r ,as gi"!n in A+g+st, 1969, at a &y(posi+( on th! ?o+b ! 0in#L Chair(an, ?r. 4ob!rt 4y#!rL sponsor!# by th! A(!rican $sycho ogica Association. It ,as pr!par!# +n#!r Car!!r ?!"! op(!nt A,ar# 2AEC21,9313 o' th! )ationa Instit+t! o' A!nta E!a th.

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r!i'ication prob !(. 8! ta * in that pap!r as tho+gh a #o+b ! bin# ,!r! a so(!thing an# as tho+gh s+ch so(!Cthings co+ # b! co+nt!#. 5' co+rs! thatIs a nons!ns!. Fo+ cannot co+nt th! bats in an in*b ot b!ca+s! th!r! ar! non!. An# y!t a (an;i' h! b! 9batC (in#!#9;(ay 9s!!9 s!"!ra . 0+t ar! th!r! #o+b ! bin#s in th! (in#D :h! .+!stion is not tri"ia . As th!r! ar! in th! (in# no cocon+ts b+t on y p!rc!pts an# trans'or(s o' cocon+ts, so a so, ,h!n I p!rc!i"! 2conscio+s y or +nconscio+s y3 a #o+b ! bin# in (y bossI b!ha"ior, I ac.+ir! in (y (in# no #o+b ! bin# b+t on y a p!rc!pt or trans'or( o' a #o+b ! bin#. An# t*at is not ,hat th! th!ory is abo+t. 8! ar! ta *ing th!n abo+t so(! sort o' tang ! in th! r+ !s 'or (a*ing th! trans'or(s an# abo+t th! ac.+isition or c+ ti"ation o' s+ch tang !s. ?o+b ! bin# th!ory ass!rts that th!r! is an !-p!ri!ntia co(pon!nt in th! #!t!r(ination or !tio ogy o' schi/ophr!nic sy(pto(s an# r! at!# b!ha"iora patt!rns, s+ch as h+(or, art, po!try, !tc. )otab y th! th!ory #o!s not #isting+ish b!t,!!n th!s! s+bsp!ci!s. 8ithin its t!r(s th!r! is nothing to #!t!r(in! ,h!th!r a gi"!n in#i"i#+a sha b!co(! a c o,n, a po!t, a schi/ophr!nic, or so(! co(bination o' th!s!. 8! #!a not ,ith a sing ! syn#ro(! b+t ,ith a g!n+s o' syn#ro(!s, (ost o' ,hich ar! not con"!ntiona y r!gar#!# as patho ogica . @!t (! coin th! ,or# 9transcont!-t+a 9 as a g!n!ra t!r( 'or this g!n+s o' syn#ro(!s. It s!!(s that both thos! ,hos! i'! is !nrich!# by transC cont!-t+a gi'ts an# thos! ,ho ar! i(po"!rish!# by transcont!-t+a con'+sions ar! a i*! in on! r!sp!ct6 'or th!( th!r! is a ,ays or o't!n a 9#o+b ! ta*!.9 A 'a ing !a', th! gr!!ting o' a 'ri!n#, or a 9pri(ros! by th! ri"!rIs bri(9 is not 9J+st that an# nothing (or!.9 =-og!no+s !-p!ri!nc! (ay b! 'ra(!# in th! cont!-ts o' #r!a(, an# int!rna tho+ght (ay b! proJ!ct!# into th! cont!-ts o' th! !-t!rna ,or #. An# so on. 7or a this, ,! s!!* a partia !-p anation in !arning an# !-p!ri!nc!. :h!r! (+st, o' co+rs!, a so b! g!n!tic co(pon!nts in th! !tio ogy o' th! transcont!-t+a syn#ro(!s. :h!s! ,o+ # !-p!ctab y op!rat! at !"! s (or! abstract than th! !-p!ri!ntia . 7or !-a(p !, g!n!tic co(pon!nts (ight #!t!r(in! s*i in !arning to b! transcont!-t+a or 2(or! abstract y3 th! pot!ntia iti!s 'or ac.+iring this s*i . 5r,

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con"!rs! y, th! g!no(! (ight #!t!r(in! s*i s in r!sisting transcont!-t+a path,ays, or th! pot!ntia ity 'or ac.+iring this att!r s*i . 21!n!ticists ha"! pai# &ery itt ! att!ntion to th! n!c!ssity o' #!'ining th! ogica typing o' (!ssag!s carri!# by ?)A.3 In any cas!, th! (!!ting point ,h!r! th! g!n!tic #!t!r(ination (!!ts th! !-p!ri!ntia is s+r! y .+it! abstract, an# this (+st b! tr+! !"!n tho+gh th! !(bo#i(!nt o' th! g!n!tic (!ssag! b! a sing ! g!n!. 2A sing ! -it o' in'or(ation;a sing ! #i''!r!nc!;(ay b! th! y!sCorCno ans,!r to a .+!stion o' any #!gr!! o' co(p !-ity, at any !"! o' abstraction. 3 C+rr!nt th!ori!s ,hich propos! 2'or 9schi/ophr!nia93 a sing ! #o(inant g!n! o' 9 o, p!n!tranc!9 s!!( to !a"! th! 'i! # op!n 'or any !-p!ri!ntia th!ory ,hich ,o+ # in#icat! ,hat c ass o' !-p!ri!nc!s (ight ca+s! th! at!nt pot!ntia ity to app!ar in th! ph!notyp!. I (+st con'!ss ho,!"!r that th!s! th!ori!s s!!( to (! o' itt ! int!r!st +nti th! propon!nts try to sp!ci'y ,hat co(pon!nts o' th! co(p !- proc!ss o' #!t!r(ining 9schi/ophr!nia9 ar! pro"i#!# by th! hypoth!tica g!n!. :o i#!nti'y th!s! co(pon!nts (+st b! a su-tracti&e proc!ss. 8h!r! th! contrib+tion o' !n"iron(!nt is arg!, th! g!n!tics cannot b! in"!stigat!# +nti th! !n"iron(!nta !''!ct has b!!n i#!nti'i!# an# can b! contro !#. 0+t sa+c! 'or th! goos! is a so sa+c! 'or th! gan#!r, an# ,hat is sai# abo"! abo+t g!n!ticists p ac!s an ob igation +pon (! to (a*! c !ar ,hat co(pon!nts o' transcont!-t+a proc!ss co+ # b! pro"i#!# by #o+b ! bin# !-p!ri!nc!. It is appropriat! th!r!'or! to r!C!-a(in! th! th!ory o' #!+t!ro !arning +pon ,hich #o+b ! bin# th!ory is bas!#. A bio ogica syst!(s 2organis(s an# socia or !co ogica organi/ations o' organis(s3 ar! capab ! o' a#apti"! chang!. 0+t a#apti"! chang! ta*!s (any 'or(s, s+ch as r!spons!, !arning, !co ogica s+cc!ssion, bio ogica !"o +tion, c+ t+ra !"o +tion, !tc., accor#ing to th! si/! an# co(p !-ity o' th! syst!( ,hich ,! choos! to consi#!r. 8hat!"!r th! syst!(, a#apti"! chang! #!p!n#s +pon feed-ac3 loops, b! it thos! pro"i#!# by nat+ra s! !ction or thos! o' in#i"i#+a r!in'orc!(!nt. In a cas!s, th!n, th!r! (+st b! a proc!ss o' trial and error an# a (!chanis( o' comparison.

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0+t tria an# !rror (+st a ,ays in"o "! !rror, an# !rror is a ,ays bio ogica y an#Kor psychica y !-p!nsi"!. It 'o o,s th!r!'or! that a#apti"! chang! (+st a ,ays b! *ierarc*ic. :h!r! is n!!#!# not on y that 'irstCor#!r chang! ,hich s+its th! i((!#iat! !n"iron(!nta 2or physio ogica 3 #!(an# b+t a so s!con#Cor#!r chang!s ,hich ,i r!#+c! th! a(o+nt o' tria an# !rror n!!#!# to achi!"! th! 'irstCor#!r chang!. An# so on. 0y s+p!rposing an# int!rconn!cting (any '!!#bac* oops, ,! 2an# a oth!r bio ogica syst!(s3 not on y so "! partic+ ar prob !(s b+t a so 'or( *a-its ,hich ,! app y to th! so +tion o' classes o' prob !(s. 8! act as tho+gh a ,ho ! c ass o' prob !(s co+ # b! so "!# in t!r(s o' ass+(ptions or pr!(is!s, '!,!r in n+(b!r than th! (!(b!rs o' th! c ass o' prob !(s. In oth!r ,or#s, ,! 2organis(s3 learn to learn, or in th! (or! t!chnica phras!, ,! #!+t!roC !arn. 0+t habits ar! notorio+s y rigi# an# th!ir rigi#ity 'o o,s as a n!c!ssary coro ary o' th!ir stat+s in th! hi!rarchy o' a#aptation. :h! "!ry !cono(y o' tria an# !rror ,hich is achi!"!# by habit 'or(ation is on y possib ! b!ca+s! habits ar! co(parati"! y 9har# progra((!#,9 in th! !ngin!!rsI phras!. :h! !cono(y consists pr!cis! y in not r!C!-a(ining or r!#isco"!ring th! pr!(is!s o' habit !"!ry ti(! th! habit is +s!#. 8! (ay say that th!s! pr!(is!s ar! part y 9+nconscio+s9, or;i' yo+ p !as!;that a *a-it o' not !-a(ining th!( is #!"! op!#. Aor!o"!r, it is i(portant to not! that th! pr!(is!s o' habit ar! a (ost n!c!ssari y abstract. ="!ry prob !( is in so(! #!gr!! #i''!r!nt 'ro( !"!ry oth!r an# its #!scription or r!pr!s!ntation in th! (in# ,i th!r!'or! contain +ni.+! propositions. C !ar y to sin* th!s! +ni.+! propositions to th! !"! o' pr!(is!s o' habit ,o+ # b! an !rror. Eabit can #!a s+cc!ss'+ y on y ,ith propositions ,hich ha"! g!n!ra or r!p!titi"! tr+th, an# th!s! ar! co((on y o' a r! ati"! y high or#!r o' abstraction.51
51 8hat is i(portant, ho,!"!r, is that th! proposition b! constant y tr+!, rath!r than that it b! abstract. It J+st so happ!ns;coinci#!nta y;that abstractions, i' ,! choC s!n, ha"! a constancy o' tr+th. 7or h+(an b!ings it is rath!r constant y tr+! that air is pr!s!nt aro+n# th! nos!L th! r!' !-!s ,hich contro r!spiration can th!r!'or! b! har#C progra((!# in th! (!#+ a. 7or th! porpois!, th! proposition 9air aro+n# th! b o,ho !9 is on y int!r(itt!nt y tr+!, an# th!r!'or! r!spiration (+st b! conCtro !#

279

)o, th! partic+ ar propositions ,hich I b! i!"! to b! i(portant in th! #!t!r(ination o' th! transcont!-t+a syn#ro(!s ar! thos! 'or(a abstractions ,hich #!scrib! an# #!t!r(in! int!rp!rsona r! ationship. I say 9#!scrib! an# #!t!r(in!,9 b+t !"!n this is ina#!.+at!. 0!tt!r ,o+ # b! to say that th! r! ationship is th! !-chang! o' th!s! (!ssag!sL or that th! r! ationship is i((an!nt in th!s! (!ssag!s. $sycho ogists co((on y sp!a* as i' th! abstractions o' r!C ationship 29#!p!n#!ncy,9 9hosti ity,9 9 o"!,9 !tc.3 ,!r! r!a things ,hich ar! to b! #!scrib!# or 9!-pr!ss!#9 by (!ssag!s. :his is !pist!(o ogy bac*,ar#s6 in tr+th, th! (!ssag!s constit+t! th! r! ationship, an# ,or#s i*! N.N#!p!n#!ncy9 ar! "!rba y co#!# #!scriptions o' patt!rns i((an!nt in th! co(bination o' !-chang!# (!ssag!s. As has a r!a#y b!!n (!ntion!#, th!r! ar! no 9things9 in th! (in# ;not !"!n 9#!p!n#!ncy.9 8! ar! so b!'+## !# by ang+ag! that ,! cannot thin* straight, an# it is con"!ni!nt, so(!ti(!s, to r!(!(b!r that ,! ar! r!a y (a((a s. :h! !pist!(o ogy o' th! 9h!art9 is that o' any nonh+(an (a((a . :h! cat #o!s not say 9(i *9L sh! si(p y acts o+t 2or is3 h!r !n# o' an int!rchang!, th! patt!rn o' ,hich ,! in ang+ag! ,o+ # ca 9#!p!n#!ncy.9 0+t to act or b! on! !n# o' a patt!rn o' int!raction is to propos! th! oth!r !n#. A conte.t is s!t 'or a c!rtain c ass o' r!spons!. :his ,!a"ing o' cont!-ts an# o' (!ssag!s ,hich propos! cont!-t ;b+t ,hich, i*! a (!ssag!s ,hatso!"!r, ha"! 9(!aning9 on y by "irt+! o' cont!-t;is th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' th! soCca !# #o+b ! bin# th!ory. :h! (att!r (ay b! i +strat!# by a 'a(o+s an# 'or(a y corr!ct52 botanica ana ogy. 1o!th! point!# o+t 150 y!ars I ago that th!r! is a sort o' synta- or gra((ar in th! anato(y o' ' o,!ring p ants. A 9st!(9 is that ,hich b!ars 9 !a"!s9L a 9 !a'9 is that ,hich has a b+# in its a-i L a b+# is a st!( ,hich originat!s in th! a-i o' a !a'L !tc. :h! 'or(a 2i.!., th! co((+nicationa 3 nat+r! o' !ach organ is
in a (or! ' !-ib ! (ann!r 'ro( so(! high!r c!nt!r. 52 7or(a y corr!ct b!ca+s! (orphog!n!sis, i*! b!ha"ior, is s+r! y a (att!r o' (!ssag!s in cont!-ts. 2&!! 1. 0at!son, 9A 4!C!-a(ination o' I0at!sonIs 4+ !,I9 Journal of (enetics, in pr!ss.3

280

#!t!r(in!# by its cont!-t+a stat+s;th! cont!-t in ,hich it occ+rs an# th! cont!-t ,hich it s!ts 'or oth!r parts. I sai# abo"! that #o+b ! bin# th!ory is conc!rn!# ,ith th! !-p!ri!ntia co(pon!nt in th! g!n!sis o' tang !s in th! r+ !s or pr!(is!s o' habit. I no, go on to ass!rt that !-p!ri!nc!# br!ach!s in th! ,!a"! o' cont!-t+a str+ct+r! ar! in 'act 9#o+b ! bin#s9 an# (+st n!c!ssari y 2i' th!y contrib+t! at a to th! hi!rarchic proc!ss!s o' !arning an# a#aptation3 pro(ot! ,hat I a( ca ing transcont!-t+a syn#ro(!s. Consi#!r a "!ry si(p ! para#ig(6 a '!(a ! porpois! +Steno -redanensis4 is train!# to acc!pt th! so+n# o' th! train!rIs ,hist ! as a 9s!con#ary r!in'orc!(!nt.9 :h! ,hist ! is !-p!ctab y 'o o,!# by 'oo#, an# i' sh! at!r r!p!ats ,hat sh! ,as #oing ,h!n th! ,hist ! b !,, sh! ,i !-p!ctab y again h!ar th! ,hist ! an# r!c!i"! 'oo#. :his porpois! is no, +s!# by th! train!rs to #!(onstrat! 9op!rant con#itioning9 to th! p+b ic. 8h!n sh! !nt!rs th! !-hibition tan*, sh! rais!s h!r h!a# abo"! s+r'ac!, h!ars th! ,hist ! an# is '!#. &h! th!n rais!s h!r h!a# again an# is again r!in'orc!#. :hr!! r!p!titions o' this s!.+!nc! is !no+gh 'or th! #!(onstration an# th! porpois! is th!n s!nt o''Cstag! to ,ait 'or th! n!-t p!r'or(anc! t,o ho+rs at!r. &h! has !arn!# so(! si(p ! r+ !s ,hich r! at! h!r actions, th! ,hist !, th! !-hibition tan*, an# th! train!r into a patt!rn;a cont!-t+a str+ct+r!, a s!t o' r+ !s 'or ho, to p+t th! inC'or(ation tog!th!r. 0+t this patt!rn is 'itt!# on y 'or a sing ! !piso#! in th! !-hibition tan*. &h! (+st br!a* that patt!rn to #!a ,ith th! class o' s+ch !piso#!s. :h!r! is a arg!r conte&t of conte&ts ,hich ,i p+t h!r in th! ,rong. At th! n!-t p!r'or(anc!, th! train!r again ,ants to #!(onstrat! 9op!rant con#itioning,9 b+t to #o this sh! (+st pic* on a #i''!r!nt pi!c! o' conspic+o+s b!ha"ior. 8h!n th! porpois! co(!s on stag!, sh! again rais!s h!r h!a#. 0+t sh! g!ts no ,hist !. :h! train!r ,aits 'or th! n!-t pi!c! o' conspic+o+s b!ha"ior; i*! y a tai ' ap, ,hich is a co((on !-pr!ssion o' annoyanc!. :his b!ha"ior is th!n r!inC'orc!# an# r!p!at!#.

281

0+t th! tai ' ap ,as, o' co+rs!, not r!,ar#!# in th! thir# p!r'or(anc!. 7ina y th! porpois! !arn!# to #!a ,ith th! cont!-t o' cont!-ts ;by o''!ring a #i''!r!nt or new pi!c! o' conspic+o+s b!ha"ior ,h!n!"!r sh! ca(! on stag!. A this ha# happ!n!# in th! 'r!! nat+ra history o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n porpois! an# train!r an# a+#i!nc!. :h! s!.+!nc! ,as th!n r!p!at!# !-p!ri(!nta y ,ith a n!, porpois! an# car!'+ y r!cor#!#.53 :,o points 'ro( this !-p!ri(!nta r!p!at o' th! s!.+!nc! (+st b! a##!#6 7irst, that it ,as n!c!ssary 2in th! train!rIs J+#g(!nt3 to br!a* th! r+ !s o' th! !-p!ri(!nt (any ti(!s. :h! !-p!ri!nc! o' b!ing in th! ,rong ,as so #ist+rbing to th! porpois! that in or#!r to pr!s!r"! th! r! ationship b!t,!!n porpois! an# train!r 2i.!., th! cont!-t o' cont!-t o' cont!-t3 it ,as n!c!ssary to gi"! (any r!in'orc!(!nts to ,hich th! porpois! ,as not !ntit !#. &!con#, that !ach o' th! 'irst 'o+rt!!n s!ssions ,as charact!ri/!# by (any '+ti ! r!p!titions o' ,hat!"!r b!ha"ior ha# b!!n r!in'orc!# in th! i((!#iat! y pr!"io+s s!ssion. &!!(ing y on y by 9acci#!nt9 #i# th! ani(a pro"i#! a pi!c! o' #i''!r!nt b!ha"ior. In th! ti(!Co+t b!t,!!n th! 'o+rt!!nth an# 'i't!!nth s!ssions, th! porpois! app!ar!# to b! (+ch !-cit!#, an# ,h!n sh! ca(! on stag! 'or th! 'i't!!nth s!ssion sh! p+t on an ! aborat! p!r'or(anc! inc +#ing !ight conspic+o+s pi!c!s o' b!ha"ior o' ,hich 'o+r ,!r! !ntir! y n!,; n!"!r b!'or! obs!r"!# in this sp!ci!s o' ani(a . :h! story i +strat!s, I b! i!"!, t,o asp!cts o' th! g!n!sis o' a transcont!-t+a syn#ro(!6 7irst, that s!"!r! pain an# (a a#J+st(!nt can b! in#+c!# by p+tting a (a((a in th! ,rong r!gar#ing its r+ !s 'or (a*ing s!ns! o' an i(portant r! ationship ,ith anoth!r (a((a . An# s!con#, that i' this patho ogy can b! ,ar#!# o'' or r!sist!#, th! tota !-p!ri!nc! (ay pro(ot! creati&ity. <. $ryor, 4. Eaag, an# J. 5I4i! y, 9?!+t!roC@!arning in a 4o+ghtooth $orpois! +Steno -redanensis4,9 %. &. )a"a 5r#inanc! :!st &tation, China @a*!, )5:& TP 4270
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Bi$liography 1. 0at!son, 9&ocia $ anning an# th! Conc!pt o' ?!+t!roC @!arning,9 Science, 6*ilosop*y and $eligion0 Second Symposium, @. 0ryson an# @. 7in*! st!in, !#s., )!, For*, Con'!r!nc! on &ci!nc!, $hi osophy an# 4! igion in th!ir 4! ation to th! ?!(ocratic 8ay o' @i'!, Inc., 1942. 9Aini(a 4!.+ir!(!nts 'or a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 A.,.A. Arc*i&es of (eneral 6syc*iatry, 1960, 26 477C91. , 6erce&alDs ;arrati&e, A 6atientDs Account of *is 6syc*osis, 1830C1832, !#it!# an# ,ith an intro#+ction by 1r!gory 0at!son, &tan'or#, Ca i'., &tan'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1961. , 9=-chang! o' In'or(ation abo+t $att!rns o' E+C(an 0!ha"ior,9 Information Storage and ;eural "ontrol0 !ent* Annual Scientific ,eeting of t*e 1ouston ;eurological Society, 2. S. 7i! #s an# 8. Abbott, !#s., &pring'i! #, I ., Char !s C. :ho(as, 1963. , 9:h! 4o ! o' &o(atic Chang! in ="o +tion,9 &olution, 1963, 176 529C39.

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The 9o i'al Cate o&ie! o5 9ea&nin an# Co((uni'ation%


A sp!ci!s o' b!ha"iora sci!ntists ar! conc!rn!# ,ith 9 !arning9 in on! s!ns! or anoth!r o' that ,or#. Aor!o"!r, sinc! 9 !arning9 is a co((+nicationa ph!no(!non, a ar! a''!ct!# by that cyb!rn!tic r!"o +tion in tho+ght ,hich has occ+rr!# in th! ast t,!ntyC'i"! y!ars. :his r!"o +tion ,as trigg!r!# by th! !ngin!!rs an# co((+nication th!orists b+t has o #!r roots in th! physio ogica ,or* o' Cannon an# C a+#! 0!rnar#, in th! physics o' C ar*! Aa-,! , an# in th! (ath!(atica phi osophy o' 4+ss! an# 8hit!h!a#. Inso'ar as b!ha"iora sci!ntists sti ignor! th! prob !(s o' J incipia ,at*ematica,54 th!y can c ai( appro-i(at! y si-ty y!ars o' obso !sc!nc!. It app!ars, ho,!"!r, that th! barri!rs o' (is+n#!rstan#ing ,hich #i"i#! th! "ario+s sp!ci!s o' b!ha"iora sci!ntists can b! i +(inat!# 2b+t not ! i(inat!#3 by an app ication o' 4+ss! Is :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s to th! conc!pt o' 9 !arning9 ,ith ,hich a ar! conc!rn!#. :o att!(pt this i +(ination ,i b! a p+rpos! o' th! pr!s!nt !ssay. The Theory of *o&ical Types

7irst, it is appropriat! to in#icat! th! s+bJ!ct (att!r o' th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s6 th! th!ory ass!rts that no c ass can, in 'or(a ogica or (ath!(atica #isco+rs!, b! a (!(b!r o' its! 'L that a c ass o' c ass!s cannot b! on! o' th! c ass!s ,hich ar! its (!(b!rsL that a na(! is not th! thing na(!#L that 9John 0at!son9 is th! c ass o'
:his !ssay ,as ,ritt!n in 1964 ,hi ! th! a+thor ,as !(p oy!# by th! Co((+nications 4!s!arch Instit+t!, +n#!r a Car!!r ?!"! op(!nt A,ar# 2<3C)EC 21, 9313 'ro( th! )ationa Instit+t! o' A!nta E!a th. It ,as s+b(itt!# as a position pap!r to th! 9Con'!r!nc! on 8or # Gi!,s9 sponsor!# by th! 8!nn!rC1r!n 7o+n#ation, A+g+st 2C11, 1968. :h! s!ction on 9@!arning III9 ,as a##!# in 1971. 54 A. ). 8hit!h!a# an# 0. 4+ss! , 6rincipia ,at*ematica, 3 "o s., 2n# !#., Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1910C13.
H

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,hich that boy is th! +ni.+! (!(b!rL an# so 'orth. :h!s! ass!rtions (ay s!!( tri"ia an# !"!n ob"io+s, b+t ,! sha s!! at!r that it is not at a +n+s+a 'or th! th!orists o' b!ha"iora sci!nc! to co((it !rrors ,hich ar! pr!cis! y ana ogo+s to th! !rror o' c assi'ying th! na(! ,ith th! thing na(!#;or !ating th! (!n+ car# inst!a# o' th! #inn!r;an !rror o' logical typing. &o(!,hat !ss ob"io+s is th! '+rth!r ass!rtion o' th! th!ory6 that a c ass cannot b! on! o' thos! it!(s ,hich ar! corr!ct y c assi'i!# as its non(!(b!rs. I' ,! c assi'y chairs tog!th!r to constit+t! th! c ass o' chairs, ,! can go on to not! that tab !s an# a(p sha#!s ar! (!(b!rs o' a arg! c ass o' 9nonchairs,9 b+t ,! sha co((it an !rror in 'or(a #isco+rs! i' ,! co+nt th! class of c*airs a(ong th! it!(s ,ithin th! c ass o' nonchairs. Inas(+ch as no c ass can b! a (!(b!r o' its! ', th! c ass o' nonchairs c !ar y cannot b! a nonchair. &i(p ! consi#!rations o' sy((!try (ay s+''ic! to con"inc! th! non(ath!(atica r!a#!r6 2a3 that th! c ass o' chairs is o' th! sa(! or#!r o' abstraction 2i.!., th! sa(! ogica typ!3 as th! c ass o' nonchairsL an# '+rth!r, 2b3 that i' th! c ass o' chairs is not a chair, th!n, corr!spon#ing y, th! c ass o' nonchairs is not a nonchair. @ast y, th! th!ory ass!rts that i' th!s! si(p ! r+ !s o' 'or(a #isco+rs! ar! contra"!n!#, para#o- ,i b! g!n!rat!# an# th! #isco+rs! "itiat!#. :h! th!ory, th!n, #!a s ,ith high y abstract (att!rs an# ,as 'irst #!ri"!# ,ithin th! abstract ,or # o' ogic. In that ,or #, ,h!n a train o' propositions can b! sho,n to g!n!rat! a para#o-, th! !ntir! str+ct+r! o' a-io(s, th!or!(s, !tc., in"o "!# in g!n!rating that para#o- is th!r!by n!gat!# an# r!#+c!# to nothing. It is as i' it ha# n!"!r b!!n. 0+t in th! r!a ,or # 2or at !ast in o+r #!scriptions o' it3, th!r! is a ,ays time, an# nothing ,hich has b!!n can !"!r b! tota y n!gat!# in this ,ay. :h! co(p+t!r ,hich !nco+nt!rs a paraC #o- 2#+! to 'a+ ty progra((ing3 #o!s not "anish a,ay. :h! 9i' ... th!n ...9 o' ogic contains no ti(!. 0+t in th! co(p+t!r, ca+s! an# !''!ct ar! +s!# to simulate th! 9i' .. . th!n . . .9 o' ogicL an# a s!.+!nc!s o' ca+s! an# !''!ct n!c!ssari y in"o "! ti(!. 2Con"!rs! y, ,! (ay say that in sci!nti'ic !-p anations th! 9i' ... th!n ...9 o' ogic is +s!# to si(+ at! th! 9i' ... th!n ...9 o' ca+s! an# !''!ct.3

285

:h! co(p+t!r n!"!r tr+ y !nco+nt!rs ogica para#o-, b+t on y th! si(+ ation o' para#o- in trains o' ca+s! an# !''!ct. :h! co(p+t!r th!r!'or! #o!s not 'a#! a,ay. It (!r! y osci at!s. In 'act, th!r! ar! i(portant #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n th! ,or # o' ogic an# th! ,or # o' ph!no(!na, an# th!s! #i''!r!nc!s (+st b! a o,!# 'or ,h!n!"!r ,! bas! o+r arg+(!nts +pon th! partia b+t i(portant ana ogy ,hich !-ists b!t,!!n th!(. It is th! th!sis o' th! pr!s!nt !ssay that this partia ana ogy can pro"i#! an i(portant g+i#! 'or b!ha"iora sci!ntists in th!ir c assi'ication o' ph!no(!na r! at!# to !arning. $r!cis! y in th! 'i! # o' ani(a an# (!chanica co((+nication so(!thing i*! th! th!ory o' typ!s (+st app y. V+!stions o' this sort, ho,!"!r, ar! not o't!n #isc+ss!# in /oo ogica aboratori!s, anthropo ogica 'i! # ca(ps, or psychiatric con"!ntions, an# it is n!c!ssary th!r!'or! to #!(onstrat! that th!s! abstract consi#!rations ar! i(portant to b!ha"iora sci!ntists. Consi#!r th! 'o o,ing sy ogis(6 2a3 Chang!s in 'r!.+!ncy o' it!(s o' (a((a ian b!ha"ior can b! #!scrib!# an# pr!#ict!# in t!r(s o' "ario+s 9 a,s9 o' r!in'orc!(!nt. 9=-p oration9 as obs!r"!# in rats is a cat!gory, or c ass, o' (a((a ian b!ha"ior. :h!r!'or!, chang!s in 'r!.+!ncy o' 9!-p oration9 sho+ # b! #!scribab ! in t!r(s o' th! sa(! 9 a,s9 o' r!in'orc!(!nt.

2b3 2c3

0! it sai# at onc!6 'irst, that !(pirica #ata sho, that th! conc +sion 2c3 is +ntr+!L an# s!con#, that i' th! conc +sion 2c3 ,!r! #!(onstrab y tr+!, th!n !ith!r +a4 or +-4 ,o+ # b! +ntr+!.55

is conc!i"ab ! that th! sa(! 'ords (ight b! +s!# in #!scribing both a c ass an# its (!(b!rs an# b! tr+! in both cas!s. :h! ,or# 9,a"!9 is th! na(! o' a c ass o' (o"!(!nts o' partic !s. 8! can a so say that th! ,a"! its! ' 9(o"!s,9 b+t ,! sha b! r!'!rring to a (o"!(!nt o' a c ass o' (o"!(!nts. %n#!r 'riction, this (!ta(o"!C (!nt ,i not os! "! ocity as ,o+ # th! (o"!(!nt o' a partic !.
55

286

@ogic an# nat+ra history ,o+ # b! b!tt!r s!r"!# by an !-pan#!# an# corr!ct!# "!rsion o' th! conc +sion 2c3 so(!C,hat as 'o o,s6 2c3 I', as ass!rt!# in 2b3, 9!-p oration9 is not an item o' (a((a ian b!ha"ior b+t is a category o' s+ch it!(s, th!n no #!scripti"! stat!(!nt ,hich is tr+! o' items o' b!ha"ior can b! tr+! o' 9!-p oration.9 I', ho,!"!r, #!scripti"! stat!(!nts ,hich ar! tr+! o' it!(s o' b!ha"ior ar! a so tr+! o' 9!-p oration,9 th!n 9!-p oration9 is an it!( an# not a cat!gory o' it!(s. :h! ,ho ! (att!r t+rns on ,h!th!r th! #istinction b!t,!!n a class an# its mem-ers is an or#!ring princip ! in th! b!ha"iora ph!no(!na ,hich ,! st+#y. In !ss 'or(a ang+ag!6 yo+ can r!in'orc! a rat 2positi"! y or n!gati"! y3 ,h!n h! in"!stigat!s a partic+ ar strang! obJ!ct, an# h! ,i appropriat! y !arn to approach or a"oi# it. 0+t th! "!ry p+rpos! o' !-p oration is to g!t in'or(ation abo+t ,hich obJ!cts sho+ # b! approach!# an# ,hich a"oi#!#. :h! #isco"!ry that a gi"!n obJ!ct is #ang!ro+s is th!r!'or! a success in th! b+sin!ss o' g!tting in'or(ation. :h! s+cc!ss ,i not #isco+rag! th! rat 'ro( '+t+r! !-p oration o' oth!r strang! obJ!cts. A priori it can b! arg+!# that a p!rc!ption an# a r!spons!, a b!ha"ior an# a c ass!s o' b!ha"ior, a !arning an# a g!n!tics, a n!+rophysio ogy an# !n#ocrino ogy, a organi/ation an# a !"o +tion;on! !ntir! s+bJ!ct (att!r (+st b! r!gar#!# as co((+nicationa in nat+r!, an# th!r!C'or! s+bJ!ct to th! gr!at g!n!ra i/ations or 9 a,s9 ,hich app y to co((+nicati"! ph!no(!na. 8! th!r!'or! ar! ,arn!# to !-p!ct to 'in# in o+r #ata thos! princip !s o' or#!r ,hich '+n#a(!nta co((+nication th!ory ,o+ # proCpos!. :h! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s, In'or(ation :h!ory, an# so 'orth, ar! !-p!ctab y to b! o+r g+i#!s. The "*earnin&" of Co#p!ters. -ats. and Men

:h! ,or# 9 !arning9 +n#o+bt!# y #!not!s c*ange o' so(! *in#. :o say '*at 3ind o' chang! is a #! icat! (att!r.

