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A Fuzzy Controller for Generator Excitation Control

Yuan-Yih Hsu and Chin-Hsing Cheng

EFD Re L,
id

Abstract-A new approach based on fuzzy set theory is proposed for the design of an excitation controller for a synchronous generator. In the proposed fuzzy expert system, generator speed deviation (h) and acceleration (A&)are taken as controller inputs. These input signals are first characterized by linguistic variables using fuzzy set notations. A fuzzy relation matrix is built to give the relationship between controller input and controller output. A set of fuzzy logic operations are performed by the fuzzy excitation controller using controller inputs and fuzzy relation matrix to get the desired controller output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the fuzzy excitation controller, digital simulations of a power system subject to a three-phase fault under different operating conditions are performed. It is found that the fuzzy excitation controller can improve the dynamic performance of a power system over a wide range of operating conditions. Since the fuzzy excitation controller does not require model identification, it can be easily implementated on a microcomputer.

V ST
lip,

Iir

T,
2 ,

i o

Exciter field voltage. External resistance. External inductance. Stator d-axis current Stabilizing transformer output PI controller gain. Electrical torque. Stator q-axis current. Damper winding current of d-axis. Damper winding current of y-axis. Field winding current. Statord-axis voltage. Statory-axis voltage. Damper winding voltage ofd-axis. Damper winding voltage ofy-axis. Field winding voltage.

iQ
iF

Vd

r/h
VD

VQ
VF

NOMENCLATURE

I. INTRODUCTION
Angular speed. Torque angle. Stator winding inductance of d-axis. Stator winding inductance of y-axis. Field winding inductance. Damper winding inductance of d-axis. Damper winding inductance of y-axis. Leakage inductance of d-axis stator winding. Leakage inductance of y-axis stator winding. = Ld - I d . = L , - 1,. Stator resistance. Field resistance. Resistance of d-axis damper winding. Resistance of y-axis damper winding. Damping coefficient. Regulator time constant. Regulator gain. Stabilizing transformer time constant. Stabilizing transformer gain. Infinite bus voltage. Generator terminal voltage. Reference voltage for generator. Mechanical torque. Manuscript received April 6, 1990; revised April 30, 1991 and May 26, 1992. This work was supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under Grant NSC 79-0404-E002-07. Y. Y. Hsu is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. C. H. Cheng is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Feng Chi University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China. IEEE Log Number 9205804. In the past two decades, excitation controllers have been widely employed to enhance system damping and to improve the dynamic stability of a power system [1]-[7]. The gain settings of these controllers are usually determined off-line based on a particular operating condition and are fixed in field applications. It is well known that the operating point of a power system will change with varying system load. Moreover, drastic changes in system operating conditions will be observed when the system is subject to a major disturbance such as a three-phase fault. Thus, under these varying operating conditions, the best dynamic performance cannot be achieved by a fixed-gain excitation controller. To improve the damping characteristics of a power system over a wide range of operating points, self-tuning controllers have been proposed [8]-[ 131. In these self-tuning controllers, the system model is first identified in real-time using the measured system input and output variables. The gain settings are then computed based on the identified system model and the adaptation law. It is found that better dynamic performance under disturbance conditions can be achieved by the self-tuning excitation controller than by the fixed-gain excitation controller. A major disadvantage of the self-tuning excitation controller is the need to identify system model parameters in real time, since the identification process is very time-consuming. The situation is even worsened by the fact that the self-tuning excitation controller must be implemented on a microcomputer with limited computational capability. To relieve the computational burden associated with a self-tuning excitation controller, a new type of excitation controller is developed using fuzzy set theory [14]. The input signals to the fuzzy excitation controller are the measured generator speed deviation (Ad) and acceleration (A;). These signals are first expressed in some linguistic variables using the membership functions in fuzzy set notation before they can be processed by the fuzzy excitation controller. A fuzzy relation matrix, which contains all the decision rules expressed in linguistic variables, is set up to form the basis for fuzzy logic

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533

vt

,v
Fig. 2. Block diagram of the excitation system.

