Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 www.elsevier.

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Thermal analysis of an SI engine piston using different combustion boundary condition treatments
V. Esfahanian a, A. Javaheri a, M. Ghaffarpour
a b

b,*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Amir-Abad Ave., Tehran, Iran University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 842 Taylor Street 2039 ERF (MC 251), Chicago, IL 60607, United States Received 17 August 2004; accepted 4 May 2005 Available online 29 September 2005

Abstract In this study, the heat transfer to an engine piston crown is calculated. Three different methods for the combustion boundary condition are used. The results of different combustion side boundary condition treatments are compared and their effects on the thermal behavior of the piston are investigated. It has been shown that using spatial and time averaged combustion side boundary condition is a suitable treatment method within engineering approximations. An interface between KIVA-3V and NASTRAN codes is developed. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Piston; Heat transfer; Combustion; Boundary Condition Treatment

1. Introduction It is important to calculate the piston temperature distribution in order to control the thermal stresses and deformations within acceptable levels. The temperature distribution enables us to optimize the thermal aspects of the piston design at lower cost, before the first prototype is constructed. As much as 60% of the total engine mechanical power lost is generated by piston ring assembly [1]. The piston skirt surface slides on the cylinder bore. A lubricant film fills the clearance between the surfaces. The small values of the clearance increase the frictional losses and the high values increase the secondary motion of the piston. Most of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine pistons are made of an aluminum alloy which has a thermal expansion coefficient, 80% higher than the cylinder bore material made of cast iron. This leads to some differences between running and the
*

Corresponding author. E-mail address: mghaffar@uic.edu (M. Ghaffarpour).

design clearances. Therefore, analysis of the piston thermal behavior is extremely crucial in designing more efficient engine. The thermal analysis of piston is important from different perspectives. First, the highest temperature of any point in piston must not exceed more than 66% of the melting point temperature of the alloy [2]. This limit temperature for the current engine piston alloy is about 640 K. Temperature distribution leads to thermal deformations and thermal stresses. The piston thermal deformation has an important role in piston skirt design which has a potential to reduce friction and piston slap. In this design, both of the thermal and mechanical stresses must be considered indicating the importance of piston thermal analysis. In the recent work [1], Li used finite element method to analyze the piston thermal behavior. Because of symmetry, he only used a quarter of the piston. He applied the thermal boundary conditions of piston symmetrically. He used simple combustion model for combustion side boundary condition. His numerical results matched