287

Eo,!"!r, 'ro( th! gross co((on #!no(inator, 9chang!,9 ,! can #!#+c! that o+r #!scriptions o' 9 !arning9 ,i ha"! to (a*! th! sa(! sort o' a o,anc! 'or th! "ari!ti!s o' ogica typ! ,hich has b!!n ro+tin! in physica sci!nc! sinc! th! #ays o' )!,ton. :h! si(p !st an# (ost 'a(i iar 'or( o' chang! is motion, an# !"!n i' ,! ,or* at that "!ry si(p ! physica !"! ,! (+st str+ct+r! o+r #!scriptions in t!r(s o' 9position or /!ro (otion,9 9constant "! ocity,9 9acc! !ration,9 9rat! o' chang! o' acc! !ration,9 an# so on .56 Chang! #!not!s proc!ss. 0+t proc!ss!s ar! th!(s! "!s s+bJ!ct to 9 chang!.9 :h! proc!ss (ay acc! !rat!, it (ay s o, #o,n, or it (ay +n#!rgo oth!r typ!s o' chang! s+ch that ,! sha say that it is no, a 9 #i''!r!nt9 proc!ss. :h!s! consi#!rations s+gg!st that ,! sho+ # b!gin th! or#!ring o' o+r i#!as abo+t 9 !arning9 at th! "!ry si(p !st !"! . @!t +s consi#!r th! cas! o' sp!ci'icity o' r!spons!, or :ero learning. :his is th! cas! in ,hich an !ntity sho,s (ini(a chang! in its r!spons! to a r!p!at!# it!( o' s!nsory inp+t. $h!no(!na ,hich approach this #!gr!! o' si(p icity occ+r in "ario+s cont!-ts6 2a3 In !-p!ri(!nta s!ttings, ,h!n 9 !arning9 is co(p !t! an# th! ani(a gi"!s appro-i(at! y 100 p!r c!nt corr!ct r!spons!s to th! r!p!at!# sti(+ +s. 2b3 In cas!s o' habit+ation, ,h!r! th! ani(a has c!as!# to gi"! o"!rt r!spons! to ,hat ,as 'or(!r y a #ist+rbing sti(+ +s. 2c3 In cas!s ,h!r! th! patt!rn o' th! r!spons! is (ini(a y #!t!r(in!# by !-p!ri!nc! an# (a-i(a y #!t!r(in!# by g!n!tic 'actors. 2#3 In cas!s ,h!r! th! r!spons! is no, high y st!r!oCtyp!#. 2!3 In si(p ! ! !ctronic circ+its, ,h!r! t*e circuit structure is not itself su-=ect to c*ange resulting from t*e passage of impulses 'it*in t*e circuit7i.e.,
:h! )!,tonian !.+ations ,hich #!scrib! th! (otions o' a 9partic !9 stop at th! !"! o' 9acc! !ration.9 "*ange of acceleration can on y happ!n ,ith #!'or(aC tion o' th! (o"ing bo#y, b+t th! )!,tonian 9partic !9 ,as not (a#! +p o' 9parts9 an# ,as th!r!'or! 2 ogica y3 incapab ! o' #!'or(ation or any oth!r int!rna chang!. It ,as th!r!'or! not s+bJ!ct to rat! o' chang! o' acc! !ration.
56

288

,h!r! th! ca+sa in*s b!t,!!n 9sti(+ +s9 an# 9r!spons!9 ar! as th! !ngin!!rs say 9so #!r!# in.9 In or#inary, nont!chnica par anc!, th! ,or# 9 !arn9 is o't!n app i!# to ,hat is h!r! ca !# 9/!ro !arning,9 i.!., to th! si(p ! r!c!ipt o' in'or(ation 'ro( an !-t!rna !"!nt, in s+ch a ,ay that a si(i ar !"!nt at a at!r 2an# appropriat!3 ti(! ,i con"!y th! sa(! in'or(ation6 I 9 !arn9 'ro( th! 'actory ,hist ! that it is t,! "! oIc oc*. It is a so int!r!sting to not! that ,ithin th! 'ra(! o' o+r #!'inition (any "!ry si(p ! (!chanica #!"ic!s sho, at !ast th! ph!no(!non o' /!ro !arning. :h! .+!stion is not, 9Can (achin!s !arnD9 b+t ,hat !"! or or#!r o' !arning #o!s a gi"!n (achin! achi!"!D It is ,orth oo*ing at an !-tr!(!, i' hypoth!tica , cas!6 :h! 9p ay!r9 o' a Gon )!+(annian ga(! is a (ath!(atica 'iction, co(parab ! to th! =+c i#!an straight in! in g!o(!try or th! )!,tonian partic ! in physics. 0y #!'inition, th! 9p ay!r9 is capab ! o' a co(p+tations n!c!ssary to so "! ,hat!"!r prob !(s th! !"!nts o' th! ga(! (ay pr!s!ntL h! is incapab ! o' not p!r'or(ing th!s! co(p+tations ,h!n!"!r th!y ar! appropriat!L h! a ,ays ob!ys th! 'in#ings o' his co(p+tations. &+ch a 9p ay!r9 r!c!i"!s in'or(ation 'ro( th! !"!nts o' th! ga(! an# acts appropriat! y +pon that in'orC (ation. 0+t his !arning is i(it!# to ,hat is h!r! ca !# /!ro !arning. An !-a(ination o' this 'or(a 'iction ,i contrib+t! to o+r #!'inition o' /!ro !arning. :h! 9p ay!r9 (ay r!c!i"!, 'ro( th! !"!nts o' th! ga(!, in'or(ation o' high!r or o,!r ogica typ!, an# h! (ay +s! this in'or(ation to (a*! #!cisions o' high!r or o,!r typ!. :hat is, his #!cisions (ay b! !ith!r strat!gic or tactica , an# h! can i#!nti'y an# r!spon# to in#ications o' both th! tactics an# th! strat!gy o' his oppon!nt. It is, ho,C!"!r, tr+! that in Gon )!+(annIs 'or(a #!'inition o' a 9ga(!,9 a prob !(s ,hich th! ga(! (ay pr!s!nt ar! conc!i"!# as co(p+tab !, i.!., ,hi ! th! ga(! (ay contain prob !(s an# in'or(ation o' (any #i''!r!nt ogica typ!s, th! hi!rarchy o' th!s! typ!s is strict y 'init!. It app!ars th!n that a #!'inition o' /!ro !arning ,i not #!p!n# +pon th! ogica typing o' th! in'or(ation r!c!i"!# by th! organis(

289

nor +pon th! ogica typing o' th! a#apti"! #!cisions ,hich th! organis( (ay (a*!. A "!ry high 2b+t 'init!3 or#!r o' co(p !-ity (ay charact!ri/! a#apti"! b!ha"ior bas!# on nothing high!r than /!ro !arning. 213 :h! 9p ay!r9 (ay co(p+t! th! "a +! o' in'or(ation ,hich ,o+ # b!n!'it hi( an# (ay co(p+t! that it ,i pay hi( to ac.+ir! this in'or(ation by !ngaging in 9!-p oratory9 (o"!s. A t!rnati"! y, h! (ay (a*! #! aying or t!ntati"! (o"!s ,hi ! h! ,aits 'or n!!#!# in'or(ation. It 'o o,s that a rat !ngaging in !-p oratory b!ha"ior (ight #o so +pon a basis o' /!ro !arning. 223 :h! 9p ay!r9 (ay co(p+t! that it ,i pay hi( to (a*! ran#o( (o"!s. In th! ga(! o' (atching p!nni!s, h! ,i co(p+t! that i' h! s! !cts 9h!a#s9 or 9tai s9 at ran#o(, h! ,i ha"! an !"!n chanc! o' ,inning. I' h! +s!s any p an or patt!rn, this ,i app!ar as a patt!rn or r!#+n#ancy in th! s!.+!nc! o' his (o"!s an# his oppon!nt ,i th!r!by r!c!i"! in'or(ation. :h! 9p ay!r9 ,i th!r!'or! ! !ct to p ay in a ran#o( (ann!r. 233 :h! 9p ay!r9 is incapab ! o' 9!rror.9 E! (ay, 'or goo# r!ason, ! !ct to (a*! ran#o( (o"!s or !-p oratory (o"!s, b+t h! is by #!'inition incapab ! o' 9 !arning by tria an# !rror.9 I' ,! ass+(! that, in th! na(! o' this !arning proc!ss, th! ,or# 9!rror9 (!ans ,hat ,! (!ant it to (!an ,h!n ,! sai# that th! 9p ay!r9 is incapab ! o' !rror, th!n 9tria an# !rror9 is !-c +#!# 'ro( th! r!p!rtoir! o' th! Gon )!+(annian p ay!r. In 'act, th! Gon )!+(annian 9p ay!r9 'orc!s +s to a "!ry car!'+ !-a(ination o' ,hat ,! (!an by 9tria an# !rror9 !arning, an# in#!!# ,hat is (!ant by 9 !arning9 o' any *in#. :h! ass+(ption r!gar#ing th! (!aning o' th! ,or# 9!rror9 is not tri"ia an# (+st no, b! !-a(in!#. :h!r! is a s!ns! in ,hich th! 9p ay!r9 can b! ,rong. 7or !-a(p !, h! (ay bas! a #!cision +pon probabi istic consi#!rations an# th!n (a*! that (o"! ,hich, in th! ight o' th! i(it!# a"ai ab ! in'or(ation, ,as (ost probab y right. 8h!n (or! in'or(ation b!co(!s a"ai ab !, h! (ay #isco"!r that that (o"! ,as ,rong. 0+t t*is disco&ery can contri-ute not*ing to *is future s3ill. 0y #!'inition, th! p ay!r +s!# corr!ct y a th! a&aila-le in'or(ation. E! !sti(at!# th! probabi iti!s corr!ct y an# (a#! th! (o"! ,hich

290

,as (ost probab y corr!ct. :h! #isco"!ry that h! ,as ,rong in th! partic+ ar instanc! can ha"! no b!aring +pon '+t+r! inCstanc!s. 8h!n th! sa(! prob !( r!t+rns at a at!r ti(!, h! ,i correctly go thro+gh th! sa(! co(p+tations an# r!ach th! sa(! #!cision. Aor!o"!r, th! s!t o' a t!rnati"!s a(ong ,hich h! (a*!s his choic! ,i b! th! sa(! s!t;an# corr!ct y so. In contrast, an organis( is capab ! o' b!ing ,rong in a n+(b!r o' ,ays o' ,hich th! 9p ay!r9 is incapab !. :h!s! ,rong choic!s ar! appropriat! y ca !# 9!rror9 ,h!n th!y ar! o' s+ch a *in# that th!y ,o+ # pro"i#! in'or(ation to th! organis( ,hich (ight contrib+t! to his '+t+r! s*i . :h!s! ,i a b! cas!s in ,hich so(! o' th! a"ai ab ! in'or(ation ,as !ith!r ignor!# or incorr!ct y +s!#. Gario+s sp!ci!s o' s+ch pro'itab ! !rror can b! c assi'i!#. &+ppos! that th! !-t!rna !"!nt syst!( contains #!tai s ,hich (ight t! th! organis(6 +a4 'ro( ,hat s!t o' a t!rnati"!s h! sho+ # choos! his n!-t (o"!L an# +-4 ,hich (!(b!r o' that s!t h! sho+ # choos!. &+ch a sit+ation p!r(its t,o orders o' !rror6 :h! organis( (ay +s! corr!ct y th! in'or(ation ,hich t! s hi( 'ro( ,hat s!t o' a t!rnati"!s h! sho+ # choos!, b+t choos! th! ,rong a t!rnati"! ,ithin this s!tL or E! (ay choos! 'ro( th! ,rong s!t o' a t!rnati"!s. 2:h!r! is a so an int!r!sting c ass o' cas!s in ,hich th! s!ts o' a t!rnati"!s contain co((on (!(b!rs. It is th!n possib ! 'or th! organis( to b! 9right9 b+t 'or th! ,rong r!asons. :his 'or( o' !rror is in!"itab y s! 'Cr!in'orcing.3 I' no, ,! acc!pt th! o"!ra notion that a !arning 2oth!r than /!ro !arning3 is in so(! #!gr!! stochastic 2i.!., contains co(pon!nts o' 9tria an# !rror93, it 'o o,s that an or#!ring o' th! proc!ss!s o' !arning can b! b+i t +pon an hi!rarchic c assi'ication o' th! typ!s o' !rror ,hich ar! to b! corr!ct!# in th! "ario+s !arning proc!ss!s. M!ro !arning ,i th!n b! th! ab! 'or th! i((!#iat! bas! o' a thos! acts 2si(p ! an# co(p !-3 ,hich ar! not s+bJ!ct to corr!ction by tria an# !rror. @!arning I ,i b! an appropriat! ab! 'or th! r!"ision o' choic! ,ithin an +nchang!# s!t o' a t!rnati"!sL @!arning II ,i b! th! ab! 'or th! r!"ision o' th! set 'ro( ,hich th! choic! is to b! (a#!L an# so on.

291

*earnin& (

7o o,ing th! 'or(a ana ogy pro"i#!# by th! 9 a,s9 o' (otion 2i.!., th! 9r+ !s9 'or #!scribing (otion3, ,! no, oo* 'or th! c ass o' ph!no(!na ,hich ar! appropriat! y #!scrib!# as chan'es in /!ro !arning 2as 9(otion9 #!scrib!s chang! o' position3. :h!s! ar! th! cas!s in ,hich an !ntity gi"!s at :i(! 2 a #i''!r!nt r!spons! 'ro( ,hat it ga"! at :i(! 1, an# again ,! !nco+nt!r a "ari!ty o' cas!s "ario+s y r! at!# to !-p!ri!nc!, physio ogy, g!n!tics, an# (!chanica proc!ss6 2a3:h!r! is th! ph!no(!non o' habit+ation;th! chang! 'ro( r!spon#ing to !ach occ+rr!nc! o' a r!p!at!# !"!nt to not o"!rt y r!spon#ing. :h!r! is a so th! !-tinction or oss o' habit+ation, ,hich (ay occ+r as a r!s+ t o' a (or! or !ss ong gap or oth!r int!rr+ption in th! s!.+!nc! o' r!p!titions o' th! sti(+ +s !"!nt. 2Eabit+ation is o' !sp!cia int!r!st. &p!ci'icity o' r!spons!, ,hich ,! ar! ca ing /!ro !arning, is charact!ristic o' a protop as(, b+t it is int!r!sting to not! that 9habit+ation9 is p!rhaps th! on y 'or( o' @!arning I ,hich i"ing things can achi!"! ,itho+t a n!+ra circ+it.3 2b3:h! (ost 'a(i iar an# p!rhaps (ost st+#i!# cas! is that o' th! c assica $a" o"ian con#itioning. At :i(! 2 th! #og sa i"at!s in r!spons! to th! b+//!rL h! #i# not #o this at :i(! 1. 2c3:h!r! is th! 9 !arning9 ,hich occ+rs in cont!-ts o' instr+(!nta r!,ar# an# instr+(!nta a"oi#anc!. 2#3:h!r! is th! ph!no(!non o' rot! !arning, in ,hich an it!( in th! b!ha"ior o' th! organis( b!co(!s a sti(+ +s 'or anoth!r it!( o' b!ha"ior. 2!3:h!r! is th! #isr+ption, !-tinction, or inhibition o' 9co(p !t!#9 !arning ,hich (ay 'o o, chang! or abs!nc! o' r!in'orc!(!nt. In a ,or#, th! ist o' @!arning I contains thos! it!(s ,hich ar! (ost co((on y ca !# 9 !arning9 in th! psychoC ogica aboratory.

292

)ot! that in a cas!s o' @!arning I, th!r! is in o+r #!scription an ass+(ption abo+t th! 9cont!-t.9 :his ass+(ption (+st b! (a#! !-p icit. :h! #!'inition o' @!arning I ass+(!s that th! b+//!r 2th! sti(+ +s3 is so(!ho, th! 9sa(!9 at :i(! 1 an# at :i(! >. An# this ass+(ption o' 9sa(!n!ss9 (+st a so #! i(it th! 9cont!-t,9 ,hich (+st 2th!or!tica y3 b! th! sa(! at both ti(!s. It 'o o,s that th! !"!nts ,hich occ+rr!# at :i(! 1 ar! not, in o+r #!scriptionL inc +#!# in o+r #!'inition o' th! cont!-t at :i(! 2, b!ca+s! to inc +#! th!( ,o+ # at onc! cr!at! a gross #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n 9conCt!-t at :i(! 19 an# 9cont!-t at :i(! 2.9 2:o paraphras! E!rac it+s6 9)o (an can go to b!# ,ith th! sa(! gir 'or th! 'irst ti(! t,ic!.93 :h! con"!ntiona ass+(ption that cont!-t can b! r!p!at!#, at !ast in so(! cas!s, is on! ,hich th! ,rit!r a#opts in this !ssay as a corn!rston! o' th! th!sis that th! st+#y o' b!ha"ior (+st b! or#!r!# accor#ing to th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s. 2it*out th! ass+(ption o' r!p!atab ! cont!-t 2an# th! hypoth!sis that for t*e organisms ,hich ,! st+#y th! s!.+!nc! o' !-p!ri!nc! is r!a y so(!ho, p+nct+at!# in this (ann!r3, it ,o+ # 'o o, that a 9 !arning9 ,o+ # b! o' on! typ!6 na(! y, a ,o+ # b! /!ro !arning. 5' th! $a" o"ian !-p!ri(!nt, ,! ,o+ # si(p y say that th! #ogIs n!+ra circ+its contain 9so #!r!# in9 'ro( th! b!ginning s+ch charact!ristics that in Cont!-t A at :i(! 1 h! ,i not sa i"at!, an# that in th! tota y #i''!r!nt Cont!-t 0 at :i(! 2 h! ,i sa i"at!. 8hat pr!"io+s y ,! ca !# 9 !arning9 ,! ,o+ # no, #!scrib! as 9#iscri(ination9 b!t,!!n th! !"!nts o' :i(! 1 an# th! !"!nts o' :i(! 1 plus :i(! 2. It ,o+ # th!n 'o o, ogica y that a .+!stions o' th! typ!, 9Is this b!ha"ior N !arn!#I or Ninnat!ID9 sho+ # b! ans,!r!# in 'a"or o' g!n!tics. 8! ,o+ # arg+! that ,itho+t th! ass+(ption o' r!p!atCab ! cont!-t, o+r th!sis 'a s to th! gro+n#, tog!th!r ,ith th! ,ho ! g!n!ra conc!pt o' 9 !arning.9 I', on th! oth!r han#, th! ass+(ption o' r!p!atab ! cont!-t is acc!pt!# as so(!ho, tr+! o' th! organis(s ,hich ,! st+#y, th!n th! cas! 'or ogica typing o' th! ph!no(!na o' !arning n!c!ssari y stan#s, b!ca+s! th! notion 9cont!-t9 is its! ' s+bJ!ct to ogica typing. =ith!r ,! (+st #iscar# th! notion o' 9cont!-t,9 or ,! r!tain this notion an#, ,ith it, acc!pt th! hi!rarchic s!ri!s;sti(+ +s, cont!-t o'

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sti(+ +s, cont!-t o' cont!-t o' sti(+ +s, !tc. :his s!ri!s can b! sp! !# o+t in th! 'or( o' a hi!rarchy o' ogica typ!s as 'o o,s6 &ti(+ +s is an ! !(!ntary signa , int!rna or !-t!rna . Cont!-t o' sti(+ +s is a (!ta(!ssag! ,hich classifies th! ! !(!ntary signa . Cont!-t o' cont!-t o' sti(+ +s is a (!taC(!ta(!ssag! ,hich c assi'i!s th! (!ta(!ssag!. An# so oi . :h! sa(! hi!rarchy co+ # ha"! b!!n b+i t +p 'ro( th! notion o' 9r!spons!9 or th! notion o' 9r!in'orc!(!nt.9 A t!rnati"! y, 'o o,ing +p th! hi!rarchic c assi'ication o' !rrors to b! corr!ct!# by stochastic proc!ss or 9tria an# !rror,9 ,! (ay r!gar# 9cont!-t9 as a co !cti"! t!r( 'or a thos! !"!nts ,hich t! th! organis( a(ong ,hat set o' a t!rnati"!s h! (+st (a*! his n!-t choic!. At this point it is con"!ni!nt to intro#+c! th! t!r( 9conCt!-t (ar*!r.9 An organis( r!spon#s to th! 9sa(!9 sti(+ +s #i''!r!nt y in #i''!ring cont!-ts, an# ,! (+st th!r!'or! as* abo+t th! so+rc! o' th! organis(sIs in'or(ation. 7ro( ,hat p!rc!pt #o!s h! *no, that Cont!-t A is #i''!r!nt 'ro( ConCt!-t 0D In (any instanc!s, th!r! (ay b! no sp!ci'ic signal or ab! ,hich ,i c assi'y an# #i''!r!ntiat! th! t,o cont!-ts, an# th! organis( ,i b! 'orc!# to g!t his in'or(ation 'ro( th! act+a cong!ri!s o' !"!nts that (a*! +p th! cont!-t in !ach cas!. 0+t, c!rtain y in h+(an i'! an# probab y in that o' (any oth!r organis(s, th!r! occ+r signa s ,hos! (aJor '+nction is to c assi'y cont!-ts. It is not +nr!asonab ! to s+pCpos! that ,h!n th! harn!ss is p ac!# +pon th! #og, ,ho has ha# pro ong!# training in th! psycho ogica aboratory, h! *no,s 'ro( this that h! is no, !(bar*ing +pon a s!ri!s o' cont!-ts o' a c!rtain sort. &+ch a so+rc! o' in'or(ation ,! sha ca a 9cont!-t (ar*!r,9 an# not! i((!#iat! y that, at !ast at th! h+(an !"! , th!r! ar! a so 9(ar*!rs o' cont!-ts o' cont!-ts.9 7or !-a(p !6 an a+#i!nc! is ,atching 1amlet on th! stag!, an# h!ars th! h!ro #isc+ss s+ici#! in th! conCt!-t o' his r! ationship ,ith his #!a# 'ath!r, 5ph! ia, an# th! r!st. :h! a+#i!nc! (!(b!rs #o not i((!#iat! y t! !phon! 'or th! po ic! b!ca+s! th!y ha"! r!c!i"!# in'or(ation abo+t th! cont!-t o' Ea( !tIs cont!-t. :h!y *no, that it is a 9p ay9 an# ha"! r!c!i"!# this in'or(ation 'ro( (any 9(ar*!rs o' cont!-t o'

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cont!-t9;th! p aybi s, th! s!ating arrang!(!nts, th! c+rtain, !tc., !tc. :h! 9<ing,9 on th! oth!r han#, ,h!n h! !ts his consci!nc! b! pric*!# by th! p ay ,ithin th! p ay, is ignoring (any 9(ar*!rs o' cont!-t o' cont!-t.9 At th! h+(an !"! , a "!ry #i"!rs! s!t o' !"!nts 'a s ,ithin th! cat!gory o' 9cont!-t (ar*!rs.9 A '!, !-a(p !s ar! h!r! ist!#6 2a3 :h! $op!Is thron! 'ro( ,hich h! (a*!s anno+nc!(!nts e. cat*edra, ,hich anno+nc!(!nts ar! th!r!.. by !n#o,!# ,ith a sp!cia or#!r o' "a i#ity. 2b3 :h! p ac!bo, by ,hich th! #octor s!ts th! stag! 'or a chang! in th! pati!ntIs s+bJ!cti"! !-p!ri!nc!. 2c3 :h! shining obJ!ct +s!# by so(! hypnotists in 9in#+cing tranc!.9 2#3 :h! air rai# sir!n an# th! 9a c !ar.9 2!3 :h! han#sha*! o' bo-!rs b!'or! th! 'ight. 2'3 :h! obs!r"anc!s o' !ti.+!tt!.

:h!s!, ho,!"!r, ar! !-a(p !s 'ro( th! socia i'! o' a high y co(p !- organis(, an# it is (or! pro'itab ! at this stag! to as* abo+t th! ana ogo+s ph!no(!na at th! pr!C"!rba !"! . A #og (ay s!! th! !ash in his (ast!rIs han# an# act as i' h! *no,s that this in#icat!s a ,a *L or h! (ay g!t inC'or(ation 'ro( th! so+n# o' th! ,or# 9,a *9 that this typ! o' cont!-t or s!.+!nc! is co(ing. 8h!n a rat starts a s!.+!nc! o' !-p oratory acti"iti!s, #o!s h! #o so in r!spons! to a 9sti(+ +sD9 5r in r!spons! to a cont!-tD 5r in r!spons! to a cont!-t (ar*!rD :h!s! .+!stions bring to th! s+r'ac! 'or(a prob !(s abo+t th! :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s ,hich (+st b! #isc+ss!#. :h! th!ory in its origina 'or( #!a s on y ,ith rigoro+s y #igita co((+nication, an# it is #o+bt'+ ho, 'ar it (ay b! app i!# to ana og+! or iconic syst!(s. 8hat ,! ar! h!r! ca ing 9cont!-t (ar*!rs9 (ay b! #igita 2!.g., th! ,or# 9,a *9 (!ntion!# abo"!3 L or th!y (ay b! ana og+! signa s ;a bris*n!ss in th! (ast!rIs (o"!(!nts (ay in#icat! that a ,a * is p!n#ingL or so(! part o' th! co(ing cont!-t (ay s!r"! as a (ar*!r 2th! !ash as a part o' th! ,a *3 L or in th! !-tr!(! cas!, th!

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,a * its! ' in a its co(p !-ity (ay stan# 'or its! ', ,ith no ab! or (ar*!r b!t,!!n th! #og an# th! !-p!ri!nc!. :h! p!rc!i"!# !"!nt its! ' (ay co((+nicat! its o,n occ+rr!nc!. In this cas!, o' co+rs!, th!r! can b! no !rror o' th! 9(!n+ car#9 typ!. Aor!o"!r, no para#ocan b! g!n!rat!# b!ca+s! in p+r! y ana og+! or iconic co((+nicaC tion th!r! is no signa 'or 9not.9 :h!r! is, in 'act, a (ost no 'or(a th!ory #!a ing ,ith ana og+! co((+nication an#, in partic+ ar, no !.+i"a !nt o' In'or(ation :h!ory or @ogica :yp! :h!ory. :his gap in 'or(a *no, !#g! is incon"!ni!nt ,h!n ,! !a"! th! rari'i!# ,or # o' ogic an# (ath!(atics an# co(! 'ac! to 'ac! ,ith th! ph!no(!na o' nat+ra history. In th! nat+ra ,or #, co((+nication is rar! y !ith!r p+r! y #igita or p+r! y ana ogic. 5't!n #iscr!t! #igita pips ar! co(bin!# tog!th!r to (a*! ana ogic pict+r!s as in th! print!rIs ha 'ton! b oc*L an# so(!ti(!s, as in th! (att!r o' cont!-t (ar*!rs, th!r! is a contin+o+s gra#ation 'ro( th! ost!nsi"! thro+gh th! iconic to th! p+r! y #igita . At th! #igita !n# o' this sca ! a th! th!or!(s o' in'or(ation th!ory ha"! th!ir '+ 'orc!, b+t at th! ost!nsi"! an# ana ogic !n# th!y ar! (!aning !ss. It s!!(s a so that ,hi ! (+ch o' th! b!ha"iora co((+nication o' !"!n high!r (a((a s r!(ains ost!nsi"! or ana ogic, th! int!rna (!chanis( o' th!s! cr!at+r!s has b!co(! #igita i/!# at !ast at th! n!+rona !"! . It ,o+ # s!!( that ana ogic co((+nication is in so(! s!ns! (or! pri(iti"! than #igita an# that th!r! is a broa# !"o +tionary tr!n# to,ar# th! s+bstit+tion o' #igita 'or ana ogic (!chanis(s. :his tr!n# s!!(s to op!rat! 'ast!r in th! !"o +tion o' int!rna (!chanis(s than in th! !"o +tion o' !-t!rna b!ha"ior. 4!capit+ ating an# !-t!n#ing ,hat ,as sai# abo"!6 2a3:h! notion o' r!p!atab ! cont!-t is a n!c!ssary pr!(is! 'or any th!ory ,hich #!'in!s 9 !arning9 as c*ange. 2b3:his notion is not a (!r! too o' o+r #!scription b+t contains th! i(p icit hypoth!sis that 'or th! organis(s ,hich ,! st+#y, th! s!.+!nc! o' i'! !-p!ri!nc!, action, !tc., is so(!ho, s!g(!nt!# or p+nct+at!# into s+bs!.+!nc!s or 9cont!-ts9 ,hich (ay b! !.+at!# or #i''!r!ntiat!# by th! organis(.

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2c3:h! #istinction ,hich is co((on y #ra,n b!t,!!n p!rc!ption an# action, a''!r!nt an# !''!r!nt, inp+t an# o+tCp+t, is 'or high!r organis(s in co(p !- sit+ations not "a i#. 5n th! on! han#, a (ost !"!ry it!( o' action (ay b! r!Cport!# !ith!r by !-t!rna s!ns! or !n#oc!pti"! (!chanis( to th! C.).&., an# in this cas! th! r!port o' this it!( b!Cco(!s an inp+t. An#, on th! oth!r han#, in high!r organis(s, p!rc!ption is not by any (!ans a proc!ss o' (!r! passi"! r!c!pti"ity b+t is at !ast part y #!t!r(in!# by !''!r!nt contro 'ro( high!r c!nt!rs. $!rc!ption, notorio+s y, can b! chang!# by !-p!ri!nc!. In princip !, ,! (+st a o, both 'or th! possibi ity that !"!ry it!( o' action or o+tp+t (ay cr!at! an it!( o' inp+tL an# that p!rc!pts (ay in so(! cas!s parCta*! o' th! nat+r! o' o+tp+t. It is no acci#!nt that a (ost a s!ns! organs ar! +s!# 'or th! !(ission o' signa s b!t,!!n organis(s. Ants co((+nicat! by th!ir ant!nna!L #ogs by th! pric*ing o' th!ir !arsL an# so on.
2#3In princip !, !"!n in /!ro !arning, any it!( o' !-p!ri!nc! or b!ha"ior (ay b! r!gar#!# as !ith!r 9sti(+ +s9 or 9r!spons!9 or as both, accor#ing to ho, th! tota s!.+!nc! is p+nct+at!#. 8h!n th! sci!ntist says that th! b+//!r is th! 9sti(+ +s9 in a gi"!n s!.+!nc!, his +tt!ranc! i(p i!s an hypoth!sis abo+t ho, th! organis( p+nct+at!s that s!.+!nc!. In @!arning I, !"!ry it!( o' p!rc!ption or b!ha"ior (ay b! sti(+ +s or r!spons! or reinforcement accor#ing to ho, th! tota s!.+!nc! o' int!raction is p+nct+at!#.

*earnin& ((

8hat has b!!n sai# abo"! has c !ar!# th! gro+n# 'or th! consi#!ration o' th! n!-t !"! or ogica typ! o' 9 !arning9 ,hich ,! sha h!r! ca @!arning II. Gario+s t!r(s ha"! b!!n propos!# in th! it!rat+r! 'or "ario+s ph!no(!na o' this or#!r. 9?!+t!roC

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!arning,94 579s!t !arning,958 9 !arning to !arn,9 an# 9trans'!r o' !arning9 (ay b! (!ntion!#. 8! r!capit+ at! an# !-t!n# th! #!'initions so 'ar gi"!n6 Eero learning is charact!ri/!# by specificity of response, ,hich ;right or ,rong;is not s+bJ!ct to corr!ction. /earning I is c*ange in specificity of response by corr!ction o' !rrors o' choic! ,ithin a s!t o' a t!rnati"!s. /earning II is c*ange in t*e process of /earning I, e.g., a corr!cti"! chang! in th! s!t o' a t!rnati"!s 'ro( ,hich choic! is (a#!, or it is a chang! in ho, th! s!.+!nc! o' !-p!ri!nc! is p+nct+at!#. /earning III is c*ange in t*e process of /earning II, e.g., a corr!cti"! chang! in th! syst!( o' sets o' a t!rnati"!s 'ro( ,hich choic! is (a#!. 28! sha s!! at!r that to #!(an# this !"! o' p!r'or(anc! o' so(! (!n an# so(! (a((a s is so(!ti(!s pathog!nic.3 /earning IL ,o+ # b! c*ange in /earning III, b+t probab y #o!s not occ+r in any a#+ t i"ing organis( on this !arth. ="o +tionary proc!ss has, ho,!"!r, cr!at!# organis(s ,hos! ontog!ny brings th!( to @!"! III. :h! co(bination o' phy og!n!sis ,ith ontog!n!sis, in 'act, achi!"!s @!"! IG. 5+r i((!#iat! tas* is to gi"! s+bstanc! to th! #!'inition o' @!arning II as 9chang! in @!arning I,9 an# it is 'or this that th! gro+n# has b!!n pr!par!#. 0ri!' y, I b! i!"! that th! ph!no(!na o' @!arning II can a b! inc +#!# +n#!r th! r+bric o' chang!s in th! (ann!r in ,hich th! str!a( o' action an# !-p!ri!nc! is s!g(!nt!# or p+nct+at!# into cont!-ts tog!th!r ,ith chang!s in th! +s! o' cont!-t (ar*!rs. :h! ist o' ph!no(!na c assi'i!# +n#!r @!arning I inc +#!s a consi#!rab ! 2b+t not !-ha+sti"!3 s!t o' #i''!r!nt y str+ct+r!# cont!-ts. In c assica $a" o"ian cont!-ts, th! conting!ncy patt!rn ,hich #!scrib!s th! r! ation b!t,!!n 9sti(+ +s9 2C&3, ani(a Is action 2C43, an# r!in'orc!(!nt. 2%C& 3 is pro'o+n# y #i''!r!nt 'ro(
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I1. 0at!son, 9&ocia $ anning an# th! Conc!pt o' ?!+t!roC@!arning,9

"onference on Science, 6*ilosop*y and $eligion, Second Symposium,


)!, For*, Earp!r, 1942. 58 E. . Ear o,, 9:h! 7or(ation o' @!arning &!ts,9 6syc*oM. $e&ie', 1949, 566 51C65.

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th! conting!ncy patt!rn charact!ristic o' instr+(!nta cont!-ts o' !arning. In th! $a" o"ian cas!6 If sti(+ +s an# a c!rtain aps! o' ti(!6 t*en r!in'orc!(!nt. In th! Instr+(!nta 4!,ar# cas!6 If sti(+ +s an# a partic+ ar it!( o' b!ha"ior6 t*en r!in'orc!(!nt. In th! $a" o"ian cas!, th! r!in'orc!(!nt is not conting!nt +pon th! ani(a Is b!ha"ior, ,h!r!as in th! instr+(!nta cas!, it is. %sing this contrast as an !-a(p !, ,! say that @!arning II has occ+rr!# i' it can b! sho,n that !-p!ri!nc! o' on! or (or! cont!-ts o' th! $a" o"ian typ! r!s+ ts in th! ani(a Is acting in so(! at!r cont!-t as tho+gh this, too, ha# th! $a" o"ian conting!ncy patt!rn. &i(i ar y, i' past !-p!ri!nc! o' instr+(!nta s!.+!nc!s !a#s an ani(a to act in so(! at!r cont!-t as tho+gh !-p!cting this a so to b! an instr+(!nta cont!-t, ,! sha again say that @!arning II has occ+rr!#. 8h!n so #!'in!#, @!arning II is a#apti"! on y i' th! ani(a happ!ns to b! right in its !-p!ctation o' a gi"!n conting!ncy patt!rn, an# in s+ch a cas! ,! sha !-p!ct to s!! a (!as+rab ! learning to learn. It sho+ # r!.+ir! '!,!r tria s in th! n!, cont!-t to !stab ish 9corr!ct9 b!ha"ior. I', on th! oth!r han#, th! ani(a is ,rong in his i#!nti'ication o' th! at!r conting!ncy patt!rn, th!n ,! sha !-p!ct a #! ay o' @!arning I in th! n!, cont!-t. :h! ani(a ,ho has ha# pro ong!# !-p!ri!nc! o' $a" o"ian cont!-ts (ight n!"!r g!t aro+n# to th! partic+ ar sort o' tria Can#C!rror b!ha"ior n!c!ssary to #isco"!r a corr!ct instr+(!nta r!spons!. :h!r! ar! at !ast 'o+r 'i! #s o' !-p!ri(!ntation ,h!r! @!arning II has b!!n car!'+ y r!cor#!#6 2a3 In h+(an rot! !arning. E+ 59 carri!# o+t "!ry car!'+ .+antitati"! st+#i!s ,hich r!"!a !# this ph!no(!non, an# constr+ct!# a (ath!(atica (o#! ,hich ,o+ # si(+ at! or !-p ain th! c+r"!s o' @!arning I ,hich h! r!cor#!#. E! a so obs!r"!# a s!con#Cor#!r ph!no(!non ,hich ,! (ay ca 9 !arning to rot! !arn9 an# p+b ish!# th! c+r"!s 'or this ph!no(!non in th! App!n#i- to his boo*. :h!s! c+r"!s ,!r! s!parat!# 'ro( th! (ain
=. @. E+ , et al., ,at*ematico%deducti&e !*eory of $ote /earning, )!, Ea"!n, Fa ! %ni"!rsity, Instit+t! o' E+(an 4! ations, 1940
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bo#y o' th! boo* b!ca+s!, as h! stat!s, his (ath!(atica (o#! 2o' 4ot! @!arning I3 #i# not co"!r this asp!ct o' th! #ata. It is a coro ary o' th! th!or!tica position ,hich ,! h!r! ta*! that no a(o+nt o' rigoro+s #isco+rs! o' a gi"!n ogica typ! can 9!-p ain9 ph!no(!na o' a high!r typ!. E+ Is (o#! acts as a to+chston! o' ogica typing, a+to(atica y !-c +#ing 'ro( !-p anation ph!no(!na b!yon# its ogica scop!. :hat this ,as so; an# that E+ p!rc!i"!# it;is t!sti(onia both to his rigor an# to his p!rspicacity. 8hat th! #ata sho, is that 'or any gi"!n s+bJ!ct, th!r! is an i(pro"!(!nt in rot! !arning ,ith s+cc!ssi"! s!ssions, asy(ptotica y approaching a #!gr!! o' s*i ,hich "ari!# 'ro( s+bJ!ct to s+bJ!ct. :h! cont!-t 'or this rot! !arning ,as .+it! co(p !- an# no #o+bt app!ar!# s+bJ!cti"! y #i''!r!nt to !ach !arn!r. &o(! (ay ha"! b!!n (or! (oti"at!# by '!ar o' b!ing ,rong, ,hi ! oth!rs oo*!# rath!r 'or th! satis'actions o' b!ing right. &o(! ,o+ # b! (or! in' +!nc!# to p+t +p a goo# r!cor# as co(par!# ,ith th! oth!r s+bJ!ctsL oth!rs ,o+ # b! 'ascinat!# to co(p!t! in !ach s!ssion ,ith th!ir o,n pr!"io+s sho,ing, an# so on. A (+st ha"! ha# i#!as 2corr!ct or incorr!ct3 abo+t th! nat+r! o' th! !-p!ri(!nta s!tting, a (+st ha"! ha# 9 !"! s o' aspiration,9 an# a (+st ha"! ha# pr!"io+s !-p!ri!nc! o' (!(ori/ing "ario+s sorts o' (at!ria . )ot on! o' E+ Is s+bJ!cts co+ # ha"! co(! into th! !arning cont!-t +nin' +!nc!# by pr!"io+s @!arning II. In spit! o' a this pr!"io+s @!arning II, an# in spit! o' g!n!tic #i''!r!nc!s ,hich (ight op!rat! at this !"! , a sho,!# i(pro"!(!nt o"!r s!"!ra s!ssions. :his i(pro"!(!nt cannot ha"! b!!n #+! to @!arning I b!ca+s! any r!ca o' th! sp!ci'ic s!.+!nc! o' sy ab !s !arn!# in th! pr!"io+s s!ssion ,o+ # not b! o' +s! in #!a ing ,ith th! n!, s!.+!nc!. &+ch r!ca ,o+ # (or! probab y b! a hin#ranc!. I s+b(it, th!r!'or!, that th! i(pro"!(!nt 'ro( s!ssion to s!ssion can on y b! acco+nt!# 'or by so(! sort o' a#aptation to th! conte.t ,hich E+ pro"i#!# 'or rot! !arning. It is a so ,orth noting that !#+cators ha"! strong opinions abo+t th! "a +! 2positi"! or n!gati"!3 o' training in rot! !arning. 9$rogr!ssi"!9 !#+cators insist on training in 9insight,9 ,hi ! th! (or! cons!r"ati"! insist on rot! an# #ri !# r!ca .

