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CHAPTER 2......................................................................................................................2 FUNDAMENTALS OF KINEMATIC ANALYSIS...............................................................................................2 2.1Degrees of Freedom (DOF).......................................................................................2 2.2Types of Motion........................................................................................................3 2.3Basic Definitions.......................................................................................................4 2.4Mechanisms and its Degree of Freedom...................................................................9 2. Mechanisms !ith "ntermittent Motion....................................................................1 2.#$in%age Transformation..........................................................................................1& 2.'"n(ersion..................................................................................................................19 2.&Fo)r*ar $in%ages and the +rashof ,ondition.........................................................22 2.9-traight $ine Mechanisms.......................................................................................2#
List of Fi !"es
List of Tables
CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
This chapter introd)ces definitions of a n)m*er of terms and concepts re.ated to the synthesis and ana.ysis of mechanisms.
2.# De "ees of F"ee$o% &DOF'
/ny mechanica. system can *e c.assified according to the n)m*er of degrees of freedom (DOF) !hich it possesses. The system0s DOF can *e defined as the number of independent parameters required to uniquely define its position in space at any instant of time with respect to a selected frame or reference.
"n order to )nderstand this point consider a mo(ing o*1ect in 23y coordinate system4 there are three parameters or DOF are a.!ays re5)ired to comp.ete.y define the position of the o*1ect4 they are6 t!o .inear coordinate
x and y to define the position of the
o*1ect and one ang).ar coordinate θ to define its orientation4 see Fig)re (2.1). The minim)m n)m*er of meas)rements needed to define its position are sho!n in Fig)re
ation reso.y complex motion4 !hich is sim). Therefore this system4 sho!n in Fig)re (2. "n t!o3 dimensiona. 7o!4 consider the same o*1ect to e2ist in a three3dimensiona. These parameters can *e set as three .d *e noted here that the ma2im)m n)m*er of degrees of freedom for a rigid *ody in p.1) as x 4 y 4 and θ .ains the 3 DOF of rigid *ody in 23y coordinate system.d coordinate system 23y384 no! si2 parameters are re5)ired to define its position 1. "n other !ords4 the present te2t considers the case of p. 2. Fig)re 2. space is *eyond the scope of this te2t. space4 comp..(2.anar motion4 types of rigid *ody motion can *e c. !or.es θ 4 φ4 and ψ .1 Fig)re e2p.engths x 4 y and z 4 and three ang.2 T()es of Motion /ny rigid *ody is free to mo(e !ithin a reference frame. "t is con(enient to note that three3dimensiona.taneo)s com*ination of rotation and translation. "ts motion is genera.1)4 has three DOF.ane motion is three. "t sho). For p.anar (23D) %inematic systems. 3 .assified as6 1 /ny rigid *ody in a space has si2 degrees of freedom.taneo)s rotation a*o)t z3 a2is and trans.(ed into x3 and y3components.e2 motion is a com*ination of sim).
/s sho!n in Fig)re (2.in% !ith fo)r nodes4 and so on.y. Translation and rotation represent independent motions of the *ody.. 9o!e(er4 a.1)4 the x and y3coordinates represent the trans.s in non3 para.in%s. 23 P!"e t"anslation* "n this case4 a.in% is the . are in fact (ariations on a common theme of .in% !ith three nodes4 and 5)aternary . :ach can e2ist !itho)t the other. -asi. $in%ages are made )p of .e. 2..ater in the ne2t chapters that a. points on the *ody descri*e para. 9ere4 *oth . paths.in% is the ..inear position and orientation of the mo(ing *ody change sim). -ee Fig)re (2.d *e noted here that the orientation of the *ody changes instantaneo)s.in% is the . / link4 as sho!n in Fig)re (2.taneo)s com*ination of rotation and trans. *e sho!n . "t sho). /s !i. 33 Co%)le+ %otion* This represents a sim).in% !ith t!o nodes4 ternary .ation components of motion4 and the θ term represents the rotation component.in%ages. common forms of mechanisms s)ch as cams4 gears4 etc.2)4 is ass)med to *e a rigid *ody !hich possesses at . 4 ..e. Definitions Linkages are the *asic *)i.in%s and 1oints.ding *.13 P!"e "otation* 9ere4 the *ody possesses one point as a center of rotation !hich has no motion !ith respect to the reference frame. mechanisms..y !ith time.oc%s of a. /ny se. other points on the mo(ing *ody descri*e arcs a*o)t that center. Binary .east t!o nodes for attachments to other .taneo)s..anation.ation..y its position changes contin)o)s. paths4 and there is4 at e(ery instant4 an instantaneous center of rotation !hich contin)o)s..2) for e2p.ected point on the mo(ing *ody tra(e. Therefore4 orientation of the *ody does not change !ith time.y !ith time.