Fig. 1. System configuration of a single machine connected to a large power system through an external impedance. operations performed by the fuzzy excitation controller to reach a proper controller output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy excitation controller, digital simulations of a power system subject to a threephase fault under different loading conditions are carried out. It is found that the dynamic performance of the power system under major disturbance conditions can be significantly improved by the fuzzy excitation controller over a wide range of operating conditions. Since the fuzzy excitation controller does not require model identification, it requires less computational effort than the self-tuning excitation controller and is easier to be implemented on a microcomputer.
11. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Note that U , in (11) is the feedback control signal generated by the excitation controller. This feedback signal is used to provide the additional damping effect required to make the system stable. In effect, the main objective of this paper is to devise a fuzzy excitation controller which can produce a proper control signal IT, such that the system dynamic performance under disturbance conditions can be improved.
111. DESIGN OF THE FUZZY EXCITATION CONTROLLER

Consider the single machine-infinite bus system shown in Fig. 1. The dynamic behavior of the synchronous machine can be described by the following set of nonlinear differential equations [ 11:
S=d-

A. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory


Before going through the details of fuzzy excitation controller design, some basic definitions and mathematical operations of fuzzy sets are described as follows [14]. 1) Definition of a Fuzzy Set: Definition 1: Fuzzy set. Let X be a collection of objects ( X is the in X is defined to be a set of universal set); then a fuzzy set ordered pairs:

(1)

where p ~ ( zis ) called the membership function of . r in 2. Note that the membership function (x)denotes the degree that z belongs to A and is normally limited to values between 0 and 1. A high value of p ~ ( 2 implies ) that it is very likely for . r to be in A. Elements with a zero degree of membership are normally not listed. If we limit the value of the membership function to be either 0 or 1, then A becomes a crisp (nonfuzzys) set. 2) Fuzzy Set Operation: Definition 2: The A N D operator (the intersection of two fuzzy sets). Let and B be two fuzzy sets with membership functions (2) and p ~ ( s )respectively. , The membership function of the intersection (AND), C = r l 5, is defined by

vQ= 0 = -rQiQ - k h f Q ; , - LQ;Q.


= -&v-

u c ( z ) = min ( P A ( z ) , P B ( . T ) ) ,
(8)

XEX.

(14)

The equations for the transmission network with external resistance Re and inductance L e are
vd

sin ( 6 - a )

id + ~

+kw ~d , i ,

(9)

Definjtion 3; The OR operator (the union of two fuzzy sets). Let A and B be two fuzzy sets with membership functions @ A ( . ) and p ~ g ( z ) respectively. , The membership function of the union (OR), D = A U B, is defined by
,u~)(z = ) max(pA(.c),u g ( z ) ) .

EX.

(15)

Vq = &Vw cos (6 - a )

+ Reiq+ L e ; - dLeid.

(10)

The equations for the excitation system shown by the block diagram in Fig. 2 are as follows.

Defini,tion 4: The NOT operator (the complement of a fuzzy set). . Let A be a fuzzy set with membership function p ~ ( z )The membership function of the complement of 2, LA, is defined by

TAEFD = - E F D - I { A h T

+ IiA(vREF - Vf + crc)

(11)

534

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THEDECISION TABLE

Definition 5: Fuzzy relation. Let , i and be two fuzzy sets with membership functions p~ (s) and p ~ g ( z ) respectively. , A fuzzy relation R from A to B can be visualized as a fuzzy graph and can be characterized by the membership function ~ R ( s y . ), which satisfies the composition rule as follows:
P B ( Y ) = m a x (min ( P R ( S . Y),

Speed deviation (Ad) LN


~~

PA(^))).

(17)

LP MP SP

VSa

MN SP
VSa

vs
SN MN LN aRule 1.