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2b3 :h! s!con# typ! o' @!arning II ,hich has b!!n !-C p!ri(!nta y st+#i!# is ca !# 9s!t !arning.9 :h! conc!pt an# t!r( ar! #!ri"!# 'ro( Ear o, an# app y to a rath!r sp!cia cas! o' @!arning II. 0roa# y, ,hat Ear o, #i# ,as to pr!s!nt rh!s+s (on*!ys ,ith (or! or !ss co(p !- gestalten or 9prob !(s.9 :h!s! th! (on*!y ha# to so "! to g!t a 'oo# r!,ar#. Ear o, sho,!# that i' th!s! prob !(s ,!r! o' si(i ar 9s!t,9 i.!., contain!# si(i ar typ!s o' ogica co(p !-ity, th!r! ,as a carryCo"!r o' !arning 'ro( on! prob !( to th! n!-t. :h!r! ,!r!, in 'act, t,o or#!rs o' conting!ncy patt!rns in"o "!# in Ear o,Is !-p!ri(!nts6 'irst th! o"!ra patt!rn o' instr+(!nta is( +i f th! (on*!y so "!s th! prob !(, t*en r!in'orc!(!nt3L an# s!con#, th! conting!ncy patt!rns o' ogic ,ithin th! sp!ci'ic prob !(s. 2c3 0itt!r(an an# oth!rs ha"! r!c!nt y s!t a 'ashion in !-p!ri(!ntation ,ith 9r!"!rsa !arning.9 :ypica y in th!s! !-p!ri(!nts th! s+bJ!ct is 'irst ta+ght a binary #iscri(ination. 8h!n this has b!!n !arn!# to crit!rion, th! (!aning o' th! sti(+ i is r!"!rs!#. I' U initia y 9(!ant9 $1, an# F initia y (!ant $2, th!n a't!r r!"!rsa U co(!s to (!an $2, an#, F co(!s to (!an $1. Again th! tria s ar! r+n to crit!rion ,h!n again th! (!anings ar! r!"!rs!#. In th!s! !-p!ri(!nts, th! cr+cia .+!stion is6 ?o!s th! s+bJ!ct !arn abo+t th! r!"!rsa D I.!., a't!r a s!ri!s o' r!"!rsa s, #o!s th! s+bJ!ct r!ach crit!rion in '!,!r tria s than h! #i# at th! b!ginning o' th! s!ri!sD In th!s! !-p!ri(!nts, it is conspic+o+s y c !ar that th! .+!stion as*!# is o' ogica typ! high!r than that o' .+!stions abo+t si(p ! !arning. I' si(p ! !arning is bas!# +pon a set o' tria s, th!n r!"!rsa !arning is bas!# +pon a s!t o' s+ch s!ts. :h! para ! is( b!t,!!n this r! ation an# 4+ss! Is r! ation b!t,!!n 9c ass9 an# 9c ass o' c ass!s9 is #ir!ct. 2#3 @!arning II is a so !-!(p i'i!# in th! ,! C*no,n ph!no(!na o' 9!-p!ri(!nta n!+rosis.9 :ypica y an ani(a is train!#, !ith!r in a $a" o"ian or instr+(!nta !arning conCt!-t, to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n so(! U an# so(! FL !.g., b!t,!!n an ! ips! an# a circ !. 8h!n this #iscri(ination has b!!n !arn!#, th! tas* is (a#! (or! #i''ic+ t6 th! ! ips! is (a#! progr!ssi"! y 'att!r an# th! circ ! is ' att!n!#. 7ina y a stag! is r!ach!# at ,hich #iscri(ination is

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i(possib !. At this stag! th! ani(a starts to sho, sy(pto(s o' s!"!r! #ist+rbanc!. )otab y, +a4 a nai"! ani(a , pr!s!nt!# ,ith a sit+ation in ,hich so(! U (ay 2on so(! ran#o( basis3 (!an !ith!r A or <, #o!s not sho, #ist+rbanc!L an# +-4 th! #ist+rbanc! #o!s not occ+r in abs!nc! o' th! (any cont!-t (ar*!rs charact!ristic o' th! aboratory sit+ation.60 It app!ars, th!n, that @!arning II is a n!c!ssary pr!paration 'or th! b!ha"iora #ist+rbanc!. :h! in'or(ation, 9:his is a cont!-t 'or #iscri(ination,9 is co((+nicat!# at th! b!ginning o' th! s!.+!nc! an# underlined in th! s!ri!s o' stag!s in ,hich #iscri(ination is (a#! progr!ssi"! y (or! #i''ic+ t. 0+t ,h!n #iscri(ination b!co(!s i(possib !, th! str+ct+r! o' th! cont!-t is tota y chang!#. :h! cont!-t (ar*!rs 2!.g., th! s(! o' th! aboratory an# th! !-p!ri(!nta harn!ss3 no, b!co(! (is !a#ing b!ca+s! th! ani(a is in a sit+ation ,hich #!(an#s g+!ss,or* or ga(b ing, not #iscri(ination. :h! !nCtir! !-p!ri(!nta s!.+!nc! is, in 'act, a proc!#+r! 'or p+tting th! ani(a in th! ,rong at th! !"! o' @!arning 11. In (y phras!, th! ani(a is p ac!# in a typica 9#o+b ! bin#,9 ,hich is !-p!ctab y schi/ophr!nog!nic.61 In th! strang! ,or # o+tsi#! th! psycho ogica aboratory, ph!no(!na ,hich b! ong to th! cat!gory @!arning II ar! a (aJor pr!occ+pation o' anthropo ogists, !#+cators, psychiatrists, ani(a train!rs, h+(an par!nts, an# chi #r!n. A ,ho thin* abo+t th! proc!ss!s ,hich #!t!r(in! th! charact!r o' th! in#i"i#+a or th! proc!ss!s o' chang! in h+(an 2or ani(a 3 r! ationship (+st +s! in th!ir thin*ing a "ari!ty o' ass+(ptions abo+t @!arning II. 7ro( ti(! to ti(!, th!s! p!op ! ca in th! aboratory psycho ogist as a cons+ tant, an# th!n ar! con'ront!# ,ith a ing+istic barri!r. &+ch barri!rs (+st a ,ays r!s+ t ,h!n, 'or !-a(p !, th! psychiatrist is ta *ing abo+t @!arning II, th! psycho ogist is ta *ing abo+t @!arning I, an# n!ith!r r!cogni/!s th! ogica str+ct+r! o' th! #i''!r!nc!.
E . &. @i##! , 94!' !- A!tho# an# =-p!ri(!nta )!+rosis,9 (ersonalit an! %eha$ior Disor!ers) )!, For*, 4ona # $r!ss, !"" 61 1. 0at!son, et al.) 9:o,ar# a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 %eha$ioral Science) !#$, *# %# &$"'
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5' th! (+ tit+#ino+s ,ays in ,hich @!arning II !(!rg!s in h+(an a''airs, on y thr!! ,i b! #isc+ss!# in this !ssay6 2a3 In #!scribing in#i"i#+a h+(an b!ings, both th! sci!ntist an# th! ay(an co((on y r!sort to a#J!cti"!s #!scripti"! o' 9charact!r.9 It is sai# that Ar. Jon!s is #!p!n#!nt, hosti !, '!y, 'inic*y, an-io+s, !-hibitionistic, narcissistic, passi"!, co(p!titi"!, !n!rg!tic, bo #, co,ar# y, 'ata istic, h+(oro+s, p ay'+ , canny, opti(istic, p!r'!ctionist, car! !ss, car!'+ , cas+a , !tc. In th! ight o' ,hat has a r!a#y b!!n sai#, th! r!a#!r ,i b! ab ! to assign a th!s! a#J!cti"!s to th!ir appropriat! ogica typ!. A ar! #!scripti"! o' 2possib !3 r!s+ ts o' @!arning II, an# i' ,! ,o+ # #!'in! th!s! ,or#s (or! car!'+ y, o+r #!'inition ,i consist in aying #o,n th! conting!ncy patt!rn o' that cont!-t o' @!arning I ,hich ,o+ # !-p!ctab y bring abo+t that @!arning II ,hich ,o+ # (a*! th! a#J!cti"! app icab !. 8! (ight say o' th! 9'ata istic9 (an that th! patt!rn o' his transactions ,ith th! !n"iron(!nt is s+ch as h! (ight ha"! ac.+ir!# by pro ong!# or r!p!at!# !-p!ri!nc! as s+bJ!ct o' $a" o"ian !-p!ri(!ntL an# not! that this #!'inition o' 9'ata is(9 is sp!ci'ic an# pr!cis!. :h!r! ar! (any oth!r 'or(s o' 9'ata is(9 b!si#!s that ,hich is #!'in!# in t!r(s o' this partic+ ar cont!-t o' !arning. :h!r! is, 'or !-a(p !, th! (or! co(p !- typ! charact!ristic o' c assica 1r!!* trag!#y ,h!r! a (anIs o,n action is '! t to ai# th! in!"itab ! ,or*ing o' 'at!. 2b3 In th! p+nct+ation o' h+(an int!raction. :h! critica r!a#!r ,i ha"! obs!r"!# that th! a#J!cti"!s abo"! ,hich p+rport to #!scrib! in#i"i#+a charact!r ar! r!a y not strict y app icab ! to th! in#i"i#+a b+t rath!r #!scrib! transactions b!t,!!n th! in#i"i#+a an# his (at!ria an# h+(an !n"iron(!nt. )o (an is 9r!so+rc!'+ 9 or 9#!p!n#!nt9 or 9'ata istic9 in a "ac++(. Eis charact!ristic, ,hat!"!r it b!, is not his b+t is rath!r a charact!ristic o' ,hat go!s on b!t,!!n hi( an# so(!thing 2or so(!bo#y3 ! s!. :his b!ing so, it is nat+ra to oo* into ,hat go!s on b!t,!!n p!op !, th!r! to 'in# cont!-ts o' @!arning I ,hich ar! i*! y to !n# th!ir shap! to proc!ss!s o' @!arning II. In s+ch syst!(s, in"o "ing t,o or (or! p!rsons, ,h!r! (ost o' th! i(portant !"!nts ar! post+r!s, actions, or +tt!ranc!s o' th! i"ing cr!at+r!s, ,! not!

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i((!#iat! y that th! str!a( o' !"!nts is co((on y p+nct+at!# into cont!-ts o' !arning by a tacit agr!!(!nt b!t,!!n th! p!rsons r!gar#ing th! nat+r! o' th!ir r! ationship;or by cont!-t (ar*!rs an# tacit agr!!(!nt that th!s! cont!-t (ar*!rs sha 9(!an9 th! sa(! 'or both parti!s. It is instr+cti"! to att!(pt ana ysis o' an ongoing int!rchang! b!t,!!n A an# 0. 8! as* abo+t any partic+ ar it!( o' AIs b!ha"ior6 Is this it!( a sti(+ +s 'or 0D 5r is it a r!spons! o' A to so(!thing 0 sai# !ar i!rD 5r is it a r!in'orc!(!nt o' so(! it!( pro"i#!# by 0D 5r is A, in this it!(, cons+((ating a r!in'orc!(!nt 'or hi(s! 'D =tc. &+ch .+!stions ,i r!"!a at onc! that 'or (any it!(s o' AIs b!ha"ior th! ans,!r is o't!n .+it! +nc !ar. 5r i' th!r! b! a c !ar ans,!r, th! c arity is #+! on y to a tacit 2rar! y '+ y !-p icit3 agr!!(!nt b!t,!!n A an# 0 as to th! nat+r! o' th!ir (+t+a ro !s, i.!., as to th! nat+r! o' th! cont!-t+a str+ct+r! ,hich th!y ,i !-p!ct o' !ach oth!r. I' ,! oo* at s+ch an !-chang! in th! abstract6 a1b1a2b2a3b3a4b4a5b5 ,h!r! th! aDs r!'!r to it!(s o' AIs b!ha"ior, an# th! -Ds to it!(s o' 0Is b!ha"ior, ,! can ta*! any ai an# constr+ct aro+n# it thr!! si(p ! cont!-ts o' !arning. :h!s! ,i b!6 2ai -i a,N 13 , in ,hich ai is th! sti(+ +s 'or -i. +-1Z1 ai -i4 , in ,hich ai is th! r!spons! to -.%1, ,hich r!spons! 0 r!in'orc!s ,ith -i. +a1Z1 -i Z1 ai3 , in ,hich ai is no, AIs r!in'orc!(!nt o' 0Is -iC1, ,hich ,as r!spons! to aiO1. It 'o o,s that ai (ay b! a sti(+ +s 'or 0 or it (ay b! AIs r!spons! to 0, or it (ay b! AIs r!in'orc!(!nt o' 0. 0!yon# this, ho,!"!r, i' ,! consi#!r th! a(big+ity o' th! notions 9sti(+ +s9 an# 9r!spons!,9 9a''!r!nt9 an# 9!''!r!nt9;as #isc+ss!# abo"!;,! not! that any ai (ay a so b! a sti(+ +s 'or AL it (ay b! AIs r!in'orc!(!nt o' s! 'L or it (ay b! AIs r!spons! to so(! pr!"io+s b!ha"ior o' his o,n, as is th! cas! in s!.+!nc!s o' rot! b!ha"ior. :his g!n!ra a(big+ity (!ans in 'act that th! ongoing s!.+!nc! o' int!rchang! b!t,!!n t,o p!rsons is str+ct+r!# on y by th! p!rsonIs o,n p!rc!ption o' th! s!.+!nc! as a s!ri!s o' cont!-ts, !ach cont!-t !a#ing into th! n!-t. :h! partic+ ar (ann!r in ,hich th!

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s!.+!nc! is str+ct+r!# by any partic+ ar p!rson ,i b! #!t!r(in!# by that p!rsonIs pr!"io+s @!arning II 2or possib y by his g!n!tics3. In s+ch a syst!(, ,or#s i*! 9#o(inant9 an# 9s+b(issi"!,9 9s+ccoring9 an# 9#!p!n#!nt9 ,i ta*! on #!'inab ! (!aning as #!scriptions o' s!g(!nts o' int!rchang!. 8! sha say that 9A #o(inat!s 09 i' A an# 0 sho, by th!ir b!ha"ior that th!y s!! th!ir r! ationship as charact!ri/!# by s!.+!nc!s o' th! typ! a1-1a>, ,h!r! a1 is s!!n 2by A an# 03 as a signa #!'ining con#itions o' instr+(!nta r!,ar# or p+nish(!ntL b1 as a signa or act ob!ying th!s! con#itionsL an# a2 as a signa r!in'orcing b1. &i(i ar y ,! sha say that 9A is #!p!n#!nt on 09 i' th!ir r! ationship is charact!ri/!# by s!.+!nc!s a1-1a%,, ,h!r! a is s!!n as a signa o' ,!a*n!ssL -1 as a h! ping actL an# a2 as an ac*no, !#g!(!nt o' -1. 0+t it is +p to A an# 0 to #isting+ish 2conscio+s y or +nC conscio+s y or not at a 3 b!t,!!n 9#o(inanc!9 an# 9#!p!n#!nc!.9 A 9co((an#9 can c os! y r!s!(b ! a cry 'or 9h! p.9 2c3 In psychoth!rapy, @!arning II is !-!(p i'i!# (ost conC spic+o+s y by th! ph!no(!na o' 9trans'!r!nc!.9 5rtho#o- 7r!+#ian th!ory ass!rts that th! pati!nt ,i in!"itab y bring to th! th!rapy roo( inappropriat! notions abo+t his r! ationCship to th! th!rapist. :h!s! notions 2conscio+s or +nconscio+s3 ,i b! s+ch that h! ,i act an# ta * in a ,ay ,hich ,o+ # pr!ss th! th!rapist to r!spon# in ,ays ,hich ,o+ # r!s!(b ! th! pati!ntIs pict+r! o' ho, so(! i(portant oth!r p!rson 2+s+a y a par!nt3 tr!at!# th! pati!nt in th! n!ar or #istant past. In th! ang+ag! o' th! pr!s!nt pap!r, th! pati!nt ,i try to shap! his int!rchang! ,ith th! th!rapist accor#ing to th! pr!(is!s o' his 2th! pati!ntIs3 'or(!r @!arning II. It is co((on y obs!r"!# that (+ch o' th! @!arning II ,hich #!t!r(in!s a pati!ntIs trans'!r!nc! patt!rns an#, inC#!!#, #!t!r(in!s (+ch o' th! r! ationa i'! o' a h+(an b!ings, + a 4 dates from early infancy, an# +-4 is unconscious. 0oth o' th!s! g!n!ra i/ations s!!( to b! corr!ct an# both n!!# so(! !-p anation. It s!!(s probab ! that th!s! t,o g!n!ra i/ations ar! tr+! b!ca+s! o' th! "!ry nat+r! o' th! ph!no(!na ,hich ,! ar! #isc+ssing. 8! s+gg!st that '*at is !arn!# in @!arning II is a ,ay o' punctuating e&ents. 0+t a 'ay of punctuating is not tr+! or 'a s!. :h!r! is nothing contain!# in th! propositions o' this !arning that can b!

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t!st!# against r!a ity. It is i*! a pict+r! s!!n in an in*b otL it has n!ith!r corr!ctn!ss nor incorr!ctn!ss. It is on y a 'ay o' s!!ing th! in*b ot. Consi#!r th! instr+(!nta "i!, o' i'!. An organis( ,ith this "i!, o' i'! in a n!, sit+ation ,i !ngag! in tria Can#C!rror b!ha"ior in or#!r to (a*! th! sit+ation pro"i#! a positi"! r!in'orc!(!nt. I' h! 'ai s to g!t this r!in'orc!(!nt, his p+rposi"! phi osophy is not th!r!by n!gat!#. Eis tria Can#C!rror b!ha"ior ,i si(p y contin+!. :h! pr!(is!s o' 9p+rpos!9 ar! si(p y not o' th! sa(! ogica typ! as th! (at!ria 'acts o' i'!, an# th!r!'or! cannot !asi y b! contra#ict!# by th!(. :h! practition!r o' (agic #o!s not +n !arn his (agica "i!, o' !"!nts ,h!n th! (agic #o!s not ,or*. In 'act, th! propositions ,hich go"!rn p+nct+ation ha"! th! g!n!ra charact!ristic o' b!ing s! 'C"a i#ating.62 8hat ,! t!r( 9conCt!-t9 inc +#!s th! s+bJ!ctIs b!ha"ior as ,! as th! !-t!rna !"!nts. 0+t this b!ha"ior is contro !# by 'or(!r @!arning II an# th!r!'or! it ,i b! o' s+ch a *in# as to (o # th! tota cont!-t to 'it th! !-p!ct!# p+nct+ation. In s+(, this s! 'C"a i#ating charact!ristic o' th! cont!nt o' @!arning II has th! !''!ct that s+ch !arning is a (ost in!ra#icab !. It 'o o,s that @!arning II ac.+ir!# in in'ancy is i*! y to p!rsist thro+gh i'!. Con"!rs! y, ,! (+st !-p!ct (any o' th! i(portant charact!ristics o' an a#+ tIs p+nct+ation to ha"! th!ir roots in !ar y in'ancy. In r!gar# to th! +nconscio+sn!ss o' th!s! habits o' p+nct+ation, ,! obs!r"! that th! 9+nconscio+s9 inc +#!s not on y r!pr!ss!# (at!ria b+t a so (ost o' th! proc!ss!s an# *a-its o' g!sta t p!rc!ption. &+bJ!cti"! y ,! ar! a,ar! o' o+r 9#!p!n#!ncy9 b+t +nab ! to say c !ar y ho, this patt!rn ,as constr+ct!# nor ,hat c+!s ,!r! +s!# in o+r cr!ation o' it.

(' R)esch a*+ G' Bates,*, Communication# The Social "atri& of (s chiatr ) $e% !or&, $orton, '()'.

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*earnin& (((

8hat has b!!n sai# abo"! abo+t th! s! 'C"a i#ating charact!r o' pr!(is!s ac.+ir!# by @!arning II in#icat!s that @!arning III is i*! y to b! #i''ic+ t an# rar! !"!n in h+(an b!ings. =-p!ctab y, it ,i a so b! #i''ic+ t 'or sci!ntists, ,ho ar! on y h+(an, to i(agin! or #!scrib! this proc!ss. 0+t it is c ai(!# that so(!thing o' th! sort #o!s 'ro( ti(! to ti(! occ+r in psychoth!rapy, r! igio+s con"!rsion, an# in oth!r s!.+!nc!s in ,hich th!r! is pro'o+n# r!organi/ation o' charact!r. M!n 0+##hists, 5cci#!nta (ystics, an# so(! psychiatrists ass!rt that th!s! (att!rs ar! tota y b!yon# th! r!ach o' ang+ag!. 0+t, in spit! o' this ,arning, !t (! b!gin to sp!c+ at! abo+t ,hat (+st 2 ogica y3 b! th! cas!. 7irst a #istinction (+st b! #ra,n6 it ,as not!# abo"! that th! !-p!ri(!nts in r!"!rsa !arning #!(onstrat! @!arning II ,h!n!"!r th!r! is (!as+rab ! !arning a-out th! 'act o' r!"!rsa . It is possib ! to !arn 2@!arning I3 a gi"!n pr!(is! at a gi"!n ti(! an# to !arn th! con"!rs! pr!(is! at a at!r ti(! ,itho+t ac.+iring th! *nac* o' r!"!rsa !arning. In s+ch a cas!, th!r! ,i b! no i(pro"!(!nt 'ro( on! r!"!rsa to th! n!-t. 5n! it!( o' @!arning I has si(p y r!Cp ac!# anoth!r it!( o' @!arning I ,itho+t any achi!"!(!nt o' @!arning II. I', on th! oth!r han#, i(pro"!(!nt occ+rs ,ith s+cc!ssi"! r!"!rsa s, this is !"i#!nc! 'or @!arning II. I' ,! app y th! sa(! sort o' ogic to th! r! ation b!t,!!n @!arning II an# @!arning III, ,! ar! !# to !-p!ct that th!r! (ight b! r!p ac!(!nt o' pr!(is!s at th! !"! o' @!arning II 'it*out th! achi!"!(!nt o' any @!arning III. $r! i(inary to any #isc+ssion o' @!arning III, it is th!r!C'or! n!c!ssary to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n (!r! r!p ac!(!nt ,itho+t @!arning III an# that 'aci itation o' r!p ac!(!nt ,hich ,o+ # b! tr+ y @!arning III. :hat psychoth!rapists sho+ # b! ab ! to ai# th!ir pati!nts !"!n in a (!r! r!p ac!(!nt o' pr!(is!s ac.+ir!# by @!arning II is a r!a#y no (!an '!at ,h!n ,! consi#!r th! s! 'C"a i#ating

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charact!r o' s+ch pr!(is!s an# th!ir (or! or !ss +nconscio+s nat+r!. 0+t that this (+ch can b! #on! th!r! is no #o+bt. 8ithin th! contro !# an# prot!ct!# s!tting o' th! th!rap!+tic r! ationship, th! th!rapist (ay att!(pt on! or (or! o' th! 'o o,ing (an!+"!rs6 2a3to achi!"! a con'rontation b!t,!!n th! pr!(is!s o' th! pati!nt an# thos! o' th! th!rapist;,ho is car!'+ y train!# not to 'a into th! trap o' "a i#ating th! o # pr!(is!sL 2b3to g!t th! pati!nt to act, !ith!r in th! th!rapy roo( or o+tsi#!, in ,ays ,hich ,i con'ront his o,n pr!(is!sL 2c3to #!(onstrat! contra#iction a(ong th! pr!(is!s ,hich c+rr!nt y contro th! pati!ntIs b!ha"iorL 2#3to in#+c! in th! pati!nt so(! e.aggeration or caricature +e.g., in #r!a( or hypnosis3 o' !-p!ri!nc! bas!# on his o # pr!(is!s. As 8i ia( 0 a*! not!#, ong ago, 98itho+t Contrari!s is no progr!ssion.9 2= s!,h!r! I ha"! ca !# th!s! contra#ictions at !"! II 9#o+b ! bin#s.93 0+t th!r! ar! a ,ays oopho !s by ,hich th! i(pact o' contra#iction can b! r!#+c!#. It is a co((onp ac! o' !arning psycho ogy that ,hi ! th! s+bJ!ct ,i !arn 2@!arning I3 (or! rapi# y i' h! is r!in'orc!# !"!ry ti(! h! r!spon#s corr!ct y, s+ch !arning ,i #isapp!ar rath!r rapi# y i' r!in'orc!(!nt c!as!s. I', on th! oth!r han#, r!in'orc!(!nt is on y occasiona , th! s+bJ!ct ,i !arn (or! s o, y b+t th! r!s+ ting !arning ,i not !asi y b! !-ting+ish!# ,h!n r!in'orc!(!nt c!as!s a tog!th!r. In oth!r ,or#s, th! s+bJ!ct (ay !arn 2@!arning 113 that th! cont!-t is s+ch that abs!nc! o' r!in'orc!(!nt #o!s not in#icat! that his r!spons! ,as ,rong or inappropriat!. Eis "i!, o' th! cont!-t ,as, in 'act, corr!ct +nti th! !-p!ri(!nt!r chang!# his tactics. :h! th!rapist (+st c!rtain y so s+pport or h!#g! th! contrari!s by ,hich th! pati!nt is #ri"!n that oopho !s o' this an# oth!r *in#s ar! b oc*!#. :h! M!n can#i#at! ,ho has b!!n assign!# a para#o+3oan4 (+st abor at his tas* 9 i*! a (os.+ito biting on an iron bar.9 I ha"! arg+!# ! s!,h!r! 29&ty !, 1rac!, an# In'or(ation in $ri(iti"! Art,9 s!! p. 1283 that an !ss!ntia an# n!c!ssary '+nction o' a habit 'or(ation an# @!arning I1 is an economy o' th! tho+ght proc!ss!s 2or n!+ra path,ays3 ,hich ar! +s!# 'or prob !(Cso "ing

308

or @!arning I. :h! pr!(is!s o' ,hat is co((on y ca !# 9charact!r9;th! #!'initions o' th! 9s! '9 ;sa"! th! in#i"i#+a 'ro( ha"ing to !-a(in! th! abstract, phi osophica , a!sth!tic, an# !thica asp!cts o' (any s!.+!nc!s o' i'!. 9I #onIt *no, ,h!th!r itIs goo# (+sicL I on y *no, ,h!th!r I i*! it.9 0+t @!arning III ,i thro, th!s! +n!-a(in!# pr!(is!s op!n to .+!stion an# chang!. @!t +s, as ,as #on! abo"! 'or @!arning I an# II, ist so(! o' th! chang!s ,hich ,! sha b! ,i ing to ca @!arning III. 2a3:h! in#i"i#+a (ight !arn to 'or( (or! r!a#i y thos! habits th! 'or(ing o' ,hich ,! ca @!arning II. 2b3E! (ight !arn to c os! 'or hi(s! ' th! 9 oopho !s9 ,hich ,o+ # a o, hi( to a"oi# @!arning III. 2c3E! (ight !arn to chang! th! habits ac.+ir!# by @!arning II. 2#3E! (ight !arn that h! is a cr!at+r! ,hich can an# #o!s +nconscio+s y achi!"! @!arning II. 2!3E! (ight !arn to i(it or #ir!ct his @!arning II. 2'3I' @!arning II is a !arning o' th! cont!-ts o' @!arning I, th!n @!arning III sho+ # b! a !arning o' th! cont!-ts o' thos! cont!-ts. 0+t th! abo"! ist propos!s a para#o-. @!arning III 2i.!., !arning a-out @!arning II3 (ay !a# !ith!r to an incr!as! in @!arning II or to a i(itation an# p!rhaps a r!#+ction o' that ph!no(!non. C!rtain y it (+st !a# to a gr!at!r ' !-ibi ity in th! pr!(is!s ac.+ir!# by th! proc!ss o' @!arning II 7a freedom 'ro( th!ir bon#ag!. I onc! h!ar# a M!n (ast!r stat! cat!gorica y6 9:o b!co(! acc+sto(!# to anything is a t!rrib ! thing.9 0+t any 'r!!#o( 'ro( th! bon#ag! o' habit (+st a so #!not! a pro'o+n# r!#!'inition o' th! s! '. I' I stop at th! !"! o' @!arning II, 9I9 a( th! aggr!gat! o' thos! charact!ristics ,hich I ca (y 9charact!r.9 9I9 a( (y habits o' acting in cont!-t an# shaping an# p!rc!i"ing th! cont!-ts in ,hich I act. &! 'hoo# is a pro#+ct or aggr!gat! o' @!arning II. :o th! #!gr!! that a (an achi!"!s

309

@!arning III, an# !arns to p!rc!i"! an# act in t!r(s o' th! cont!-ts o' cont!-ts, his 9s! '9 ,i ta*! on a sort o' irr! !"anc!. :h! conc!pt o' 9s! '9 ,i no ong!r '+nction as a no#a arg+(!nt in th! p+nct+ation o' !-p!ri!nc!. :his (att!r n!!#s to b! !-a(in!#. In th! #isc+ssion o' @!arning II, it ,as ass!rt!# that a ,or#s i*! 9#!p!n#!ncy,9 9pri#!,9 9'ata is(,9 r!'!r to charact!ristics o' th! s! ' ,hich ar! !arn!# 2@!arning II3 in s!.+!nc!s o' r! ationship. :h!s! ,or#s ar!, in 'act, t!r(s 'or 9ro !s9 in r! ationships an# r!'!r to so(!thing arti'icia y chopp!# o+t o' int!racti"! s!.+!nc!s. It ,as a so s+gg!st!# that th! corr!ct ,ay to assign rigoro+s (!aning to any s+ch ,or#s is to sp! o+t th! 'or(a str+ct+r! o' th! s!.+!nc! in ,hich th! na(!# charact!ristic (ight ha"! b!!n !arn!#. :h+s th! int!racti"! s!.+!nc! o' $a" o"ian !arning ,as propos!# as a para#ig( 'or a c!rtain sort o' 9'ata is(,9 !tc. 0+t no, ,! ar! as*ing abo+t th! cont!-ts o' th!s! conCt!-ts o' !arning, i.!., abo+t th! arg!r s!.+!nc!s ,ithin ,hich s+ch para#ig(s ar! !(b!##!#. Consi#!r th! s(a it!( o' @!arning II ,hich ,as (!ntion!# abo"! as pro"i#ing a 9 oopho !9 'or !scap! 'ro( @!arning III. A c!rtain charact!ristic o' th! s! ';ca it 9p!rsist!nc!9;is g!n!rat!# by !-p!ri!nc! in (+ tip ! s!.+!nc!s a(ong ,hich r!in'orc!(!nt is spora#ic. 8! (+st no, as* abo+t th! arg!r cont!-t o' s+ch s!.+!nc!s. Eo, ar! s+ch s!.+!nc!s g!n!rat!#D :h! .+!stion is !-p osi"!. :h! si(p ! sty i/!# !-p!ri(!nta s!.+!nc! o' int!raction in th! aboratory is g!n!rat!# by an# part y #!t!r(in!s a n!t,or* o' conting!nci!s ,hich go!s o+t in a h+n#r!# #ir!ctions !a#ing o+t o' th! aboratory into th! proc!ss!s by ,hich psycho ogica r!s!arch is #!sign!#, th! int!ractions b!t,!!n psycho ogists, th! !cono(ics o' r!Cs!arch (on!y, !tc., !tc. 5r consi#!r th! sa(! 'or(a s!.+!nc! in a (or! 9nat+ra 9 s!tting. An organis( is s!arching 'or a n!!#!# or (issing obJ!ct. A pig is rooting 'or acorns, a ga(b !r is '!!#ing a s ot (achin! hoping 'or a Jac*pot, or a (an (+st 'in# th! *!y to his car. :h!r! ar! tho+san#s o' sit+ations ,h!r! i"ing things (+st p!rsist in c!rtain sorts o' b!ha"ior pr!cis! y -ecause r!in'orc!(!nt is spora#ic or i(probab !. @!arning II ,i si(p i'y th! +ni"!rs! by han# ing th!s! instanc!s as a sing ! cat!gory. 0+t i' @!arning III b! conc!rn!# ,ith

310

th! cont!-ts o' th!s! instanc!s, th!n th! cat!gori!s o' @!arning II ,i b! b+rst op!n. 5r consi#!r ,hat th! ,or# 9r!in'orc!(!nt9 (!ans at th! "ario+s !"! s. A porpois! g!ts a 'ish 'ro( th! train!r ,h!n h! #o!s ,hat th! train!r ,ants. At !"! I, th! 'act o' th! 'ish is in*!# ,ith th! 9rightn!ss9 o' th! partic+ ar action. At !"! II, th! 'act o' th! 'ish con'ir(s th! porpois!Is +n#!rCstan#ing o' his 2possib y instr+(!nta or #!p!n#!nt3 r! ationship ,ith th! train!r. An# not! that at this !"! , i' th! porpois! hat!s or '!ars th! train!r, pain r!c!i"!# 'ro( th! att!r (ay b! a positi"! r!in'orc!(!nt con'ir(ing that hat!. 29I' itIs not th! ,ay I ,ant it, II pro"! it.93 0+t ,hat o' 9r!in'orc!(!nt9 at !"! III 2'or porpois! or 'or (an3D I', as I ha"! s+gg!st!# abo"!, th! cr!at+r! is #ri"!n to !"! III by 9contrari!s9 g!n!rat!# at !"! II, th!n ,! (ay !-p!ct that it is th! r!so "ing o' th!s! contrari!s that ,i constit+t! positi"! r!in'orc!(!nt at !"! III. &+ch r!so +tion can ta*! (any 'or(s. ="!n th! att!(pt at !"! III can b! #ang!ro+s, an# so(! 'a by th! ,aysi#!. :h!s! ar! o't!n ab! !# by psychiatry as psychotic, an# (any o' th!( 'in# th!(s! "!s inhibit!# 'ro( +sing th! 'irst p!rson prono+n. 7or oth!rs, (or! s+cc!ss'+ , th! r!so +tion o' th! contrari!s (ay b! a co apsing o' (+ch that ,as !arn!# at !"! II, r!"!a ing a si(p icity in ,hich h+ng!r !a#s #ir!ct y to !ating, an# th! i#!nti'i!# s! ' is no ong!r in charg! o' organi/ing th! b!ha"ior. :h!s! ar! th! incorr+ptib ! innoc!nts o' th! ,or #. 7or oth!rs, (or! cr!ati"!, th! r!so +tion o' contrari!s r!"!a s a ,or # in ,hich p!rsona i#!ntity (!rg!s into a th! proc!ss!s o' r! ationship in so(! "ast !co ogy or a!sth!tics o' cos(ic int!raction. :hat any o' th!s! can s+r"i"! s!!(s a (ost (irac+ o+s, b+t so(! ar! p!rhaps sa"!# 'ro( b!ing s,!pt a,ay on oc!anic '!! ing by th!ir abi ity to 'oc+s in on th! (in+tia! o' i'!. ="!ry #!tai o' th! +ni"!rs! is s!!n as proposing a "i!, o' th! ,ho !. :h!s! ar! th! p!op ! 'or ,ho( 0 a*! ,rot! th! 'a(o+s a#"ic! in th! 9A+g+ri!s o' Innoc!nc!69
To see the +orl! in a ,rain of San!) An! a -ea$en in a +il! Flower)

311

-ol! .nfinit in the palm of our han!) An! Eternit in an hour.

The -ole of enetics in %sycholo&y

8hat!"!r can b! sai# abo+t an ani(a Is !arning or inCabi ity to !arn has b!aring +pon th! g!n!tic (a*!C+p o' th! ani(a . An# ,hat has b!!n sai# h!r! abo+t th! !"! s o' !arning has b!aring +pon th! ,ho ! int!rp ay b!t,!!n g!n!tic (a*!C+p an# th! chang!s ,hich that in#i"i#+a can an# (+st achi!"!. 7or any gi"!n organis(, th!r! is an +pp!r i(it b!yon# ,hich a is #!t!r(in!# by g!n!tics. $ anarians can probab y not go b!yon# @!arning I. Aa((a s oth!r than (an ar! probab y capab ! o' @!arning II b+t incapab ! o' @!arning III. Aan (ay so(!ti(!s achi!"! @!arning III. :his +pp!r i(it 'or any organis( is 2 ogica y an# pr!s+(ab y3 s!t by g!n!tic ph!no(!na, not p!rhaps by in#i"i#+a g!n!s or co(binations o' g!n!s, b+t by ,hat!"!r 'actors contro th! #!"! op(!nt o' basic phy ar charact!ristics. 7or !"!ry chang! o' ,hich an organis( is capab !, th!r! is th! fact o' that capabi ity. :his 'act (ay b! g!n!tica y #!t!r(in!#L or th! capabi ity (ay ha"! b!!n !arn!#. I' th! att!r, th!n g!n!tics (ay ha"! #!t!r(in!# th! capabi ity o' !arning th! capabi ity. An# so on. :his is in g!n!ra tr+! o' a so(atic chang!s as ,! as o' thos! b!ha"iora chang!s ,hich ,! ca !arning. A (anIs s*in tans in th! s+n. 0+t ,h!r! #o!s g!n!tics !nt!r this pict+r!D ?o!s g!n!tics co(p !t! y #!t!r(in! his ability to tanD 5r can so(! (!n incr!as! th!ir abi ity to tanD In th! att!r cas!, th! g!n!tic 'actors !"i#!nt y ha"! !''!ct at a high!r ogica !"! . :h! prob !( in r!gar# to any b!ha"ior is c !ar y not "Is it !arn!# or is it innat!D9 b+t 9%p to ,hat ogica !"! is !arning !''!cti"! an# #o,n to ,hat !"! #o!s g!n!tics p ay a #!t!r(inati"! or part y !''!cti"! ro !D9

312

:h! broa# history o' th! !"o +tion o' !arning s!!(s to ha"! b!!n a s o, p+shing bac* o' g!n!tic #!t!r(inis( to !"! s o' high!r ogica typ!. A Note on ,ierarchies

:h! (o#! #isc+ss!# in this pap!r ass+(!s, tacit y, that th! ogica typ!s can b! or#!r!# in th! 'or( o' a si(p !, +nbranching a##!r. I b! i!"! that it ,as ,is! to #!a 'irst ,ith th! prob !(s rais!# by s+ch a si(p ! (o#! . 0+t th! ,or # o' action, !-p!ri!nc!, organi/ation, an# !arning cannot b! co(p !t! y (app!# onto a (o#! ,hich !-c +#!s propositions abo+t th! r! ation -et'een c ass!s o' #i''!r!nt ogica typ!. I' CI is a c ass o' propositions, an# C2 is a c ass o' propositions abo+t th! (!(b!rs o' C1L C3 th!n b!ing a c ass o' propositions abo+t th! (!(b!rs o' C2L ho, th!n sha ,! c assi'y propositions abo+t th! r! ation -et'een th!s! c ass!sD 7or !-a(p !, th! proposition 9As (!(b!rs o' C1 ar! to (!(b!rs o' C2, so (!(b!rs o' C2 ar! to (!(b!rs o' C39 cannot b! c assi'i!# ,ithin th! +nbranching a##!r o' typ!s. :h! ,ho ! o' this !ssay is b+i t +pon th! pr!(is! that th! r! ation b!t,!!n C2 an# C3 can b! co(par!# ,ith th! r! ation b!t,!!n C1 an# C2. I ha"! again an# again ta*!n a stanc! to th! si#! o' (y a##!r o' ogica typ!s to #isc+ss th! str+ct+r! o' this a##!r. :h! !ssay is th!r!'or! its! ' an !-a(p ! o' th! 'act that th! a##!r is not +nbranching. It 'o o,s that a n!-t tas* ,i b! to oo* 'or !-a(p !s o' !arning ,hich cannot b! c assi'i!# in t!r(s o' (y hi!rarchy o' !arning b+t ,hich 'a to th! si#! o' this hi!rarchy as !arning abo+t th! r! ation b!t,!!n st!ps o' th! hi!rarchy. I ha"! s+gg!st!# ! s!,h!r! 29&ty !, 1rac!, an# In'or(ation in $ri(iti"! Art93 that art is co((on y conc!rn!# ,ith !arning o' this sort, i.!., ,ith bri#ging th! gap b!t,!!n th! (or! or !ss +nconscio+s pr!(is!s ac.+ir!# by @!arning II an# th! (or! !piso#ic cont!nt o' conscio+sn!ss an# i((!#iat! action.

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It sho+ # a so b! not!# that th! str+ct+r! o' this !ssay is inducti&e in th! s!ns! that th! hi!rarchy o' or#!rs o' !arning is pr!s!nt!# to th! r!a#!r 'ro( th! botto( +p,ar#, 'ro( !"! /!ro to !"! III. 0+t it is not int!n#!# that th! !-p anations o' th! ph!no(!na ,or # ,hich th! (o#! a''or#s sha b! +ni#ir!ctiona . In !-p aining th! (o#! to th! r!a#!r, a +ni#ir!ctiona approach ,as n!c!ssary, b+t ,ithin th! (o#! it is ass+(!# that high!r !"! s ar! !-p anatory o' o,!r !"! s an# "ic! "!rsa. It is a so ass+(!# that a si(i ar r!' !-i"! r! ation;both in#+cti"! an# #!#+cti"!;obtains a(ong i#!as an# it!(s o' !arning as th!s! !-ist in th! i"!s o' th! cr!at+r!s ,hich ,! st+#y. 7ina y, th! (o#! r!(ains a(big+o+s in th! s!ns! that ,hi ! it is ass!rt!# that th!r! ar! !-p anatory or #!t!r(inati"! r! ations b!t,!!n i#!as o' a#Jac!nt !"! s both +p,ar# an# #o,n,ar#, it is not c !ar ,h!th!r #ir!ct !-p anatory r! ations !-ist b!t,!!n s!parat!# !"! s, !.g., b!t,!!n !"! III an# !"! I or b!t,!!n !"! /!ro an# !"! II. :his .+!stion an# that o' th! stat+s o' propositions an# i#!as co at!ra to th! hi!rarchy o' typ!s r!(ains +n!-a(in!#.

