Europe’s Journal of Psychology, Vol 2, No 4 (2006)
Personality Traits And Feeling Of Loneliness In Unemployed Youths
Brijesh Kumar Upadhayay Departement of Psychology, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar, Uttranchal, India C.P. Khokhar Departement of Psychology, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar, Uttranchal, India ABSTRACT Unemployment has been a recurring social problem throughout the century and bringing a mental health problem. In addition to feelings of excitement and anticipation, there may also be the feelings of loneliness. Loneliness is an important personality variable. Aim of the present investigation is to know the effect of personality traits on the perception of perceived loneliness in unemployed youths. The sample consists of 200 subjects within the age group of 26-32 yrs of age drawn from district Haridwar, clear demarcations were observed in the groups of different levels of personality traits on perceived loneliness
Introduction Unemployment is a reality for many young people. You may be skilled, qualified, willing to work, ready for work and desperately wanting a job, but for many young people this does not guarantee you will get work, because in many places there just are not enough jobs around for everyone. It can make you feel low, bored, frustrated, sick that effect your lifestyle. You might feel low or upset, example you might feel like a failure or there is something wrong with you. Unemployment doesn’t fit with your career dreams and ambitions. You are “knocked back” for the fiftieth job. You feel your life is wasting away. Your mates can go out and have a good time while you sit home and get bored out of your brain! You might start to wonder whether it is worth trying anymore. Studies show a link between unemployment and feeling suicidal. This can include other forms of hurting yourself like self-punishment or abuse. Some studies show a link between unemployment and mental illness or diagnosed mental disorder. These can be things like insomnia (not being able to sleep), anxiety, clinical depression. Increased drug, tobacco and alcohol use – there is a link between unemployment and drug, tobacco and alcohol use. Especially smoking and alcohol. Several people use drugs, tobacco or alcohol as a way of coping. These can harm your health and hook you into a lifestyle that makes it harder to keep motivated about life. According to Jahoda: ” employment makes the following categories of experience inevitable : it imposes a time structure on the waking day; it compels contacts and shared experiences with others outside the nuclear family; it demonstrates that there are goals and purposes which are beyond the scope of an individual but require a collectivity; it imposes status and social identity through the division of labour in modern employment; it enforces activity…” Growth and change during unemployment produces a variety of feelings in youths. In addition to feelings of excitement and anticipation, there may also be feelings of loneliness. Loneliness is not necessarily being alone. We may be alone for long periods without feeling at all lonely. On the other hand we may feel lonely in a familiar setting without really understanding why. Personality characteristic is to recognize that loneliness is something that can be changed. It is also important to know that loneliness is a common experience. According to a recent national survey, one quarter of all adults experience painful loneliness at least every few weeks, and the incidence among adolescents and unemployed youths is even higher. Loneliness is neither a permanent state nor “bad” in itself. Instead it should be viewed more accurately as a signal or indicator of important needs that are going unmet. Some of the personality dispositions directly related to loneliness include shyness, introversion, and self-consciousness (e.g. Jones et al. 1985a), whereas attachment quality (Hecht & Baum 1984), likeability (Moore & Schultz 1983), communication competence (Spitzberg & Canary 1985), self-disclosure and interpersonal competence (Jones, 1985; Sarason, Sarason, Hacker, & Basham 1985) are inversely related. Researchers have also reported inverse correlations between loneliness and social risk-taking (Moore & Schultz 1983; Sermat 1978). Another common concomitant of loneliness is low self-esteem with several studies indicating substantial co-variation between measures of these two constructs (Jones, Freemon & Goswick 1981; Russell et al. 1980). As would be expected, low self-esteem is more strongly related to chronic than to transitory or situational loneliness (Jones, et al. 1985a; Wilbert & Rupert 1986). Not surprisingly then, the personality dimensions most closely related to loneliness are those pertaining to confidence and skill in initiating and developing relationships with others (Jones, et al. 1985a). Also, longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the personality correlates of loneliness often precede feelings of loneliness (e.g., Jones & Moore 1987; Shaver et al. 1985). Given the variety of personality factors related to loneliness and the common finding that many of these variables are related to one another, the question arises as to
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Enthusiastic unemployed are more optimistic about the settlement of their job. The first approach emphasizes inherent human needs for intimacy. depressive personality and emotional unstable unemployed have scored significantly higher on the measures of loneliness. Assertive & Submissive. Suspicious and Trusting.01(2.83 5.0 2. and (b) enhancement skills or communality (e. 199) Significance of differences between means on loneliness of unemployed youths on the dimension of Enthusiasm.6 93.47 2. Methodology Tools: 1 . Enthusiastic unemployed youths feel less lonely than the non enthusiastic unemployed youths. Two independent studies (Jones et al. “loneliness is the unpleasant experience that occurs when a person’s network of social relations is deficient in some way”.Indicate Significance of difference between two levels of personality traits on loneliness.01 7.39 87.D. Lonely people tend to be more introverted and shy.4 112.7 12. Results and Discussion Table 1 .psychopen. Emotional stability are established.8 90 97. According to Peplau and Perlman(1982). by Bhargava.Upadhayay
http://ejop. Trait Activity Passivity Enthusiastic Non enthusiastic Assertive Submissive Suspicious Trusting Depressive Non depressive Emotional Stability Emotional Instability Mean on Loneliness 102. Several personality factors have been linked to loneliness.K.