B. Design of the Fuzzy Excitation Controller


To make the designed excitation controller capable of providing desired system damping under disturbance conditions, some state variables representative of system dynamic performance must be taken as the input signals to the fuzzy excitation controller. In this work, generator speed deviation (Ad) and acceleration (A;) are chosen to be input signals of the fuzzy excitation controller since our previous experience indicated that, under disturbance conditions, dynamic performance of the system could be evaluated by examining the response curves of the two variables. To determine the controller output from the measured system variables A w and A;, a fuzzy relation matrix R, which gives the relationship between the fuzzy set characterizing controller inputs and the fuzzy set characterising controller output, is first established and is stored in computer memory. Then the fuzzy excitation controller proceeds as follows to figure out the desired output signal. Step 1: Use membership functions to represent controller inputs A w and A; in fuzzy set notations. Step 2: Use the composition rule in (17) to determine the membership function of the controller output Step 3: Determine a proper controller output from the membership function of the output signal. Details of the above procedures are addressed in the following discussion. 1) Establish the Fuzzy Relation Matrix: Before the fuzzy excitation controller can be put in operation, a fuzzy relation matrix must be set up and stored in computer memory. To this end, a set of decision rules relating controller inputs to controller output are first compiled based on our previous experience with controller design [5]-[7], [lo]-[ 121. These decision rules are expressed using linguistic variables such as large positive (LP), medium positive (MP), small positive (SP), very small (VS), small negative (SN), medium negative (MN), and large negative (LN). For example, a typical rule reads as follows. Rule 1:

SN MN MN LN LN LN

SN MN MN LN LN

Acceleration ( A w ) SN VS SP MP LP LP SP MP MP VS SP SP SN VS SP VS SN SN MN MN SN LN LN MN

MP LP LP MP MP
SP VS

LP LP LP LP MP MP SP
VS

SN

Note that Rule 1 we are still not certain whether A u is LP and

A; is LN. The degree of belief in the If Part (condition part)


of the rule can be specified through the use of membership functions as described below. 2) Specifi the Membership Functions for Stabilizer Inputs: To express the controller inputs in linguistic variables LP, MP, SP, VS, SN, MN, and LN, the measured controller inputs A w and A; are first normalized based on previous experience:

A d --- 0.02 A&

Aw

rc.

A;
7l

-- 0.002

Using these normalized quantities, controller inputs can be described by membership functions for the linguistic variables, as shown in Table 111. Note that only the membership functions for nine different values of A w U and A;,, are given in the table. For a value of A w U or A&, which is not listed in Table 111, linear interpolation must be employed to determine the membership functions. Let us demonstrate the use of Table 111 by an example. At a particular sampling instant, let the sampled controller inputs be, say, A d u = 0.2 and A ; , = -0.1. From Table 111, the two controller inputs can be described by the following fuzzy sets.

A u u :{(LN. 0). (MN. 0). (SN, 0.2), (VS. 0.5), (SP, 0.7).
(MP, 0.91, (LP, 1 ) ) (22)

If A w is L P and A w is L S . then

A & : {(LN, 0.8), (MN, l ) , (SN. 0.9), (VS, 0.7) (SP, 0.4),
(18)
(MP. 0.2), (LP, 0)).

I,

(controller output) should be 1s.

(23)

Through the combination of the two input signals A d and A w , there will be 49 decision rules in all. The most convenient way to present these decision rule is to use a decision table as shown in Table I, [16]. It is observed from Table I that each entry represents a particular rule. Using fuzzy set notation, the decision table in Table I can be converted into the fuzzy relation matrix in Table I1 where controller output obtained by applying a particular rule is expressed in membership functions. For example, Rule 1 in (18) now becomes the following. Rule 1: If A d is LP and A; is LN, then the controller output I , can be characterized by the fuzzy set

3) Determine the Membership Function of Controller Output: Let us use the previous example to demonstrate the use of composition rule to determine the membership function of controller output. It is obvious from Table I1 that there are 49 rules that can be used to generate the desired controller output. Consider Rule 1 in (18) or its equivalent, Rule l, in (19). The action part (the Then part) of the rule has been represented in fuzzy set notations using membership functions but the condition part (the If part) is still to be represented using fuzzy set notation. An observation of Rule 1 reveals that the condition part consists of two predicates Aw is LP and A; is LN combined together by an AND operator. From (14), we have the membership value for the condition part.
p ( s1 ) = p ( A d is LP

and

A; is LN)
p(A& is LN))
(24)

(MP. 0). (LP. O)}.