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The Cy)e&neti'! o5 :+el5:: A Theo&y o5 Al'oholi!(%


:h! 9 ogic9 o' a coho ic a##iction has p+// !# psychiatrists no !ss than th! 9 ogic9 o' th! str!n+o+s spirit+a r!gi(! ,h!r!by th! organi/ation A coho ics Anony(o+s is ab ! to co+nt!ract th! a##iction. In th! pr!s!nt !ssay it is s+gg!st!#6 213 that an !ntir! y n!, !pist!(o ogy (+st co(! o+t o' cyb!rn!tics an# syst!(s th!ory, in"o "ing a n!, +n#!rstan#ing o' (in#, s! ', h+(an r! ationship, an# po,!rL 223 that th! a##ict!# a coho ic is op!rating, ,h!n sob!r, in t!r(s o' an !pist!(o ogy ,hich is con"!ntiona in 5cci#!nta c+ t+r! b+t ,hich is not acc!ptab ! to syst!(s th!oryL 233 that s+rr!n#!r to a coho ic into-ication pro"i#!s a partia an# s+bJ!cti"! short c+t to a (or! corr!ct stat! o' (in#L an# 243 that th! th!o ogy o' A coho ics Anony(o+s coinci#!s c os! y ,ith an !pist!(o ogy o' cyb!rn!tics. :h! pr!s!nt !ssay is bas!# +pon i#!as ,hich ar!, p!rhaps a o' th!(, 'a(i iar !ith!r to psychiatrists ,ho ha"! ha# #!a ings ,ith a coho ics, or to phi osoph!rs ,ho ha"! tho+ght abo+t th! i(p ications o' cyb!rn!tics an# syst!(s th!ory. :h! on y no"! ty ,hich can b! c ai(!# 'or th! th!sis h!r! o''!r!# #!ri"!s 'ro( tr!ating th!s! i#!as s!rio+s y as pr!(is!s o' arg+(!nt an# 'ro( th! bringing tog!th!r o' co((onp ac! i#!as 'ro( t,o too s!parat! 'i! #s o' tho+ght. In its 'irst conc!ption, this !ssay ,as p ann!# to b! a syst!(sC th!or!tic st+#y o' a coho ic a##iction, in ,hich I ,o+ # +s! #ata 'ro( th! p+b ications o' A coho ics Anony(o+s, ,hich has th! on y o+tstan#ing r!cor# o' s+cc!ss in #!a ing ,ith a coho ics. It soon b!ca(! !"i#!nt, ho,!"!r, that th! r! igio+s "i!,s an# th! organi/ationa str+ct+r! o' AA pr!s!nt!# points o' gr!at int!r!st to syst!(s th!ory, an# that th! corr!ct scop! o' (y st+#y sho+ # inc +#! not on y th! pr!(is!s o' a coho is( b+t a so th! pr!(is!s o' th! AA syst!( o' tr!ating it an# th! pr!(is!s o' AA organi/ation.
H :his artic ! app!ar!# in 6syc*iatry, Go . 34, )o. 1, pp. 1C18, 1971. Copyright \ 1971 by th! 8i ia( A anson 8hit! $sychiatric 7o+n#ation. 4!print!# by p!r(ission o' 6syc*iatry

315

Ay #!bt to AA ,i b! !"i#!nt thro+gho+t;a so, I hop!, (y r!sp!ct 'or that organi/ation an# !sp!cia y 'or th! !-traor#inary ,is#o( o' its co'o+n#!rs, 0i 8. an# ?r. 0ob. In a##ition, I ha"! to ac*no, !#g! a #!bt to a s(a sa(p ! o' a coho ic pati!nts ,ith ,ho( I ,or*!# int!nsi"! y 'or abo+t t,o y!ars in 1949C52, in th! G!t!rans A#(inistration Eospita , $a o A to, Ca i'ornia. :h!s! (!n, it sho+ # b! (!ntion!#, carri!# oth!r #iagnos!s;(ost y o' 9schi/ophr!nia9;in a##ition to th! pains o' a coho is(. &!"!ra ,!r! (!(b!rs o' AA. I '!ar that I h! p!# th!( not at a . The %ro$le#

It is rath!r g!n!ra y b! i!"!# that 9ca+s!s9 or 9r!asons9 'or a coho is( ar! to b! oo*!# 'or in th! sob!r i'! o' th! a coho ic. A coho ics, in th!ir sob!r (ani'!stations, ar! co((on y #+bb!# 9i((at+r!,9 9(at!rna y 'i-at!#,9 9ora ,9 9ho(os!-+a ,9 9passi"!C aggr!ssi"!,9 9'!ar'+ o' s+cc!ss,9 9o"!rs!nsiti"!,9 9pro+#,9 9a''ab !,9 or si(p y 9,!a*.9 0+t th! ogica i(p ications o' this b! i!' ar! +s+a y not !-a(in!#6 213I' th! sob!r i'! o' th! a coho ic so(!ho, #ri"!s hi( to #rin* or propos!s th! 'irst st!p to,ar# into-ication, it is not to b! !-p!ct!# that any proc!#+r! ,hich r!in'orc!s his partic+ ar sty ! o' sobri!ty ,i r!#+c! or contro his a coho is(.
223I' his sty ! o' sobri!ty #ri"!s hi( to #rin*, th!n that sty ! (+st contain !rror or patho ogyL an# into-ication (+st pro"i#! so(!;at !ast s+bJ!cti"!;corr!ction o' this !rror. In oth!r ,or#s, co(par!# ,ith his sobri!ty, ,hich is in so(! ,ay 9,rong,9 his into-ication (+st b! in so(! ,ay 9right.9 :h! o # tag In &ino &eritas (ay contain a tr+th (or! pro'o+n# than is +s+a y attrib+t!# to it. 233An a t!rnati"! hypoth!sis ,o+ # s+gg!st that ,h!n sob!r, th! a coho ic is so(!ho, (or! san! than th! p!op ! aro+n# hi(, an# that this sit+ation is into !rab !. I ha"! h!ar# a coho ics arg+!

316

in 'a"or o' this possibi ity, b+t I sha ignor! it in this !ssay. I thin* that 0!rnar# &(ith, th! nonCa coho ic !ga r!pr!s!ntati"! o' AA, ca(! c os! to th! (ar* ,h!n h! sai#, 9th! >AAB (!(b!r ,as n!"!r !ns a"!# by a coho . A coho si(p y s!r"!# as an !scap! 'ro( personal !ns a"!(!nt to th! 'a s! i#!a s o' a (at!ria istic soci!ty.963 It is not a (att!r o' r!"o t against insan! i#!a s aro+n# hi( b+t o' !scaping 'ro( his o,n insan! pr!(is!s, ,hich ar! contin+a y r!in'orc!# by th! s+rro+n#ing soci!ty. It is possib !, ho,!"!r, that th! a coho ic is in so(! ,ay (or! "+ n!rab ! or s!nsiti"! than th! nor(a to th! 'act that his insan! 2b+t con"!ntiona 3 pr!(is!s !a# to +nsatis'ying r!s+ ts.
243:h! pr!s!nt th!ory o' a coho is(, th!r!'or!, ,i proC"i#! a con&erse matc*ing b!t,!!n th! sobri!ty an# th! into-ication, s+ch that th! att!r (ay b! s!!n as an appropriat! s+bJ!cti"! corr!ction 'or th! 'or(!r. 253:h!r! ar!, o' co+rs!, (any instanc!s in ,hich p!op ! r!sort to a coho an# !"!n to !-tr!(! into-ication as an an!sth!tic gi"ing r! !as! 'ro( or#inary gri!', r!s!nt(!nt, or physica pain. It (ight b! arg+!# that th! an!sth!tic action o' a coho pro"i#!s a s+''ici!nt con"!rs! (atching 'or o+r th!or!tica p+rpos!s. I sha , ho,!"!r, sp!ci'ica y !-c +#! th!s! cas!s 'ro( consi#!ration as b!ing not r! !"ant to th! prob !( o' a##icti"! or r!p!titi"! a coho is(L an# this in spit! o' th! +n#o+bt!# 'act that 9gri!',9 9r!s!nt(!nt,9 an# 9'r+stration9 ar! co((on y +s!# by a##ict!# a coho ics as e.cuses 'or #rin*ing. I sha #!(an#, th!r!'or!, a con"!rs! (atching b!t,!!n sobri!ty an# into-ication (or! sp!ci'ic than that pro"i#!# by (!r! an!sth!sia.

>A coho ics Anony(o+sB, Alcoholics Anon mous Comes of A'e) )!, For*, Earp!r, 1957, p. /01. 2Ita ics a##!#.3

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317

So$riety

:h! 'ri!n#s an# r! ati"!s o' th! a coho ic co((on y +rg! hi( to b! 9strong,9 an# to 9r!sist t!(ptation.9 8hat th!y (!an by this is not "!ry c !ar, b+t it is signi'icant that th! a coho ic hi(s! ';,hi ! sob!r;co((on y agr!!s ,ith th!ir "i!, o' his 9prob !(.9 E! b! i!"!s that h! co+ # b!, or, at !ast, o+ght to b! 9th! captain o' his so+ .964 0+t it is a c ich! o' a coho is( that a't!r 9that 'irst #rin*,9 th! (oti"ation to stop #rin*ing is /!ro. :ypica y th! ,ho ! (att!r is phras!# o"!rt y as a batt ! b!t,!!n 9s! '9 an# 9John 0ar !ycorn.9 Co"!rt y th! a coho ic (ay b! p anning or !"!n s!cr!t y aying in s+pp i!s 'or th! n!-t bing!, b+t it is a (ost i(possib ! 2in th! hospita s!tting3 to g!t th! sob!r a coho ic to p an his n!-t bing! in an o"!rt (ann!r. E! cannot, s!!(ing y, b! th! 9captain9 o' his so+ an# o"!rt y ,i or co((an# his o,n #r+n*!nn!ss. :h! 9captain9 can on y co((an# sobri!ty ;an# th!n not b! ob!y!#. 0i 8., th! co'o+n#!r o' A coho ics Anony(o+s, hi(s! ' an a coho ic, c+t thro+gh a this (ytho ogy o' con' ict in th! "!ry 'irst o' th! 'a(o+s 9:,! "! &t!ps9 o' AA. :h! 'irst st!p #!(an#s that th! a coho ic agr!! that h! is po,!r !ss o"!r a coho . :his st!p is. +s+a y r!gar#!# as a 9surrender 9 an# (any a coho ics ar! !ith!r +nab ! to achi!"! it or achi!"! it on y bri!' y #+ring th! p!rio# o' r!(ors! 'o o,ing a bing!. AA #o!s not r!gar# th!s! cas!s as pro(ising6 th!y ha"! not y!t 9hit botto(9L th!ir #!spair is ina#!.+at! an# a't!r a (or! or !ss bri!' sp! o' sobri!ty th!y ,i again att!(pt to +s! 9s! 'Ccontro 9 to 'ight th! 9t!(ptation.9 :h!y ,i not or cannot acc!pt th! pr!(is! that, #r+n* or sob!r, th! tota p!rsona ity o' an a coho ic is an a coho ic p!rsona ity ,hich cannot conc!i"ab y 'ight a coho is(. As an AA !a' !t p+ts it, 9trying to +s! ,i po,!r is i*! trying to i't yo+rs! ' by yo+r bootstraps.9 :h! 'irst t,o st!ps o' AA ar! as 'o o,s6
I :his phras! is +s!# by AA in #!rision o' th! a coho ic ,ho tri!s to +s! ,i po,!r against th! bott !. :h! .+otation, a ong ,ith th! in!, 9Ay h!a# is b oo#y b+t +nC bo,!#,9 co(!s 'ro( th! po!( 9In"ict+s9 by 8i ia( =rn!st E!n !y, ,ho ,as a cripp ! b+t not an a coho ic. :h! +s! o' th! ,i to con.+!r pain an# physica #isC abi ity is probab y not co(parab ! to th! a coho icIs +s! o' ,i .
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318

1.8! a#(itt!# ,! ,!r! po,!r !ss o"!r a coho ;that o+r i"!s ha# b!co(! +n(anag!ab !. 2.Ca(! to b! i!"! that a $o,!r gr!at!r than o+rCs! "!s co+ # r!stor! +s to sanity.65 I(p icit in th! co(bination o' th!s! t,o st!ps is an !-traor#inary ;an# I b! i!"! corr!ct;i#!a6 th! !-p!ri!nc! o' #!'!at not on y s!r"!s to con"inc! th! a coho ic that chang! is n!c!ssaryL it is th! 'irst st!p in that chang!. :o b! #!'!at!# by th! bott ! an# to *no, it is th! 'irst 9spirit+a !-p!ri!nc!.9 :h! (yth o' s! 'Cpo,!r is th!r!by bro*!n by th! #!(onstration o' a gr!at!r po,!r. In s+(, I sha arg+! that th! 9sobri!ty9 o' th! a coho ic is charact!ri/!# by an +n+s+a y #isastro+s "ariant o' th! Cart!sian #+a is(, th! #i"ision b!t,!!n Ain# an# Aatt!r, or, in this cas!, b!t,!!n conscio+s ,i , or 9s! ',9 an# th! r!(ain#!r o' th! p!rsona ity. 0i 8.Is stro*! o' g!ni+s ,as to br!a* +p ,ith th! 'irst 9st!p9 th! str+ct+ring o' this #+a is(. $hi osophica y "i!,!#, this 'irst st!p is not a s+rr!n#!rL it is si(p y a chang! in !pist!(o ogy, a chang! in ho, to *no, abo+t th! p!rsona ityCinCth!C,or #. An#, notab y, th! chang! is 'ro( an incorr!ct to a (or! corr!ct !pist!(o ogy. Episte#olo&y and Ontolo&y

$hi osoph!rs ha"! r!cogni/!# an# s!parat!# t,o sorts o' prob !(. :h!r! ar! 'irst th! prob !(s o' ho, things ar!, ,hat is a p!rson, an# ,hat sort o' a ,or # this is. :h!s! ar! th! prob !(s o' onto ogy. &!con#, th!r! ar! th! prob !(s o' ho, ,! *no, anything, or (or! sp!ci'ica y, ho, ,! *no, ,hat sort o' a ,or # it is an# ,hat sort o' cr!at+r!s ,! ar! that can *no, so(!thing 2or p!rhaps nothing3 o' this (att!r. :h!s! ar! th! prob !(s o' !pist!(o ogy. :o th!s! .+!stions, both onto ogica an# !pist!(o ogica , phi osC oph!rs try to 'in# tr+! ans,!rs.
I>A coho ics Anony(o+sB, Alco*olics Anonymous, )!, For*, 8or*s $+b ishing, 1939
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319

0+t th! nat+ra ist, obs!r"ing h+(an b!ha"ior, ,i as* rath!r #i''!r!nt .+!stions. I' h! b! a c+ t+ra r! ati"ist, h! (ay agr!! ,ith thos! phi osoph!rs ,ho ho # that a 9tr+!9 onto ogy is conc!i"ab !, b+t h! ,i not as* ,h!th!r th! onto ogy o' th! p!op ! h! obs!r"!s is 9tr+!.9 E! ,i !-p!ct th!ir !pist!(o ogy to b! c+ t+ra y #!t!r(in!# or !"!n i#iosyncratic, an# h! ,i !-p!ct th! c+ t+r! as a ,ho ! to (a*! s!ns! in t!r(s o' th!ir partic+ ar !pist!(o ogy an# onto ogy. I', on th! oth!r han#, it is c !ar that th! oca !pist!(o ogy is ' ro n g , th!n th! nat+ra ist sho+ # b! a !rt to th! possibi ity that th! c+ t+r! as a ,ho ! ,i n!"!r r!a y (a*! 9s!ns!,9 or ,i (a*! s!ns! on y +n#!r r!strict!# circ+(stanc!s, ,hich contact ,ith oth!r c+ t+r!s an# n!, t!chno ogi!s (ight #isr+pt. In th! nat+ra history o' th! i"ing h+(an b!ing, onto ogy an# !pist!(o ogy cannot b! s!parat!#. Eis 2co((on y +nconscio+s3 b! i!'s abo+t ,hat sort o' ,or # it is ,i #!t!r(in! ho, h! s!!s it an# acts ,ithin it, an# his ,ays o' p!rc!i"ing an# acting ,i #!t!r(in! his b! i!'s abo+t its nat+r!. :h! i"ing (an is th+s bo+n# ,ithin a n!t o' !pist!(o ogica an# onto ogica pr!(is!s ,hich; r!gar# !ss o' + ti(at! tr+th or 'a sity;b!co(! partia y s! 'C "a i#ating 'or hi(66 It is a,*,ar# to r!'!r constant y to both !pist!(o ogy an# onto ogy an# incorr!ct to s+gg!st that th!y ar! s!parab ! in h+(an nat+ra history. :h!r! s!!(s to b! no con"!ni!nt ,or# to co"!r th! co(bination o' th!s! t,o conc!pts. :h! n!ar!st appro-i(ations ar! 9cogniti"! str+ct+r!9 or 9charact!r str+ct+r!,9 b+t th!s! t!r(s 'ai to s+gg!st that ,hat is i(portant is a bo#y o' habit+a ass+(ptions or pr!(is!s i(p icit in th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (an an# !n"iron(!nt, an# that th!s! pr!(is!s (ay b! tr+! or 'a s!. I sha th!r!C'or! +s! th! sing ! t!r( 9!pist!(o ogy9 in this !ssay to co"!r both asp!cts o' th! n!t o' pr!(is!s ,hich go"!rn a#aptation 2or (a a#aptation3 to th! h+(an an# physica !n"iron(!nt. In 1!org! <! yIs "ocab+ ary, th!s! ar! th! r+ !s by ,hich an in#i"i#+a 9constr+!s9 his !-p!ri!nc!. I a( conc!rn!# !sp!cia y ,ith that gro+p o' pr!(is!s +pon ,hich 5cci#!nta conc!pts o' th! 9s! '9 ar! b+i t, an# con"!rs! y,
66 J. 4+!sch an# 1. 0at!son, "ommunications# !*e Social ,atri. of 6syc*iatry, )!, For*, )orton, 1951.

320

,ith pr!(is!s ,hich ar! corr!cti"! to so(! o' th! (or! gross 5cci#!nta !rrors associat!# ,ith that conc!pt. The Episte#olo&y of Cy$ernetics

8hat is n!, an# s+rprising is that ,! no, ha"! partia ans,!rs to so(! o' th!s! .+!stions. In th! ast t,!ntyC'i"! y!ars !-traor#inary a#"anc!s ha"! b!!n (a#! in o+r *no, !#g! o' ,hat sort o' thing th! !n"iron(!nt Iis, ,hat sort o' thing an organis( is, an#, !sp!cia y, ,hat sort o' thing a mind is. :h!s! a#"anc!s ha"! co(! o+t o' cyb!rn!tics, syst!(s th!ory, in'or(ation th!ory, an# r! at!# sci!nc!s. 8! no, *no,, ,ith consi#!rab ! c!rtainty, that th! anci!nt prob !( o' ,h!th!r th! (in# is i((an!nt or transc!n#!nt can b! ans,!r!# in 'a"or o' i((an!nc!, an# that this ans,!r is (or! !cono(ica o' !-p anatory !ntiti!s than any transc!n#!nt ans,!r6 it has at !ast th! n!gati"! s+pCport o' 5cca(Is 4a/or. 5n th! positi"! si#!, ,! can ass!rt that any ongoing !ns!(b ! o' !"!nts an# obJ!cts ,hich has th! appropriat! co(p !-ity o' ca+sa circ+its an# th! appropriat! !n!rgy r! ations ,i s+r! y sho, (!nta charact!ristics. It ,i c ompare, that is, b! r!sponsi"! to difference 2in a##ition to b!ing a''!ct!# by th! or#inary physica 9ca+s!s 9 s+ch as i(pact or 'orc!3. It ,i 9proc!ss in'or(ation9 an# ,i in!"itab y b! s! 'Ccorr!cti"! !ith!r to,ar# ho(!ostatic opti(a or to,ar# th! (a-i(i/ation o' c!rtain "ariab !s. A 9bit9 o' in'or(ation is #!'inab ! as a #i''!r!nc! ,hich (a*!s a #i''!r!nc!. &+ch a #i''!r!nc!, as it tra"! s an# +n#!rgo!s s+cc!ssi"! trans'or(ation in a circ+it, is an ! !(!ntary i#!a. 0+t, (ost r! !"ant in th! pr!s!nt cont!-t, ,! *no, that no part o' s+ch an int!rna y int!racti"! syst!( can ha"! +ni at!ra contro o"!r th! r!(ain#!r or o"!r any oth!r part. :h! (!nta charact!ristics ar! inh!r!nt or i((an!nt in th! !ns!(b ! as a '*ole. ="!n in "!ry si(p ! s! 'Ccorr!cti"! syst!(s, this ho istic charact!r is !"i#!nt. In th! st!a( !ngin! ,ith a 9go"!rnor,9 th! "!ry ,or# 9go"!rnor9 is a (isno(!r i' it b! ta*!n to (!an that this part o' th! syst!( has +ni at!ra contro . :h! go"!rnor is, !ss!ntia y, a

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s!ns! organ or trans#+c!r ,hich r!c!i"!s a trans'or( o' th! difference b!t,!!n th! act+a r+nning sp!!# o' th! !ngin! an# so(! i#!a or pr!'!rr!# sp!!#. :his s!ns! organ trans'or(s th!s! #i''!r!nc!s into #i''!r!nc!s in so(! !''!r!nt (!ssag!, 'or !-a(p !, to '+! s+pp y or to a bra*!. :h! b!ha"ior o' th! go"!rnor is #!C t!r(in!#, in oth!r ,or#s, by th! b!ha"ior o' th! oth!r parts o' th! syst!(, an# in#ir!ct y by its o,n b!ha"ior at a pr!"io+s ti(!. :h! ho istic an# (!nta charact!r o' th! syst!( is (ost c !ar y #!(onstrat!# by this ast 'act, that th! b!ha"ior o' th! go"!rnor 2an#, in#!!#, o' !"!ry part o' th! ca+sa circ+it3 is partia y #!t!r(in!# by its o,n pr!"io+s b!ha"ior. A!ssag! (at!ria 2i.!., s+cc!ssi"! trans'or(s o' #i''!r!nc!3 (+st pass aro+n# th! tota circ+it, an# th! time r!.+ir!# 'or th! (!ssag! (at!ria to r!t+rn to th! p ac! 'ro( ,hich it start!# is a basic charact!ristic o' th! tota syst!(. :h! b!ha"ior o' th! go"!rnor 2or any oth!r part o' th! circ+it3 is th+s in so(! #!gr!! #!t!r(in!# not on y by its i((!#iat! past, b+t by ,hat it #i# at a ti(! ,hich pr!c!#!s th! pr!s!nt by th! int!r"a n!c!ssary 'or th! (!ssag! to co(p !t! th! circ+it. :h!r! is th+s a sort o' #!t!r(inati"! memory in !"!n th! si(p !st cyb!rn!tic circ+it. :h! stabi ity o' th! syst!( 2i.!., ,h!th!r it ,i act s! 'C corr!cti"! y or osci at! or go into r+na,ay3 #!p!n#s +pon th! r! ation b!t,!!n th! op!rationa pro#+ct o' a th! trans'or(ations o' #i''!r!nc! aro+n# th! circ+it an# +pon this charact!ristic ti(!. :h! 9go"!rnor9 has no contro o"!r th!s! 'actors. ="!n a h+(an go"!rnor in a socia syst!( is bo+n# by th! sa(! i(itations. E! is contro !# by in'or(ation 'ro( th! syst!( an# (+st a#apt his o,n actions to its ti(! charact!ristics an# to th! !''!cts o' his o,n past action. :h+s, in no syst!( ,hich sho,s (!nta charact!ristics can any part ha"! +ni at!ra contro o"!r th! ,ho !. In oth!r ,or#s, th! (!nta charact!ristics o' th! syst!( ar! i((an!nt, not in so(! part, b+t in th! syst!( as a ,ho !. :h! signi'icanc! o' this conc +sion app!ars ,h!n ,! as*, 9Can a co(p+t!r thin*D9 or, 9Is th! (in# in th! brainD9 An# th! ans,!r to both .+!stions ,i b! n!gati"! +n !ss th! .+!stion is 'oc+s!# +pon on! o' th! '!, (!nta charact!ristics ,hich ar! contain!# ,ithin th! co(p+t!r or th! brain. A co(p+t!r is s! 'Ccorr!cti"! in r!gar# to

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so(! o' its int!rna "ariab !s. It (ay, 'or !-a(p !, inc +#! th!r(o(!t!rs or oth!r s!ns! organs ,hich ar! a''!ct!# by #i''!r!nc!s in its ,or*ing t!(p!rat+r!, an# th! r!spons! o' th! s!ns! organ to th!s! #i''!r!nc!s (ay a''!ct th! action o' a 'an ,hich in t+rn corr!cts th! t!(p!rat+r!. 8! (ay th!r!'or! say that th! syst!( sho,s (!nta charact!ristics in r!gar# to its int!rna t!(p!rat+r!. 0+t it ,o+ # b! incorr!ct to say that th! (ain b+sin!ss o' th! co(p+t!r;th! trans'or(ation o' inp+t #i''!r!nc!s into o+tp+t #i''!r!nc!s;is 9a (!nta proc!ss.9 :h! co(p+t!r is on y an ar! o' a arg!r circ+it ,hich a ,ays inc +#!s a (an an# an !n"iron(!nt 'ro( ,hich in'or(ation is r!c!i"!# an# +pon ,hich !''!r!nt (!ssag!s 'ro( th! co(p+t!r ha"! !''!ct. :his tota syst!(, or !ns!(b !, (ay !giti(at! y b! sai# to sho, (!nta charact!ristics. It op!rat!s by tria an# !rror an# has cr!ati"! charact!r. &i(i ar y, ,! (ay say that 9(in#9 is i((an!nt in thos! circ+its o' th! brain ,hich ar! co(p !t! ,ithin th! brain. 5r that (in# is i((an!nt in circ+its ,hich ar! co(p !t! ,ithin th! syst!(, brain p +s bo#y. 5r, 'ina y, that (in# is i((an!nt in th! arg!r syst!(; (an p +s !n"iron(!nt. In princip !, i' ,! #!sir! to !-p ain or +n#!rstan# th! (!nta asp!ct o' any bio ogica !"!nt, ,! (+st ta*! into acco+nt th! syst!( ;that is, th! n!t,or* o' c os!# circ+its, ,ithin ,hich that bio ogica !"!nt is #!t!r(in!#. 0+t ,h!n ,! s!!* to !-p ain th! b!ha"ior o' a (an or any oth!r organis(, this 9syst!(9 ,i +s+a y not ha"! th! sa(! i(its as th! 9s! '9;as this t!r( is co((on y 2an# "ario+s y3 +n#!rstoo#. Consi#!r a (an '! ing a tr!! ,ith an a-!. =ach stro*! o' th! a-! is (o#i'i!# or corr!ct!#, accor#ing to th! shap! o' th! c+t 'ac! o' th! tr!! !'t by th! pr!"io+s stro*!. :his s! 'Ccorr!cti"! 2i.!., (!nta 3 proc!ss is bro+ght abo+t by a tota syst!(, tr!!C!y!sCbrainC(+sc !sC a-!Cstro*!Ctr!!L an# it is this tota syst!( that has th! charact!ristics o' i((an!nt (in#. Aor! corr!ct y, ,! sho+ # sp! th! (att!r o+t as6 2#i''!r!nc!s in tr!!3 C 2#i''!r!nc!s in r!tina3 C2#i''!r!nc!s in brain3 C 2#i''!r!nc!s in (+sc !s3 C2#i''!r!nc!s in (o"!(!nt o' a-!3 C2#i''!r!nc!s in tr!!3, !tc. 8hat is trans(itt!# aro+n# th! circ+it is trans'or(s o' #i''!r!nc!s. An#, as not!# abo"!, a #i''!r!nc! ,hich (a*!s a #i''!r!nc! is an idea or +nit o' in'or(ation.

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0+t this is not ho, th! a"!rag! 5cci#!nta s!!s th! !"!nt s!.+!nc! o' tr!! '! ing. E! says, 9I c+t #o,n th! tr!!9 an# h! !"!n b! i!"!s that th!r! is a #! i(it!# ag!nt, th! 9s! ',9 ,hich p!r'or(!# a #! i(it!# 9p+rposi"!9 action +pon a #!C i(it!# obJ!ct. It is a "!ry ,! to say that 90i iar# ba A hit bi iar# ba 0 an# s!nt it into th! poc*!t9L an# it ,o+ # p!rhaps b! a right 2i' ,! co+ # #o it3 to gi"! a co(p !t! har#Csci!nc! acco+nt o' th! !"!nts a aro+n# th! circ+it containing th! (an an# th! tr!!. 0+t pop+ ar par anc! inc +#!s mind in its +tt!ranc! by in"o*ing th! p!rsona prono+n, an# th!n achi!"!s a (i-t+r! o' (!nta is( an# physica is( by r!stricting (in# ,ithin th! (an an# r!i'ying th! tr!!. 7ina y th! (in# its! ' b!co(!s r!i'i!# by th! notion that, sinc! th! 9s! '9 act!# +pon th! a-! ,hich act!# +pon th! tr!!, th! 9s! '9 (+st a so b! a 9thing.9 :h! para ! is( o' synta- b!t,!!n 9I hit th! bi iar# ba 9 an# 9:h! ba hit anoth!r ba 9 is tota y (is !a#ing. I' yo+ as* anybo#y abo+t th! oca i/ation an# bo+n#ari!s o' th! s! ', th!s! con'+sions ar! i((!#iat! y #isp ay!#. 5r consi#!r a b in# (an ,ith a stic*. 8h!r! #o!s th! b in# (anIs s! ' b!ginD At th! tip o' th! stic*D At th! han# ! o' th! stic*D 5r at so(! point ha ',ay +p th! stic*D :h!s! .+!stions ar! nons!ns!, b!ca+s! th! stic* is a path,ay a ong ,hich #i''!r!nc!s ar! trans(itt!# +n#!r trans'or(ation, so that to #ra, a #! i(iting in! across this path,ay is to c+t o'' a part o' th! syst!(ic circ+it ,hich #!t!r(in!s th! b in# (anIs oco(otion. &i(i ar y, his s!ns! organs ar! trans#+c!rs or path,ays 'or in'or(ation, as a so ar! his a-ons, !tc. 7ro( a syst!(sCth!or!tic point o' "i!,, it is a (is !a#ing (!taphor to say that ,hat tra"! s in an a-on is an 9i(p+ s!.9 It ,o+ # b! (or! corr!ct to say that ,hat tra"! s is a #i''!r!nc!, or a trans'or( o' a #i''!r!nc!. :h! (!taphor o' 9i(p+ s!9 s+gg!sts a har#Csci!nc! in! o' tho+ght ,hich ,i ra(i'y on y too !asi y into nons!ns! abo+t 9psychic !n!rgy,9 an# thos! ,ho ta * this *in# o' nons!ns! ,i #isr!gar# th! in'or(ation cont!nt o' 5uiescence. :h! .+i!sc!nc! o' an a-on differs as (+ch 'ro( acti"ity as its acti"ity #o!s 'ro( .+i!sc!nc!. :h!r!'or! .+i!sc!nc! an# acti"ity ha"! !.+a in'or(ationa r! !"anc!. :h! (!ssag! o' acti"ity can on y b! acc!pt!# as "a i# i' th! (!ssag! o' .+i!sc!nc! can a so b! tr+st!#.

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It is !"!n incorr!ct to sp!a* o' th! 9(!ssag! o' acti"ity9 an# th! 9(!ssag! o' .+i!sc!nc!.9 A ,ays th! 'act that inC'or(ation is a trans'or( o' #i''!r!nc! sho+ # b! r!(!(b!r!#, an# ,! (ight b!tt!r ca th! on! (!ssag! 9acti"ity ;not .+i!sc!nc!9 an# th! oth!r 9 .+i!sc!nc!;not acti"ity.9 &i(i ar consi#!rations app y to th! r!p!ntant a coho ic. E! cannot si(p y ! !ct 9sobri!ty.9 At b!st h! co+ # on y ! !ct 9sobri!ty ;not #r+n*!nn!ss,9 an# his +ni"!rs! r!(ains po ari/!#, carrying a ,ays both a t!rnati"!s. :h! tota s! 'Ccorr!cti"! +nit ,hich proc!ss!s in'or(ation, or, as I say, 9thin*s9 an# 9acts9 an# 9#!ci#!s,9 is a system ,hos! bo+n#ari!s #o not at a coinci#! ,ith th! bo+n#ari!s !ith!r o' th! bo#y or o' ,hat is pop+ ar y ca !# th! 9s! '9 or 9conscio+sn!ss9L an# it is i(portant to notic! that th!r! ar! multiple #i''!r!nc!s b!t,!!n th! thin*ing syst!( an# th! 9s! '9 as pop+ ar y conc!i"!#6 :h! syst!( is not a transc!n#!nt !ntity as th! 9s! '9 is co((on y s+ppos!# to b!. :h! i#!as ar! i((an!nt in a n!t,or* o' ca+sa pathC,ays a ong ,hich trans'or(s o' #i''!r!nc! ar! con#+ct!#. :h! 9i#!as9 o' th! syst!( ar! in a cas!s at !ast binary in str+ct+r!. :h!y ar! not 9i(p+ s!s9 b+t 9in'or(ation.9 :his n!t,or* o' path,ays is not bo+n#!# ,ith conscio+sn!ss b+t !-t!n#s to inc +#! th! path,ays o' a +nconscio+s (!ntation;both a+tono(ic an# r!pr!ss!#, n!+ra an# hor(ona . :h! n!t,or* is not bo+n#!# by th! s*in b+t inc +#!s a !-t!rna path,ays a ong ,hich in'or(ation can tra"! . It a so inc +#!s thos! !''!cti"! #i''!r!nc!s ,hich ar! i((an!nt in th! 9obJ!cts9 o' s+ch in'or(ation. It inc +#!s th! pathC,ays o' so+n# an# ight a ong ,hich tra"! trans'or(s o' #i''!r!nc!s origina y i((an!nt in things an# oth!r p!op ! ;an# !sp!cia y in our o'n actions. It is i(portant to not! that th! basic;an# I b! i!"! !rron!o+s; t!n!ts o' pop+ ar !pist!(o ogy ar! (+t+a y r!inC'orcing. I', 'or !-a(p !, th! pop+ ar pr!(is! o' transc!n#!nc! is #iscar#!#, th! i((!#iat! s+bstit+t! is a pr!(is! o' i((an!nc! in th! bo#y. 0+t this a t!rnati"! ,i b! +nacc!ptab ! b!ca+s! arg! parts o' th! thin*ing n!t,or* ar! ocat!# o+tsi#! th! bo#y. :h! soCca !# 90o#yC Ain#9 prob !( is ,rong y pos!# in t!r(s ,hich 'orc! th! arg+(!nt to,ar# para#o-6 i' (in# b! s+ppos!# i((an!nt in th! bo#y, th!n it

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(+st b! transc!n#!nt. I' transc!n#!nt, it (+st b! i((an!nt. An# so on.67 &i(i ar y, i' ,! !-c +#! th! +nconscio+s proc!ss!s 'ro( th! 9s! '9 an# ca th!( 9!goCa i!n,9 th!n th!s! proc!ss!s ta*! on th! s+bJ!cti"! co oring o' 9+rg!s9 an# 9'orc!s9L an# this ps!+#o#yna(ic .+a ity is th!n !-t!n#!# to th! conscio+s 9s! '9 ,hich att!(pts to 9r!sist9 th! 9'orc!s9 o' th! +nconscio+s. :h! 9s! '9 th!r!by b!co(!s its! ' an organi/ation o' s!!(ing 9'orc!s.9 :h! pop+ ar notion ,hich ,o+ # !.+at! 9s! '9 ,ith conscio+sn!ss th+s !a#s into th! notion that i#!as ar! 9'orc!s9L an# this 'a acy is in t+rn s+pport!# by saying that th! a-on carri!s 9i(p+ s!s.9 :o 'in# a ,ay o+t o' this (!ss is by no (!ans !asy. 8! sha proc!!# by 'irst !-a(ining th! str+ct+r! o' th! a coho icIs po ari/ation. In th! !pist!(o ogica y +nso+n# r!sC o +tion, 9I ,i 'ight th! bott !,9 ,hat is s+ppos!# y in!# +p against ,hatD Alcoholic "%ride"

A coho ics ar! phi osoph!rs in that +ni"!rsa s!ns! in ,hich a h+(an b!ings 2an# a (a((a s3 ar! g+i#!# by high y abstract princip !s o' ,hich th!y ar! !ith!r .+it! +nconscio+s, or +na,ar! that th! princip ! go"!rning th!ir p!rc!ption an# action is phi osophic. A co((on (isno(!r 'or s+ch princip !s is 9'!! ings.968 :his (isno(!r aris!s nat+ra y 'ro( th! Ang oC&a-on !pist!(o ogica t!n#!ncy to r!i'y or attrib+t! to th! bo#y a (!nta ph!no(!na ,hich ar! p!riph!ra to conscio+sn!ss. An# th! (isno(!r is, no #o+bt, s+pport!# by th! 'act that th! !-!rcis! an#Kor 'r+stration o' th!s! princip !s is o't!n acco(pani!# by "isc!ra an# oth!r bo#i y s!nsations. I b! i!"!, ho,!"!r, that $asca ,as corr!ct
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9 4. 1. Co ing,oo#, !*e Idea of ;ature, 5-'or#, 5-C'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss,