e is made 8ero4 the n)t rotates !itho)t ad(ancing and it *ecomes re(o.2 Fig)re sho!s different types of .ate a.3a).in%s.. DOF *et!een the 1oined .anar mechanisms. The motion of the n)t res). / joint is a connection *et!een t!o or more .)te o 1oint4 see Fig)re (2.. "f the he. Fig)re (2.o!ed at the 1oint..in%s4 see Fig)re (2.in% Fig)re 2.i2 ang.ati(e motion *et!een the connected . cases of the scre! 1oint4 see Fig)re (2. <oints are a. For e2amp.o!s some re.y fo)nd in p.3*). The a*o(e one3degree of freedom 1oints represent specia.in%s (at their nodes)4 !hich a.y t!o re..in% !ith respect to the other. trans.in% (c) .e is made 9= 4 the n)t !i.ed %inematic pairs4 and they are c.e in the scre!.o!s one rotationa.i2 ang.ati(e motion *et!een the scre! and the n)t4 these t!o motions are dependent and therefore scre! 1oint is considered as one3degree of freedom 1oint.anar .y constraints the re.ider 1oint4 see Fig)re (2.iding 1oint a.so ca. 9o!e(er4 there are apparent.assified according to the n)m*er of degrees of freedom a.e the re(o.(a) Binary .ati(e motion of p.ts from the he.es of one3degree of freedom 1oints common.ong the a2is of the scre! and it *ecomes a s.3*)..in%s.in% (*) Ternary .i2 ang..3) sho!s e2amp.)te 1oint a. . "f the he.)aternary .3a)4 and the s.3c). These 1oints or %inematic pair is said to *e full joints and denoted as j1 since it f).ationa.o!s one trans.. DOF4 see Fig)re (2.
es of t!o3degrees of freedom 1oints !hich sim). Fig)re (2.o! t!o independent re..4c) and (2.4) sho!s e2amp.iding 1oint (c) -cre! 1oint Fig)re 2. /s sho!n in Fig)res (2...ati(e motions *et!een the 1oined ..ing 1oints and cam 1oints !ith ro.in% !ith respect to the other.taneo)s.er fo.y e2isted in p.(a) >e(o.ati(e motion of one .4f)4 ro. # .)te 1oint (*) -.es of one3degree of freedom 1oints4 common..o!er may *eha(e as one3degree or t!o3degrees of freedom according to the friction e2isted.y constraints the re.y a.in%s.anar mechanisms.3 :2amp. These 1oints or %inematic pair is said to *e half joints and denoted as j 2 since it partia.
e 1oint !ith order one. Fig)re (2.er fo.in%s are p.indrica.)ence in the proper determination of the o(era.. 2 1 4 for !hich p is the n)m*er of 1oined .(a) ?in in s.y.y4 the kth order one3degree of freedom 1oint2 is denoted as k j1 .o!er Fig)re 2. . /s additiona. Therefore4 it ta%es t!o . The first3order one3degree of freedom 1oint is denoted as j1 4 see Fig)re (2. ) sho!s another c.y e2isted in p.at face fo.in%s.o!er (f) .d *e noted here that k = p − ' . . a)@ ho!e(er the second3order one3degree of freedom is denoted as 2 j1 4 see Fig)re (2..es of t!o3degrees of freedom 1oints4 common.4 :2amp. "t sho).aced on the same 1oint4 the order is increased on a one for one *asis.y degree of freedom.assification of 1oints or %inematic pairs *y order4 !here order is defined as the number of links joined minus one..ing 1oint (d) +ear 1oint (e) .in%s to form a sing.am 1oint !ith f.ot 1oint (*) . *).anar mechanisms.am 1oint !ith ro. <oint order has significance inf. mechanism or assem*.onse5)ent. 1oint (c) >o...