(19)

= min (p(A4 is L P ) ,

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TABLE I1 THEFUZZY RELATION MATRIX

0 0

0.5

0
0 0 0

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0
0 0.5 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0.5

0.5 1
0.5

0
0 0 0 0

0 0.5 1
0.5

0 0

0.5
1 1 1

0
0 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 0.5

0.5
1 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1
0.5

0.5 0.5 0.5 0


0 0.5 1 1
0.5

0 0.5
0 0

0 0
1 0.5 0

0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.5
1 0.5 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0.5 0.5

0 0 0
0 0.5 1 1 0.5 0

0.5
0

1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1 0 0 0 0 0

0
0 0.5

0
0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.5 0

0
0 0 0 1 1
0.5

0.5
0 0 0 0

0.5 1 0.5
0 0 0 0

0.5 0.5
1

0
0 0

0 0 0 0
0.5

0.5
0 0 0 0 0.5 1 1
0.5

0.5 1 0.5
0

0.5
1

0
0 0 0.5 0.5 1

0.5 0.5
0 0 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0 0 0 0

0.5 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1 0 0

0.5 0.5
0 0 0

0
0 0 0 1 1

1 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0.5 0.5


1 1

0 0
0 0

0 . 5 0 0 0
0 0

0 0 0 0.5
0

0
0 0 0

0.5 0.5
0 0 0 1 1 1 1

0.5 0.5
1 0.5

0.5 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5


1

0.5
1

0 0 0
0

0
0 0

0.5
0 0

0.5 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5

0
0 0 0

0.5
0 0 0 0 0

0
0 0.5 1

0
0

0
0 0

0.5
0 0

0.5 0

0 0.5
1

0.5

0 0

0 0

From (22) and (23), we have pfAw is L P ) = 1 and p(Aw is L))=o.8. Thus the membership Of the conditionPart is
p(z1)

Given the membership value for the condition part and the fuzzy relation matrix, the membership values for the controller output characterized by the seven linguistic variables LN, MN, SN, VS, SP, MP, LP can be obtained using (17). For example, the membership

= min (1, 0.8)

= 0.8.

536

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TABLE 111 MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS FOR STABILIZER INPUTS Normalized Inputs


(AdJ, or ALL) -1.0 -0.2 -0.1 -0.03 0 0.03 0.1

TABLE IV FROM LINGUISTIC VARIABLES TO NUMERICAL VALUES CONVERSION TABLE LN MN


-0.02

Membership Function LN MN
SN VS

SP

MP

LP

uc

-0.12

SN -0.005

VS
0

SP
0.005

MP 0.02

LP 0.12

1 1 0.8 0.6 0.4

0.2
0 0 0

0.2
1 .o

0.7 0.9 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

0.5
0.7 0.9 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1 0.9 0.7

0.2
0.4
0.6 0.8 1 0.9 0.7

0 0

0.2
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.9 0.7

0 0 0

0.2
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1

0.5
0.3

0.5

the conversion table has been established based on the stabilizer output signals obtained in our previous work on stabilizer design [lo]-[12]. Other numerical values may be selected and slightly different dynamic responses will be obtained. But the difference in dynamic responses is insignificant since the stabilizer output must be within the narrow range from -0.12 p.u. to 0.12 p.u. The table is stored in computer memory as a look-up table. It is observed from Table IV that numerical value of control signal for our example is 0.005 p.u.

IV. DIGITAL SIMULATION RESULTS


value for the linguistic variable LN can be computed as follows: Consider the single machine-infinite bus system as given in Fig. 1. The parameters of the system are as follows. Synchronous Generator: 377 radls 1.7 p.u. 1.64 p.u. 1.65 p.u. 1.605 p.u. 1.526 p a . 1.55 p.u. 1.49 p.u. 0.15 p.u. 0.001096 p a . 0.000742 p.u. 0.0131 p.u. 0.054 p.u.