1945. 9 1. 0at!son, 9A &ocia &ci!ntist Gi!,s th! =(otions,9 .pression of t*e motions in ,an, $. <napp, !#., Int!rnationa %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1963.
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,h!n h! sai#, 9:h! h!art has its reasons ,hich th! r!ason #o!s not at a p!rc!i"!. 0+t th! r!a#!r (+st not !-p!ct th! a coho ic to pr!s!nt a consist!nt pict+r!. 8h!n th! +n#!r ying !pist!(o ogy is '+ o' !rror, #!ri"ations 'ro( it ar! in!"itab y !ith!r s! 'Ccontra#ictory or !-tr!(! y r!strict!# in scop!. A consist!nt corp+s o' th!or!(s cannot b! #!ri"!# 'ro( an inconsist!nt bo#y o' a-io(s. In s+ch cas!s, th! att!(pt to b! consist!nt !a#s !ith!r to th! gr!at pro i'!ration o' co(p !-ity charact!ristic o' psychoana ytic th!ory an# Christian th!o ogy or to th! !-tr!(! y narro, "i!, charact!ristic o' cont!(porary b!ha"ioris(. I sha th!r!'or! proc!!# to !-a(in! th! 9pri#!9 ,hich is charact!ristic o' a coho ics to sho, that this princip ! o' th!ir b!ha"ior is #!ri"!# 'ro( th! strang! #+a istic !pist!(o ogy charact!ristic o' 5cci#!nta ci"i i/ation. A con"!ni!nt ,ay o' #!scribing s+ch princip !s as 9pri#!,9 9#!p!n#!ncy,9 9'ata is(,9 an# so 'orth, is to !-a(in! th! princip ! as i' it ,!r! a r!s+ t o' #!+t!roC !arning69 an# to as* ,hat cont!-ts o' !arning (ight +n#!rstan#ab y inc+ cat! this princip !. 213 It is c !ar that th! princip ! o' a coho ic i'! ,hich AA ca s 9pri#!9 is not cont!-t+a y str+ct+r!# aro+n# past achi!"!(!nt. :h!y #o not +s! th! ,or# to (!an pri#! in so(!thing acco(p ish!#. :h! !(phasis is not +pon 9I s+cc!!#!#,9 b+t rath!r +pon 9I can. . . .9 It is an obs!ssi"! acc!ptanc! o' a cha !ng!, a r!p+#iation o' th! proposition 9I cannot.9 223A't!r th! a coho ic has b!g+n to s+''!r 'ro(;or b! b a(!# 'or;a coho is(, this princip ! o' 9pri#!9 is (obi i/!# b!hin# th! proposition, 9I can stay sob!r.9 0+t, notic!ab y, s+cc!ss in this achi!"!(!nt #!stroys th! 9cha !ng!.9 :h! a coho ic b!co(!s
:his +s! o' 'or(a cont!-t+a str+ct+r! as a #!scripti"! #!"ic! #o!s not n!c!ssari y ass+(! that th! princip ! #isc+ss!# is ,ho y or in part act+a y learne! -* cont!-ts ha"ing th! appropriat! 'or(a str+ct+r!. :h! princip ! co+ # ha"! b!!n g!n!tica y #!t!r(in!#, an# it (ight sti 'o o, that th! princip ! is b!st #!scrib!# by th! 'or(a #! in!ation o' th! cont!-ts in ,hich it is !-!(p i'i!#. It is pr!cis! y this 'itting o' b!ha"ior to cont!-t that (a*!s it #i''ic+ t or i(possib ! to #!t!r(in! ,h!th!r a princip ! o' b!ha"ior ,as g!n!tica y #!t!r(in!# or !arn!# in that cont!-tL s!! 1. 0at!son, 9&ocia $ anning an# th! Conc!pt o' ?!+t!roC @!arning,9 Conference on Science) (hilosoph an! 2eli'ion) Secon! S mposium) )!, For*, Earp!r, *13/.
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coc*s+r!,9 as AA says. E! r! a-!s his #!t!r(ination, ris*s a #rin*, an# 'in#s hi(s! ' on a bing!. 8! (ay say that th! cont!-t+a str+ct+r! o' sobri!ty chang!s ,ith its achi!"!(!nt. &obri!ty, at this point, is no ong!r th! appropriat! cont!-t+a s!tting 'or 9pri#!.9 It is th! ris* o' th! #rin* that no, is cha !nging an# ca s o+t th! 'ata 9I can.... 233AA #o!s its b!st to insist that this chang! in conCt!-t+a str+ct+r! sha n!"!r occ+r. :h!y r!str+ct+r! th! ,ho ! cont!-t by ass!rting o"!r an# o"!r again that 9@nce an alco*olic, al'ays an alco*olic.9 :h!y try to ha"! th! a coho ic p ac! a coho is( ,ithin th! s! ', (+ch as a J+ngian ana yst tri!s to ha"! th! pati!nt #isco"!r his 9psycho ogica typ!9 an# to !arn to i"! ,ith th! str!ngths an# ,!a*n!ss!s o' that typ!. In contrast, th! cont!-t+a str+ct+r! o' a coho ic 9pri#!9 p ac!s th! a coho is( outside th! s! '6 9I can r!sist #rin*ing.9 243:h! cha !ng! co(pon!nt o' a coho ic 9pri#!9 is in*!# ,ith ris3%ta3ing. :h! princip ! (ight b! p+t in ,or#s6 9I can #o so(!thing ,h!r! s+cc!ss is i(probab ! an# 'ai +r! ,o+ # b! #isastro+s.9 C !ar y this princip ! ,i n!"!r s!r"! to (aintain contin+!# sobri!ty. As s+cc!ss b!gins to app!ar probab !, th! a coho ic (+st cha !ng! th! ris* o' a #rin*. :h! ! !(!nt o' 9ba# +c*9 or 9probabi ity9 o' 'ai +r! p ac!s 'ai +r! b!yon# th! i(its o' th! s! '. 9I' 'ai +r! occ+rs, it is not mine.9 A coho ic 9pri#!9 progr!ssi"! y narro,s th! conc!pt o' 9s! ',9 p acing ,hat happ!ns o+tsi#! its scop!. 253:h! princip ! o' pri#!CinCris* is + ti(at! y a (ost s+ici#a . It is a "!ry ,! to t!st onc! ,h!th!r th! +ni"!rs! is on yo+r si#!, b+t to #o so again an# again, ,ith incr!asing string!ncy o' proo', is to s!t o+t on a proJ!ct ,hich can on y pro"! that th! +ni"!rs! hat!s yo+. 0+t, sti an# a , th! AA narrati"!s sho, r!p!at!# y that, at th! "!ry botto( o' #!spair, pride so(!ti(!s pr!"!nts s+ici#!. :h! 'ina .+i!t+s (+st not b! #! i"!r!# by th! 9s! '.970

70

&!! 0i Is &tory, A coho ics Anony(o+s, op. cit.

328

%ride and Sy##etry

:h! soCca !# pri#! o' th! a coho ic a ,ays pr!s+(!s a r!a or 'ictitio+s 9oth!r,9 an# its co(p !t! cont!-t+a #!'inition th!r!'or! #!(an#s that ,! charact!ri/! th! r!a or i(agin!# r! ationship to this 9oth!r.9 A 'irst st!p in this tas* is to c assi'y th! r! ationship as !ith!r 9sy((!trica 9 or 9co(p !(!ntary.971 :o #o this is not !ntir! y si(p ! ,h!n th! 9oth!r9 is a cr!ation o' th! +nconscio+s, b+t ,! sha s!! that th! in#ications 'or s+ch a c assi'ication ar! c !ar. An !-p anatory #igr!ssion is, ho,!"!r, n!c!ssary. :h! pri(ary crit!rion is si(p !6 I', in a binary r! ationship, th! b!ha"iors o' A an# 0 ar! r!gar#!# 2by A an# 03 as similar an# ar! in*!# so that (or! o' th! gi"!n b!ha"ior by A sti(+ at!s (or! o' it in 0, an# "ic! "!rsa, th!n th! r! ationship is 9sy((!trica 9 in r!gar# to th!s! b!ha"iors. I', con"!rs! y, th! b!ha"iors o' A an# 0 ar! dissimilar b+t (+t+a y 'it tog!th!r 2as, 'or !-a(p !, sp!ctatorship 'its !-C hibitionis(3, an# th! b!ha"iors ar! in*!# so that (or! o' AIs b!ha"ior sti(+ at!s (or! o' 0Is 'itting b!ha"ior, th!n th! r! ationship is 9co(p !(!ntary9 in r!gar# to th!s! b!ha"iors. Co((on !-a(p !s o' si(p ! sy((!trica r! ationship ar! ar(a(!nts rac!s, *!!ping +p ,ith th! Jon!s!s, ath !tic !(+ ation, bo-ing (atch!s, an# th! i*!. Co((on !-a(p !s o' co(p !(!ntary r! ationship ar! #o(inanc!Cs+b(ission, sa#is(C(asochis(, n+rt+ranc!C#!p!n#!ncy, sp!ctatorshipC!-hibitionis(, an# th! i*!. Aor! co(p !- consi#!rations aris! ,h!n high!r ogica typing is pr!s!nt. 7or !-a(p !6 A an# 0 (ay co(p!t! in gi'tCgi"ing, th+s s+p!rposing a arg!r sy((!trica 'ra(! +pon pri(ari y co(p !(!ntary b!ha"iors. 5r, con"!rs! y, a th!rapist (ight !ngag! in co(p!tition ,ith a pati!nt in so(! sort o' p ay th!rapy, p acing a co(p !(!ntary n+rt+rant 'ra(! aro+n# th! pri(ari y sy((!trica transactions o' th! ga(!. Gario+s sorts o' 9#o+b ! bin#s9 ar! g!n!rat!# ,h!n A an# 0 p!rc!i"! th! pr!(is!s o' th!ir r! ationship in #i''!r!nt t!r(s;A
71

1. 0at!son, ;a&en, Ca(bri#g!, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1936.

329

(ay r!gar# 0Is b!ha"ior as co(p!titi"! ,h!n 0 tho+ght h! ,as h! ping A. An# so on. 8ith th!s! co(p !-iti!s ,! ar! not h!r! conc!rn!#, b!Cca+s! th! i(aginary 9oth!r9 or co+nt!rpart in th! 9pri#!9 o' th! a coho ic #o!s not, I b! i!"!, p ay th! co(p !- ga(!s ,hich ar! charact!ristic o' th! 9"oic!s9 o' schi/ophr!nics. 0oth co(p !(!ntary an# sy((!trica r! ationships ar! iab ! to progr!ssi"! chang!s o' th! sort ,hich I ha"! ca !# 9schis(og!n!sis.972 &y((!trica str+gg !s an# ar(a(!nts rac!s (ay, in th! c+rr!nt phras!, 9!sca at!9L an# th! nor(a patt!rn o' s+ccoringC#!p!n#!ncy b!t,!!n par!nt an# chi # (ay b!co(! (onstro+s. :h!s! pot!ntia y patho ogica #!"! op(!nts ar! #+! to +n#a(p!# or +ncorr!ct!# positi"! '!!#bac* in th! syst!(, an# (ay ;as stat!#;occ+r in !ith!r co(p !(!ntary or sy((!trica syst!(s. Eo,!"!r, in mi.ed syst!(s schis(og!n!sis is n!c!ssari y r!#+c!#. :h! ar(a(!nts rac! b!t,!!n t,o nations ,i b! s o,!# #o,n by acc!ptanc! o' co(p !(!ntary th!(!s s+ch as #o(inanc!, #!Cp!n#!ncy, a#(iration, an# so 'orth, b!t,!!n th!(. It ,i b! sp!!#!# +p by th! r!p+#iation o' th!s! th!(!s. :his antith!tica r! ationship b!t,!!n co(p !(!ntary an# sy((!trica th!(!s is, no #o+bt, #+! to th! 'act that !ach is th! ogica opposit! o' th! oth!r. In a (!r! y sy((!trica ar(a(!nts rac!, nation A is (oti"at!# to gr!at!r !''orts by its !sti(at! o' t*e greater strengt* o' 0. 8h!n it !sti(at!s that 0 is ,!a*!r, nation A ,i r! a- its !''orts. 0+t th! !-act opposit! ,i happ!n i' AIs str+ct+ring o' th! r! ationship is co(p !(!ntary. 5bs!r"ing that 0 is 'ea3er than th!y, A ,i go ah!a# ,ith hop!s o' con.+!st.73 :his antith!sis b!t,!!n co(p !(!ntary an# sy((!trica patt!rns (ay b! (or! than si(p y ogica . )otab y, in psychoana ytic th!ory,74 th! patt!rns ,hich ar! ca !# 9 ibi#ina 9 an# ,hich ar! (o#a iti!s o' th! !rog!no+s /on!s ar! a complementary. Intr+sion,
Ibi#. 1. 0at!son, 9:h! $att!rn o' an Ar(a(!nts 4ac!Y$art I6 An Anthropo ogica Approach,9 0+ !tin o' Ato(ic &ci!ntists, 1946, 22536 10Y116 a so @. 7. 4ichar#son, 91!n!ra i/!# 7or!ign $o itics,9 0ritish Jo+rna o' $sycho ogy, Aonograph &+pp !(!nts, 1939. 74 =. E. Eri son! 9Con'ig+rations in $ ay;C inica )ot!s,9 &sy!hoanalyti! 'uarterly, 1937, 66 139Y214.
73 72

330

inc +sion, !-c +sion, r!c!ption, r!t!ntion, an# th! i*!;a o' th!s! ar! c ass!# as 9 ibi#ina .9 8h!r!as ri"a ry, co(p!tition, an# th! i*! 'a +n#!r th! r+bric o' 9!go9 an# 9#!'!ns!.9 It is a so possib ! that th! t,o antith!tica co#!s;sy((!trica an# co(p !(!ntary;(ay b! physio ogica y r!pr!s!nt!# by contrasting stat!s o' th! c!ntra n!r"o+s syst!(. :h! progr!ssi"! chang!s o' schis(og!n!sis (ay r!ach c i(actic #iscontin+iti!s an# s+##!n r!"!rsa s. &y((!trica rag! (ay s+##!n y t+rn to gri!'L th! r!tr!ating ani(a ,ith tai b!t,!!n his !gs (ay s+##!n y 9t+rn at bay9 in a #!sp!rat! batt ! o' sy((!try to th! #!ath. :h! b+ y (ay s+##!n y b!co(! th! co,ar# ,h!n h! is cha !ng!#, an# th! ,o ' ,ho is b!at!n in a sy((!trica con' ict (ay s+##!n y gi"! 9s+rC r!n#!r9 signa s ,hich pr!"!nt '+rth!r attac*. :h! ast !-a(p ! is o' sp!cia int!r!st. I' th! str+gg ! b!t,!!n th! ,o "!s is sy((!trica ;that is, i' ,o ' A is sti(+ at!# to (or! aggr!ssi"! b!ha"ior by th! aggr!ssi"! b!ha"ior o' 0;th!n i' 0 s+##!n y !-hibits ,hat ,! (ay ca 9n!gati"! aggr!ssion,9 A ,i not b! ab ! to contin+! to 'ight +n !ss h! can .+ic* y s,itch o"!r to that co(p !(!ntary stat! o' (in# in ,hich 0Is ,!a*n!ss ,o+ # b! a sti(+ +s 'or his aggr!ssion. 8ithin th! hypoth!sis o' sy((!trica an# co(p !(!tary (o#!s, it b!co(!s +nn!c!ssary to post+ at! a sp!ci'ica y 9inhibitory9 !''!ct 'or th! s+rr!n#!r signa . E+(an b!ings ,ho poss!ss ang+ag! can app y th! ab! 9aggr!ssion9 to a att!(pts to #a(ag! th! oth!r, r!gar# !ss o' ,h!th!r th! att!(pt is pro(pt!# by th! oth!rIs str!ngth or ,!a*n!ssL b+t at th! pr! ing+istic (a((a ian !"! th!s! t,o sorts o' 9aggr!ssion9 (+st app!ar tota y #i''!r!nt. 8! ar! to # that 'ro( th! ionIs point o' "i!,, an 9attac*9 on a /!bra is tota y #i''!r!nt 'ro( an 9attac*9 on anoth!r ion.75 =no+gh has no, b!!n sai# so that th! .+!stion can b! pos!#6 Is a coho ic pri#! cont!-t+a y str+ct+r!# in sy((!trica or co(p !(!ntary 'or(D 7irst, th!r! is a "!ry strong t!n#!ncy to,ar# sy((!try in th! nor(a #rin*ing habits o' 5cci#!nta c+ t+r!. V+it! apart 'ro( a##icti"! a coho is(, t,o (!n #rin*ing tog!th!r ar! i(p! !# by con"!ntion to (atch !ach oth!r, #rin* 'or #rin*. At this stag!, th!
75 13

<. M. @or!n/, @n Aggression, )!, For*, Earco+rt, 0rac! X 8or #, 1966.

331

9oth!r9 is sti r!a an# th! sy((!try, or ri"a ry, b!t,!!n th! pair is 'ri!n# y. As th! a coho ic b!co(!s a##ict!# an# tri!s to r!sist #rin*ing, h! b!gins to 'in# it #i''ic+ t to r!sist th! socia cont!-t in ,hich h! sho+ # (atch his 'ri!n#s in th!ir #rin*ing. :h! AA says, 9E!a"!n *no,s, ,! ha"! tri!# har# !no+gh an# ong !no+gh to #rin* i*! oth!r p!op !O9 As things g!t ,ors!, th! a coho ic is i*! y to b!co(! a so itary #rin*!r an# to !-hibit th! ,ho ! sp!ctr+( o' r!spons! to cha !ng!. Eis ,i'! an# 'ri!n#s b!gin to s+gg!st that his #rin*ing is a 'ea3ness, an# h! (ay r!spon#, ,ith sy((!try, both by r!s!nting th!( an# by ass!rting his str!ngth to r!sist th! bott !. 0+t, as is charact!ristic o' sy((!trica r!spons!s, a bri!' p!rio# o' s+cc!ss'+ str+gg ! ,!a*!ns his (oti"ation an# h! 'a s o'' th! ,agon. &y(C (!trica !''ort r!.+ir!s contin+a opposition 'ro( th! oppon!nt. 1ra#+a y th! 'oc+s o' th! batt ! chang!s, an# th! a coho ic 'in#s hi(s! ' co((itt!# to a n!, an# (or! #!a# y typ! o' sy((!trica con' ict. E! (+st no, pro"! that th! bott ! cannot *i hi(. Eis 9h!a# is b oo#y b+t +nbo,!#.9 E! is sti th! 9captain o' his so+ 9; 'or ,hat itIs ,orth. A!an,hi !, his r! ationships ,ith ,i'! an# boss an# 'ri!n#s ha"! b!!n #!t!riorating. E! n!"!r #i# i*! th! co(p !(!ntary stat+s o' his boss as an a+thorityL an# no, as h! #!t!riorat!s his ,i'! is (or! an# (or! 'orc!# to ta*! a co(p !(!ntary ro !. &h! (ay try to !-!rt a+thority, or sh! b!co(!s prot!cti"!, or sh! sho,s 'orb!aranc!, b+t a thos! pro"o*! !ith!r rag! or sha(!. Eis sy((!trica 9pri#!9 can to !rat! no co(p !(!ntary ro !. In s+(, th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! a coho ic an# his r!a or 'ictitio+s 9oth!r9 is c !ar y sy((!trica an# c !ar y schis(og!nic. It !sca at!s. 8! sha s!! that th! r! igio+s con"!rsion o' th! a coho ic ,h!n sa"!# by AA can b! #!Cscrib!# as a #ra(atic shi't 'ro( this sy((!trica habit, or !pist!(o ogy, to an a (ost p+r! y co(p !(!ntary "i!, o' his r! ationship to oth!rs an# to th! +ni"!rs! or 1o#.

332

%ride or (n"erted %roof/

A coho ics (ay app!ar to b! sti''Cn!c*!#, b+t th!y ar! not st+pi#. :h! part o' th! (in# in ,hich th!ir po icy is #!ci#!# c!rtain y i!s too #!!p 'or th! ,or# 9st+pi#ity9 to b! app icab !. :h!s! !"! s o' th! (in# ar! pr! ing+istic an# th! co(p+tation ,hich go!s on th!r! is co#!# in primary process. 0oth in #r!a( an# in (a((a ian int!raction, th! on y ,ay to achi!"! a proposition ,hich contains its o,n n!gation 29I ,i not bit! yo+,9 or 9I a( not a'rai# o' hi(93 is by an ! aborat! i(agining or acting o+t o' th! proposition to b! n!gat!#, !a#ing to a reductio ad a-surdum. 9I ,i not bit! yo+9 is achi!"!# b!t,!!n t,o (a((a s by an !-p!ri(!nta co(bat ,hich is a 9not co(bat, 9 so(!ti(!s ca !# 9p ay.9 It is 'or this r!ason that 9agonistic 9 b!ha"ior co((on y !"o "!s into 'ri!n# y gr!!ting.76 In this s!ns!, th! soCca !# pri#! o' th! a coho ic is in so(! #!gr!! ironic. It is a #!t!r(in!# !''ort to t!st so(!Cthing i*! 9s! 'C contro 9 ,ith an + t!rior b+t +nstat!ab ! p+rpos! o' pro"ing that 9s! 'Ccontro 9 is in!''!ct+a an# abs+r#. 9It si(p y ,onIt ,or*.9 :his + ti(at! proposition, sinc! it contains a si(p ! n!gation, is not to b! !-pr!ss!# in pri(ary proc!ss. Its 'ina !-pr!ssion is in an action; th! ta*ing o' a #rin*. :h! h!roic batt ! ,ith th! bott !, that 'ictitio+s 9oth!r,9 !n#s +p in a 9*iss an# (a*! 'ri!n#s.9 In 'a"or o' this hypoth!sis, th!r! is th! +n#o+bt!# 'act that th! t!sting o' s! 'Ccontro !a#s bac* into #rin*ing. An#, as I ha"! arg+!# abo"!, th! ,ho ! !pist!(o ogy o' s! 'Ccontro ,hich his 'ri!n#s +rg! +pon th! a coho ic is (onstro+s. I' this b! so, th!n th! a coho ic is right in r!J!cting it. E! has achi!"!# a reductio ad a-surdum o' th! con"!ntiona !pist!(o ogy. 0+t this #!scription o' achi!"ing a reductio ad a-surdum "!rg!s +pon t! !o ogy. I' th! proposition 9It ,onIt ,or*9 canCnot b! !nt!rtain!# ,ithin th! co#ing o' pri(ary proc!ss, ho, th!n can th! co(p+tations o' pri(ary proc!ss #ir!ct th! organis( to try o+t
1. 0at!son, 9A!ta og+!6 8hat Is an InstinctD,9 Aproac*es to Animal "ommunication, :. &!b!o*, Eag+!, Ao+ton, 1969.
76

333

thos! co+rs!s o' action ,hich ,i #!(onstrat! that 9It ,onIt ,or*9D $rob !(s o' this g!n!ra typ! ar! 'r!.+!nt in psychiatry an# can p!rhaps on y b! r!so "!# by a (o#! in ,hich, +n#!r c!rtain circ+(stanc!s, th! organis(Is #isco('ort acti"at!s a positi"! '!!#bac* oop to increase th! b!ha"ior ,hich pr!c!#!# th! #isco('ort. &+ch positi"! '!!#bac* ,o+ # pro"i#! a "!ri'ication that it ,as r!a y that partic+ ar b!ha"ior ,hich bro+ght abo+t th! #isco('ort, an# (ight inCcr!as! th! #isco('ort to so(! thr!sho # !"! at ,hich chang! ,o+ # b!co(! possib !. In psychoth!rapy s+ch a positi"! '!!#bac* oop is co((on y pro"i#!# by th! th!rapist ,ho p+sh!s th! pati!nt in th! #ir!ction o' his sy(pto(s;a t!chni.+! ,hich has b!!n ca !# th! 9th!rap!+tic #o+b ! bin#.9 An !-a(p ! o' this t!chni.+! is .+ot!# at!r in this !ssay, ,h!r! th! AA (!(b!r cha !ng!s th! a coho ic to go an# #o so(! 9contro !# #rin*ing9 in or#!r that h! (ay #isco"!r 'or hi(s! ' that h! has no contro . It is a so +s+a that th! sy(pto(s an# ha +cinations o' th! schi/ophr!nic; i*! #r!a(s;constit+t! a corr!cti"! !-p!ri!nc!, so that th! ,ho ! schi/ophr!nic !piso#! ta*!s on th! charact!r o' a s! 'C initiation. 0arbara 5I0ri!nIs acco+nt o' h!r o,n psychosis77 is p!rhaps th! (ost stri*ing !-a(p ! o' this ph!no(!non, ,hich has b!!n #isc+ss!# ! s!,h!r!.78 It ,i b! not!# that th! possib ! !-ist!nc! o' s+ch a positi"! '!!#bac* oop, ,hich ,i ca+s! a r+na,ay in th! #ir!ction o' incr!asing #isco('ort +p to so(! thr!sho # 2,hich (ight b! on th! oth!r si#! o' #!ath3, is not inc +#!# in con"!ntiona th!ori!s o' !arning. 0+t a t!n#!ncy to "!ri'y th! +np !asant by s!!*ing r!p!at!# !-p!ri!nc! o' it is a co((on h+(an trait. It is p!rhaps ,hat 7r!+# ca !# th! 9#!ath instinct.9

77 0. 5I0ri!n, 5p!rators an# :hings6 :h! Inn!r @i'! o' a &chi/ophr!nic, Ca(bri#g!, Aass., Ar ington 0oo*s, 1958. 78 1. 0at!son, !#., 6erce&alDs ;arrati&e, &tan'or#, Ca i'., &tan'or# %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1961, Intro#+ction

334

The Dr!n0en State

8hat has b!!n sai# abo"! abo+t th! tr!a#(i o' sy((!trica pri#! is on y on! ha ' o' th! pict+r!. It is th! pict+r! o' th! stat! o' (in# o' th! a coho ic -attling ,ith th! bott !. C !ar y this stat! is "!ry +np !asant an# c !ar y it is a so +nr!a istic. Eis 9oth!rs9 ar! !ith!r tota y i(aginary or ar! gross #istortions o' p!rsons on ,ho( h! is #!p!n#!nt an# ,ho( h! (ay o"!. E! has an a t!rnati"! to this +nco('ortab ! stat!;h! can g!t #r+n*. 5r, 9at least,9 ha"! a #rin*. 8ith this co(p !(!ntary s+rr!n#!r, ,hich th! a coho ic ,i o't!n s!! as an act o' spit!;a 0arthian #art in a sy((!trica str+gg !;his !ntir! !pist!(o ogy chang!s. Eis an-i!ti!s an# r!s!nt(!nts an# panic "anish as i' by (agic. Eis s! 'Ccontro is !ss!n!#, b+t his n!!# to co(par! hi(s! ' ,ith oth!rs is r!#+c!# !"!n '+rth!r. E! '!! s th! physio ogica ,ar(th o' a coho in his "!ins an#, in (any cas!s, a corr!spon#ing psycho ogica ,ar(th to,ar# oth!rs. E! (ay b! !ith!r (a+# in or angry, b+t h! has at !ast b!co(! again a part o' th! h+(an sc!n!. ?ir!ct #ata b!aring +pon th! th!sis that th! st!p 'ro( sobri!ty into into-ication is a so a st!p 'ro( sy((!trica cha !ng! into co(p !(!ntarity ar! scarc!, an# a ,ays con'+s!# both by th! #istortions o' r!ca an# by th! co(p !- to-icity o' th! a coho . 0+t th!r! is strong !"i#!nc! 'ro( song an# story to in#icat! that th! st!p is o' this *in#. In rit+a , parta*ing o' ,in! has a ,ays stoo# 'or th! socia aggr!gation o' p!rsons +nit!# in r! igio+s 9co((+nion9 or s!c+ ar (emPtlic*3eit. In a "!ry it!ra s!ns!, a coho s+ppos!# y (a*!s th! in#i"i#+a s!! hi(s! ' as an# act as a part of th! gro+p. :hat is, it !nab !s co(p !(!ntarity in th! r! ationships ,hich s+rro+n# hi(.

335

,ittin& Botto#

AA attach!s gr!at i(portanc! to this ph!no(!non an# r!gar#s th! a coho ic ,ho has not hit botto( as a poor prosp!ct 'or th!ir h! p. Con"!rs! y, th!y ar! inc in!# to !-p ain th!ir 'ai +r! by saying that th! in#i"i#+a ,ho go!s bac* to his a coho is( has not yet 9hit botto(.9 C!rtain y (any sorts o' #isast!r (ay ca+s! an a coho ic to hit botto(. Gario+s sorts o' acci#!nts, an attac* o' #! iri+( tr!(!ns, a patch o' #r+n*!n ti(! o' ,hich h! has no (!(ory, r!J!ction by ,i'!, oss o' Job, hop! !ss #iagnosis, an# so on;any o' th!s! (ay ha"! th! r!.+ir!# !''!ct. AA says that 9botto(9 is #i''!r!nt 'or #i''!r!nt (!n an# so(! (ay b! #!a# b!'or! th!y r!ach it.79 It is possib !, ho,!"!r, that 9botto(9 is r!ach!# (any ti(!s by any gi"!n in#i"i#+a L that 9botto(9 is a sp! o' panic ,hich pro"i#!s a 'a"orab ! (o(!nt 'or chang!, b+t not a (o(!nt at ,hich chang! is in!"itab !. 7ri!n#s an# r! ati"!s an# !"!n th!rapists (ay p+ th! a coho ic o+t o' his panic, !ith!r ,ith #r+gs or r!ass+ranc!, so that h! 9r!Cco"!rs9 an# go!s bac* to his 9pri#!9 an# a coho is(; on y to hit a (or! #isastro+s 9botto(9 at so(! at!r ti(!, ,h!n h! ,i again b! rip! 'or a chang!. :h! att!(pt to chang! th! a coho ic in a p!rio# -et'een s+ch (o(!nts o' panic is +n i*! y to s+cc!!#. :h! nat+r! o' th! panic is (a#! c !ar by th! 'o o,ing #!scription o' a 9t!st.9 8! #o not i*! to prono+nc! any in#i"i#+a as a coho ic, b+t yo+ can .+ic* y #iagnos! yo+rs! '. &t!p o"!r to th! n!ar!st barroo( an# try so(! contro !# #rin*ing. :ry to #rin* an# stop abr+pt y. :ry it (or! than onc!. It ,i not ta*! ong 'or yo+ to #!ci#!, i' yo+ ar! hon!st ,ith yo+rs! ' abo+t it. It (ay b! ,orth a ba# cas! o' Jitt!rs i' yo+ g!t a '+ *no, !#g! o' yo+r con#ition.80 8! (ight co(par! th! t!st .+ot!# abo"! to co((an#ing a #ri"!r to bra*! s+##!n y ,h!n tra"! ing on a s ipp!ry roa#6 h! ,i #isco"!r 'ast that his contro is i(it!#. 2:h! (!taphor 9s*i# ro,9 'or th! a coho ic s!ction o' to,n is not inappropriat!.3
79

$!rsona co((+nication 'ro( a (!(b!r.

336

:h! panic o' th! a coho ic ,ho has hit botto( is th! panic o' th! (an ,ho tho+ght h! ha# contro o"!r a "!hic ! b+t s+##!n y 'in#s that th! "!hic ! can r+n a,ay ,ith hi(. &+##!n y, pr!ss+r! on ,hat h! *no,s is th! bra*! s!!(s to (a*! th! "!hic ! go 'ast!r. It is th! panic o' #isco"!ring that it 2th! syst!(, s! ' plus "!hic !3 is bigg!r than h! is. In t!r(s o' th! th!ory h!r! pr!s!nt!#, ,! (ay say that hitting botto( !-!(p i'i!s syst!(s th!ory at thr!! !"! s6 213:h! a coho ic ,or*s on th! #isco('orts o' sobri!ty to a thr!sho # point at ,hich h! has ban*r+pt!# th! !pist!(o ogy o' 9 s! 'Ccontro .9 E! th!n g!ts #r+n*;b!ca+s! th! 9syst!(9 is bigg!r than h! is;an# h! (ay as ,! s+rr!n#!r to it. 223E! ,or*s r!p!at!# y at g!tting #r+n* +nti h! pro"!s that th!r! is a sti arg!r syst!(. E! th!n !nco+nt!rs th! panic o' 9hitting botto(.9 233I' 'ri!n#s an# th!rapists r!ass+r! hi(, h! (ay achi!"! a '+rth!r +nstab ! a#J+st(!nt;b!co(ing a##ict!# to th!ir h! p; +nti h! #!(onstrat!s that this syst!( ,onIt ,or*, an# 9hits botto(9 again b+t at a o,!r !"! . In this, as in a cyb!rn!tic syst!(s, th! sign 2p +s or (in+s3 o' th! !''!ct o' any intr+sion +pon th! syst!( #!p!n#s +pon ti(ing. 243@ast y, th! ph!no(!non o' hitting botto( is co(p !- y r! at!# to th! !-p!ri!nc! o' #o+b ! bin#.81 0i 8. narrat!s that h! hit botto( ,h!n #iagnos!# as a hop! !ss a coho ic by ?r. 8i ia( ?. &i *,orth in 1939, an# this !"!nt is r!gar#!# as th! b!ginning o' AA history. 82 ?r. &i *,orth a so 9s+pp i!# +s ,ith th! too s ,ith ,hich to p+nct+r! th! to+gh!st a coho ic !go, thos! shatt!ring phras!s by ,hich h! #!scrib!# o+r i n!ss6 t*e o-session of t*e mind that co(p! s +s to #rin* an# t*e allergy of t*e -ody that con#!(ns +s to go (a# or #i!.983 :his is a #o+b ! bin# corr!ct y 'o+n#!# +pon th! a coho icIs #ichoto(o+s !pist!(o ogy o' (in# "!rs+s bo#y. E! is 'orc!# by th!s! ,or#s bac* an# bac* to th! point at ,hich on y
80

A coho ics Anony(o+s, op. cit., p. 43.

81 0at!son, et al., 9:o,ar# a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 <e*a&ioral Science, 1956, 16 251C64. 82 A A "omes of Age, op. cit., p. &ii 83 I-id., p. 13. 2Ita ics in th! origina 3

337

an in"o +ntary chang! in #!!p +nconscio+s !pist!(o ogy;a spirit+a !-p!ri!nc!;,i (a*! th! !tha #!scription irr! !"ant. T h e Theolo&y of Alcoholics Anony#o!s

&o(! o+tstan#ing points o' th! th!o ogy o' AA ar!6 213 !*ere is a 6o'er greater t*an t*e self. Cyb!rn!tics ,o+ # go so(!,hat '+rth!r an# r!cogni/! that th! 9s! '9 as or#inari y +n#!rstoo# is on y a s(a part o' a (+ch arg!r tria Can#C!rror syst!( ,hich #o!s th! thin*ing, acting, an# #!ci#ing. :his syst!( inc +#!s a th! in'or(ationa pathC,ays ,hich ar! r! !"ant at any gi"!n (o(!nt to any gi"!n #!cision. :h! 9s! '9 is a 'a s! r!i'ication o' an i(prop!r y #!C i(it!# part o' this (+ch arg!r 'i! # o' int!r oc*ing proc!ss!s. Cyb!rn!tics a so r!cogni/!s that t,o or (or! p!rsons ;any gro+p o' p!rsons;(ay tog!th!r 'or( s+ch a thin*ingan#Cacting syst!(. 223 :his $o,!r is '! t to b! p!rsona an# to b! inti(at! y in*!# ,ith !ach p!rson. It is 91o# as yo+ +n#!rstan# hi( to b!.9 Cyb!rn!tica y sp!a*ing, 9(y9 r! ation to any arg!r syst!( aro+n# (! an# inc +#ing oth!r things an# p!rsons ,i b! #i''!r!nt 'ro( 9yo+r9 r! ation to so(! si(i ar syst!( aro+n# yo+. :h! r! ation 9part o'9 (+st n!c!ssari y an# ogica y a C,ays b! co(p !(!ntary b+t th! (!aning o' th! phras! 9part o'9 ,i b! #i''!r!nt 'or !"!ry p!rson.84 :his #i''!r!nc! ,i b! !sp!cia y i(portant in syst!(s containing (or! than on! p!rson. :h! syst!( or 9po,!r9 (+st n!c!ssari y app!ar #i''!r!nt 'ro( ,h!r! !ach p!rson sits. Aor!o"!r, it is !-p!ctCab ! that s+ch syst!(s, ,h!n th!y !nco+nt!r !ach oth!r, ,i r!cogni/! !ach oth!r as syst!(s in this s!ns!. :h! 9b!a+ty9 o' th! ,oo#s thro+gh ,hich I ,a * is (y r!cognition both o' th! in#i"i#+a tr!!s an# o' th! tota !co ogy o' th! ,oo#s as syst!(s. A si(i ar !sth!tic r!cognition is sti (or! stri*ing ,h!n I ta * ,ith anoth!r p!rson.
84 :his #i"!rsity in sty !s o' int!gration co+ # acco+nt 'or th! 'act that so(! p!rsons b!co(! a coho ic ,hi ! oth!rs #o not.