)te 1oint or as s..)te 1oint . "t is o*(io)s that cam 1oint is a force closed since fo.ied *y gra(ity4 spring4 or any e2terna.osed4 s)ch as a pin in a ha. "n contrast4 a force closed 1oint re5)ires some e2terna. & .d *e s)pp.f in contact !ith the rotating cam. / form closed 1oint is %ept together or c.)te 1oint Fig)re 2. (*) -econd order re(o.e forming a re(o.ider on a s)rface.o!er a.!ays needs an e2terna. means.assification of 1oints or %inematic pair *y order.east three3degrees of freedom.ider in a t!o3sided s. This force co). (a) ?.iding 1oint.. These 1oints ha(e at . force to %eep itse.# Other types of 1oints )sed for spatia.f3*earing or a s.anar 1oint (3 DOF) (*) -pherica.There is another c. mechanisms. Fig)re (2.ot forming a s.assification of 1oints *y the type of physical closure of the joints @ either force or form closed. force to %eep it together or c.osed *y its geometry4 s)ch as a pin in a ho. 1oint (3 DOF) Fig)re 2.#) sho!s other 1oints )sed for spatia. (a) First order re(o. mechanisms.
ast step can *e performed *y menta. to *oth the synthesis and ana. .. A %a.y4 it sho). 9o!e(er4 a definition of mechanism and machine has *een gi(en in the pre(io)s chapter@ it is possi*. to menta.ysis of mechanisms. This .o!s6 A /ine%ati.y fi2ing one of the ..pf). "n order to (is)a..e no! to define those terms more caref).ea)20s definitionB.so ca.. A %e.ection of mechanisms arranged to transmit forces and do !or%4 A>e).. Then t is easier to see the DOF the t!o 1oined .0ain .east one . "t is re5)ired to *e a*.in%s !hich create the 1oint from the rest of the mechanism..y determine the DOF of any co...ed o)tp)t motion in response to a s)pp. degree of freedom for the mechanism or the !ho.ity) of a system can *e defined as6 The number of inputs required in order creating a predictable output@ another definition may *e the number of independent coordinates required to define its position.in% has *een grounded4 or attached to a reference frame4 for !hich itse.ed the mo*i.)tion to a pro*.y.0anis% is $efine$ as* / %inematic chain in !hich at .in%s in the pair and recording the n)m*er or independent motion the other .y *ased on the pre(io)s disc)ssion as fo.e assem*.em. 9 ..e to 5)ic%. to o*tain the o(era. 2.0ine is $efine$ as* / co.an be $efine$ as* /n assem*.d *e mentioned that proper determination of 1oint degree of freedom is essentia.0anis%s an$ its De "ee of F"ee$o% The concept of degree of freedom (DOF) is f)ndamenta.ection of .y disconnect the t!o .in%s ha(e !ith respect to each other.y of .f may *e in motion. Degree of freedom (a.i8e the degree of freedom of a 1oint in a mechanism4 it is he..in%.1 Me.ied inp)t motion.in%s and 1oints4 interconnected in a !ay to pro(ide a contro.in%s and 1oints !hich may *e s)ggested as a so.Fina.
anetary gear train and ro*ot.There is no re5)irement that a mechanism ha(e on. The +r)e*. p)rposes4 s)ch as p.osed mechanism !i.e for simp.in% !i.in%s and one 1oint. Fig)re (2. (a) Open chain mechanism (*) . / c. ha(e no open attachment points or nodes and may ha(e one or more degrees of freedom.icity.imited to p.y one DOF4 a.. ro*ot. / dyad is an open %inematic chain of t!o *inary .osed chain mechanism Fig)re 2.osed mechanisms.y.' Different types of mechanism chain. a. "n order to determine the DOF of any mechanism4 it is re5)ired to determine the n)m*er of .er0s e5)ation for determining the DOF of any p.anar mechanism is 1= . mechanisms is *eyond the scope of this te2t4 the disc)ssion of DOF of mechanisms is .!ays ha(e more than one degree of freedom4 th)s )s)a.tho)gh that is often desira*..') sho!s *oth open and c. / common e2amp. -ince the st)dy of spatia. Cinematic chains or mechanisms may *e either open or c.in%s and *oth the n)m*er and degree of freedom of 1oints.y re5)iring as many act)ators as it has DOF. /n open mechanism of more than one .anar mechanisms on. -ome machines ha(e many DOF for their specia..osed..e of an open mechanism is an ind)stria.