1359-4311/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.05.002

278 V. Their results were compared with a finite element method and verified for sim- plified test problems. [6] modified an existing quasi-dimensional engine cycle model to enable accurate prediction of near wall temperature field in the burned and unburned gases. their model was applied to realistic problems and gave a good agreement with available experimental data. The piston was subjected to the coupled action of thermal and mechanical loads. . / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 Nomenclature As h1 h2 h3 h4 heff hi hup hdown hwater huc1 huc2 H1 H2 H3 k K Kgas N Prl q00 q00 i q00 i effective area in contact with coolant (m2) convective heat transfer coefficient in waterjacket of cylinder 1 (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient in waterjacket of cylinder 2 (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient in waterjacket of cylinder 3 (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient in waterjacket of cylinder 4 (kW/m2 K) effective convective heat transfer coefficient on the piston (kW/m2 K) nodal convective heat transfer coefficient on the piston top surface (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient on the upper side of the ring gap (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient on the lower side of the ring gap (kW/m2 K) convective heat transfer coefficient in waterjacket (kW/m2 K) crown underside convective heat transfer coefficient (kW/m2 K) skirt underside convective heat transfer coefficient (kW/m2 K) width of the heat transfer path in ring (m) width of the heat transfer path in oil film (m) width of the heat transfer path in block (m) Karman constant kinetic energy (m2/s2) conductive heat transfer coefficient of the in-cylinder gas (kW/K) engine speed (rpm) laminar Prandtl number heat flux on the piston top surface (kW/m2) nodal surface heat flux on the piston top surface (kW/m2) nodal cycle averaged surface heat flux on the piston top surface (kW/m2) r1 r2 r3 r4 R1 R2 R3 R4 Rtot RPR Ti Ti Toil ðT p Þi T new p T old p Tpiston Tw Twall Twater T Y inner radius of the ring (m) outer radius of the ring (m) bore radius (m) inner radius of the water-jacket (m) ring conductive thermal resistance (m2 K/ kW) oil film conductive thermal resistance (m2 K/ kW) block conductive thermal resistance (m2 K/ kW) water-jacket convective thermal resistance (m2 K/kW) sum of the thermal resistance values (m2 K/ kW) the inverse turbulent Prandtl number nodal gas temperature on the piston top surface (K) nodal cycle averaged gas temperature on the piston top surface (K) oil temperature (K) nodal piston top surface temperature (K) new calculated temperature of the piston top surface (K) old calculated temperature of the piston top surface (K) piston temperature (K) wall temperature (K) wall temperature (K) coolant temperature in the water-jacket (K) gas temperature (K) distance from the wall (K) Greek symbols d the crevice clearance (m) q the gas density (kg/m3) ml kinematic viscosity (m2/s) with experiment well. [7] used a resistant-capacitor model to analyze the piston heat transfer. The results would be used as source data for the development of a global elastohydrodynamic model and was provided a good tool for piston design analysis. Liu and Reitz [3. Esfahanian et al. In their model.4] developed a two-dimensional (axisymmetric) transient heat conduction in components (HCC) computer program for predicting combustion chamber wall temperatures. This model is usually used for engine components including piston warm-up process analysis. Jenkin et al. In addition. Bohac et al. A k–e turbulence model had been incorporated into the engine cycle simulation. some points in piston are assumed as capacitor and the paths between them are treated as resistances. [5] developed a threedimensional finite element full analysis which describes the thermo-mechanical behavior of direct injection diesel engine piston. Abbas et al.

Piston solid model generated by SolidWorks. conservation of mass.1 5000 55 bTDC Fig. The three-dimensional piston solid model is meshed in PATRAN software (Fig. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 279 Heat is transferred from the hot gases to the piston top surface. This model is generated by SolidWorks. The characteristics of the engine under study are summarized in Table 1.61 cm 44° bTDC 84° aBDC 46° bBDC 0. dimensional heat conduction equation for the finite element models. Esfahanian et al. KIVA-3V.844 nodes.V. A commercial finite element package. Then the heat is transferred to the other parts of the engine from other sides of piston such as ring land. Piston mesh generated in PATRAN for use in NASTRAN. under side and pin. and then conducted to the other side of the piston. is used for thermal analysis. The interaction between the combustion side boundary condition is investigated. 3. 1 shows the solid model of the piston under study. 2) and imported into NASTRAN. is used for combustion analysis.667 cm 8 11. the thermal boundary conditions for the piston thermal analysis are developed. The mesh has 96.120 10node tetrahedral elements (tet10) and 145. which is an IC engine in-cylinder flow and combustion analyzer CFD code.83 bar 297 K 1. The code integrates the transient. Table 1 Specification of the engine under study Bore Stroke Compression ratio Connecting rod IVO IVC EVO IP IT k RPM Ignition time 8. 1. energy and species equation 2. NASTRAN. skirt.735 cm 6. Fig. Numerical approach Fig. NASTRAN solves the three- Fig. momentum. Combustion chamber mesh generated in KIVA-3V. . In the present work. 2.