338

233 A 'a"orab ! r! ationship ,ith this $o,!r is #isco"!r!# thro+gh 9hitting botto(9 an# 9s+rr!n#!r.9 243 0y r!sisting this $o,!r, (!n an# !sp!cia y a coho ics bring #isast!r +pon th!(s! "!s. :h! (at!ria istic phi osophy ,hich s!!s 9(an9 as pitt!# against his !n"iron(!nt is rapi# y br!a*ing #o,n as t!chno ogica (an b!co(!s (or! an# (or! ab ! to oppos! th! arg!st syst!(s. ="!ry batt ! that h! ,ins brings a thr!at o' #isast!r. :h! +nit o' s+r"i"a ;!ith!r in !thics or in !"o +tion;is not th! organis( or th! sp!ci!s b+t th! arg!st syst!( or 9po,!r9 ,ithin ,hich th! cr!at+r! i"!s. I' th! cr!at+r! #!stroys its !n"iron(!nt, it #!stroys itCs! '. 253 0+t;an# this is i(portant;th! $o,!r #o!s not r!C,ar# an# p+nish. It #o!s not ha"! 9po,!r9 in that s!ns!. In th! bib ica phras!, 9A things ,or* tog!th!r 'or goo# to th!( that o"! 1o#.9 An#, con"!rs! y, to th!( that #o not. :h! i#!a o' po,!r in th! s!ns! o' +ni at!ra contro is 'or!ign to AA. :h!ir organi/ation is strict y 9#!(ocratic9 2th!ir ,or#3, an# !"!n th!ir #!ity is sti bo+n# by ,hat ,! (ight ca a syst!(ic #!t!r(inis(. :h! sa(! i(itation app i!s both to th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th! AA sponsor an# th! #r+n* ,ho( h! hop!s to h! p an# to th! r! ationship b!t,!!n AA c!ntra o''ic! an# !"!ry oca gro+p. 263 :h! 'irst t,o 9st!ps9 o' A coho ics Anony(o+s ta*!n tog!th!r i#!nti'y th! a##iction as a (ani'!station o' this $o,!r. 273 :h! h!a thy r! ation b!t,!!n !ach p!rson an# this $o,!r is co(p !(!ntary. It is in pr!cis! contrast to th! 9pri#!9 o' th! a coho ic, ,hich is pr!#icat!# +pon a sy((!trica r! ationship to an i(agin!# 9oth!r.9 :h! schis(og!n!sis is a ,ays (or! po,!r'+ than th! participants in it. 283 :h! .+a ity an# cont!nt o' !ach p!rsonIs r! ation to th! $o,!r is in#icat!# or r!' !ct!# in th! socia str+ct+r! o' AA. :h! s!c+ ar asp!ct o' this syst!(;its go"!rnanc!;is #! in!at!# in 9:,! "! :ra#itions985 ,hich s+pp !(!nt th! 9:,! "! &t!ps,9 th! att!r #!"! oping (anIs r! ationship to th! $o,!r. :h! t,o #oc+(!nts o"!r ap in th! :,! 'th &t!p, ,hich !nJoins ai# to oth!r a coho ics as a n!c!ssary spirit+a !-!rcis! ,itho+t ,hich th! (!(b!r is i*! y to r! aps!. :h! tota syst!( is a ?+r*h!i(ian r! igion in th! s!ns! that
85

AA Co(!s o' Ag!, op. cit. 24 Ibi#., p. 288. 25 Ibi#., pp. 286C94.

339

th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (an an# his co((+nity para ! s th! r! ationship b!t,!!n (an an# 1o#. 9AA is a po,!r gr!at!r than any o' +s.986 In s+(, th! r! ationship o' !ach in#i"i#+a to th! 9$o,!r9 is b!st #!'in!# in th! ,or#s is part of.9 293 Anony(ity. It (+st b! +n#!rstoo# that anony(ity (!ans (+ch (or! in AA thin*ing an# th!o ogy than th! (!r! prot!ction o' (!(b!rs 'ro( !-pos+r! an# sha(!. 8ith incr!asing 'a(! an# s+cc!ss o' th! organi/ation as a ,ho !, it has b!co(! a t!(ptation 'or (!(b!rs to +s! th! 'act o' th!ir (!(b!rship as a positi"! ass!t in p+b ic r! ations, po itics, !#+cation, an# (any oth!r 'i! #s. 0i 8., th! coC'o+n#!r o' th! organi/ation, ,as hi(s! ' ca+ght by this t!(ptation in !ar y #ays an# has #isc+ss!# th! (att!r in a p+b ish!# artic !.87 E! s!!s 'irst that any grabbing o' th! spot ight (+st b! a p!rsona an# spirit+a #ang!r to th! (!(b!r, ,ho cannot a''ort s+ch s! 'Cs!!*ingL an# b!yon# this that it ,o+ # b! 'ata 'or th! organi/ation as a ,ho ! to b!co(! in"o "!# in po itics, r! igio+s contro"!rsy, an# socia r!'or(. E! stat!s c !ar y that th! !rrors o' th! a coho ic ar! th! sa(! as th! 9'orc!s ,hich ar! to#ay ripping th! ,or # apart at its s!a(s,9 b+t that it is not th! b+sin!ss o' AA to sa"! th! ,or #. :h!ir sing ! p+rpos! is 9to carry th! AA (!ssag! to th! sic* a coho ic ,ho ,ants it.988 E! conc +#!s that anony(ity is 9th! gr!at!st sy(bo o' s! 'Csacri'ic! that ,! *no,.9 = s!,h!r! th! t,! 'th o' th! 9:,! "! :ra#itions9 stat!s that 9anony(ity is th! spirit+a 'o+n#ation o' o+r tra#itions, !"!r r!(in#ing +s to p ac! princip !s b!'or! p!rsona iti!s.9 :o this ,! (ay a## that anony(ity is a so a pro'o+n# stat!(!nt o' th! syst!(ic r! ation, partCtoC,ho !. &o(! syst!(s th!orists ,o+ # go !"!n '+rth!r, b!ca+s! a (aJor t!(ptation 'or syst!(s th!ory i!s in th! r!i'ication o' th!or!tica conc!pts. Anato Eo t says h! ,ants a b+(p!r stic*!r ,hich ,o+ # 2para#o-ica y3 say, 9&ta(p o+t no+ns.989
I-id, p. 288. I-id, pp.286C294 88 Ibi#. 89 A. C. 0at!son, !#., @ur @'n ,etap*or, 8!nn!rC1r!n 7o+n#ation, Con'!r!nc! on th! =''!cts o' Conscio+s $+rpos! on E+(an A#aptation, 1968L )!, For*, <nop', in pr!ss.
87 86

340

2103 $ray!r. :h! AA +s! o' pray!r si(i ar y a''ir(s th! co(p !(!ntarity o' partC,ho ! r! ationship by th! "!ry si(p ! t!chni.+! o' as*ing 'or that r! ationship. :h!y as* 'or thos!C p!rsona charact!ristics, s+ch as h+(i ity, ,hich ar! in 'actC !-!rcis!# in th! "!ry act o' pray!r. I' th! act o' pray!r b! sinc!r! 2,hich is not so !asy3, 1o# cannot b+t grant th! r!.+!st. An# this is p!c+ iar y tr+! o' 91o#, as you understand *im.9 :his s! 'Ca''ir(ing ta+to ogy, ,hich contains its o,n b!a+ty, is pr!cis! y th! ba ( r!.+ir!# a't!r th! ang+ish o' th! #o+b ! bin#s ,hich ,!nt ,ith hitting botto(. &o(!,hat (or! co(p !- is th! 'a(o+s 9&!r!nity $ray!r96 91o# grant +s th! s!r!nity to acc!pt th! things ,! cannot chang!, co+rag! to chang! th! things ,! can, an# ,is#o( to *no, th! #i''!r!nc!.""# I' #o+b ! bin#s ca+s! ang+ish an# #!spair an# #!stroy p!rsona !pist!(o ogica pr!(is!s at so(! #!!p !"! , th!n it 'o o,s, con"!rs! y, that 'or th! h!a ing o' th!s! ,o+n#s an# th! gro,th o' a n!, !pist!(o ogy, so(! con"!rs! o' th! #o+b ! bin# ,i b! appropriat!. :h! #o+b ! bin# !a#s :h! &!r!nity $ray!r !-p icit y 'r!!s th! ,orshipp!r 'ro( th!s! (a##!ning bon#s. to th! conc +sion o' #!spair, 9:h!r! ar! no a t!rnati"!s.9 In this conn!ction it is ,orth (!ntioning that th! gr!at schi/ophr!nic, John $!rc!"a , obs!r"!# a chang! in his 9"oic!s.9 In th! b!ginning o' his psychosis th!y b+ i!# hi( ,ith 9contra#ictory co((an#s9 2or as I ,o+ # say, #o+b ! bin#s3, b+t at!r h! b!gan to r!co"!r ,h!n th!y o''!r!# hi( choic! o' c !ar y #!'in!# a t!rnati"!s.91 2113 In on! charact!ristic, AA #i''!rs pro'o+n# y 'ro( s+ch nat+ra (!nta syst!(s as th! 'a(i y or th! r!#,oo# 'or!st. It has a single p+rpos!;9to carry th! AA (!ssag! to th! sic* a coho ic ,ho ,ants it9;an# th! organi/ation is #!#icat!# to th! (a-i(i/ation o' that p+rpos!. In this r!sp!ct, AA is no (or! sophisticat!# than 1!n!ra Aotors or an 5cci#!nta nation. 0+t bio ogica syst!(s, oth!r than thos! pr!(is!# +pon 5cci#!nta i#!as 2an# !sp!cia y money4, ar! (+ tip+rpos!#. :h!r! is no sing ! "ariab ! in th! r!#C
90 :his ,as not origina y an AA #oc+(!nt an# its a+thorship is +n*no,n. &(a "ariations in th! t!-t occ+r. I ha"! .+ot!# th! 'or( ,hich I p!rsona y pr!'!r 'ro( AA "omes of Age, op. cit., p. 196. 91 0at!son, $!rc!"a . . . , op. cit.

341

,oo# 'or!st o' ,hich ,! can say that th! ,ho ! syst!( is ori!nt!# to (a-i(i/ing that "ariab ! an# a oth!r "ariab !s ar! s+bsi#iary to itL an#, in#!!#, th! r!#,oo# 'or!st ,or*s to,ar# opti(a, not (a-i(a. Its n!!#s ar! satiab !, an# too (+ch o' anything is to-ic. :h!r! is, ho,!"!r, this6 that th! sing ! p+rpos! o' AA is #ir!ct!# o+t,ar# an# is ai(!# at a nonco(p!tit"! r! ationship to th! arg!r ,or #. :h! "ariab ! to b! (a-i(i/!# is a co(p !(!ntarity an# is o' th! nat+r! o' 9s!r"ic!9 rath!r than #o(inanc!. The Episte#olo&ical Stat!s of Co#ple#entary and Sy##etrical %re#ises It ,as not!# abo"! that in h+(an int!raction, sy((!try an# co(p !(!ntarity (ay b! co(p !- y co(bin!#. It is th!r!'or! r!asonab ! to as* ho, it is possib ! to r!gar# th!s! th!(!s as so '+n#a(!nta that th!y sha b! ca !# 9!pist!(o ogica ,9 !"!n in a nat+ra history st+#y o' c+ t+ra an# int!rp!rsona pr!(is!s. :h! ans,!r s!!(s to hang +pon ,hat is (!ant by 9'+n#a(!nta 9 in s+ch a st+#y o' (anIs nat+ra historyL an# th! ,or# s!!(s to carry t,o sorts o' (!aning. 7irst, I ca more fundamental thos! pr!(is!s ,hich ar! th! (or! #!!p y !(b!##!# in th! (in#, ,hich ar! th! (or! 9har# progra((!#9 an# th! !ss s+sc!ptib ! to chang!. In this s!ns!, th! sy((!trica pri#! or h+bris o' th! a coho ic is '+n#a(!nta . &!con#, I sha ca (or! '+n#a(!nta thos! pr!(is!s o' (in# ,hich r!'!r to th! arg!r rath!r than th! s(a !r syst!(s or g!sta t!n o' th! +ni"!rs!. :h! proposition 91rass is gr!!n9 is !ss '+n#a(!nta than th! proposition 9Co or #i''!r!nc!s (a*! a #i''!r!nc!.9 0+t, i' ,! as* abo+t ,hat happ!ns ,h!n pr!(is!s ar! chang!#, it b!co(!s c !ar that th!s! t,o #!'initions o' th! 9'+n#a(!nta 9 o"!r ap to a "!ry gr!at !-t!nt. I' a (an achi!"!s or s+''!rs chang! in pr!(is!s ,hich ar! #!!p y !(b!##!# in his (in#, h! ,i s+r! y 'in# that th! r!s+ ts o' that chang! ,i ra(i'y thro+gho+t his ,ho ! +ni"!rs!. &+ch chang!s ,! (ay ,! ca 9!pist!(o ogica .9 :h! .+!stion th!n r!(ains r!gar#ing ,hat is !pist!(o ogica y 9right9 an# ,hat is !pist!(o ogica y 9,rong.9 Is th! chang! 'ro( a coho ic sy((!trica 9pri#!9 to th! AA sp!ci!s o' co(p !(!ntarity

342

a corr!ction o' his !pist!(o ogyD An# is co(p !(!ntarity al'ays so(!ho, b!tt!r than sy((!tryD 7or th! AA (!(b!r, it (ay ,! b! tr+! that co(p !(!ntarity is a ,ays to b! pr!'!rr!# to sy((!try an# that !"!n th! tri"ia ri"a ry o' a ga(! o' t!nnis or ch!ss (ay b! #ang!ro+s. :h! s+p!r'icia !piso#! (ay to+ch o'' th! #!!p y !(b!##!# sy((!trica pr!(is!. 0+t this #o!s not (!an that t!nnis an# ch!ss propos! !pist!(o ogica !rror 'or !"!rybo#y. :h! !thica an# phi osophic prob !( r!a y conc!rns on y th! ,i#!st +ni"!rs! an# th! #!!p!st psycho ogica !"! s. I' ,! #!!p y an# !"!n +nconscio+s y b! i!"! that o+r r! ation to th! arg!st syst!( ,hich conc!rns +s;th! 9$o,!r gr!at!r than s! '9;is sy((!trica an# !(+ ati"!, th!n ,! ar! in !rror. *i#itations of the ,ypothesis

7ina y, th! abo"! ana ysis is s+bJ!ct to th! 'o o,ing i(itations an# i(p ications6 213It is not ass!rt!# that a a coho ics op!rat! accor#ing to th! ogic ,hich is h!r! o+t in!#. It is "!ry possib ! that oth!r typ!s o' a coho ics !-ist an# a (ost c!rtain that a coho ic a##iction in oth!r c+ t+r!s ,i 'o o, oth!r in!s. 223It is not ass!rt!# that th! ,ay o' A coho ics Anony(o+s is th! only ,ay to i"! corr!ct y or that th!ir th!o ogy is th! on y corr!ct #!ri"ation 'ro( th! !pist!(o ogy o' cyb!rn!tics an# syst!(s th!ory. 233It is not ass!rt!# that a transactions b!t,!!n h+(an b!ings o+ght to b! co(p !(!ntary, tho+gh it is c !ar that th! r! ation b!t,!!n th! in#i"i#+a an# th! arg!r syst!( o' ,hich h! is a part (+st n!c!ssari y b! so. 4! ations b!t,!!n p!rsons ,i 2I hop!3 a ,ays b! co(p !-. 243It is, ho,!"!r, ass!rt!# that th! nona coho ic ,or # has (any !ssons ,hich it (ight !arn 'ro( th! !pist!(o ogy o' syst!(s th!ory an# 'ro( th! ,ays o' AA. I' ,! contin+! to op!rat! in t!r(s o' a Cart!sian #+a is( o' (in# "!rs+s (att!r, ,! sha probab y a so contin+! to s!! th! ,or # in t!r(s o' 1o# "!rs+s (anL ! it!

343

"!rs+s p!op !L chos!n rac! "!rs+s oth!rsL nation "!rs+s nationL an# (an "!rs+s !n"iron(!nt. It is #o+bt'+ ,h!th!r a sp!ci!s ha"ing -ot* an a#"anc!# t!chno ogy and this strang! ,ay o' oo*ing at its ,or # can !n#+r!.

344

Co((ent on Pa&t III


In th! !ssays co !ct!# in $art III, I sp!a* o' an action or +tt!ranc! as occ+rring 9in9 a cont!-t, an# this con"!ntiona ,ay o' ta *ing s+gg!sts that th! partic+ ar action is a 9#!p!n#!nt9 "ariab !, ,hi ! th! cont!-t is th! 9in#!p!n#!nt9 or #!t!r(ining "ariab !. 0+t this "i!, o' ho, an action is r! at!# to its cont!-t is i*! y to #istract th! r!a#!r;as it has #istract!# (!;'ro( p!rc!i"ing th! !co ogy o' th! i#!as ,hich tog!th!r constit+t! th! s(a s+bsyst!( ,hich I ca 9 cont!-t.9 :his h!+ristic !rror;copi!# i*! so (any oth!rs 'ro( th! ,ays o' tho+ght o' th! physicist an# ch!(ist;r!.+ir!s corr!ction. It is i(portant to s!! th! partic+ ar +tt!ranc! or action as part o' th! !co ogica s+bsyst!( ca !# cont!-t an# not as th! pro#+ct or !''!ct o' ,hat r!(ains o' th! cont!-t a't!r th! pi!c! ,hich ,! ,ant to !-p ain has b!!n c+t o+t 'ro( it. :h! (ista*! in .+!stion is th! sa(! 'or(a !rror as that (!ntion!# in th! co((!nt on $art II ,h!r! I #isc+ss th! !"o +tion o' th! hors!. 8! sho+ # not thin* o' this proc!ss J+st as a s!t o' chang!s in th! ani(a Is a#aptation to i'! on th! grassy p ains b+t .as a constancy in t*e relations*ip b!t,!!n ani(a s an# !n"iron(!nt. It is th! !co ogy ,hich s+r"i"!s an# s o, y !"o "!s. In this !"o +tion, th! r! ata;th! ani(a s an# th! grass;+n#!rgo chang!s ,hich ar! in#!!# a#apti"! 'ro( (o(!nt to (o(!nt. 0+t i' th! proc!ss o' a#aptation ,!r! th! ,ho ! story, th!r! co+ # b! no syst!(ic patho ogy. :ro+b ! aris!s pr!cis! y b!ca+s! th! 9 ogic9 o' a#aptation is a #i''!r!nt 9 ogic9 'ro( that o' th! s+r"i"a an# !"o +tion o' th! !co ogica syst!(. In 8arr!n 0ro#!yIs phras!, th! 9ti(!Cgrain9 o' th! a#aptation is #i''!r!nt 'ro( that o' th! !co ogy. 9&+r"i"a 9 (!ans that c!rtain #!scripti"! stat!(!nts abo+t so(! i"ing syst!( contin+! to b! tr+! thro+gh so(! p!rio# o' ti(!L an#, con"!rs! y, 9!"o +tion9 r!'!rs to chang!s in th! tr+th o' c!rtain #!scripti"! stat!(!nts abo+t so(! i"ing syst!(. :h! tric* is to #!'in! ,hich stat!(!nts abo+t ,hich syst!(s r!(ain tr+! or +n#!rgo chang!.

345

:h! para#o-!s 2an# th! patho ogi!s3 o' syst!(ic proc!ss aris! pr!cis! y b!ca+s! th! constancy an# s+r"i"a o' so(! arg!r syst!( is (aintain!# by chang!s in th! constit+!nt s+bsyst!(s. :h! r! ati"! constancy;th! s+r"i"a ;o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n ani(a s an# grass is (aintain!# by chang!s in both r! ata. 0+t any a#apti"! chang! in !ith!r o' th! r! ata, i' +ncorr!ct!# by so(! chang! in th! oth!r, ,i a ,ays J!opar#i/! th! r! ationship b!t,!!n th!(. :h!s! arg+(!nts propos! a n!, conc!pt+a 'ra(! 'or th! 9#o+b ! bin#9 hypoth!sis, a n!, conc!pt+a 'ra(! 'or thin*ing abo+t 9schi/ophr!nia,9 an# a n!, ,ay o' oo*ing at cont!-t an# !"! s o' !arning. In a ,or#, schi/ophr!nia, #!+t!roC !arning, an# th! #o+b ! bin# c!as! to b! (att!rs o' in#i"i#+a psycho ogy an# b!Cco(! part o' th! !co ogy o' i#!as in syst!(s or 9(in#s9 ,hos! bo+n#ari!s no ong!r coinci#! ,ith th! s*ins o' th! participant in#i"i#+a s.

346

Part I!: "iology and #$olution

On E(2ty;,ea#e#ne!! A(on *iolo i!t! an# +tate *oa&#! o5 E#u'ation%


Ay 'ath!r, th! g!n!ticist 8i ia( 0at!son, +s!# to r!a# +s passag!s o' th! 0ib ! at br!a*'ast; !st ,! gro, +p to b! empty% *eaded ath!istsL an# so I 'in# it nat+ra to ,on#!r ,hat broa#!ning o' th! (in# (ay co(! 'ro( th! strang! antiC!"o +tionary r+ ing o' th! &tat! 0oar# o' =#+cation in Ca i'ornia.1 ="o +tion has ong b!!n ba# y ta+ght. In partic+ ar, st+#!nts; an# !"!n pro'!ssiona bio ogists;ac.+ir! th!ori!s o' !"o +tion ,itho+t any #!!p +n#!rstan#ing o' ,hat prob !( th!s! th!ori!s att!(pt to so "!. :h!y !arn b+t itt ! o' th! !"o +tion o' !"o +tionary th!ory. :h! !-traor#inary achi!"!(!nt o' th! ,rit!rs o' th! 'irst chapt!r o' 1!n!sis ,as th!ir p!rc!ption o' th! prob !(6 2*ere does order come fromH :h!y obs!r"!# that th! an# an# th! ,at!r ,!r!, in 'act, s!parat! an# that sp!ci!s ,!r! s!parat!L th!y sa, that s+ch s!paration an# sorting in th! +ni"!rs! pr!s!nt!# a '+n#a(!nta prob !(. In (o#!rn t!r(s, ,! (ay say that this is th! prob !( i(p icit in th! &!con# @a, o' :h!r(o#yna(ics6 I' ran#o( !"!nts !a# to things g!tting (i-!# +p, by ,hat nonran#o( !"!nts #i# things co(! to b! sort!#D An# ,hat is a 9ran#o(9 !"!ntD :his prob !( has b!!n c!ntra to bio ogy an# to (any oth!r sci!nc!s 'or th! ast 5000 y!ars, an# th! prob !( is not tri"ia . 8ith ,hat 8or# sho+ # ,! #!signat! th! princip ! o' or#!r ,hich s!!(s to b! i((an!nt in th! +ni"!rs!D :h! Ca i'ornia r+ ing s+gg!sts that st+#!nts b! to # o' oth!r att!(pts to so "! this anci!nt prob !(. I (ys! ' co !ct!# on! o' th!s! a(ong th! &ton! Ag! h!a#Ch+nt!rs o' th! Iat(+ trib! in )!, 1+in!a. :h!y, too, not! that th! an# an# th! ,at!r ar! s!parat! !"!n in th!ir s,a(py r!gion. :h!y say that in th! b!ginning th!r! ,as a
H :his it!( in <ioScience, Lol. >C, 1970, is r!pro#+c!# by p!r(ission 'ro( that Jo+rna . 1 &!! 9Ca i'orniaIs AntiC="o +tion 4+ ing,9 <ioScience, Aarch 1, 1970.

348

"ast croco#i !, <a",o*(a i, ,ho pa## !# ,ith his 'ront !gs an# pa## !# ,ith his bac* !gs, an# th!r!by *!pt th! (+# in s+sp!nsion. :h! c+ t+r! h!ro, <!"!(b+angga, sp!ar!# th! croco#i !, ,ho th!n c!as!# to pa## !, ca+sing th! (+# an# th! ,at!r to s!parat!. :h! r!s+ t ,as #ry an# +pon ,hich <!"!(b+angga sta(p!# his 'oot in tri+(ph. 8! (ight say h! "!ri'i!# that 9it ,as goo#.9 5+r st+#!nts (ight ha"! th!ir (in#s broa#!n!# so(!,hat i' th!y ,o+ # oo* at oth!r th!ori!s o' !"o +tion an# consi#!r ho, a (anIs spirit (+st ta*! a #i''!r!nt shap! i' h! b! i!"!s that a sorting in th! +ni"!rs! is #+! to an !-t!rna ag!nt, or i', i*! th! Iat(+ an# (o#!rn sci!ntists, h! s!!s that th! pot!ntia ity 'or or#!r an# patt!rn is i((an!nt thro+gho+t this ,or #. An# th!n th! st+#!nt (ay b! 'orc!# by th! n!, syst!( to oo* at th! 91r!at Chain o' 0!ing,9 ,ith &+pr!(! Ain# at th! top an# th! proto/oa at th! botto(. E! ,i s!! ho, Ain# ,as in"o*!# as an !-p anatory princip ! a thro+gh th! Ai## ! Ag!s an# ho, Ain# at!r b!ca(! th! pro-lem. Ain# b!ca(! that ,hich n!!#!# !-p anation ,h!n @a(arc* sho,!# that th! 1r!at Chain o' 0!ing sho+ # b! in"!rt!# to gi"! an !"o +tionary s!.+!nc! 'ro( th! proto/oa +p,ar#. :h! prob !( th!n ,as to !-p ain Ain# in t!r(s o' ,hat co+ # b! *no,n o' this s!.+!nc!. An# ,h!n th! st+#!nt r!ach!s th! (i#Cnin!t!!nth c!nt+ry, h! (ight b! gi"!n as a t!-tboo* $hi ip E!nry 1oss!Is "reation +@mp*alos4# An Attempt to Qntie t*e (eological Bnot. E! ,i !arn 'ro( this !-traor#inary boo* things abo+t th! str+ct+r! o' ani(a s an# p ants ,hich ar! to#ay scarc! y (!ntion!# in (any co+rs!s o' bio ogyL notab y, that a ani(a s an# p ants sho, a ti(! str+ct+r!, o' ,hich th! rings o' gro,th in tr!!s ar! an ! !(!ntary !-a(p ! an# th! cyc !s o' i'! history, a (or! co(p !- on!. ="!ry p ant an# ani(a is constr+ct!# +pon th! pr!(is! o' its cyc ic nat+r!. A't!r a , th!r! can b! no har( in 1oss!, ,ho ,as a #!"o+t '+n#a(!nta ist;a $ y(o+th 0roth!r;as ,! as a #isting+ish!# (arin! bio ogist. Eis boo* ,as p+b ish!# in 1857, t,o y!ars b!'or! th! @rigin a f Species. E! ,rot! it to sho, that th! 'acts o' th! 'ossi r!cor# as ,! as thos! o' bio ogica ho(o ogy co+ # b! (a#! to 'it ,ith th! princip !s o' '+n#a(!nta is(. It ,as to hi( inconc!i"ab ! that 1o# co+ # ha"! cr!at!# a ,or # in ,hich A#a( ha# no na"! L th! tr!!s in th! 1ar#!n o' =#!n, no rings o' gro,thL an# th! roc*s,

349

no strata. :h!r!'or!, 1o# (+st ha"! cr!at!# th! ,or # as tho+gh it ha# a past. It ,i #o th! st+#!nt no har( to ,r!st ! ,ith th! para#o-!s o' 1oss!Is 9@a, o' $rochronis(9L i' h! ist!ns car!C'+ y to 1oss!Is groping g!n!ra i/ations abo+t th! bio ogica ,or #, h! ,i h!ar an !ar y "!rsion o' th! 9st!a#y stat!9 hypoth!sis. 5' co+rs!, !"!rybo#y *no,s that bio ogica ph!no(!na ar! cyc icC'ro( !gg, to h!n, to !gg, to h!n, !tc. 0+t not a bio ogists ha"! !-a(in!# th! i(p ications o' this cyc ic charact!ristic 'or !"o +tionary an# !co ogica th!ory. 1oss!Is "i!, o' th! bio ogica ,or # (ight broa#!n th!ir (in#s. It is si y an# "+ gar to approach th! rich sp!ctr+( o' !"o +tionary tho+ght ,ith .+!stions on y abo+t ,ho ,as right an# ,ho ,as ,rong. 8! (ight as ,! ass!rt that th! a(phibia an# r!pti !s ,!r! 9,rong9 an# th! (a((a s an# bir#s 9right9 in th!ir so +tions to th! prob !(s o' ho, to i"!. 0y 'ighting th! '+n#a(!nta ists, ,! ar! !# into an !(ptyC h!a#!#n!ss ana ogo+s to th!irs. :h! tr+th o' th! (att!r is that 95th!r (!n ha"! abo+r!# an# y! ar! !nt!r!# into th!ir abo+rs9 2John 1#?F4, an# this t!-t is not on y a r!(in#!r o' th! n!!# 'or h+(i ity, it is a so an !pito(! o' th! "ast !"o +tionary proc!ss into ,hich ,! organis(s ar! ,i yCni y !nt!r!#.

350

The Role o5 +o(ati' Chan e in E0olution%

A th!ori!s o' bio ogica !"o +tion #!p!n# +pon at !ast thr!! sorts o' chang!6 2a3 chang! o' g!notyp!, !ith!r by (+tation or by r!#istrib+tion o' g!n!sL 2b3 so(atic chang! +n#!r pr!ss+r! o' !n"iron(!ntL an# 2c3 chang!s in !n"iron(!nta con#itions. :h! prob !( 'or th! !"o +tionist is to b+i # a th!ory co(bining th!s! typ!s o' chang! into an ongoing proc!ss ,hich, +n#!r nat+ra s! !ction, ,i acco+nt 'or th! ph!no(!na o' a#aptation an# phy og!ny. C!rtain con"!ntiona pr!(is!s (ay b! s! !ct!# to go"!rn s+ch th!ory b+i #ing6 +a4 !*e t*eory s*all not depend upon /amarc3ian in*eritance. A+g+st 8!is(annIs arg+(!nt 'or this pr!(is! sti stan#s. :h!r! is no r!ason to b! i!"! that !ith!r so(atic chang! or chang!s in !n"iron(!nt can, in princip !, ca 2by physio ogica co((+nication3 'or appropriat! g!notypic chang!. In#!!#, th! itt ! that ,! *no, abo+t co((+nication ,ithin th! (+ tic! + ar2 in#i"i#+a in#icat!s that s+ch co((+nication 'ro( so(a to g!n! script is i*! y to b! rar! an# +n i*! y to b! a#apti"! in !''!ct. Eo,!"!r, it is appropriat! to att!(pt to sp! o+t in this !ssay ,hat this pr!(is! i(p i!s6 8h!n!"!r so(! charact!ristic o' an organis( is (o#i'iab ! +n#!r (!as+rab ! !n"iron(!nta i(pact or +n#!r (!as+rab ! i(pact o' int!rna physio ogy, it is possib ! to ,rit! an !.+ation in ,hich th! "a +! o' th! charact!ristic in .+!stion is !-pr!ss!# as so(! '+nction o' th! "a +! o' th! i(pacting circ+(stanc!. 9E+(an s*in co or is so(! '+nction o' !-pos+r! to s+n ight,9 9r!spiration rat! is so(! '+nction o' at(osph!ric pr!ss+r!,9 !tc. &+ch !.+ations ar!
H :his !ssay app!ar!# in th! Jo+rna &olution, Go 17, 1963, an# is r!print!# ,ith th! !#itorIs p!r(ission. 2 :h! prob !(s o' bact!ria g!n!tics ar! h!r! #! ib!rat! y !-c +#!#.

351

constr+ct!# to b! tr+! 'or a "ari!ty o' partic+ ar obs!r"ations, an# n!c!ssari y contain s+bsi#iary propositions ,hich ar! stab ! 2i.!., contin+! to b! tr+!3 o"!r a ,i#! rang! o' "a +!s o' i(pacting circ+(stanc! an# so(atic charact!ristic. :h!s! s+bsi#iary propositions ar! o' #i''!r!nt ogica typ! 'ro( th! origina obs!r"ations in th! aboratory an# ar!, in 'act, #!scripti"! not o' th! #ata b+t o' our !.+ations. :h!y ar! stat!(!nts abo+t th! 'or( o' th! partic+ ar !.+ation an# abo+t th! "a +!s o' th! para(!t!rs (!ntion!# ,ithin it. It ,o+ # b! si(p !, at this point, to #ra, th! in! b!t,!!n g!notyp! an# ph!notyp! by saying that th! forms and parameters o' s+ch !.+ations ar! pro"i#!# by g!n!s, ,hi ! th! i(pacts o' !n"iron(!nt, !tc. #!t!r(in! th! act+a !"!nt ,ithin this 'ra(!. :his ,o+ # a(o+nt to saying, !.g., that th! a-ility to tan is g!notypica y #!t!r(in!#, ,hi ! th! a(o+nt o' tanning in a partic+ ar cas! #!p!n#s +pon !-pos+r! to s+nC ight. In t!r(s o' this o"!rsi(p i'i!# approach to th! o"!r apping ro !s o' g!notyp! an# !n"iron(!nt, th! proposition !-c +#ing @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! ,o+ # r!a# so(!,hat as 'o o,s6 In th! att!(pt to !-p ain !"o +tionary proc!ss, th!r! sha b! no ass+(ption that th! achi!"!(!nt o' a partic+ ar "a +! o' so(! "ariab ! +n#!r partic+ ar circ+(stanc!s ,i a''!ct, in th! ga(!t!s pro#+c!# by that in#i"i#+a , th! 'or( or para(!t!rs o' th! '+nctiona !.+ation go"!rning th! r! ationship b!t,!!n that "ariab ! an# its !n"iron(!nta circ+(stanc!s. &+ch a "i!, is o"!rsi(p i'i!#, an# par!nth!s!s (+st b! a##!# to #!a ,ith (or! co(p !- an# !-tr!(! cas!s. 7irst, it is i(portant to r!cogni/! that th! organis(, consi#!r!# as a co((+nicationa syst!(, (ay its! ' op!rat! at (+ tip ! !"! s o' ogica typingL i.!., that th!r! ,i b! instanc!s in ,hich ,hat ,!r! abo"! ca !# 9para(!t!rs9 ar! s+bJ!ct to chang!. :h! in#i"i#+a organis( (ight as a r!s+ t o' 9training9 chang! its abi ity to #!"! op a tan +n#!r s+n ight. An# this typ! o' chang! is c!rtain y o' "!ry gr!at i(portanc! in th! 'i! # o' ani(a b!ha"ior, ,h!r! 9 !arning to !arn9 can n!"!r b! ignor!#. &!con#, th! o"!rsi(p i'i!# "i!, (+st b! ! aborat!# to co"!r negati&e !''!cts. An !n"iron(!nta circ+(stanc! (ay ha"! s+ch

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i(pact +pon an organis( +nab ! to a#apt to it, that th! in#i"i#+a in .+!stion ,i in 'act pro#+c! no ga(!t!s. :hir#, it is !-p!ctab ! that so(! o' th! para(!t!rs in on! !.+ation (ay b! s+bJ!ct to chang! +n#!r i(pact 'ro( so(! !n"iron(!nta or physio ogic circ+(stanc! oth!r than th! circ+(stanc! (!ntion!# in that !.+ation. 0! a that as it (ay, both 8!is(annIs obJ!ction to @a(arc*ian th!ory an# (y o,n att!(pt to sp! th! (att!r o+t shar! a c!rtain parsi(ony6 an ass+(ption that th! princip !s ,hich or#!r ph!no(!na sha not th!(s! "!s b! s+ppos!# chang!# by thos! ph!no(!na ,hich th!y or#!r. 8i ia( o' 5cca(Is ra/or (ight b! r!'or(+ at!#6 in any !-p anation, ogica typ!s sha not b! (+ tip i!# b!yon# n!c!ssity. +-4 Somatic c*ange is a-solutely necessary for sur&i&al. Any chang! o' !n"iron(!nt ,hich r!.+ir!s a#apti"! chang! in th! sp!ci!s ,i b! !tha +n !ss, by so(atic chang!, th! organis(s 2or so(! o' th!(3 ar! ab ! to ,!ath!r o+t a p!rio# o' +npr!#ictab ! #+ration, +nti !ith!r appropriat! g!notypic chang! occ+rs 2,h!th!r by (+tation or by r!#istrib+tion o' g!n!s a r!a#y a"ai ab ! in th! pop+ ation3, or b!ca+s! th! !n"iron(!nt r!t+rns to th! pr!"io+s nor(a . :h! pr!(is! is tr+istica , r!gar# !ss o' th! (agnit+#! o' th! ti(! span in"o "!#. 2c3 Somatic c*ange is also necessary to cope 'it* any c*anges of genotype '*ic* mig*t aid t*e organism in its e.ternal struggle 'it* t*e en&ironment. :h! in#i"i#+a organis( is a co(p !organi/ation o' int!r#!p!n#!nt parts. A (+tationa or oth!r g!notypic chang! in any on! o' th!s! 2ho,!"!r !-t!rna y "a +ab ! in t!r(s o' s+r"i"a 3 is c!rtain to r!.+ir! chang! in (any oth!rs; ,hich chang!s ,i probab y not b! sp!ci'i!# or i(p icit in th! sing ! (+tationa chang! o' th! g!n!s. A hypoth!tica pr!gira''!, ,hich ha# th! +c* to carry a (+tant g!n! 9 ong n!c*,9 ,o+ # ha"! to a#J+st to this chang! by co(p !- (o#i'ications o' th! h!art an# circ+ atory syst!(. :h!s! co at!ra a#J+st(!nts ,o+ # ha"! to b! achi!"!# at th! so(atic !"! . 5n y thos! pr!gira''!s ,hich ar! 2g!notypica y3 capab ! o' th!s! so(atic (o#i'ications ,o+ # s+r"i"!. +d4 In this !ssay, it is ass+(!# that t*e corpus of genotypic messages is preponderantly digital in nat+r!. In contrast, th! so(a is

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s!!n as a ,or*ing syst!( in ,hich th! g!notypic r!cip!s ar! tri!# o+t. &ho+ # it transpir! that th! g!notypic corp+s is a so in so(! #!gr!! ana ogic;a ,or*ing (o#! o' th! so(a;pr!(is! c 2abo"!3 ,o+ # b! n!gat!# to that #!gr!!. It ,o+ # th!n b! conc!i"ab ! .that th! (+tant g!n! 9 ong n!c*9 (ight (o#i'y th! (!ssag! o' thos! g!n!s ,hich a''!ct th! #!"! op(!nt o' th! h!art. It is, o' co+rs!, *no,n that g!n!s (ay ha"! p !iotropic !''!ct, b+t th!s! ph!no(!na ar! r! !"ant in th! pr!s!nt conn!ction on y i' it can b! sho,n, !.g., that th! !''!ct o' g!n! A +pon th! ph!notyp! an# its !''!ct +pon th! ph!notypic !-pr!ssion o' g!n! 0 ar! (+t+a y appropriat! in th! o"!ra int!gration an# a#aptation o' th! organis(. :h!s! consi#!rations !a# to a c assi'ying o' both g!notypic an# !n"iron(!nta chang!s in t!r(s o' th! price ,hich th!y !-act o' th! ' !-ibi ity o' th! so(atic syst!(. A !tha chang! in !ith!r !n"iron(!nt or g!notyp! is si(p y on! ,hich #!(an#s so(atic (o#i'ications ,hich th! organis( cannot achi!"!. 0+t th! so(atic pric! o' a gi"!n chang! (+st #!p!n#, not abso +t! y +pon th! chang! in .+!stion, b+t +pon th! rang! o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity a"ai ab ! to th! organis( at th! gi"!n ti(!. :his rang!, in t+rn, ,i #!p!n# +pon ho, (+ch o' th! organis(Is so(atic ' !-ibi ity is a r!a#y b!ing +s!# +p in a#J+sting to oth!r (+tations or !n"iron(!nta chang!s. 8! 'ac! an economics o' ' !-ibi ity ,hich, i*! any oth!r !cono(ics, ,i b!co(! #!t!r(inati"! 'or th! co+rs! o' !"o +tion i' an# on y i' th! organis( is op!rating c os! to th! i(its s!t by this !cono(ics. Eo,!"!r, this !cono(ics o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity ,i #i''!r in on! i(portant r!sp!ct 'ro( th! (or! 'a(i iar !cono(ics o' (on!y or a"ai ab ! !n!rgy. In th!s! att!r, !ach n!, !-p!n#it+r! can si(p y b! added to th! pr!c!#ing !-p!n#it+r!s an# th! !cono(ics b!co(!s co!rci"! ,h!n th! a##iti"! tota approach!s th! i(it o' th! b+#g!t. In contrast, th! co(bin!# !''!ct o' (+ tip ! chang!s, !ach o' ,hich !-acts a pric! in th! so(a, ,i b! multiplicati&e. :his point (ay b! stat!# as 'o o,s6 @!t & b! th! 'init! s!t o' a possib ! i"ing stat!s o' th! organis(. 8ithin &, !t s1 b! th! s(a !r s!t o' a stat!s co(patib ! ,ith a gi"!n (+tation 2( 3, an# !t s2 b! th! s!t o' stat!s co(patib ! ,ith a s!con# (+tation 2(23. It 'o o,s that th! t,o (+tations in co(bination ,i i(it th! organis( to th! ogica

