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A process approach Pr!"ess a r!a"hes t! $ritin# tend t! &!"us m!re !n the 'aried "lassr!!m a"ti'ities $hi"h r!m!te the de'el! ment !& lan#ua#e use( brainst!rmin#, #r!u dis"ussi!n, re)$ritin#* Su"h an a r!a"h "an ha'e any number !& sta#es, th!u#h a ty i"al se+uen"e !& a"ti'ities "!uld r!"eed as &!ll!$s( Stage 1 Generatin# ideas by brainst!rmin# and dis"ussi!n* Students "!uld be dis"ussin# +ualities needed t! d! a "ertain ,!b, !r #i'in# reas!ns as t! $hy e! le ta-e dru#s !r #amble* The tea"her remains in the ba"-#r!und durin# this hase, !nly r!'idin# lan#ua#e su !rt i& re+uired, s! as n!t inhibitin# students in the r!du"ti!n !& ideas* Stage 2 Students e.tend ideas int! n!te &!rm, and ,ud#e +uality and use&ulness !& ideas* Stage 3 Students !r#ani/e ideas int! a mind ma , s ider#ram, !r linear &!rm* This sta#e hel s t! ma-e the 0hierar"hi"al1 relati!nshi !& ideas m!re immediately !b'i!us, $hi"h hel s students $ith the stru"ture !& their te.ts* Stage 4 Students $rite the &irst dra&t* This is d!ne in "lass and &re+uently in airs !r #r!u s* Stage 5 2ra&ts are e."han#ed s! that students be"!me the readers !& ea"h !thers $!r-* 3y res !ndin# as readers, students de'el! an a$areness !& the &a"t that a $riter is r!du"in# s!methin# t! be read by s!me!ne else, and thus "an im r!'e their !$n dra&ts* Stage 6 2ra&ts are returned and im r!'ements are made based u !n eer &eedba"-* Stage 7 4 &inal dra&t is $ritten* Stage 8 Students !n"e a#ain, e."han#e and read ea"h !ther567s $!r- and erha s e'en $rite a res !nse !r re ly* The approach process include most of the following: • • • • • • • • • F!"us !n the r!"ess !& $ritin# that leads t! the &inal $ritten r!du"t: Help students writes to understand their own composing process; Help them to build repertoires of strategies for prewriting, drafting, and rewriting; Give students time to write and rewrite; Place central important on the process of revision; Let students discover what to say as they write; Give student feedback throughout the composing process9not just on the final product as they attempt to bring their e!pression closer and closer to intention; "ncourage feedback from both the instructor and peers; #nclude individual conferences between teacher and student during the process of composition$
How do writing conventions differ between or among cultures that you are familiar with? 8!n'enti!ns are the un"tuati!n rules that are used in $ritin#* Writin# 8!n'enti!ns in"lude s ellin#, un"tuati!n, "a itali/ati!n, #rammar, and ara#ra hin#* The $riter sh!uld use "!n'enti!ns t! enhan"e the readability !& the a er* S ellin# sh!uld be "!rre"t !n all $!rds* Pun"tuati!n sh!uld be sm!!th and #uide the reader thr!u#h the a er* 8a itali/ati!n sh!uld be used "!rre"tly* Para#ra hin# sh!uld rein&!r"e !r#ani/ati!n* The $riter may mani ulate "!n'enti!ns &!r e&&e"t* When it "!me t! !ther "ulture that 9 am &amiliar $ith $ritin# "!n'enti!n is n!t that di&&erent "!m are t! En#lish* They &!ll!$ the same r!"edure* F!r instan"e in Fren"h $e use eri!d, +uesti!n mar-, e."lamati!n and many m!re un"tuati!ns the same $ay as $e use them in En#lish* S!me $!rd in Fren"h ha'e the e.a"t s ellin# as En#lish $!rd but the r!nun"iati!n is di&&erent* The meanin# !& th!se ty es !& $!rds is m!st !& the time similar* F!r e.am le th!se $!rds: "!rre"t, e.am le,