/s sho!n in this fig)re4 the degree of freedom of an assem*. The DOF of any mechanism can *e 5)ic%..er0 e5)ation (2. "t is .oaded str)ct)re4 !hich means that no motion is possi*.y predicts its characteristics.4 ha.&e).e j co)nts for *oth f).y their 5)antity.f 1oints j 2 4 it can *e defined as j = j1 + 1 D 2 j 2 .y is a mechanism4 and the .y three possi*i.y is a pre. The (a.&) sho!s the imp.. 33 "f the DOF is negati(e4 then the assem*.y is a str)ct)re4 and no motion is possi*. -ince the (aria*.ementation of C)t8*ach0s e5)ation (2.y determined to acco)nt for a.in% si8ed and shapes4 on.&a) to (2.e4 see Fig)re (2.tip.y of .ess conf)sing to )se C)t8*ach0s modification of +r)e*.y 8ero4 then the assem*.DOF = 3 (n −1) − 2 j (2.ete. 11 .f 1oints (1oints ha(ing t!o3degrees if freedom).2) m)st caref). ha(e re.)e of j1 and j 2 in e5)ation (2.in%age.e and some stresses may a.2) for (ario)s types of ..ati(e motion4 see Fig)res (2. f).ities6 13 "f the DOF is positi(e4 then the assem*. 1oints j1 and ha. There are on. "t is interesting to note that this e5)ation has no information on it a*o)t .1) in this form4 DOF = 3 (n −1) − 2 j1 − j 2 (2...1) for !hich n is the n)m*er of . Fig)re (2.e 1oints in any . 23 "f the DOF is e2act. 1oints (1oints ha(ing one3degree of freedom)4 and j 2 is the n)m*er of ha.&f).f4 and m).in%ages !ith different types of 1oints.in%s comp..&g).in%s and j is the n)m*er of 1oints.so *e present4 see Fig)re (2.y determined from this e2pression *efore in(estigating in more detai.2) !here j1 is the n)m*er of f).ed design.in%s !i.
(a) n = j1 = j2 = 1 DOF = 3 × 4 − 2 × −1 =1 (*) n = & j1 = 1= j2 = = DOF = 3 × ' − 2 ×1= − = =1 (c) n = 3 j1 = 2 j2 = 1 DOF = 3 × 2 − 2 × 2 −1 =1 12 .
(d) n = 3 j1 = 2 j2 = 1 DOF = 3 × 2 − 2 × 2 −1 =1 (e) n = ' j1 = ' j2 = 1 DOF = 3 × # − 2 × ' −1 =3 (f) n = 3 j1 = 3 j2 = = DOF = 3 × 2 − 2 × 3 − = == (g) n = 2 j1 = 2 j2 = = DOF = 3 ×1 − 2 × 2 − = = −1 Fig)re 2.& C)t8*ach imp. 13 .ementation of (ario)s mechanisms.
er criterion and its C)t8*ach0s modification pay no attention to .-ince the +r)e*. Therefore4 it is a str)ct)re.ength *inary . 14 .er parado2es.in%s of ar*itrary shape has DOF = = 4 see Fig)re (2.ts in the case of )ni5)e geometric config)rations.ains +r)e*. "n order to )nderstand this point4 consider the mechanisms depicted in Fig)re (2. (a) n = j1 = # DOF = = This agrees !ith the predicted DOF.eading res).9 Fig)re e2p. Fig)re (2.er criterion and its C)t8*ach0s modification sti. predict it as a str)ct)re or a tr)ss. "n this (ery )ni5)e geometry4 the mechanism can mo(e and it is not str)ct)re anymore4 ho!e(er +r)e*. (c) n = 3 j1 = 3 DOF = = This does not agree !ith the predicted DOF4 the act)a.in%s. DOF is one.9). Fig)re 2.. DOF is one. in .9*) sho!s the same mechanism !ith a straight ternary .in%4 and three e5)a. (*) n = j1 = # DOF = = This does not agree !ith the predicted DOF4 the act)a.in% si8es or shapes4 it can gi(e mis. 9ere4 the mechanism !ith ternary .9a).