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pro#+ct o' s1 an# s2, i.!., to that +s+a y s(a !r s+bs!t o' stat!s ,hich is co(pos!# on y o' (!(b!rs co((on to both s1 an# s2. In this ,ay !ach s+cc!ssi"! (+tation 2or oth!r g!notypic chang!3 ,i 'ractionat! th! possibi iti!s 'or th! so(atic a#J+st(!nt o' th! organis(. An#, sho+ # th! on! (+tation r!.+ir! so(! so(atic chang!, th! !-act opposit! o' a chang! r!.+ir!# by th! oth!r, th! possibi iti!s 'or so(atic a#J+st(!nt (ay i((!#iat! y b! r!#+c!# to /!ro. :h! sa(! arg+(!nt (+st s+r! y app y to (+ tip ! !n"iron(!nta chang!s ,hich #!(an# so(atic a#J+st(!ntsL an# this ,i b! tr+! !"!n o' thos! chang!s in !n"iron(!nt ,hich (ight s!!( to b!n!'it th! organis(. An i(pro"!(!nt in #i!t, 'or !-a(p !, ,i !-c +#! 'ro( th! organis(Is rang! o' so(atic a#J+st(!nts thos! patt!rns o' gro,th ,hich ,! ,o+ # ca 9st+nt!#9 an# ,hich (ight b! r!.+ir!# to (!!t so(! oth!r !-ig!ncy o' th! !n"iron(!nt. 7ro( th!s! consi#!rations it 'o o,s that i' !"o +tion proc!!#!# in accor#anc! ,ith con"!ntiona th!ory, its proc!ss ,o+ # b! b oc*!#. :h! 'init! nat+r! o' so(atic chang! in#icat!s that no ongoing proc!ss o' !"o +tion can r!s+ t on y 'ro( s+cc!ssi"! !-t!rna y a#apti"! g!notypic chang!s sinc! th!s! (+st, in co(bination, b!co(! !tha , #!(an#ing co(binations o' int!rna so(atic a#J+st(!nts o' ,hich th! so(a is incapab !. 8! t+rn th!r!'or! to a consi#!ration o' oth!r c ass!s o' g!notypic chang!. 8hat is r!.+ir!# to gi"! a ba anc!# 9th!ory o' !"o +tion is th! occ+rr!nc! o' g!notypic chang!s ,hich sha increase th! a"ai ab ! rang! o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity. 8h!n th! int!rna organi/ation o' th! organis(s o' a sp!ci!s has b!!n i(it!# by !n"iron(!nta or (+tationa pr!ss+r! to so(! narro, s+bs!t o' th! tota rang! o' i"ing stat!s, '+rth!r !"o +tionary progr!ss ,i r!.+ir! so(! sort o' g!notypic chang! ,hich ,i co(p!nsat! 'or this i(itation. 8! not! 'irst that ,hi ! th! r!s+ ts o' g!notypic chang! ar! irr!"!rsib ! ,ithin th! i'! o' th! in#i"i#+a organis(, th! opposit! is +s+a y tr+! o' chang!s ,hich ar! achi!"!# at th! so(atic !"! . 8h!n th! att!r ar! pro#+c!# in r!spons! to sp!cia !n"iron(!nta con#itions, a r!t+rn o' th! !n"iron(!nt to th! pr!"io+s nor( is +s+a y 'o o,!# by a #i(in+tion or oss o' th! charact!ristic. 28! (ay r!asonab y !-p!ct that th! sa(! ,o+ # b! tr+! o' thos! so(atic a#J+st(!nts ,hich (+st acco(pany an !-t!rna y a#apti"! (+tation

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b+t, o' co+rs!, it is i(possib ! in this cas! to r!(o"! 'ro( th! in#i"i#+a th! i(pact o' th! (+tationa chang!.3 A '+rth!r point r!gar#ing th!s! r!"!rsib ! so(atic chang!s is o' sp!cia int!r!st. A(ong high!r organis(s it is not +n+s+a to 'in# that th!r! is ,hat ,! (ay ca a 9#!'!ns! in #!pth9 against !n"iron(!nta #!(an#s. I' a (an is (o"!# 'ro( s!a !"! to 10,000 '!!t, h! (ay b!gin to pant an# his h!art (ay rac!. 0+t th!s! 'irst chang!s ar! s,i't y r!"!rsib !6 i' h! #!sc!n#s th! sa(! #ay, th!y ,i #isapp!ar i((!#iat! y. I', ho,!"!r, h! r!(ains at th! high a tit+#!, a s!con# in! o' #!'!ns! app!ars. E! ,i b!co(! s o, y acc i(at!# as a r!s+ t o' co(p !- physio ogica chang!s. Eis h!art ,i c!as! to rac!, an# h! ,i no ong!r pant +n !ss h! +n#!rta*!s so(! sp!cia !-!rtion. I' no, h! r!t+rns to s!a !"! , th! charact!ristics o' th! s!con# in! o' #!'!ns! ,i #isapp!ar rath!r s o, y an# h! (ay !"!n !-p!ri!nc! so(! #isco('ort. 7ro( th! point o' "i!, o' an !cono(ics o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity, th! 'irst !''!ct o' high a tit+#! is to r!#+c! th! organis( to a i(it!# s!t o' stat!s 2si3 charact!ri/!# by th! racing o' th! h!art an# th! panting. :h! (an can sti s+r"i"!, b+t on y as a co(parati"! y in' !-ib ! cr!at+r!. :h! at!r acc i(ation has pr!cis! y this "a +!6 it corr!cts 'or th! oss o' ' !-ibi ity. A't!r th! (an is acc i(at!# h! can +s! his panting (!chanis(s to a#J+st to ot*er !(!rg!nci!s ,hich (ight oth!r,is! b! !tha . A si(i ar 9#!'!ns! in #!pth9 is c !ar y r!cogni/ab ! in th! 'i! # o' b!ha"ior. 8h!n ,! !nco+nt!r a n!, prob !( 'or th! 'irst ti(!, ,! #!a ,ith it !ith!r by tria an# !rror or possib y by insight. @at!r, an# (or! or !ss gra#+a y, ,! 'or( th! 9habit9 o' acting in th! ,ay ,hich !ar i!r !-p!ri!nc! r!,ar#!#. :o contin+! to +s! insight or tria an# !rror +pon this c ass o' prob !( ,o+ # b! ,ast!'+ . :h!s! (!chanis(s can no, b! sa"!# 'or ot*er prob !(s.3 0oth in acc i(ation an# in habit 'or(ation th! !cono(y o' ' !-ibi ity is achi!"!# by s+bstit+ting a #!!p!r an# (or! !n#+ring chang! 'or a (or! s+p!r'icia an# (or! r!"!rsib ! on!. In th! t!r(s +s!# abo"! in #isc+ssing th! antiC@a(arc*ian pr!(is!, a chang! has occ+rr!# in th! para(!t!rs o' th! '+nctiona !.+ation in*ing rat! o'
0at!son, 9Aini(a 4!.+ir!(!nts 'or a :h!ory o' &chi/ophr!nia,9 A.,.A. Arc*i&es of (eneral 6syc*iatry, 1960, ># 447.
3

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r!spiration to !-t!rna at(osph!ric pr!ss+r!. E!r! it s!!(s that th! organis( is b!ha"ing as ,! (ay !-p!ct any + trastab ! syst!( to b!ha"!. Ashby4 has sho,n that it is a g!n!ra 'or(a charact!ristic o' s+ch syst!(s that thos! circ+its conCtro ing th! (or! rapi# y ' +ct+ating "ariab !s act as ba ancing (!chanis(s to prot!ct th! ongoing constancy o' thos! "ariab !s in ,hich chang! is nor(a y s o, an# o' s(a a(p it+#!L an# that any int!r'!r!nc! ,hich 'i-!s th! "a +!s o' th! chang!'+ "ariab !s (+st ha"! a #ist+rbing !''!ct +pon th! constancy o' th! nor(a y st!a#y co(pon!nts o' th! syst!(. 7or th! (an ,ho (+st constant y pant at high a tit+#!s, th! r!spiration rat! can no ong!r b! +s!# as a chang!ab ! .+antity in th! (aintaining o' physio ogica ba anc!. Con"!rs! y, i' th! r!spiration rat! is to b!co(! a"ai Cab ! again as a rapi# y ' +ct+ating "ariab !, so(! chang! (+st occ+r a(ong th! (or! stab ! co(pon!nts o' th! syst!(. &+ch a chang! ,i , in th! nat+r! o' th! cas!, b! achi!"!# co(parati"! y s o, y an# b! co(parati"! y irr!"!rsib !. ="!n acc i(ation an# habit 'or(ation ar!, ho,!"!r, sti r!"!rsib ! ,ithin th! i'! o' th! in#i"i#+a , an# this "!ry r!"!rsibi ity in#icat!s a ac* o' co((+nicationa !cono(y in th!s! a#apti"! (!chanis(s. 4!"!rsibi ity i(p i!s that th! chang!# "a +! o' so(! "ariab ! is achi!"!# by (!ans o' ho(!ostatic, !rrorCacti"at!# circ+its. :h!r! (+st b! a (!ans o' #!t!cting an +n#!sirab ! or thr!at!ning chang! in so(! "ariab !, an# th!r! (+st b! a train o' ca+s! an# !''!ct ,h!r!by corr!cti"! action is initiat!#. Aor!o"!r, this !ntir! circ+it (+st, in so(! #!gr!!, b! a"ai ab ! 'or this p+rpos! 'or th! !ntir! ti(! #+ring ,hich th! r!"!rsib ! chang! is (aintain!#;a consi#!rab ! +sing +p o' a"ai ab ! (!ssag! path,ays. :h! (att!r o' co((+nicationa !cono(ics b!co(!s sti (or! s!rio+s ,h!n ,! not! that th! ho(!ostatic circ+its o' an organis( ar! not s!parat! b+t co(p !- y int!r oc*!#, !.g., hor(ona (!ss!ng!rs ,hich p ay a part in th! ho(!ostatic contro o' organ A ,i a so a''!ct th! stat!s o' organs 0, C, an# ?. Any sp!cia ongoing oa#ing o' th! circ+it contro ing A ,i th!r!'or! #i(inish th! organis(Is 'r!!#o( to contro 0, C, an# ?.
4 8. 4. Ashby, 9:h! =''!ct o' Contro s on &tabi ity,9 ;ature, 1945, 1556 >4>0 a so Ashby, 8esign for a <rain, )!, For*, John 8i !y X Co., 195>.

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In contrast, th! chang!s bro+ght abo+t by (+tation or oth!r g!notypic chang! ar! pr!s+(ab y o' a tota y #i''!r!nt nat+r!. ="!ry c! contains a copy o' th! n!, g!notypic corp+s an# th!r!'or! ,i 2,h!n appropriat!3 b!ha"! in th! chang!# (ann!r, ,itho+t any chang! in th! (!ssag!s ,hich it r!c!i"!s 'ro( s+rro+n#ing tiss+!s or organs. I' th! hypoth!tica pr!gira''!s carrying th! (+tant g!n! 9 ong n!c*9 co+ # a so g!t th! g!n! 9big h!art,9 th!ir h!arts ,o+ # b! !n arg!# ,itho+t th! n!c!ssity o' +sing th! ho(!ostatic path,ays o' th! bo#y to achi!"! an# (aintain this !n arg!(!nt. &+ch a (+tation ,i ha"! s+r"i"a "a +! not b!Cca+s! it !nab !s th! pr!gira''! to s+pp y its ! !"at!# h!a# ,ith s+''ici!nt b oo#, sinc! this ,as a r!a#y achi!"!# by so(atic chang! b+t b!ca+s! it incr!as!s th! o"!ra ' !-ibi ity o' th! organis(, !nab ing it to s+r"i"! ot*er #!(an#s ,hich (ay b! p ac!# +pon it !ith!r by !n"iron(!nta or, g!notypic chang!. It app!ars, th!n, that th! proc!ss o' bio ogica !"o +tion co+ # b! contin+o+s i' th!r! ,!r! a c ass o' (+tations or oth!r g!notypic chang!s ,hich ,o+ # si(+ at! @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc!. :h! '+nction o' th!s! chang!s ,o+ # b! to achi!"! by g!notypic ' at thos! charact!ristics ,hich th! organis( at th! gi"!n ti(! is a r!a#y achi!"ing by th! +n!cono(ica (!tho# o' so(atic chang!. &+ch a hypoth!sis, I b! i!"!, con' icts in no ,ay ,ith con"!ntiona th!ori!s o' g!n!tics an# nat+ra s! !ction. It #o!s, ho,!"!r, so(!,hat a t!r th! c+rr!nt con"!ntiona pict+r! o' !"o +tion as a ,ho !, tho+gh r! at!# i#!as ,!r! p+t 'or,ar# o"!r si-ty y!ars ago. 0a #,in5 s+gg!st!# that ,! consi#!r not on y th! op!ration o' th! !-t!rna !n"iron(!nt in nat+ra s! !ction b+t a so ,hat h! ca !# 9organic s! !ction9 in ,hich th! 'at! o' a gi"!n "ariation ,o+ # #!p!n# +pon its physio ogic "iabi ity. In th! sa(! artic !, 0a #,in attrib+t!s to @ oy# Aorgan th! s+gg!stion that th!r! (ight !-ist 9coinci#!nt "ariations9 ,hich ,o+ # si(+ at! @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! 2th! soC ca !# 90a #,in !''!ct93. Accor#ing to s+ch a hypoth!sis, g!notypic chang! in an organis( b!co(!s co(parab ! to !gis ati"! chang! in a soci!ty. :h! ,is! !gis ator ,i on y rar! y initiat! a n!, r+ ! o' b!ha"iorL (or! +s+a y h! ,i con'in! hi(s! ' to a''ir(ing in a, that ,hich has
5

J. A. 0a #,in, 95rganic &! !ction,9 Science, 1F97, 5# 634.

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a r!a#y b!co(! th! c+sto( o' th! p!op !. An inno"ati"! r+ ! can b! intro#+c!# on y at th! pric! o' acti"ating an# p!rhaps o"!r oa#ing a arg! n+(b!r o' ho(!ostatic circ+its in th! soci!ty. It is int!r!sting to as* ho, a hypoth!tica proc!ss o' !"o +tion ,o+ # ,or* if @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! ,!r! th! r+ !, i.!., i' charact!ristics achi!"!# by so(atic ho(!ostasis ,!r! inh!rit!#. :h! ans,!r is si(p !6 it 'ould not 'or3, 'or th! 'o o,ing r!asons6 213:h! .+!stion t+rns +pon th! conc!pt o' !cono(y in th! +s! o' ho(!ostatic circ+its, an# it ,o+ # b! th! r!"!rs! o' !cono(ica to 'i- by g!notypic chang! a th! "ariab !s ,hich acco(pany a gi"!n #!sirab ! an# ho(!ostatica y achi!"!# charact!ristic. ="!ry s+ch charact!ristic is achi!"!# by anci ary ho(!ostatic chang!s a aro+n# th! circ+its, an# it is (ost +n#!sirab ! that th!s! anci ary chang!s sho+ # b! 'i-!# by inh!ritanc!, as ,o+ # ogica y happ!n accor#ing to any th!ory in"o "ing an in#iscri(inat! @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc!. :hos! ,ho ,o+ # #!'!n# a @a(arc*ian th!ory (+st b! pr!par!# to s+gg!st ho, in th! g!notyp! an appropriat! s! !ction can b! achi!"!#. 8itho+t s+ch a s! !ction, th! inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics ,o+ # (!r! y inCcr!as! th! proportion o' non"iab ! g!notypic chang!s. 223@a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! ,o+ # #ist+rb th! r! ati"! ti(ing o' th! proc!ss!s +pon ,hich !"o +tion (+st;accor#ing to th! pr!s!nt hypoth!sis;#!p!n#. It is !ss!ntia that th!r! b! a ti(! ag b!t,!!n th! +n!cono(ica b+t r!"!rsib ! so(atic achi!"!(!nt o' a gi"!n charact!ristic an# th! !cono(ica b+t (or! !n#+ring a t!rations o' th! g!notyp!. I' ,! oo* +pon !"!ry so(a as a ,or*ing (o#! ,hich can b! (o#i'i!# in "ario+s ,ays in th! ,or*shop, it is c !ar that s+''ici!nt b+t not in'init! ti(! (+st b! gi"!n 'or th!s! ,or*shop tria s b!'or! th! r!s+ ts o' th!s! tria s ar! incorporat!# into th! 'ina b +!print 'or (ass pro#+ction. :his #! ay is pro"i#!# by th! in#ir!ction o' stochastic proc!ss. It ,o+ # b! +n#+ y short!n!# by @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc!. :h! princip ! in"o "!# h!r! is g!n!ra an# by no (!ans tri"ia . It obtains in a ho(!ostatic syst!(s in ,hich a gi"!n !''!ct can b! bro+ght abo+t by (!ans o' a ho(!ostatic circ+it, ,hich circ+it can, in t+rn, b! (o#i'i!# in its charact!ristics by so(!C high!r syst!( o' contro . In a s+ch syst!(s 2ranging 'ro( th! ho+s! th!r(ostat to syst!(s o' go"!rn(!nt an# a#(inistration3 it is i(portant that th!

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high!r syst!( o' contro lag -e*ind th! !"!nt s!.+!nc!s in th! p!riph!ra ho(!ostatic circ+it. In !"o +tion t,o contro syst!(s ar! pr!s!nt6 th! ho(!ostas!s o' th! bo#y ,hich #!a ,ith to !rab ! int!rna str!ss, an# th! action o' nat+ra s! !ction +pon th! 2g!n!tica y3 non"iab ! (!(b!rs o' th! pop+ ation. 7ro( an !ngin!!ring point o' "i!,, th! prob !( is to limit co((+nication 'ro( th! o,!r, r!"!rsib ! so(atic syst!( to th! high!r irr!"!rsib ! g!notypic syst!(. Anoth!r asp!ct o' th! propos!# hypoth!sis abo+t ,hich ,! can on y sp!c+ at! is th! probab ! r! ati"! 'r!.+!ncy o' th! t,o c ass!s o' g!notypic chang!6 thos! ,hich initiat! so(!thing n!, an# thos! ,hich a''ir( so(! ho(!ostatica y achi!"!# charact!ristic. In th! A!ta/oa an# (+ tic! + ar p ants, ,! 'ac! co(p !- n!t,or*s o' (+ tip ! int!r oc*ing ho(!ostatic circ+its, an# any gi"!n (+tation or g!n! r!co(bination ,hich initiat!s chang! ,i probab y r!.+ir! "!ry "ario+s an# (+ tip ! so(atic charact!ristics to b! achi!"!# by ho(!ostasis. :h! hypoth!tica pr!gira''! ,ith th! (+tant g!n! 9 ong n!c*9 ,i n!!# to (o#i'y not on y its h!art an# circ+ atory syst!( b+t a so p!rhaps its s!(icirc+ ar cana s, its int!r"!rt!bra #iscs, its post+ra r!' !-!s, th! ratio o' !ngth an# thic*n!ss o' (any (+sc !s, its !"asi"! tactics "isCaC"is pr!#ators, !tc. :his s+gg!sts that in s+ch co(p !- organis(s, th! (!r! y a''ir(ati"! g!notypic chang!s (+st 'ar o+tn+(b!r thos! ,hich initiat! chang!, i' th! sp!ci!s is to a"oi# that c+ C#!Csac in ,hich th! ' !-ibi ity o' th! so(a approach!s /!ro. Con"!rs! y, this pict+r! s+gg!sts that (ost organis(s, at any gi"!n ti(!, ar! probab y in s+ch a stat! that th!r! ar! (+ tip ! possibi iti!s 'or a''ir(ati"! g!notypic chang!. I', as s!!(s probab !, both (+tation an# g!n! r!#istrib+tion ar! in so(! s!ns! ran#o( ph!no(!na, at !ast th! chanc!s ar! consi#!rab ! that on! or oth!r o' th!s! (+ tip ! possibi iti!s ,i b! (!t. 7ina y, it is appropriat! to #isc+ss ,hat !"i#!nc! is a"ai Cab ! or (ight b! so+ght to s+pport or #ispro"! s+ch a hypoth!sis. It is c !ar at th! o+ts!t that s+ch a t!sting ,i b! #i''ic+ t. :h! a''ir(ati"! (+tations +pon ,hich th! hypoth!sis #!p!n#s ,i +s+a y b! in&isi-le. 7ro( a(ong th! (any (!(b!rs o' a pop+ ation ,hich ar! achi!"ing a gi"!n a#J+st(!nt to !n"iron(!nta circ+(stanc!s by so(atic chang!, it ,i not b! possib ! i((!#iat! y to pic* o+t thos! '!, in ,hich th! sa(! a#J+st(!nt is pro"i#!# by th! g!notypic

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(!tho#. In s+ch a cas!, th! g!notypica y chang!# in#i"i#+a s ,i ha"! to b! i#!nti'i!# by br!!#ing an# raising th! o''spring +n#!r (or! nor(a con#itions. A sti gr!at!r #i''ic+ ty aris!s in cas!s ,h!r! ,! ,o+ # in"!stigat! thos! ho(!ostatica y ac.+ir!# charact!ristics ,hich ar! achi!"!# in r!spons! to so(! inno"ati"! g!notypic chang!. It ,i o't!n b! i(possib !, by (!r! insp!ction o' th! organis(, to t! ,hich o' its charact!ristics ar! th! pri(ary r!s+ ts o' g!notypic chang! an# ,hich ar! s!con#ary so(atic a#J+st(!nts to th!s!. In th! i(aginary cas! o' th! pr!gira''! ,ith a so(!,hat ! ongat!# n!c* an# an !n arg!# h!art, it (ay b! !asy to guess that th! (o#i'ication o' th! n!c* is g!notypic ,hi ! that o' th! h!art is so(atic. 0+t a s+ch g+!ss!s ,i #!p!n# +pon th! "!ry i(p!r'!ct pr!s!nt *no, C !#g! o' ,hat an organis( can achi!"! in ,ay o' so(atic a#J+st(!nt. It is a (aJor trag!#y that th! @a(arc*ian contro"!rsy has #!' !ct!# th! att!ntion o' g!n!ticists a,ay 'ro( th! ph!no(!non o' so(atic a#aptabi ity. A't!r a , th! (!chanis(s, thr!sho #s, an# (a-i(a o' in#i"i#+a ph!notypic chang! +n#!r str!ss (+st s+r! y b! g!notypica y #!t!r(in!#. Anoth!r #i''ic+ ty, o' rath!r si(i ar nat+r!, aris!s at th! pop+ ation !"! , ,h!r! ,! !nco+nt!r anoth!r 9!cono(ics9 o' pot!ntia chang!, th!or!tica y #isting+ishab ! 'ro( that ,hich op!rat!s ,ithin th! in#i"i#+a . :h! pop+ ation o' a ,i # sp!ci!s is to#ay con"!ntiona y r!gar#!# as g!notypica y h!t!rog!n!o+s in spit! o' th! high #!gr!! o' s+p!r'icia r!s!(b anc! b!t,!!n th! in#i"i#+a ph!notyp!s. &+ch a pop+ ation !-p!ctab y '+nctions as a stor!ho+s! o' g!notypic possibi iti!s. :h! !cono(ic asp!ct o' this stor!ho+s! o' possibi iti!s has, 'or !-a(p !, b!!n str!ss!# by &i((on#s.6 E! points o+t that 'ar(!rs an# br!!#!rs ,ho #!(an# 100 p!r c!nt ph!notypic +ni'or(ity in a high y s! !ct crop ar! in 'act thro,ing a,ay (ost o' th! (+ tip ! g!n!tic possibi iti!s acc+(+ at!# thro+gh h+n#r!#s o' g!n!rations in th! ,i # pop+ ation. 7ro( this &i((on#s arg+!s that th!r! is +rg!nt n!!# 'or instit+tions ,hich sha 9cons!r"!9 this stor!ho+s! o' "ariabi ity by (aintaining +ns! !ct!# pop+ ations.
). 8. &i((on#s, 9Gariabi ity in Crop $ ants, Its %s! an# Cons!r"ation,9 <iol. 2e$iew) 1962, 40# 3//56/.
6

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@!rn!r7 has arg+!# that s! 'Ccorr!cti"! or b+''!ring (!chanis(s op!rat! to ho # constant th! co(position o' th!s! (i-t+r!s o' ,i # g!notyp!s an# to r!sist th! !''!cts o' arti'icia s! !ction. :h!r! is th!r!'or! at !ast a pr!s+(ption that this !cono(ics o' "ariabi ity ,ithin th! pop+ ation ,i t+rn o+t to b! o' th! (+ tip icati"! *in#. )o,, th! #i''ic+ ty o' #iscri(inating b!t,!!n a charact!ristic achi!"!# by so(atic ho(!ostasis an# th! sa(! charact!ristic achi!"!# 2(or! !cono(ica y3 by a g!notypic short c+t is c !ar y going to b! co(po+n#!# ,h!n ,! co(! to consi#!r pop+ ations inst!a# o' physio ogic in#i"i#+a s. A act+a !-p!ri(!ntation in th! 'i! # ,i in!"itab y ,or* ,ith pop+ ations, an#, in this ,or*, it ,i b! n!c!ssary to #iscri(inat! th! !''!cts o' that !cono(ics o' fle.i-ility ,hich op!rat!s insi#! th! in#i"i#+a s 'ro( th! !''!cts o' th! !cono(ics o' &aria-ility ,hich op!rat!s at th! pop+ ation !"! . :h!s! t,o or#!rs o' !cono(ics (ay b! !asy to s!parat! in th!ory, b+t to s!parat! th!( in !-p!ri(!ntation ,i s+r! y b! #i''ic+ t. 0! a that as it (ay, !t +s consi#!r ,hat !"i#!ntia s+pCport (ay b! a"ai ab ! 'or so(! o' th! propositions ,hich ar! cr+cia to th! hypoth!sis6 213 :hat th! ph!no(!na o' so(atic a#J+st(!nt ar! appropriat! y #!scrib!# in t!r(s o' an !cono(ics o' fle.i-ility. In g!n!ra , ,! b! i!"! that th! pr!s!nc! o' str!ss A (ay r!#+c! an organis(Is abi ity to r!spon# to str!ss 0 an#, g+i#!# by this opinion, ,! co((on y prot!ct th! sic* 'ro( th! ,!ath!r. :hos! ,ho ha"! a#J+st!# to th! o''ic! i'! (ay ha"! #i''ic+ ty in c i(bing (o+ntains, an# train!# (o+ntain c i(b!rs (ay ha"! #i''ic+ ty ,h!n con'in!# to o''ic!sL th! str!ss!s o' r!tir!(!nt 'ro( b+sin!ss (ay b! !tha L an# so on. 0+t sci!nti'ic *no, !#g! o' th!s! (att!rs, in (an or oth!r organis(s, is "!ry s ight. 223 :hat this !cono(ics o' ' !-ibi ity has th! ogica str+ct+r! #!scrib!# abo"!;!ach s+cc!ssi"! #!(an# +pon ' !-ibi ity 'ractionating th! s!t o' a"ai ab ! possibi iti!s. :h! proposition is !-p!ctab !, b+t so 'ar as I *no, th!r! is no !"i#!nc! 'or it. It is, ho,!"!r, ,orth,hi ! to !-a(in! th! crit!ria ,hich #!t!r(in! ,h!th!r a gi"!n 9!cono(ic9 syst!( is (or! appropriat! y

I. A. @!rn!r, (enetic 1omeostasis, =#inb+rgh, 5 i"!r an# 0oy#, 1954.

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#!scrib!# in a##iti"! or (+ tip icati"! t!r(s. :h!r! ,o+ # s!!( to b! t,o s+ch crit!ria6 2a3A syst!( ,i b! a##iti"! inso'ar as th! +nits o' its c+rr!ncy ar! (+t+a y int!rchang!ab ! an#, th!r!'or!, canCnot (!aning'+ y b! c assi'i!# into s!ts s+ch as ,!r! +s!# !ar i!r in this pap!r to sho, that th! !cono(ics o' ' !-ibi ity (+st s+r! y b! (+ tip icati"!. Ca ori!s in th! !cono(ics o' !n!rgy ar! co(p !t! y int!rchang!ab ! an# +nc assi'iab !, as ar! #o ars in th! in#i"i#+a b+#g!t. 0oth th!s! syst!(s ar! th!r!'or! a##iti"!. :h! p!r(+tations an# co(binations o' "ariab !s ,hich #!'in! th! stat!s o' an organis( ar! c assi'iab ! an#;to this !-t!nt; nonint!rchang!ab !. :h! syst!( is th!r!'or! (+ tip icati"!. Its (ath!(atics ,i r!s!(b ! that o' in'or(ation th!ory or n!gati"! !ntropy rath!r than that o' (on!y or !n!rgy cons!r"ation. 2b3A syst!( ,i b! a##iti"! inso'ar as th! +nits o' its c+rr!ncy ar! (+t+a y in#!p!n#!nt. E!r! th!r! ,o+ # s!!( to b! a #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! !cono(ic syst!( o' th! in#i"i#+a , ,hos! b+#g!tary prob !(s ar! a##iti"! 2or s+bCtracti"!3 an# thos! o' soci!ty at arg!, ,h!r! th! o"!ra #istrib+tion or ' o, o' ,!a th is go"!rn!# by co(p !- 2an# p!rhaps i(p!r'!ct3 ho(!ostatic syst!(s. Is th!r!, p!rhaps, an !cono(ics o' !cono(ic ' !-ibi ity 2a (!ta!cono(ics3 ,hich is (+ tip icati"! an# so r!s!(b !s th! !cono(ics o' physio ogica ' !-ibi ity #isc+ss!# abo"!D )otic!, ho,!"!r, that th! +nits o' this ,i#!r !cono(ics ,i b! not #o ars b+t patt!rns o' #istrib+tion o' ,!a th. &i(i ar y, @!rn!rIs 9g!n!tic ho(!ostasis,9 inso'ar as it is tr+ y ho(!ostatic, ,i ha"! (+ tip icati"! charact!r. :h! (att!r is, ho,!"!r, not si(p ! an# ,! cannot !-p!ct that !"!ry syst!( ,i b! !ith!r tota y (+ tip icati"! or tota y a##iti"!. :h!r! ,i b! int!r(!#iat! cas!s ,hich co(bin! th! t,o charact!ristics. &p!ci'ica y, ,h!r! s!"!ra independent a t!rnati"! ho(!ostatic circ+its contro a sing ! "ariab !, it is c !ar that th! syst!( (ay sho, a##iti"! charact!ristics;an# !"!n that it (ay pay to incorporat! s+ch a t!rnati"! path,ays in th! syst!( pro"i#!# th!y can b! !''!cti"! y ins+ at!# 'ro( !ach oth!r. &+ch syst!(s o' (+ tip ! a t!rnati"! contro s (ay gi"! s+r"i"a a#"antag! inso'ar as th! (ath!(atics o' a##ition an# s+btraction ,i pay b!tt!r than th! (ath!(atics o' ogica 'ractionation.

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+?4 !*at inno&ati&e genotypic c*ange commonly ma3es demands upon t*e ad=usti&e a-ility of t*e soma. :his proposition is ortho#o- y b! i!"!# by bio ogists b+t cannot in th! nat+r! o' th! cas! b! "!ri'i!# by #ir!ct !"i#!nc!. +44 !*at successi&e genotypic inno&ations ma3e multiplicati&e demands upon t*e soma. :his proposition 2,hich in"o "!s -ot* th! notion o' (+ tip icati"! !cono(ics o' ' !-ibi ity an# th! notion that !ach inno"ati"! g!notypic chang! has its so(atic pric!3 has s!"!ra int!r!sting an# p!rhaps "!ri'iab ! i(p ications. 2a38! (ay !-p!ct that organis(s in ,hich n+(!ro+s r!c!nt g!notypic chang!s ha"! acc+(+ at!# 2!.g., as a r!s+ t o' s! !ction, or p ann!# br!!#ing3 ,i b! #! icat!, i.!., ,i n!!# to b! prot!ct!# 'ro( !n"iron(!nta str!ss. :his s!nsiti"ity to str!ss is to b! !-p!ct!# in n!, br!!#s o' #o(!sticat!# ani(a s an# p ants an# !-p!ri(!nta y pro#+c!# organis(s carrying !ith!r s!"!ra (+tant g!n!s or +n+s+a 2i.!., r!c!nt y achi!"!#3 g!notypic co(binations. 2b38! (ay !-p!ct that 'or s+ch organis(s '+rth!r g!notypic inno"ation 2o' any *in# oth!r than th! a''ir(ati"! chang!s #isc+ss!# abo"!3 ,i b! progr!ssi"! y #! !t!rio+s. 2c3&+ch n!, an# sp!cia br!!#s sho+ # b!co(! (or! r!sistant both to !n"iron(!nta str!ss an# to g!notypic chang!, as s! !ction ,or*s +pon s+cc!ssi"! g!n!rations to 'a"or thos! in#i"i#+a s in ,hich 9g!n!tic assi(i ation o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics9 is achi!"!# 2$roposition 53. 253 :hat !n"iron(!nta y in#+c!# ac.+ir!# charact!ristics (ay, +n#!r appropriat! con#itions o' s! !ction, b! r!p ac!# by si(i ar charact!ristics ,hich ar! g!n!tica y #!t!r(in!#. :his ph!no(!non has b!!n #!(onstrat!# by 8a##ington8 'or th! bithora- ph!notyp!s o' ?rosophi a. E! ca s it th! 9g!n!tic assi(i ation o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics.9 &i(i ar ph!no(!na ha"! a so probab y occ+rr!# in "ario+s !-p!ri(!nts ,h!n th! !-p!ri(!nt!rs s!t o+t to pro"! th! inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics b+t #i# not achi!"! this proo' thro+gh 'ai +r! to contro th! con#itions o' s! !ction. 8! ha"!, ho,!"!r, no !"i#!nc! at a as to th! 'r!.+!ncy o' this ph!no(!non o' g!n!tic
8 " . 1. 8a##ington, 91!n!tic Assi(i ation o' an Ac.+ir!# Charact!r,9 &olution, 1953, 7# 118L a so 8a##ington, !*e Strategy of (enes, @on#on, A !n an# %n,in, 1957.