Note that this is the membership value of the controller output LN if only Rule 1 exists. To take the 49 rules in Table 111 into account, the membership values for the condition part of all the other 48 i = 2 , . . . ,49, must be determined in the same way as rules p(sz), we did in (25) for ~(21). Thus, the final value for controller output LN can be figured out by using (17).

pCC(LN) = max (min ( p ~ ( . rLN). ~ . p(.rt))).


1%

(27)

The membership values for all the other six variables pLr,(MN), pC,(SN), pU,-(VS), pLrc(SP), pCC(MP), and pL;,-(LP) can be computed in exactly the same way. The final results for the preceding example are as follows:

0 0.02 p.u. 0.4 p.u. p = 1.0 P.u., Q = 0.62 p.u.


Voltage Regulator and Exciter: TA I<,$ TF IiF

pLTc (LN) = 0.5

;iUC (MN) = 0.7 pVc (SN) = 0.8 p r , (VS) = 0.9 /ICc (SP) = 1.0 prc(MP) = 0.9 pUc (LP) = 0.7.
4) Determine the controller output: Once the membership values for controller output have been reached, a suitable algorithm must be employed to determine the controller output signal from these membership values. The algorithm adopted in this work is the maximum algorithm in which the signal with largest membership value is chosen as the controller output signal. From (28), the controller output for our example is SP. Since the excitation system can take only numerical values of U , ,the controller output expressed in linguistic terms must be converted back to numerical values before it can be fed into the excitation system. For this purpose, the conversion table as shown in Table IV is used. It is noted that

0.05
400 1

0.025

In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy excitation controller over a wide range of operating conditions, digital simulations were performed for the system subject to a four-cycle three-phase fault at the midpoint of one of the two transmission lines. It was observed from the results in our previous work with stabilizer design [lo]-[12] that the system with fixed-gain excitation controller will be stable under nominal loading condition ( P = l.O), but it will become unstable under heavy load condition ( P = 1.5). Therefore, dynamic responses are examined for the system under various loading conditions from P = 1.0 to P = 1.5. Only the results for P = 1.0 and P = 1.5 are presented due to limited space. The dynamic responses for the loading condition of P = 1.0 p.u. are shown in Figs. 3 and 4 while those for the loading condition of P = 1.5 p.u. are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. For the sake of comparison, the response curves of the system with a fixed-gain proportional-

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537

-0 0 1
00

20

40
time sec

-0.011 0.0

'

'

'

'

2.o

'

j
I

40
t Ime ,sec

(a)
(x

1 6 ~ ~

-1.0

0.0
ti me I sec

2.0

4 .O
tim,sec

(b)

(b)

ti me ,sec

(c)

--0

13

1
00

20
ti me, sec

40
ti m e , sec

(4
Fig. 3. Dynamic responses for the system with mixed-gain excitation controller (P = 1.0 P . u . ) .

(4
Fig. 4. Dynamic responses for the system with fuzzy excitation controller (P = 1.0 P.U.).

integral (PI) excitation controller [15] of the following form are also given:

From the simulation results shown in Figs. 3-6, several observations are in order: 1) On comparing the response curves in Figs. 3 and 4, it can be observed that both the fixed-gain excitation controller and the fuzzy excitation controller yield good dynamic performance under the loading condition of P = 1.0 p a .

2) As evidenced by the response curves in Figs. 5 and 6, the fixedgain excitation controller fails to stabilize the system when generator loading is increased to 1.5 p.u. However, the fuzzy excitation controller can still offer satisfactory dynamic responses under this loading condition. Thus, it can be concluded that the fuzzy excitation controller can give good dynamic performance over a wide range of operating conditions. 3) Since model identification is not needed by the fuzzy excitation controller in determining controller output signals, the fuzzy excitation controller is more efficient than the self-tuning controller [8]-[ 131 which requires model identification. Thus, the fuzzy excitation controller is more easily implemented on a microcomputer than on a self-tuning excitation controller.