.ots determines the n)m*er of FstopsG4 !here stop is 3 9ere4 parado2es mean a gro)p of mechanisms that . The res).ot.eads to a contradiction. "n +ene(a mechanism4 the inp)t cran%4 .osing (a.(es in interna. is fitted !ith at . 2.in% contin)o)s. The +ene(a !hee. com*)stion engines.e inconsistencies. / d!e.so diso*eys +r)e*. There are many app.ot4 the +ene(a !hee.ications for mechanisms ha(ing intermittent motion4 s)ch as opening and c.e mechanism.er e5)ation predicts 8ero degree of freedom of the !ho.y mo(es.y a motor dri(en at a constant speed.. is a period in !hich the o)tp)t . Therefore4 the designer needs to *e a.ati(e ang).erted to these possi*.ea(es that s. 1 .er criterion. One common form of intermittent motion de(ice is the +ene(a mechanism4 see Fig)res (2.ar motion *et!een the discs. 9o!e(er4 this .in%age does mo(e ( DOF = 1 ). s.es of parado2es3 !hich diso*ey the +r)e*.east three e5)ispaced4 radia.1=a) and (2. s.ots.a*.ip occ)rs4 then the 1oint perform as one3degree of freedom4 j1 4 !hich a.. the pin enters the ne2t s.Fig)re (2.. remains stationary )nti. Ehen the pin .s for compression and com*)stion stro%es.t is intermittent rotation of the +ene(a !hee.2 Me.ip4 pro(ided that s)fficient friction is a(ai. The n)m*er of s.0anis%s 3it0 Inte"%ittent Motion "ntermittent motion is a se5)ence of motions and d!e.ot and ca)ses the +ene(a !hee.)tion.9c) sho!s another (ery common mechanism !hich a.in% 24 is typica. The cran% has a pin !hich inters a radia.e4 "f no s.in% remains stationary !hi.. For this p)rposes4 a cam mechanism is )sed to achie(e the re5)ired d!e.o!s on. There are other e2amp. The 1oint *et!een the t!o discs can *e ass)med to a. Eith this ass)mption4 +r)e*.er criterion d)e to their o!n geometry.o! no s.1=*)..e the inp)t .s.y re. to t)rn thro)gh a portion of re(o..
needs three stops at .1= Different types of +ene(a mechanism for intermittent motion.. +ene(a mechanism !ith fo)r3stops (*) "nterna. +ene(a mechanism !ith fo)r3 stops (c) $inear +ene(a mechanism Fig)re 2.east to !or%. / +ene(a !hee. The ma2im)m n)m*er of stops is . 1# .imited on. (a) :2terna.synonymo)s !ith dwell.y *y the si8e of the !hee.
The . and is mo(ed *ac% and forth to inde2 the !hee.. 9ere4 an arm is pi(oted a*o)t the center of the toothed ratchet !hee. 4 The -cotch yo%e de(ice is a three . rotates the ratchet !hee. Fig)re 2.e of mechanisms that pro(ide d!e. mechanism. pre(ents the ratchet from re(ersing direction !hi. /nother e2amp.11 Typica.s in their o)tp)t motion is >atchet and ?a!. -cotch yo%e mechanisms.11*).inear o)tp)t4 see Fig)re (2.oc%ing pa!.11a) and (2.tip. (a) -cotch yo%e mechanism (*) Modified -cotch yo%e mechanism Fig)re 2.e the dri(ing pa!. This mechanism is ana.e yo%es4 see Fig)res (2. 1' .There is a. ret)rns. The dri(ing pa!.12 >eatchet and pa!. in one direction and does no !or% on the ret)rn trip.ogo)s to an open -cotch yo%e de(ice 4 !ith m).in%s mechanism !hich gi(es an e2act simple harmonic motion in response to a constant cran% speed..12).1=c).so a (ariation of the +ene(a mechanism !hich has intermittent .4 see Fig)re (2.