.63 < . Their corresponding scores on loneliness are taken as dependent measures. Depression. trust). non-technical graduates belonging to middle socioeconomic status are selected from Haridwar districts. Suspiciousness. Sampling: A sample of 200 unemployed youths within the age range 26 to 32 years. 199) Significant at . Enthusiastic & Non enthusiastic.g.35 < .8 6. 2 . low shyness).4 12.g.61 3. M. Depressive & Non depressive.73 113.8 111. submissive.0 < .189 P N. suspicious.S
Significant at .8 100.eu/rt/printerFriendly/288/189
which aspects of personality are most predictive of loneliness.Perceived Loneliness Scale (PLS).60. 1985a.12 12. more self conscious.13 15.2 2. Wittenberg & Reis 1986) reported that deficits in two composite variables appear to account for the unique connections between personality and loneliness: (a) relational competence or initiation skills (e.01 5. P. The Non-enthusiastic.72 T .
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16/11/2013 09:14 p. 1986).09 3. An individual is lonely if he or she desires close interpersonal relationships but is unable to establish them. There are three approaches which describe loneliness.2 7.(1971). Briggs and Smith. Enthusiastic are more hopeful than non enthusiastic about their future. The second emphasizes people’s perception and evaluation of their social relation and the third approach to loneliness identifies insufficient social reinforcement as the main deficiency experienced by lonely people.70 9. above the mean and -1 S.2 SD 27.m. Loneliness refers to an individual’s subjective perception that he/she lacks close interpersonal relationships.97. by Jha.01 7.(1981). Assertiveness. The main objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of five personality traits that is Activity and Passivity.2 93.44 < . Emotional Instability and Emotional Instability on perceived loneliness of unemployed youths.01 2.D.2 10.6 90.73 2.01 SED 13. and less assertive (Jones.5 10.8 114.46 < .05(1. Subjects having the score +1 S. below the mean are selected as high or low respectively on personality dimensions.Dimensional Personality Inventory (DPI).6 3.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. “Loneliness and social support”. loneliness and affective communication found no significant difference. and loneliness”. T. In I. Personality and interpersonal predictors of loneliness in two cultures. Dimensional personality inventory (DPI). L. G. attributions. A. (1997). Unemployed youth with negative personality traits like submissiveness.. 48(6). Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie. P. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Essence. emptiness prevails. It develops a cyclic stage weaker the trait higher the feeling of loneliness leading to unemployment. Loneliness at adolescence: Correlates. M. (1980). India. W. New York: Wiley.
. 12. Apr. P. P. & Goswick. B. W.). Gaston Rene (1985) “Estime de soi. Martinus Nijhoff. Cognitive Therapy and Research. Bonnie L. (1985). Spitzberg. (1985). Loneliness is also associated with anxiety and depression. (1986).. N. “Sources of loneliness”. Impact of duration of unemployment upon an individual’s self esteem. & Buhrmeister. Wilbert. suspiciousness. (1985). 1-18). Briggs. Hacker. A. depression. A lonely individual experiences a feeling of profound sadness and the whole world becomes joyless and gray. 3-12. 472-480. Briggs.Upadhayay
http://ejop. Study of Hansson. (1986) Shyness: Conceptualization and measurement. and affective communication”. Perceived loneliness scale (L-scale). & Perlman. & Perlman. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. R. 271-276. Hansson.