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assi(i ation. It is ,orth noting, ho,!"!r, that, accor#ing to th! arg+(!nts o' this !ssay, it (ay b! i(possib !, in princip !, to !-c +#! th! 'actor o' s! !ction 'ro( !-p!ri(!nts ,hich ,o+ # t!st 9th! inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics.9 It is pr!cis! y (y th!sis that th! simulation o' @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! ,i ha"! s+r"i"a "a +! +n#!r circ+(stanc! o' undefined or (+ tip ! str!ss. 263. :hat it is, in g!n!ra , (or! !cono(ica o' ' !-ibi ity to achi!"! a gi"!n charact!ristic by g!notypic than by so(aCtic chang!. E!r! th! 8a##ington !-p!ri(!nts #o not thro, any ight, b!ca+s! it ,as th! !-p!ri(!nt!r ,ho #i# th! s! !cting. :o t!st this proposition, ,! n!!# !-p!ri(!nts in ,hich th! pop+ ation o' organis(s is p ac!# +n#!r #o+b ! str!ss6 2a3 that str!ss ,hich ,i in#+c! th! charact!risC tic in ,hich ,! ar! int!r!st!#, an# 2b3 a s!con# str!ss ,hich ,i s! !cti"! y #!ci(at! th! pop+ ation, 'a"oring, ,! hop!, th! s+r"i"a o' thos! in#i"i#+a s ,hos! ' !-ibi ity is (or! ab ! to (!!t this s!con# str!ss a't!r a#J+sting to th! 'irst. Accor#ing to th! hypoth!sis, s+ch a syst!( sho+ # 'a"or thos! in#i"i#+a s ,hich achi!"! th!ir a#J+st(!nt to th! 'irst str!ss by g!notypic proc!ss. 273 7ina y, it is int!r!sting to consi#!r a coro ary ,hich is th! con"!rs! o' th! th!sis o' this !ssay. It has b!!n arg+!# h!r! that si(+ at!# @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc! ,i ha"! s+r"i"a "a +! ,h!n th! pop+ ation (+st a#J+st to a str!ss ,hich r!(ains constant o"!r s+cc!ssi"! g!n!rations. :his cas! is in 'act th! on! ,hich has b!!n !-a(in!# by thos! ,ho ,o+ # #!(onstrat! an inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics. A con"!rs! prob !( is pr!s!nt!# by thos! cas!s in ,hich a pop+ ation 'ac!s a str!ss ,hich chang!s its int!nsity +npr!#ictab y an# rath!r o't!n;p!rhaps !"!ry t,o or thr!! g!n!rations. &+ch sit+ations ar! p!rhaps "!ry rar! in nat+r!, b+t co+ # b! pro#+c!# in th! aboratory. %n#!r s+ch "ariab ! circ+(stanc!s, it (ight pay th! organis(s in s+r"i"a t!r(s to achi!"! th! con&erse o' th! g!n!tic assi(i ation o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics. :hat is, th!y (ight pro'itab y han# o"!r to so(atic ho(!ostatic (!chanis(s th! contro o' so(! charact!ristic ,hich ha# pr!"io+s y b!!n (or! rigi# y contro !# by th! g!notyp!. It is !"i#!nt, ho,!"!r, that s+ch !-p!ri(!ntation ,o+ # b! "!ry #i''ic+ t. A!r! y to !stab ish th! g!n!tic assi(i ation o' s+ch charact!ristics as bithora- r!.+ir!s s! !ction on an astrono(ica

365

sca !, th! 'ina pop+ ation in ,hich th! g!n!tica y #!t!r(in!# bithora- in#i"i#+a s can b! 'o+n# b!ing a s! !ct!# sa(p ! 'ro( a pot!ntia pop+ ation o' so(!thing i*! 1050. or 1060 in#i"i#+a s. It is "!ry #o+bt'+ ,h!th!r, a't!r this s! !cti"! proc!ss, th!r! ,o+ # sti . !-ist in th! sa(p ! !no+gh g!n!tic h!t!rog!n!ity to +n#!rgo a '+rth!r con"!rs! s! !ction 'a"oring thos! in#i"i#+a s ,hich sti achi!"! th!ir bithora- ph!notyp! by so(atic (!ans. )!"!rth! !ss, tho+gh this con"!rs! coro ary is possib y not #!(onstrab ! in th! aboratory, so(!thing o' th! sort s!!(s to op!rat! in th! broa# pict+r! o' !"o +tion. :h! (att!r (ay b! pr!s!nt!# in #ra(atic 'or( by consi#!ring th! #ichoto(y b!t,!!n 9r!g+ ators9 an# 9a#J+st!rs.99 $ross!r propos!s that ,h!r! int!rna physio ogy contains so(! "ariab ! o' th! sa(! #i(!nsions as so(! !-t!rna !n"iron(!nta "ariab !, it is con"!ni!nt to c assi'y organis(s accor#ing to th! #!gr!! to ,hich th!y ho # th! int!rna "ariab ! constant in spit! o' chang!s in th! !-t!rna "ariab !. :h+s, th! ho(oioth!r(ic ani(a s ar! c assi'i!# as 9r!g+ ators9 in r!gar# to t!(p!rat+r! ,hi ! th! poi*i oth!r(ic ar! 9a#J+st!rs.9 :h! sa(! #ichoto(y can b! app i!# to a.+atic ani(a s accor#ing to ho, th!y han# ! int!rna an# !-t!rna os(otic pr!ss+r!. 8! +s+a y thin* o' r!g+ ators as b!ing in so(! broa# !"o +tionary s!ns! 9high!r9 than a#J+st!rs. @!t +s no, consi#!r ,hat this (ight (!an. I' th!r! is a broa# !"o +tionary tr!n# in 'a"or o' r!g+ ators, is this tr!n# consist!nt ,ith ,hat has b!!n sai# abo"! abo+t th! s+r"i"a b!n!'its ,hich accr+! ,h!n contro is trans'!rr!# to g!notypic (!chanis(sD C !ar y, not on y th! r!g+ ators b+t a so th! a#J+st!rs (+st r! y +pon ho(!ostatic (!chanis(s. I' i'! is to go on, a arg! n+(b!r o' !ss!ntia physio ogica "ariab !s (+st b! h! # ,ithin narro, i(its. It th! int!rna os(otic pr!ss+r!, 'or !-a(p !, is a o,!# to chang!, th!r! (+st b! (!chanis(s ,hich ,i #!'!n# th!s! !ss!ntia "ariab !s. It 'o o,s that th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n a#J+st!rs an# r!g+ ators is a (att!r o' '*ere, in th! co(p !- n!t,or* o' physio ogic ca+s!s an# !''!cts, ho(!ostatic proc!ss op!rat!s.

C. @. $ross!r, 9$hysio ogica Gariation in Ani(a s,9 <iol. $e&ie', 1955, ?C#

>>%>G>.

366

In th! r!g+ ators, th! ho(!ostatic proc!ss!s op!rat! at or c os! to th! inp+t an# o+tp+t points o' that n!t,or* ,hich is th! in#i"i#+a organis(. In th! a#J+st!rs, th! !n"iron(!nta "ariab !s ar! p!r(itt!# to !nt!r th! bo#y an# th! organis( (+st th!n cop! ,ith th!ir !''!cts, +sing (!chanis(s ,hich ,i in"o "! #!!p!r oops o' th! tota n!t,or*. In t!r(s o' this ana ysis, th! po arity b!t,!!n a#J+st!rs an# r!g+ ators can b! !-trapo at!# anoth!r6 st!p to inc +#! ,hat ,! (ay ca 9!-trar!g+ ators9 ,hich achi!"! ho(!ostatic contro s outside th! bo#y by changing an# contro ing th! !n"iron(!nt;(an b!ing th! (ost conspic+o+s !-a(p ! o' this c ass. In th! !ar i!r part o' this !ssay, it ,as arg+!# that in a#J+sting to high a tit+#! th!r! is a b!n!'it to b! obtain!#, in t!r(s o' an !cono(ics o' ' !-ibi ity, by shi'ting 'ro(, !.g., panting to th! (or! pro'o+n# an# !ss r!"!rsib ! chang!s o' acc i(ationL that habit is (or! !cono(ica than tria an# !rrorL an# that g!notypic contro (ay b! (or! !cono(ica than acc i(ation. :h!s! ar! a centripetal chang!s in th! ocation o' contro . In th! broa# pict+r! o' !"o +tion, ho,!"!r, it s!!(s that th! tr!n# is in th! opposit! #ir!ction6 that nat+ra s! !ction, in th! ong r+n, 'a"ors r!g+ ators (or! than a#J+st!rs, an# !-trar!g+ ators (or! than r!g+ ators. :his s!!(s to in#icat! that th!r! is a ong ti(! !"o +tionary a#"antag! to b! gain!# by centrifugal shi'ts in th! oc+s o' contro . :o sp!c+ at! abo+t prob !(s so "ast is p!rhaps ro(antic, b+t it is ,orth noting that this contrast b!t,!!n th! o"!ra !"o +tionary tr!n# an# th! tr!n# in a pop+ ation 'ac!# ,ith constant str!ss is ,hat ,! (ight !-p!ct 'ro( th! con"!rs! coro ary h!r! b!ing consi#!r!#. I' constant str!ss 'a"ors c!ntrip!ta shi't in th! oc+s o' contro , an# "ariab ! str!ss 'a"ors c!ntri'+ga shi't, th!n it sho+ # 'o o, that in th! "ast spans o' ti(! an# chang! ,hich #!t!r(in! th! broa# !"o +tionary pict+r!, c!ntri'+ga shi't o' contro ,i b! 'a"or!#.

367

S!##ary

In this !ssay th! a+thor +s!s a #!#+cti"! approach. &tarting 'ro( pr!(is!s o' con"!ntiona physio ogy an# !"o +tionary th!ory an# app ying to th!s! th! arg+(!nts o' cyb!rn!tics, h! sho,s that th!r! (+st b! an economics of somatic fle.i-ility an# that this !cono(ics (+st, in th! ong r+n, b! co!rci"! +pon th! !"o +tionary proc!ss. =-t!rna a#aptation by (+tation or g!notypic r!sh+'' ing, as or#inari y tho+ght o', ,i in!"itab y +s! +p th! a"ai ab ! so(atic ' !-ibi ity. It 'o o,s;i' !"o +tion is to b! contin+o+s;that th!r! (+st a so b! a c ass o' g!notypic chang!s ,hich ,i con'!r a bon+s o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity. In g!n!ra , th! so(atic achi!"!(!nt o' chang! is +n!cono(ica b!ca+s! th! proc!ss #!p!n#s +pon ho(!ostasis, i.!., +pon ,ho ! circ+its o' int!r#!p!n#!nt "ariab !s. It 'o o,s that inh!ritanc! o' ac.+ir!# charact!ristics ,o+ # b! !tha to th! !"o +tionary syst!( b!ca+s! it ,o+ # fi. th! "a +!s o' th!s! "ariab !s a aro+n# th! circ+its. :h! organis( or sp!ci!s ,o+ #, ho,!"!r, b!n!'it 2in s+r"i"a t!r(s3 by g!notypic chang! ,hich ,o+ # simulate @a(arc*ian inh!ritanc!, i.!., ,o+ # bring abo+t th! a#apti"! co(pon!nt o' so(atic ho(!ostasis ,itho+t in"o "ing th! ,ho ! ho(!ostatic circ+it. &+ch a g!notypic chang! 2!rron!o+s y ca !# th! 90a #C,in !''!ct93 ,o+ # con'!r a bon+s o' so(atic ' !-ibi ity an# ,o+ # th!r!'or! ha"! (ar*!# s+r"i"a "a +!. 7ina y, it is s+gg!st!# that a contrary arg+(!nt can b! app i!# in thos! cas!s ,h!r! a pop+ ation (+st acc i(at! to &aria-le str!ss. E!r! nat+ra s! !ction sho+ # 'a"or an antiC0a #,in !''!ct.

368

P&o)le(! in Ceta'ean an# Othe& Ma((alian Co((uni'ation%

T h e Co##!nication of %re"er$al Ma##als*

5' th! C!tac!a I ha"! ha# itt ! !-p!ri!nc!. I onc! #iss!ct!# in th! Ca(bri#g! Moo ogica @aboratori!s a sp!ci(!n o' 6*ocoena bo+ght 'ro( th! oca 'ish(ong!r, an# #i# not r!a y !nco+nt!r c!tac!ans again +nti this y!ar, ,h!n I ha# an opport+nity to (!!t ?r. @i yIs #o phins. I hop! that (y #isc+ssion o' so(! o' th! .+!stions that ar! in (y (in# as I approach th!s! p!c+ iar (a((a s ,i assist yo+ in !-a(ining !ith!r th!s! or r! at!# .+!stions. Ay pr!"io+s ,or* in th! 'i! #s o' anthropo ogy, ani(a !tho ogy, an# psychiatric th!ory pro"i#!s a th!or!tica 'ra(!,or* 'or th! transactiona ana ysis o' b!ha"ior. :h! pr!(is!s o' this th!or!tica position (ay b! bri!' y s+((ari/!#6 213 that a r! ationship b!t,!!n t,o 2or (or!3 organis(s is, inC'act, a s!.+!nc! o' &C4 s!.+!nc!s 2i.!.,. o' cont!-ts in ,hich protoC !arning occ+rs3 L 223 that #!+t!roC !arning 2i.!., !arning to !arn3 is, in 'act, th! ac.+iring o' in'or(ation abo+t th! conting!ncy patt!rns o' th! cont!-ts in ,hich protoC !arning occ+rsL an# 233 that th! 9charact!r9 o' th! organis( is th! aggr!gat! o' its #!+t!roC !arning an# th!r!'or! r!' !cts th! cont!-t+a patt!rns o' past proto !arning.10

:his artic ! app!ar!# as Chapt!r >5, pp. 5G9%799, in 2*ales, 8olp*ins and 6orpoises, !#it!# by <!nn!th &. )orris, %ni"!rsity o' Ca i'ornia $r!ss, 1966. 4!print!# by p!r(ission o' :h! 4!g!nts o' th! %ni"!rsity o' Ca i'ornia. 10 J. 4+!sch an# 1. 0at!son, "ommunication# !*e Social ,atri. of 6syc*iatry, )!, For*, )orton, 1951.

369

:h!s! pr!(is!s ar! !ss!ntia y a hi!rarchic str+ct+ring o' !arning th!ory a ong in!s r! at!# to 4+ss! Is :h!ory o' @ogica :yp!s.11 :h! pr!(is!s, 'o o,ing th! :h!ory o' :yp!s, ar! pri(ari y appropriat! 'or th! ana ysis o' digital co((+nication. :o ,hat !-t!nt th!y (ay b! app icab ! to ana ogic co((+nication or to syst!(s that co(bin! th! #igita ,ith th! ana ogic is prob !(atic. I hop! that th! st+#y o' #o phin co((+nication ,i thro, ight on th!s! '+n#a(!nta prob !(s. :h! point is not !ith!r to #isco"!r that #o phins ha"! co(p !- ang+ag! or to t!ach th!( =ng ish, b+t to c os! gaps in o+r th!or!tica *no, !#g! o' communication by st+#ying a syst!( that, ,h!th!r r+#i(!ntary or co(p !-, is a (ost c!rtain y o' a tota y +n'a(i iar *in#. @!t (! start 'ro( th! 'act that th! #o phin is a (a((a . :his 'act has, o' co+rs!, a sorts o' i(p ications 'or anato(y an# physio ogy, b+t it is not ,ith th!s! that I a( conc!rn!#. I a( int!r!st!# in his co((+nication, in ,hat is ca !# his 9b!ha"ior,9 oo*!# at as an aggr!gat! o' #ata p!rc!ptib ! an# meaningful to oth!r (!(b!rs o' th! sa(! sp!ci!s. It is (!aning'+ , 'irst, in th! s!ns! that it a''!cts a r!cipi!nt ani(a Is b!ha"ior, an#, s!con#, in th! s!ns! that p!rc!ptib ! 'ai +r! to achi!"! appropriat! (!aning in th! 'irst s!ns! ,i a''!ct th! b!ha"ior o' both ani(a s. 8hat I say to yo+ (ay b! tota y in!''!cti"!, b+t (y ineffecti&eness, i' p!rc!ptib !, ,i a''!ct both yo+ an# (!. I str!ss this point b!ca+s! it (+st b! r!(!(b!r!# that in a r! ationships b!t,!!n (an an# so(! oth!r ani(a , !sp!cia y ,h!n that ani(a is a #o phin, a "!ry arg! proportion o' th! b!ha"ior o' both organis(s is #!t!r(in!# by this *in# o' in!''!cti"!n!ss. 8h!n I "i!, th! b!ha"ior o' #o phins as co((+nication, th! (a((a ian ab! i(p i!s, 'or (!, so(!thing "!ry #!'init!. @!t (! i +strat! ,hat I ha"! in (in# by an !-a(p ! 'ro( 0!nson 1insb+rgIs ,o ' pac* in th! 0roo*'i! # Moo. A(ong th! Cani#a!, ,!aning is p!r'or(!# by th! (oth!r. 8h!n th! p+ppy as*s 'or (i *, sh! pr!ss!s #o,n ,ith h!r op!n (o+th on th! bac* o' his n!c*, cr+shing hi( #o,n to th! gro+n#. &h! #o!s this r!p!at!# y +nti h! stops as*ing. :his (!tho# is +s!# by
11 A. ). 8hit!h!a# an# 0. 4+ss! , 6rincipia ,at*ematica, @on#on, Ca(bri#g! %ni"!rsity $r!ss, 1910.

370

coyot!s, #ingo!s, an# th! #o(!stic #og. A(ong ,o "!s th! syst!( is #i''!r!nt. :h! p+ppi!s gra#+at! s(ooth y 'ro( th! nipp ! to r!g+rgitat!# 'oo#. :h! pac* co(!s bac* to th! #!n ,ith th!ir b! i!s '+ . A r!g+rgitat! ,hat th!y ha"! got an# a !at tog!th!r. At so(! point th! a#+ ts start to ,!an th! p+ppi!s 'ro( th!s! (!a s, +sing th! (!tho# !(p oy!# by th! oth!r Cani#a!L th! a#+ t cr+sh!s th! p+ppy #o,n by pr!ssing its op!n (o+th on th! bac* o' th! p+ppyIs n!c*. In th! ,o ' this '+nction is not con'in!# to th! (oth!r, b+t is p!r'or(!# by a#+ ts o' both s!-!s. :h! pac* !a#!r o' th! Chicago pac* is a (agni'ic!nt (a ! ani(a ,ho !n# !ss y patro s th! acr! o' an# to ,hich th! pac* is con'in!#. E! (o"!s ,ith a b!a+ti'+ trot that app!ars tir! !ss, ,hi ! th! oth!r !ight or nin! (!(b!rs o' th! pac* sp!n# (ost o' th!ir ti(! #o/ing. 8h!n th! '!(a !s co(! in h!at th!y +s+a y proposition th! !a#!r, b+(ping against hi( ,ith th!ir r!ar !n#s. %s+a y, ho,!"!r, h! #o!s not r!spon#, tho+gh h! #o!s act to pr!"!nt oth!r (a !s 'ro( g!tting th! '!(a !s. @ast y!ar on! o' th!s! (a !s s+cc!!#!# in !stab ishing coit+s ,ith a '!(a !. As in th! oth!r Cani#a!, th! (a ! ,o ' is oc*!# in th! '!(a !, +nab ! to ,ith#ra, his p!nis, an# this ani(a ,as h! p !ss. %p r+sh!# th! pac* !a#!r. 8hat #i# h! #o to th! h! p !ss (a ! ,ho #ar!# to in'ring! th! !a#!rIs pr!rogati"!sD Anthropo(orphis( ,o+ # s+gg!st that h! ,o+ # t!ar th! h! p !ss (a ! to pi!c!s. 0+t no. :h! 'i ( sho,s that h! pr!ss!# #o,n th! h!a# o' th! o''!n#ing (a ! 'o+r ti(!s ,ith his op!n Ja,s an# th!n si(p y ,a *!# a,ay. 8hat ar! th! i(p ications 'or r!s!arch 'ro( this i +strationD 8hat th! pac* !a#!r #o!s is not #!scribab !, or on y ins+''ici!nt y #!scrib!#, in &C4 t!r(s. E! #o!s not 9n!gati"! y r!in'orc! 9 th! oth!r (a !Is s!-+a acti"ity. E! ass!rts or a''ir(s th! nat+r! o' th! r! ationship b!t,!!n hi(s! ' an# th! oth!r. I' ,! ,!r! to trans at! th! pac* !a#!rIs action into ,or#s, th! ,or#s ,o+ # not b! 9?onIt #o that.9 4ath!r, th!y ,o+ # trans at! th! (!taphoric action6 9I a( yo+r s!nior a#+ t (a !, yo+ p+ppyO9 8hat I a( trying to say abo+t ,o "!s in partic+ ar, an# abo+t pr!"!rba (a((a s in g!n!ra , is that th!ir #isco+rs! is pri(ari y abo+t th! r+ !s an# th! conting!nci!s o' r! ationship. @!t (! o''!r a (or! 'a(i iar !-a(p ! to h! p bring ho(! to yo+ th! g!n!ra ity o' this "i!,, ,hich is by no (!ans ortho#o- a(ong

371

!tho ogists. 8h!n yo+r cat is trying to t! yo+ to gi"! h!r 'oo#, ho, #o!s sh! #o itD &h! has no ,or# 'or 'oo# or 'or (i *. 8hat sh! #o!s is to (a*! (o"!(!nts an# so+n#s that ar! charact!ristica y thos! that a *itt!n (a*!s to a (oth!r cat. I' ,! ,!r! to trans at! th! catIs (!ssag! into ,or#s, it ,o+ # not b! corr!ct to say that sh! is crying 9Ai *O9 4ath!r, sh! is saying so(!thing i*! 9AaC(aO9 5r, p!rhaps sti (or! corr!ct y, ,! sho+ # say that sh! is ass!rting 9?!p!n#!ncyO ?!p!n#!ncyO9 :h! cat ta *s in t!r(s o' patt!rns an# conting!nci!s o' r! ationship, an# 'ro( this ta * it is +p to yo+ to ta*! a deducti&e st!p, g+!ssing that it is (i * that th! cat ,ants. It is th! n!c!ssity 'or this #!#+cti"! st!p ,hich (ar*s th! #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n pr!"!rba (a((a ian co((+nication an# -ot* th! co((+nication o' b!!s an# th! ang+ag!s o' (!n. 8hat ,as !-traor#inary;th! gr!at n!, thing;in th! !"o +tion o' h+(an ang+ag! ,as not th! #isco"!ry o' abstraction or g!n!ra i/ation, b+t th! #isco"!ry o' ho, to b! sp!ci'ic abo+t so(!thing oth!r than r! ationship. In#!!#, this #isco"!ry, tho+gh it has b!!n achi!"!#, has scarc! y a''!ct!# th! b!ha"ior !"!n o' h+(an b!ings. I' A says to 0, 9:h! p an! is sch!#+ !# to !a"! at G.?C,9 0 rar! y acc!pts this r!(ar* as si(p y an# so ! y a stat!(!nt o' 'act abo+t th! p an!. Aor! o't!n h! #!"ot!s a '!, n!+rons to th! .+!stion, 98hat #o!s AIs t! ing (! this in#icat! 'or (y r! ationship to AD9 5+r (a((a ian anc!stry is "!ry n!ar th! s+r'ac!, #!spit! r!c!nt y ac.+ir!# ing+istic tric*s. 0! that as it (ay, (y 'irst !-p!ctation in st+#ying #o phin co((+nication is that it ,i pro"! to ha"! th! g!n!ra (a((a ian charact!ristic o' b!ing pri(ari y abo+t r! ationship. :his pr!(is! is in its! ' p!rhaps s+''ici!nt to acco+nt 'or th! spora#ic #!"! op(!nt o' arg! brains a(ong (a((a s. 8! n!!# not co(p ain that, as ! !phants #o not ta * an# ,ha !s in"!nt no (o+s!traps, th!s! cr!at+r!s ar! not o"!rt y int! ig!nt. A that is n!!#!# is to s+ppos! that arg!Cbrain!# cr!at+r!s ,!r!, at so(! !"o +tionary stag!, +n,is! !no+gh to g!t into th! ga(! o' r! ationship an# that, onc! th! sp!ci!s ,as ca+ght in this ga(! o' int!rpr!ting its (!(b!rsI b!ha"ior to,ar# on! anoth!r as r! !"ant to this co(p !- an# "ita s+bJ!ct, th!r! ,as s+r"i"a "a +! 'or thos! in#i"i#+a s ,ho co+ # p ay th! ga(! ,ith gr!at!r ing!n+ity or gr!at!r ,is#o(. 8! (ay,

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th!n, r!asonab y !-p!ct to 'in# a high co(p !-ity o' co((+nication abo+t r! ationship a(ong th! C!tac!a. 0!ca+s! th!y ar! (a((a s, ,! (ay !-p!ct that th!ir co((+nication ,i b! abo+t, an# pri(ari y in t!r(s o', patt!rns an# conting!nci!s o' r! ationship. 0!Cca+s! th!y ar! socia an# arg!Cbrain!#, ,! (ay !-p!ct a high #!gr!! o' co(p !-ity in th!ir co((+nication. Methodolo&ical Considerations

:h! abo"! hypoth!sis intro#+c!s "!ry sp!cia #i''ic+ ti!s into th! prob !( o' ho, to t!st ,hat is ca !# th! 9psycho ogy9 2!.g., int! ig!nc!, ing!n+ity, #iscri(ination, !tc.3 o' in#i"i#+a ani(a s. A si(p ! #iscri(ination !-p!ri(!nt, s+ch as has b!!n r+n in th! @i y aboratori!s, an# no #o+bt ! s!,h!r!, in"o "!s a s!ri!s o' st!ps6 213 :h! #o phin (ay or (ay not p!rc!i"! a #i''!r!nc! b!t,!!n th! sti(+ +s obJ!cts, U an# F. 223 :h! #o phin (ay or (ay not p!rc!i"! that this #i''!r!nc! is a c+! to b!ha"ior. 233 :h! #o phin (ay or (ay not p!rc!i"! that th! b!ha"ior in .+!stion has a goo# or ba# !''!ct +pon r!in'orc!(!nt, that is, that #oing 9right9 is con#itiona y 'o o,!# by 'ish. 243 :h! #o phin (ay or (ay not choos! to #o 9right,9 !"!n a't!r h! *no,s ,hich is right. &+cc!ss in th! 'irst thr!! st!ps (!r! y pro"i#!s th! #o phin ,ith a '+rth!r choic! point. :his !-tra #!gr!! o' 'r!!#o( (+st b! th! 'irst 'oc+s o' o+r in"!stigations. It (+st b! o+r ir!t 'oc+s 'or (!tho#o ogica r!asons. Consi#!r th! arg+(!nts that ar! con"!ntiona y bas!# +pon !-p!ri(!nts o' this *in#. 8! arg+! a ,ays 'ro( th! at!r st!ps in th! s!ri!s to th! !ar i!r st!ps. 8! say, 9I' th! ani(a ,as ab ! to achi!"! st!p 2 in o+r !-p!ri(!nt, th!n h! (+st ha"! b!!n ab ! to achi!"! st!p 1.9 I' h! co+ # !arn to b!ha"! in th! ,ay that ,o+ # bring hi( th! r!,ar#, th!n h! (+st ha"! ha# th! n!c!ssary s!nsory ac+ity to #iscri(inat! b!t,!!n U an# F, an# so on. $r!cis! y b!ca+s! ,! ,ant to arg+! 'ro( obs!r"ation o' th! ani(a Is s+cc!ss in th! at!r st!ps to conc +sions abo+t th! (or! ! !(!ntary st!ps, it b!co(!s o' pri(! i(portanc! to *no, ,h!th!r th! organis( ,ith ,hich ,! ar! #!a ing is capab ! o' st!p 4. I' it is capab !, th!n a arg+(!nts abo+t st!ps 1 thro+gh ? ,i b!

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in"a i#at!# +n !ss appropriat! (!tho#s o' contro ing st!p 4 ar! b+i t into th! !-p!ri(!nta #!sign. C+rio+s y !no+gh, tho+gh h+(an b!ings ar! '+ y capab ! o' st!p 4, psycho ogists ,or*ing ,ith h+(an s+bJ!cts ha"! b!!n ab ! to st+#y st!ps 1 thro+gh 3 ,itho+t ta*ing sp!cia car! to !-c +#! th! con'+sions intro#+c!# by this 'act. I' th! h+(an s+bJ!ct is 9coop!rati"! an# san!,9 h! +s+a y r!spon#s to th! t!sting sit+ation by r!pr!ssing (ost o' his i(p+ s!s to (o#i'y his b!ha"ior accor#ing to his p!rsona "i!, o' his r! ationship to th! !-p!ri(!nt!r. :h! ,or#s cooperati&e an# sane i(p y a #!gr!! o' consist!ncy at th! !"! o' st!p 4. :h! psycho ogist op!rat!s by a sort o' petitio principii# i' th! s+bJ!ct is coop!rati"! an# san! 2i.!., i' th! r! ationa r+ !s ar! 'air y constant3, th! psycho ogist n!!# not ,orry abo+t chang!s in thos! r+ !s. :h! prob !( o' (!tho# b!co(!s !ntir! y #i''!r!nt ,h!n th! s+bJ!ct is noncoop!rati"!, psychopathic, schi/ophr!nic, a na+ghty chi #, or a #o phin. $!rhaps th! (ost 'ascinating charact!ristic o' this ani(a is #!ri"!# pr!cis! y 'ro( his abi ity to op!rat! at this r! ati"! y high !"! , an abi ity that is sti to b! #!(onstrat!#. @!t (! no, consi#!r 'or a (o(!nt th! art o' th! ani(a train!r. 7ro( con"!rsations ,ith th!s! high y s*i !# p!op ! ;train!rs o' both #o phins an# g+i#! #ogs;(y i(pr!ssion is that th! 'irst r!.+ir!(!nt o' a train!r is that h! (+st b! ab ! to pr!"!nt th! ani(a 'ro( !-!rting choic! at th! !"! o' st!p 4. It (+st contin+a y b! (a#! c !ar to th! ani(a that, ,h!n h! *no,s ,hat is th! right thing to #o in a gi"!n cont!-t, that is th! on y thing h! can #o, an# no nonC s!ns! abo+t it. In oth!r ,or#s, it is a pri(ary con#ition o' circ+s s+cc!ss that th! ani(a sha abrogat! th! +s! o' c!rtain high!r !"! s o' his int! ig!nc!. :h! art o' th! hypnotist is si(i ar. :h!r! is a story to # o' ?r. &a(+! Johnson. A si y a#y (a#! h!r #og p!r'or( tric*s in his pr!s!nc!. :h! ?octor s!!(!# +ni(pr!ss!#. :h! a#y sai#, 90+t ?r. Johnson, yo+ #onIt *no, ho, #i''ic+ t it is 'or th! #og.9 ?r. Johnson r!Cp i!#, 9?i''ic+ t, (a#a(D 8o+ # it ,!r! i(possib !O9 8hat is a(a/ing abo+t circ+s tric*s is that th! ani(a can abrogat! th! +s! o' so (+ch o' his int! ig!nc! an# sti ha"! !no+gh !'t to p!r'or( th! tric*. I r!gar# th! conscio+s int! ig!nc!

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as th! gr!at!st orna(!nt o' th! h+(an (in#. 0+t (any a+thoriti!s, 'ro( th! M!n (ast!rs to &ig(+n# 7r!+#, ha"! str!ss!# th! ing!n+ity o' th! !ss conscio+s an# p!rhaps (or! archaic !"! .

Co##!nication A$o!t -elationship

As I sai# !ar i!r, I !-p!ct #o phin co((+nication to b! o' an a (ost tota y +n'a(i iar *in#. @!t (! !-pan# on this point. As (a((a s, ,! ar! 'a(i iar ,ith, tho+gh arg! y +nconscio+s o', th! habit o' co((+nicating abo+t o+r r! ationships. @i*! oth!r t!rr!stria (a((a s, ,! #o (ost o' o+r co((+nicating on this s+bJ!ct by (!ans o' *in!sic an# para ing+istic signa s, s+ch as bo#i y (o"!(!nts, in"o +ntary t!nsions o' "o +ntary (+sc !s, chang!s o' 'acia !-pr!ssion, h!sitations, shi'ts in t!(po o' sp!!ch or (o"!(!nt, o"!rton!s o' th! "oic!, an# irr!g+ ariti!s o' r!spiration. I' yo+ ,ant to *no, ,hat th! bar* o' a #og 9(!ans,9 yo+ oo* at his ips, th! hair on th! bac* o' his n!c*, his tai , an# so on. :h!s! 9!-pr!ssi"!9 parts o' his bo#y t! yo+ at ,hat obJ!ct o' th! !n"iron(!nt h! is bar*ing, an# ,hat patt!rns o' r! ationship to that obJ!ct h! is i*! y to 'o o, in th! n!-t '!, s!con#s. Abo"! a , yo+ oo* at his s!ns! organs6 his !y!s, his !ars, an# his nos!. In a (a((a s, th! organs o' s!ns! b!co(! a so organs 'or th! trans(ission o' (!ssag!s abo+t r! ationship. A b in# (an (a*!s +s +nco('ortab !, not b!ca+s! h! cannot s!! that is his prob !( an# ,! ar! on y #i( y a,ar! o' it;b+t b!ca+s! h! #o!s not trans(it to +s thro+gh th! (o"!(!nt o' his !y!s th! (!ssag!s ,! !-p!ct an# n!!# so that ,! (ay *no, an# b! s+r! o' th! stat! o' o+r r! ationship to hi(. 8! sha not *no, (+ch abo+t #o phin co((+nication +nti ,! *no, ,hat on!C #o phin can r!a# in anoth!rIs +s!, #ir!ction, "o +(!, an# pitch o' !cho ocation. $!rhaps it is this ac* in +s ,hich (a*!s th! co((+nication o' #o phins s!!( (yst!rio+s an# opa.+!, b+t I s+sp!ct a (or!

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pro'o+n# !-p anation. A#aptation to i'! in th! oc!an has stripp!# th! ,ha !s o' 'acia !-pr!ssion. :h!y ha"! no !-t!rna !ars to ' ap an# '!, i' any !r!cti ! hairs. ="!n th! c!r"ica "!rt!bra! ar! '+s!# into a so i# b oc* in (any sp!ci!s, an# !"o +tion has str!a( in!# th! bo#y, sacri'icing th! !-pr!ssi"!n!ss o' s!parat! parts to th! oco(otion o' th! ,ho !. Aor!o"!r, con#itions o' i'! in th! s!a ar! s+ch that !"!n i' a #o phin ha# a (obi ! 'ac!, th! #!tai s o' his !-C pr!ssion ,o+ # b! "isib ! to oth!r #o phins on y at rath!r short rang!, !"!n in th! c !ar!st ,at!rs. It is r!asonab !, th!n, to s+ppos! that in th!s! ani(a s "oca i/ation has ta*!n o"!r th! co((+nicati"! '+nctions that (ost ani(a s p!r'or( by 'acia !-pr!ssion, ,agging tai s, c !nch!# 'ists, s+pinat!# han#s, ' aring nostri s, an# th! i*!. 8! (ight say that th! ,ha ! is th! co((+nicationa opposit! o' th! gira''!L it has no n!c*, b+t has a "oic!. :his sp!c+ ation a on! ,o+ # (a*! th! co((+nication o' #o phins a s+bJ!ct o' gr!at th!or!tica int!r!st. It ,o+ # b! 'ascinating, 'or !-a(p !, to *no, ,h!th!r or not, in an !"o +tionary shi't 'ro( *in!sics to "oca i/ation, th! sa(! g!n!ra str+ct+r! o' cat!gori!s is r!tain!#. Ay o,n i(pr!ssion;an# it is on y an i(pr!ssion +ns+pport!# by t!sting;is that th! hypoth!sis that #o phins ha"! s+bstit+t!# para ing+istics 'or *in!sics #o!s not .+it! 'it in ,ith (y !-p!ri!nc! ,h!n I ist!n to th!ir so+n#s. 8! t!rr!stria (a((a s ar! 'a(i iar ,ith para ing+istic co((+nicationL ,! +s! it o+rs! "!s in gr+nts an# groans, a+ght!r an# sobbing, (o#+ ations o' br!ath ,hi ! sp!a*ing, an# so on. :h!r!'or! ,! #o not 'in# th! para ing+istic so+n#s o' oth!r (a((a s tota y opa.+!. 8! !arn rath!r !asi y to r!cogni/! in th!( c!rtain *in#s o' gr!!ting, pathos, rag!, p!rs+asion, an# t!rritoria ity, tho+gh o+r g+!ss!s (ay o't!n b! ,rong. 0+t ,h!n ,! h!ar th! so+n#s o' #o phins ,! cannot !"!n g+!ss at th!ir signi'icanc!. I #o not .+it! tr+st th! h+nch that ,o+ # !-p ain th! so+n#s o' #o phins as (!r! y an ! aboration o' th! para ing+istics o' oth!r (a((a s. 2:o arg+! th+s 'ro( o+r inabi ity is, ho,!"!r, ,!a*!r than to arg+! 'ro( ,hat ,! can #o.3 I p!rsona y #o not b! i!"! that th! #o phins ha"! anyCthing that a h+(an ing+ist ,o+ # ca a 9 ang+ag!.9 I #o not thin* that any ani(a ,itho+t han#s ,o+ # b! st+pi# !no+gh to arri"! at so o+t an#ish a (o#! o' co((+nication.

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:o +s! a synta- an# cat!gory syst!( appropriat! 'or th! #isc+ssion o' things that can b! han# !#, ,hi ! r!a y #isc+ssing th! patt!rns an# conting!nci!s o' r! ationship, is 'antastic. 0+t that, I s+b(it, is ,hat is happ!ning in this roo(. I stan# h!r! an# ta * ,hi ! yo+ ist!n an# ,atch. I try to con"inc! yo+, try to g!t yo+ to s!! things (y 'ay, try to !arn yo+r r!sp!ct, try to in#icat! (y r!sp!ct 'or yo+, cha !ng! yo+, an# so on. 8hat is r!a y ta*ing p ac! is a #isc+ssion o' th! patt!rns o' o+r r! ationship, a accor#ing to th! r+ !s o' a sci!nti'ic con'!r!nc! abo+t ,ha !s. &o it is to b! h+(an. I si(p y #o not b! i!"! that #o phins ha"! ang+ag! in this s!ns!. 0+t I #o b! i!"! that, i*! o+rs! "!s an# oth!r (a((a s, th!y ar! pr!occ+pi!# ,ith th! patt!rns o' th!ir r! ationships. @!t +s ca this #isc+ssion o' patt!rns o' r! ationship th! t '+nction o' th! (!ssag!. A't!r a , it ,as th! cat ,ho sho,!# +s th! gr!at i(portanc! o' this '+nction by h!r (!,ing. $r!"!rba (a((a s co((+nicat! abo+t things, ,h!n th!y (+st, by +sing ,hat ar! pri(ari y ]C'+nction signa s. In contrast, h+(an b!ings +s! ang+ag!, ,hich is pri(ari y ori!nt!# to,ar# things, to #isc+ss r! ationships. :h! cat as*s 'or (i * by saying 9?!p!n#!ncy,9 an# I as* 'or yo+r att!ntion an# p!rhaps r!sp!ct by ta *ing abo+t ,ha !s. 0+t ,! #o not *no, that #o phins, in th!ir co((+nication, r!C s!(b ! !ith!r (! or th! cat. :h!y (ay ha"! a .+it! #i''!r!nt syst!(. Analo&ic "ers!s Di&ital Co##!nication

:h!r! is anoth!r si#! o' th! prob !(. Eo, #o!s it happ!n that th! para ing+istics an# *in!sics o' (!n 'ro( strang! c+ t+r!s, an# !"!n th! para ing+istics o' oth!r t!rr!stria (a((a s, ar! at !ast part y int! igib ! to +s, ,h!r!as th! "!rba ang+ag!s o' (!n 'ro( strang! c+ t+r!s s!!( to b! tota y opa.+!D In this r!sp!ct it ,o+ # s!!( that th! "oca i/ations o' th! #o phin r!s!(b ! h+(an ang+ag! rath!r than th! *in!sics or para ing+istics o' t!rr!stria (a((a s. 8! *no,, o' co+rs!, ,hy g!st+r!s an# ton!s o' "oic! ar! part y int! igib ! ,hi ! 'or!ign ang+ag!s ar! +nint! igib !. It is b!ca+s!

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ang+ag! is digital an# *in!sics an# para ing+istics ar! analogic.1> :h! !ss!nc! o' th! (att!r is that in #igita co((+nication a n+(b!r o' p+r! y con"!ntiona signs C 1 , 2, 3, U, F, an# so on;ar! p+sh!# aro+n# accor#ing to r+ !s ca !# a gorith(s. :h! signs th!(s! "!s ha"! no si(p ! conn!ction 2!.g., corr!spon#!nc! o' (agnit+#!3 ,ith ,hat th!y stan# 'or. :h! n+(!ra 959 is not bigg!r than th! n+(!ra 93.9 It is tr+! that i' ,! r!(o"! th! cross