aced *y a *inary . transformation techni5)es !hich co).f 1oint can *e rep.4 Lin/a e T"ansfo"%ation -ynthesi8ing and %inematic ana.14).ran%3s. 1oints4 see Fig)re (2.iding f).ysis techni5)es sometimes re5)ire simp. There are se(era. rotating 1oints are .d *e )sed4 they are6 13 /ny s.ocated at these centers of c)r(at)re4 see Fig)re (2.iding path4 the rotating 1oint is then .13 .ider 1& .13*).2.in%age4 this may gi(e greater )sef)..iding path (*) Transformation of cran%3s..in%age and (ice (ersa4 see Fig)re (2..ocated at infinity4 see Fig)re (2..inear s.13a). (a) Transformation of cran%3s. /s sho!n in this fig)re4 the cran%3s.in% !ith t!o f).d *e noted here that if the s.ider mechanism transformation into fo)r3*ar .d *e noted here that if the ha.13).aced *y a f).4a).iding path Fig)re 2.inear s.in%age.ness.ider mechanism !ith c)r(ed s. "t sho).er .f 1oint is created d)e to the contact of straight and c)r(ed s)rfaces4 this can *e rep.ider mechanism !ith .f 1oint is created d)e to the contact of t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces4 this can *e rep.ider mechanism can *e transformed to fo)r3*ar .aced *y a *inary . 9o!e(er4 if the ha.ifying the gi(en mechanism into simp. 23 /ny ha.in% !hich connecting the center of c)r(at)re of the t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces for !hich the t!o f). "t sho).iding 1oint has . 1oint can *e rep.. rotating 1oint !ith no change in DOF of the mechanism4 see Fig)re (2.aced *y a s.
in% in the %inematic chain.in% !hich .in%age4 these in(ersions are ca.y different motions are denoted as distinct inversions4 as sho!n Fig)res (2. 2. 1oints. (a) Transformation of ha.f 1oint !ith ..in% !ith t!o f)...1 d).ar to other in(ersions of the same . Th)s there are as many possi*.in%s4 see Fig)re (2.5 In6e"sion :(ery mechanism is formed of a %inematic chain..14 Transformation of ha.ting from each in(ersion can *e 5)ite different4 *)t in(ersions of . 19 .ot para.ed nondistinct inversions4 see Fig)res (2.in%.in% !ith t!o f).ides para.1 a) or (2.1 ).inear s)rface Fig)re 2.f 1oint into a *inary . Ehen one of the . to the straight s)rface4 see Fig)re (2.1 *)4 (2.1 a) and (2. rotating 1oints (*) Transformation of ha.in%age may yie.ider !hich s..inear and c)r(ed s)rface into a s. The motions res).in%s in the %inematic chain is fi2ed it *ecomes a mechanism.e.ocated at the center of c)r(at)re of the c)r(ed s)rface and s.e in(ersions of a gi(en .1 *).e.. to the . "n(ersions !hich ha(e distinct.d motions simi.f 1oint !ith t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces into *inary . To determine the in(ersions of a mechanism consider the %inematic chain forming the mechanism and o*tain the desired in(ersions *y fi2ing any one of the mem*ers as the frame .in%age as it has . Therefore4 an inversion is created *y gro)nding a different .1 c)4 and (2.ides in a s.14*).
in(ersions yie.e of fo)r3*ar . /s sho!n in Fig)re (2. The +rashof condition for a fo)r3*ar mechanism !i. 9o!e(er4 if a.1 )4 there are some types of fo)r3*ar mechanisms for !hich their in(ersions are *oth distincti(e and non3distincti(e4 these types of fo)r3*ar mechanisms are ca..ed +rashof fo)r3*ar mechanisms.in%age in(ersions for !hich *oth distinct and non3distinct in(ersions are e2isted.d roc%er3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism.1 :2amp.1#). *e disc)ssed in the 2= ..(a) "n(ersion H1 cran%3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism (*) "n(ersion H2 cran%3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism (c) "n(ersion H3 roc%er3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism (d) "n(ersion H4 cran%3cran% (drag) fo)r3*ar mechanism Fig)re 2.. in(ersions of a certain fo)r3*ar mechanism are non3distincti(e4 then this is a non3+rashof fo)r3*ar mechanism4 see Fig)re (2. "t is o*(io)s in this fig)re that a..