aminati!ns. !r testin# #rammati"al "!n"e t* This $ritin# ty i"ally a ears in "!ntr!lled.uide writing l!!sen the tea"her567s "!ntr!l but still !&&ers a series !& stimulat!rs* F!r e. erien"e 4 r!a"h #i'es #r!u s !& students ! !rtunities t! "!n'ey in&!rmati!n t! ea"h !ther* 8!ntent)based instru"ti!n en"!ura#es the e. and e'en resear"h re !rts $ill in'!l'e an element !& dis lay* 0% Real writing: 9t in"ludes the &!ll!$in# sub"ate#!ries 1* Academic% The lan#ua#e E. !r $ritin# $ith !nly the sel& in mind as an audien"e* E.a"tly $hat they hear* Tea"her then reads the $h!le ara#ra h !n"e m!re at n!rmal s eed s! students "an "he"their $ritin#* S"!rin# !& students $ritten $!r.!urnal* '% +isplay writing: F!r all lan#ua#e students. ressi'e senten"es and ara#ra hs1 E. diary !r . and ea"h unit is &!ll!$ed by a ause* 2urin# the ause.er"ises.in&!rmati!n.<1 are: • • • • Writin# d!$n 0learnin# the "!n'enti!ns !& the "!de1 Writin# the lan#ua#e 0learnin# the !tential !& the "!de1 Pr!du"ti!n 0 ra"ti"in# the "!nstru"ti!n !& &luent e. $!rds. i& any. rein&!r"in#. e"t* 9n Fren"h there is a l!t #rammati"al rule y!u ha'e t! &!ll!$ es e"ially $ith 'erb tense* 8a itali/ati!n is 'ery similar $ith the En#lish* Compare the following four stages of classroom writing performance described by Rivers and Temperley (1 !"# to the five steps of written performance listed in the boo$ (pp%&'&(')#% Are they compatible? combinable? Are there omissions in either list % The &!ur ty es !& !r sta#es !& "lassr!!m $ritin# er&!rman"e $ritin# by :i'ers and tem erley919. $ritten #rammar e.er"ise* This ty e !& $ritin# d!es n!t all!$ mu"h. alth!u#h di"tati!ns "an ser'e t! tea"h and test hi#her)!rder r!"essin# as $ell* +ictations involve the following steps: • • • • • Tea"her reads a sh!rt ara#ra h !n"e !r t$i"e at n!rmal s eed Tea"her reads the ara#ra h in sh!rt hrase units !& three !r &!ur $!rds ea"h. sh!rt ans$er e. essay e.am le "an be n!te ta-in#. and s!me !& this learnin# uses the $ritten $!rd* . ressi'e $ritin# 0usin# the "!de &!r ur !se&ul "!mmuni"ati!n1 1% *mitative or writing down( at the be#innin# le'el !& learnin# t! $rite. "reati'ity !n the art !& the $riter* The type of controllers: 4 "!mm!n &!rm !& "!ntr!lled $ritin# is t! resent a ara#ra h t! students in $hi"h they ha'e t! alter a #i'en stru"ture thr!u#h!ut* • • .% *ntensive. students $ill sim ly 56=$rite d!$n56> En#lish letters. then the tea"her as-s students t! re$rite the ara#ra h t! the best !& their !& the readin#* &% /elf(writing: 9s $hen the "lassr!!m $ritin# is de'!ted t! sel&)$ritin#. students $rite e.am le as-in# students +uesti!n !& a st!ry 'ie$ed !n a 'ide ta e* +icto(com:is here a ara#ra h is read at n!rmal s eed."han#e !& use&ul in&!rmati!n. and !ssibly senten"es in !rder t! lean the "!n'enti!ns !& the !rth!#ra hi" "!de* S!me !& di"tati!ns &all int! this "ate#!ry.or controlled: $ritin# is s!metime used as a r!du"ti!n m!de !& learnin#."an utili/e a number !& rubri"s &!r assi#nin# !ints* ?sually s ellin# and un"tuati!n err!rs are n!t "!nsidered as se'ere as #rammati"al err!rs* .
brin# them t! the use !& a""e table En#lish rhet!ri"* '% Connect reading and writing% 3y readin# and studyin# a 'ariety !& rele'ant ty es !& te. e. n!tes.e"t matter that they may be"!me the t! i" !& their $ritin#* 0% 3rovide as much authentic writing as possible% Pr!'ide $ritin# that is related t! real li&e su"h as ublish a "lass ne$sletter.am le #!!d $riter ℜ• &!"us !n a #!al !r main idea in $ritin# ℜ• er"e ti'ely #au#e their audien"e ℜ• s end s!me time 0but n!t t!! mu"hA1 lannin# t! $rite ℜ• easily let their &irst ideas &l!$ !nt! the a er ℜ• &!ll!$ a #eneral !r#ani/ati!nal lan as they $rite ℜ• are n!t $edded t! "ertain sur&a"e stru"tures.&00(0)# for designing writing techni5ues to evaluate what you see% 1% *ncorporate practices of 678good679 writers% This &irst #uideline is $ee in#* F!r e.t !& an intera"ti'e "lassr!!m* 9 belie'e they are "!mbidable as $ell as "!m atible* There is n! !missi!n* all the sta#es des"ribed by :i'ers and Tem erley 019. #enuine dire"ti!ns &!r s!me ! erati!n !r assembly mi#ht be #i'en* @* 3ersonal% 9t "an be a diary.a"tly. es e"ially $ithin the "!nte. and !ther in&!rmal $ritin# that "an ta-e la"e. !st "ard. ers!nal messa#es.$illin# and e&&i"iently. that they are a""ust!med t! and then. letters. students "an #ain im !rtant insi#hts b!th ab!ut h!