538

O 0.00

'

-0.02 00

I 2.0

'

"

40

ti me ,sec

(a)
1 0

0 0
U'

I
t
I

-1 0

"

'

00

20

40 t tine, sec

-1 0

I
00
20

"

'
40
time ,sec

(b)

(b)

1 0

0.8

06
""

0
time,sec

-0 13 0 0

20

"

"

40
time,sec

(4
Fig. 5. Dynamic responses for the system with fixed-gain excitation controller ( P = 1.5 p. u.).

20

40
time,sec

(4
Fig. 6. Dynamic responses for the system with fuzzy excitation controller (P = 1.5 P.u.). REFERENCES
P Anderson and A. A. Fouad, Power System Control and Stability. - .M - -. . -~

V. CONCLUSION

A new type of excitation controller is developed using fuzzy set theory. A set of fuzzy decision rules relating controller inputs to controller output are formulated based on previous experience with controller design. Fuzzy logic operations defined by these fuzzy decision rules are performed by the fuzzy excitation controller to figure out controller output signal. Results obtained from digital simulations on a power system indicate that the fuzzy excitation controller can yield good damping characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions. The fuzzy excitation controller is superior to the self-tuning excitation controller in that it does not require model identification as the self-tuning excitation controller does, making it easier to be implemented on a microcomputer.

Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1977. E. V. Larsen and D. A. Swan, "Applying power system stabilizers," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, pp. 3017-3046, 1977. F. P. deMello and C. Concordia, "Concepts of synchronous machine stability as affected by excitation control," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., iol. PAS-88, pp. 316-329, 1969. F. P. deMello, P. J. Nolan, T. F. Laskowski, and J. M. Undrill, "Coordinated application of stabilizers in multimachine power systems,"
IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-99, pp. 892-901, 1980. Y. Y. Hsu, S. W. Shyue, and C. C. Su, "Low frequency oscillations in longitudinal power systems: Experience with dynamic stability of Taiwan power system," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRS-2, pp. 92-100,'1987

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Y. Y. Hsu and C. C. Su, Application of power system stabilizer on a power system with pumped storage plant, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,
VOI. PWRS-3, pp. 8 M 6 , 1988. Y. Y. Hsu and C. Y. Hsu, Design of a proportional-integral power

system stabilizer, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRS-1, pp. 4653, 1986. D. Xia and G. T. Heydt, Self-tuning controller for generator excitation, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-102, pp. 1877-1885, 1983. S. J. Cheng, Y. S. Chow, 0. P. Malik, and G. S. Hope, An adaptive synchronous machine stabilizer, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRS1, pp. 101-109, 1986. Y. Y. Hsu and K. L. Liou, Design of self-tuning PID power system stabilizers for synchronous generators, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. EC-2, pp. 343-348, 1987. C. J. Wu and Y. Y. Hsu, Design of self-tuning PID power system stabilizers for multimachine power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRS-3, pp. 1059-1064, 1988. Y. Y. Hsu and C. J. Wu, Adaptive control of a synchronous machine using the auto-searching method, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRS3, pp. 1434-1440, 1988. A. Chandra, 0. P. Malik, and G. S. Hope, A self-tuning controller for the control of multi-machine power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., VOI.PWRS-3, pp. 1065-1071, 1988. H. J. Zimmermann, Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Aplications. KluwerNijhoff, 1985. Y. Y. Hsu and C. H. Cheng, Variable structure and adaptive control of a synchronous generator, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-24, pp. 337-345, 1988. K. L. Tang and R. J. Mulholland, Comparing fuzzy logic with classical controller designs, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. SMC-17, pp. 1085-1087. 1987.