. "n(ersion H2 gi(es roc%er mechanism !hich %no!n as Ehit!orth mechanism and )sed in cran%3 21 .e of distinct in(ersions is sho!n in Fig)re (2.e fo)r3*ar s.y seen and is )sed for interna.in%age for !hich a. (a) "n(ersion H1 (*) "n(ersion H2 (c) "n(ersion H3 (d) "n(ersion H4 Fig)re 2.ider3cran% mechanism.ar disp. in(ersions are roc%er3roc%er4 they are non3distinct in(ersions.ati(e ang).d *e noted that for different in(ersions of a mechanism a.tho)gh the motion characteristics are entire.acements of the mem*ers remain )nchanged irrespecti(e of the .1# "n(ersions of fo)r3*ar . com*)stion engines and p)mps.e in(ersion of a simp.1'). "n(ersion H1 is the most common.in% chosen as a frame.y different *)t the re. This fig)re sho!s the fo)r possi*. "t sho). /nother e2amp.ne2t section.
)ic%3ret)rn mechanisms !i.e pin31ointed chain for sing.7 Fo!"ba" Lin/a es an$ t0e 8"as0of Con$ition /s sho!n *efore4 the fo)r*ar .er .ider s.ider4 here as the cran% rotates4 the o)tp)t .ider mechanism I s.in% s.e degree of freedom mechanism4 see Fig)re (2. Th)s the fo)r*ar .e the co)p. )s)a.ides on the o)tp)t roc%er . "n these mechanisms the ret)rn stro%e is a.in%.in% (c) "n(ersion H3 cran% rotates and the co)p.in% s.ider !hich rotates a*o)t its pi(ot (d) "n(ersion H4 s.d *e among the first choice to motion contro.ider .!ays faster than the !or% stro%e.in%4 !hi.er rotates !.ides on another rotating .)tion.in%age sho).ider s.ider. 9ere4 the s. "n(ersion H4 is o*tained *y gro)nding the s.est possi*.ides and co)p. s.ider3cran% mechanism. 22 .y gi(e the . pro*.. 2. (a) "n(ersion H1 cran%3s. *e in(estigated in the ne2t chapter.east e2pensi(e and most re. "n(ersion H3 gi(es a p)re rotation for the s. .ides inside the s..shaper 5)ic%3ret)rn mechanism.1&).e2 motion since it rotates and s.ides inside it.ides inside the s.ems. The fe!est parts that can do the 1o* !i.ete rotation of the inp)t cran%.ider .ider (*) "n(ersion H2 roc%er mechanism I cran% rotates and s.t.er s.e so.in% s.ia*.r.in% has comp.ider Fig)re 2.)ic%3ret)rn mechanism is an e2pression )sed for mechanisms !hich gi(es reciprocating o)tp)t motion for a comp. .1' Fo)r distinct in(ersions of the fo)r3*ar s.ides inside the s.in%age sho!s the simp..ider is fi2ed I cran% rotates and o)tp)t .
ess of the order of assem*.Fig)re 2.in%age0s in(ersions )sing on.in%4 and the .e re.engths.in% (gro)nd). "n order to )nderstand the +rashof condition4 .et the .ete re(o..in%s.in%age since a.ength of the shortest . The motions possi*. 7ote that +rashof condition is app.eads to trip.in%s are roc%ing on.in%age depend on *oth the +rashof condition and the in(ersion chosen.ity (2. The +rashof condition is a (ery simp.in%s4 (2. The in(ersions is defined !ith respect to the shortest .in%age is +rashof and at .)tion re.1& / typica.e from a fo)r3*ar .)tion !ith respect to the fi2ed .1) is not tr)e4 then the .y the .19). *e capa*.e of ma%ing a comp.ongest . pin31oined fo)r3*ar mechanism.. 23 .ationship !hich predicts the *eha(io)r of a fo)r*ar .in% !i.engths of the remaining t!o .east one .in%age is non3+rashof and no .ati(e to the gro)nd4 this .in% !i.y.ied regard. *e capa*.y of the . the three mo(ing .in% .ete re(o.ength of the .e roc%er fo)r*ar .in%4 see Fig)re (2.in%4 L ! 4 and " then if + L ≤ L +" the . "f ine5)a.e of a comp.1) the ..