$ they sh!uld $rite and ab!ut the sub.t.rame your techni5ues in terms of prewriting. try t! hel students t! understand $hat it is.2* 1ocational2Technical: in'!l'e: 9s $here a 'ariety !& real $ritin# su"h as letters. ℜ• re'ise their $!r. $ritin# s"ri t &!r a s-it !r dramati" resentati!n. $ritin# a resume. $hi"h "an ha • • • readin# 0e.% :alance process and products% The &a"t that $ritin# is a "!m !sin# r!"ess and usually re+uired multi le dra&ts be&!re an e&&e"ti'e r!du"t is "reated. $ritin# an ad'ertisement* )% . $ritin# latter t! e! le !utside !& the "lass.<1 "!rres !ndent t! a sta#e in the &i'e ste s !& $ritten er&!rman"e list* 4ist and describe the nine principles (pp%&')('". ℜ• Patiently ma-e as many re'isi!ns as needed* .drafting.and revising stages% Pr!"ess $ritin# a r!a"h is &ramed in three sta#es !& $ritin# 1% 3rewriting: This sta#e en"!ura#es the #enerati!n !& ideas. ma-e sure that students are "are&ully led thr!u#h a r! riate sta#es in the r!"ess !& "!m !sin#* This in"ludes a "are&ul attenti!n t! y!ur !$n r!le as a #uide and as a res !nder* &% Account for cultural2literary bac$ground% Ma-e sure that y!ur te"hni+ues d! n!t assume that y!ur students -n!$ En#lish rhet!ri"al "!n'enti!n* 9& there are s!me a arent "!ntrast bet$een student567s nati'e traditi!ns and th!se that y!u are tryin# t! tea"h.tensi'ely1 a assa#e s-immin# andB!r s"annin# a assa#e "!ndu"tin# s!me !utside resear"h en in numer!us $ays: . by de#rees.
as $ell as learner)"entered 0$ith am le ! !rtunities &!r students t! initiate a"ti'ity and e.• • • • • brainst!rmin# listin#0in $ritin#)indi'idually1 "lusterin#0be##in# $ith a -ey $!rd. students read their alm!st)&inal dra&ts t! ea"h !ther &!r a &inal "he". dra&tin# is 'ie$ed as an im !rtant "!m le. &a"ts. brainst!rmin#. statisti" et"* Su !rtin# by usin# "!m aris!n andB !r "!ntrast Comment form professor Author: G!me/)Wils!n. r! !se s!luti!ns. Marie* E!ur e. 2006 10:1<:2D 4M EST E. and trained instru"ti!n* The &!ll!$in# strate#ies and s-ills "an a ly t! t e dra&tin#Bre'isin# r!"ess in $ritin#: Gettin# started 0ada tin# the &ree $ritin# te"hni+ue1 56=C timal56> m!nit!rin# !& !ne567s $ritin# 0$ith!ut remature editin# and di'erted attenti!n t! $!rdin#. intera"ti'e 0as students $!r.!n err!rs."ellent res !nse. and ar#ue are as &!ll!$s: • • • • • • 4 "lear statement !& the thesis !r t! i" !r ur !se ?se !& main ideas t! de'el! !r "lari&y the thesis ?se !& su !rtin# ideas Su !rtin# by 56=tellin#56>: des"ribin# Su !rtin# by 56=sh!$in#56>: #i'in# e'iden"e."han#e ideas1* Gr!u "!llab!rati!n. atient. &l!$ !& ideas. 9sabel Creation date: Tuesday. February 21. e"t*1 eer)re'ie$in# &!r "!ntent 0a""e tin#Busin# "lassmate567s "!mments1 usin# the instru"t!r567s &eedba"editin# &!r #rammati"al err!rs 56=read al!ud56> te"hni+ues 0in small #r!u s !r airs.formal conventions of writing% :het!ri"al dis"!urse that $riters use t! e. set !& strate#ies. debate. usin# &ree ass!"iati!n1 dis"ussi!n a t! i" !r +uesti!n Free$ritin# The t$! !ther sta#es are the dra&tin# and re'isin# sta#es. #rammar. and "riti+uin# are su""ess&ully a art !& many $ritin#)&!"us te"hni+ues* "% /ensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your student67<s writing% Err!r treatment in $ritin# "an be#in the dra&tin# and re'isin# sta#es them* Their err!rs "an be als! "!rre"ted thr!u#h eer "!rre"tin# and the instru"t!r)initiated "!mments !r sel&) "!rre"tin#* % Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical.in airs and #r!u s t! #enerate ideas and t! eer)edit1. $hi"h are the "!re r!"ess $ritin#* 9n a r!"ess a r!a"h. lanati!ns are s! th!r!u#h* They are 'ery im ressi'e* 2007-01-15 23:06:02 GMT . then add !ther $!rds. the mastery !& $hi"h ta-es time. lain. e"t*1 r!!&readin# !% /trive to offer techni5ues that are as interactive as possible% Pr!"ess)!riented a r!a"h t! $ritin# instru"ti!n is by de&initi!n.
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