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16/11/2013 09:14 p. Robert O. Sermat.. Carpenter. 95-100. loneliness and depression in college students”.. (1987). non-enthusiasm. H. Stephen R. Nandini Enterprisese. Jha. Sarason. Briggs. Canada: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie. Wittenberg.psychopen. & Basham.N. (eds). 1-12. US: Psychological Reports. 287-402. India. Finally it leads him to loneliness (Peplau and Perlman. & Schultz. 27-48. have poor social skills. & Rupert. (1985). physical attractiveness. 1985 is congruent with the present investigation that lonely people often have low self esteem and in some cases.(1999) “Personality characteristics in unemployed Australian males: Implications for “drift” hypothesis in unemployment”.eu/rt/printerFriendly/288/189
No doubt loneliness is related to situational aspect of unemployed but the personality traits like assertiveness/submissiveness governs the felling of loneliness in unemployed. 49. (1985). Vol 84(2). J.K. Peplau. W. US: Sage Publications Inc. social skills. Vol 6(3). Agra. 49. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. “Concomitants of social support: Social Skills.. solitude et communicatin emotive selon la duree du chomage. The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.. A. unloved. London. 39. joylessness and emptiness in their life. & Cutrona.. Jun. Perspectives on loneliness. Vol 9(2). Unemployment leads to social and economic crises that hinder the self esteem and identify of self.. Purushottam. 230-240. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Moore. Russell. 121-130. National Psychological Corporation. References Bhargava. Joshi. 193-219.. 1999 study that unemployed youth have feeling of inferiority and lack of confidence. (1983). and coping.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. and therapy (pp. Frictionally unemployed youths have more depressive feelings than seasonally unemployed youths that gradually inculcate the feelings of loneliness. social skills.. Sage. J.. Bonnie L. 71-77. “Dysfunctional attitudes. W. Peter A.. “Aspects of a life in transition: Network changes. Jones. 1982).. (1982). Furman. lack of confidence.. Understanding Personal Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Approach. S. D. Earlier study by Jones. depression and emotional instability are more susptable to loneliness. & Reis. research. Gaston Rene. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory. “Loneliness and relationally competent communication”. and gender”. and Smith. Agra. submissive and suspiciousness. 477-480. W. T. depressed. (1997). “Loneliness. Nothing seems worthwhile any more. & Canary. D. and only bad things are expected. T. The loneliness is an indirect product of inferiority. unwanted. B.m. suicidal ideas. D. Peplau. Purushottam de Grace. Peplau & D. Such individual has no further help form other to get out of the hell of unemployment. 10. 1985 that duration of unemployment would impact on an individual’s self esteem. Although one study by Joshi. Sarason. L. depression and loneliness”. “The psychology of loneliness: Some personality issues in the study of social support”. W. loneliness. C.). 1503-1511. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1986).H.R. Robert O. Social Support: Theory. B. Sarason & Sarason. depression. Duck. Rule. Freeman. Research and Applications. D. Jones. Jones. 1990 supports the results of present investigation. 145-156. and social perception”. and Quitana. 12.(1990) “Old age and unemployment: Predictors of perceived control. depression. Shaver. D. Perlman (Eds. E. Psychological Reports. 223-240. hopelessness. (eds. worthlessness. et 1990 study that fully unemployed youths feel helplessness. Journal of Personality. Journal of Applied Gerontology. D. Jones. in S. 629-633. B. 51 (3). “The persistence of loneliness: Self and other determinants”. It is to be investigated further with a suitable design. The Hague. R. 2. M. S. Present inquiry also agrees with the above Hansson..H. feeling of inferiority than the fully employed. Present inquiry agrees with the Creed and Peter. In L. Carpenter and Quitana. Rule. D. V. T. de Grace. T. (1981). R. Unemployed youths also having same feeling as they have pool self esteem. & Moore. 2. Creed. Stephen R. (1978). 2. I. Jones.