osci....ete no re(o.in%age !i.in%s are osci.ogram forms e(ery 1&= )n..y rotate and the other .in% gi(es crank-crank #drag$ fo)r3*ar mechanism.in%s *ecome co. f).. s!ing *et!een do)*.)tion.y the co)p.so ca.ogram and anti3 o para.in% ma%es a comp.)tion of the inp)t cran% !hen a..ete re(o. + L < ! +"4 /s sho!n in Fig)re (2.in% opposite to the shortest gi(es rocker-rocker #double rocker$ fo)r3*ar mechanism4 in !hich *oth .ed triple rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism.ate and on.. This case is a.ider3cran% mechanism.19 Fo)r distinct in(ersions of the fo)r3*ar s.er . the .. "n other !ords4 change points a. For the specia..o! the mechanism to s!itch )npredicta*. For the case + L > ! +" 4 a.ate..inear4 see Fig)re (2..e cran% and cran%3roc%er *)t !i.ess some additiona. ha(e change points t!ice per re(o.in% !i..19)4 in the case of gro)nding the .ate and comp.in%s are pro(ided to carry it 24 . in(ersions are double rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism4 in !hich a.in%s pi(oted to the gro)nd osci.y *et!een the para.e.y4 gro)nding the . +ro)nding the shortest . case + L = ! +" 4 the fo)r*ar . Fina..in% ad1acent to the shortest gi(es crank-rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism for !hich the shortest .in% pi(oted to the gro)nd !i.2=).)tion... ...Fig)re 2.e. .
e a.. o)t3of3phase .e the t!o !indshie. as it e2act...in%age !hich carries thro)gh the change points..y d)p.e para.e.e.e.ogram . circ).in%age and is 5)ite )sef).e..in%age.21).ogram config)ration4 see Fig)re (2..er of the para.21 Do)*.in% is pro(ided to g)arantee carry-through of the change points4 see Fig)re (2. (a) ?ara.in%age is in c)r(i. This additiona.e !hi. case +rashof .ogram form (*) /nti3para.inear trans.ar paths. points on it descri*e identica.e.ogram .ogram form Fig)re 2.2= ?ara.2=)4 is a specia. The co)p..thro)gh those positions. Fig)re 2.ation4 remaining at the same ang. One common )se is to co)p.ogram form of specia. case +rashof . 2 .e.icates the rotary motion of the dri(er cran% at the dri(en cran%. The para.d !iper.
)sed in car s)spension systems to g)ide the rear a2. possi*.in% is the generation of e2act straight .0anis%s / (ery common app.in%age (c) 9oe%ens straight3.in%ages.ace.in%age is sti. in their p.ication of co)p.e roc%er .in%age (*) .ication. Fig)re (2..ine.in%age Fig)re 2.e config)rations are e5)a. (a) Eatt0s straight3. This do)*.9 St"ai 0t Line Me.22 -ome common straight3. The )se of crank-rocker4 crank-crank4 double rocker or e(en triple rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism depends )pon the app.y )sef).. 2.ine .ine ..he*yshe( straight3.ine or appro2imate straight .ine .er .ine .ier e2act straight3. $in%ages of a.ine tra1ectories.in%age (d) ?ea)ce.e )p and do!n in a straight .ine .in%age..There is nothing *ad or good a*o)t the +rashof condition. 2# .22a) sho!s Eatt0s straight3.ine .
arger than the .in% 1 does not e5)a.ier (1) disco(ered an e2act straight .in%age may ha(e an ad(antage in some cases.22d). .in% 24 point .ine .y e5)a.ine tra1ectory4 i.s .e.in%age4 sho!n in Fig)re (2.e.in%s are re5)ired. $in% 3 e5)a.in%s4 see Fig)re (2.engths. generates tr)e circ. "n order to generate an e2act straight . 9o!e(er4 the 9oe%ens straight3. This . $in%s 4 #4 '4 and & form a rhom*)s.ine tra1ectory.The .he*yshe( straight3..s .in% 4 and !hen .ine mechanism of eight .eft or right4 i. By mo(ing the pi(ot O 2 . ?ea)ce.22c)4 is a +rashof cran%3roc%er. .in% 24 point . of these mechanisms generate an appro2imate straight3.in% 1 e2act.e roc%er4 is sho!n in Fig)re (2.22*).ine . 2' . /.e arcs !ith radii m)ch ..in%age4 a +rashof do)*.in% . an arc with infinite radius.ine tra1ectory4 more than fo)r . generates a straight .
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