A Bit-Serial VLSI Architecture for Generating Moments in Real-Time


Wentai Liu, Su-Shing Chen, and Ralph Cavin

Abstract-In computer vision and image processing, the high degree of parallelism and pipelining of algorithms is often obstructed by the raster-scan I/O constraint and the information growing property of multiresolution structures. The approach of formulating algorithms in the pyramid structure as a binary tree structure, and mapping the binary tree structure into a linear pipelined array of 2 log N levels for N x N images using a FIFO to emulate the tree connections is proposed. It turns out that several geometric feature extraction algorithms (e&, moment generation) can be represented in this scheme so that the inherent information growing of the algorithms enables us to exploit bit-level concurrency in the architectural design. Consequently, the design of pipelined processor at each level is significantly simplified using bit-serial arithmetic, and this VLSI architecture is capable of generating moments concurrently in real-time.

[14]-[16] for computer vision and image processing is the overhead of image data input-output (I/O) to and from the parallel processing elements. One of the most popular architectures is the pyramid architecture in which image processing algorithms are embedded. However, image data I/O of this architecture is not efficient. In this paper, an efficient scheme in which image processing computations incrementally overlap with scan-line I/O is proposed (see [ 2 ] ,[8]). In this scheme, frame buffer is no longer required, because the image data structure is transformed into a binary tree, rather than the usual 2-D image array. Furthermore, only a single binary tree is needed to represent a pyramid of multiresolution images [16]. There are two main ideas in this paper. The first is that image processing algorithms based on the pyramid architecture can be transformed into a binary tree architecture and then a linear pipelined array, provided that they satisfy the decomposability condition of the operators H and V in the pyramid structure (See Section 11). Although both pyramid and binary tree architectures are of the order O(1og N ) for N x N images, processing elements (PES) in a linear pipelined array are much simpler than thosein a pyramid. Also, we note that no frame buffer is needed for the linear pipelined architecture. The second is the information growing property of pyramid structure. If the word length of the PE at the root level is uniformly used at each other level of the pyramid, the hardware will not be utilized efficiently. This problem occurs in other parallel architectures. This can be remedied by the bit-serial concurrency. In this paper, we discuss how moment generating algorithms can be executed in bit-serial concurrency, describe the raster-scan VLSI architecture, and discuss its improvements over prior architectures (e.g., bandwidth and processor utilization). This result can be extended to the class of all decomposable algorithms in [9]. A preprocessing scheme is needed to segment the image of a scene of multiple objects into disjoint regions, before the moments of each region are computed. A raster-scan segmentation scheme has been developed for the linear pipelined array architecture so that the moments of each region can then be computed [7]. The organization of this paper is as follows. In Section 11, the decomposition operators H and V and the moment generation algorithm are presented. In Section 111, the optimal decomposition sequence and the information growing property are discussed. In Section IV, the raster-scan VLSI architecture is defined. Finally, in Section V, the implementation of moment generation is presented.
11. A MOMENT GENERATION ALGORITHM AND DECOMPOSITION

OPERATORS
In [ E ] , a moment generation algorithm was developed using the pyramid structure. By mapping the pyramid structure to a binary tree structure, we have an algorithm which generates simultaneous a collection of moments. We show how, depending on the chosen sequence of horizontal and vertical operations, a pyramid structure is decomposed into different binary tree structures. An image f of size 2 x 2 can be decomposed into two disjoint and equal subimages f, and f 2 . Here, we consider the decomposition operators-the horizontal operator H and the vertical operator V-which decompose any image of size 2 x 2 ( 0 5 m, k 5 n ) into two subimages of equal size. To be more explicit, H and V should be indexed-e.g., H , or V, decomposes a 2 x 2 image into two disjoint and equal subimages. For simplicity, we shall not index these operators. Successively, f is decomposed into

I. INTRODUCTION
A n often neglected aspect of parallel computer architectures

Manuscript received September 8, 1989; revised August 26, 1990, and May 26, 1992. This work was supported in part by the Semiconductor Research Corporation Grant SRC-88-DJ-090, in part by National Science Foundation Grant MIP-8821425, and in part by National Science Foundation Grant IRI8904210. W. Liu and R. Cavin are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7911. S.-S. Chen is with the National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20550. IEEE Log Number 9205799.

0018-9472/93$03.00 0 1993 IEEE