underside thermal boundary condition.320 nodes. 5) with the following assumptions: where r1.) between the meshes of piston top surface in NASTRAN and KIVA-3V. Esfahanian et al. 3. Piston top surface meshes in KIVA-3V and NASTRAN. quasi-second-order up-winding approach together with the arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique to treat grid movement associated with the piston motion. The 4-node interpolation method is used for data transferring (like q00 . combustion is modeled using either finite-rate laminar. chemistry or chemical equilibrium. Fig. piston pin thermal boundary condition. • the rings do not twist. bore radius and inner radius of water-jacket.299 cells and 73. 4 illustrates these two meshes.r4 are inner radius of ring. 4. The ring land and skirt thermal boundary condition Thermal circuit method is used to model the heat transfer in the ring land and skirt region (Fig. . Fig. In the original code.280 V. 5. T. 4. 2. • the effect of piston motion on the heat transfer is neglected. The standard two-equation k–e turbulent model is used. . . .1. The resistances are: R1 ¼ R2 ¼ R3 ¼ lnðr2 =r1 Þ 2pH 1 k ring lnðr3 =r2 Þ 2pH 2 k oil ring resistance oil film resistance ð 1Þ ð 2Þ ð 3Þ ð 4Þ 3. Thermal circuit resistance model for heat transfer from the rings. . Temporal and spatial differencing is achieved using a semi-implicit. The mathematical form of the governing equations is provided in detail in the KIVA userÕs manual. 3 shows the mesh generated for KIVA-3V. • the rings and skirt are fully engulfed in oil and there are no cavitations. . See reference [10] for details. The oil film layer resistance is small in comparison with the other resistances (Table 2). this mesh has 73. . As is the effective area in contact with the coolant. respectively. the ring land and skirt thermal boundary condition. The above selected grid size and number was selected based on recommendation by engine manufacturer. H2 and H3 are the widths of the heat transfer paths. governing the ensemble averaged behavior of chemically reacting turbulent flow. KIVA integrates finite-difference approximations to the governing equations. combustion side thermal boundary condition. Formation of cavitations in oil film region where the heat flux approaches zero is also a problem. In those . Fig. respectively. Thus the variation in the oil film thickness and the effect of piston motion in convective heat transfer on the oil film is negligible. An extensive computational study to optimize the grid size and number was performed by engine manufacturer. outer radius of ring. Piston thermal boundary conditions Piston thermal boundary conditions consist of: 1. • the only heat transfer mode in the oil film is assumed to be conduction. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 Fig. H1. lnðr4 =r3 Þ block resistance 2pH 3 k block 1 R4 ¼ water-jacket resistance hwater As 3.

159 0. . The convective heat transfer coefficient in the waterjacket. the heat transfer path is from the lower surface of the ring gap [1]. is used to calculate R4 [5]. . 3. The value of the heff for the first ring is calculated 2673 W/m2K. During the remaining cycle duration. The values of convective heat transfer coefficients are shown in Table 4.R4 are calculated. and for the 68% of the engine cycle. The effective heat transfer coefficient is obtained from heff ¼ 1 Rtot Aeff ð 6Þ Table 4 Convective heat transfer coefficients for the ring land and skirt in cylinder 4. The crown underside is cooled by splash cooling type. T = 353 K h (W/m2 K) Ring Ring Ring Ring Ring Ring Skirt 1 1 2 2 3 3 up down up down up down 885 1818 420 891 482 1023 1443 Fig. Since cylinder 4 has the worst condition. Therefore.V. the ring pack is in contact with the upper surface of ring gap.151 7 · 10À5 0. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 Table 2 Thermal resistance values for first ring thermal circuit at 5000 RPM Resistances (m2 K/kW) R1 R2 R3 R4 Rtot 0. hwater. The values of convective heat transfer coefficients for each cylinder are shown in Table 3. Convective heat transfer coefficient for the region between the rings is 115 W/m2 K and the reference temperature is the oil temperature (383 K) [1].333 281 Table 3 Coolant side convective heat transfer coefficients for cylinders 1–4 Heat transfer coefficient h1 h2 h3 h4 W/m2 K 3834 4536 2942 1481 where Aeff is the piston surface in contact with the ring. a heat transfer path is considered (Fig. the heat transfer path is from the upper surface of the ring gap. The skirt underside. Esfahanian et al. The inner face of the ring gap is assumed to be adiabatic [1]. . The piston underside is divided into two regions: Region 1. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient is calculated from the following equation [3]:  0:35 N huc1 ¼ 900 ð 7Þ 4600 Region 2. The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient on skirt is given in Table 4. . In some part of a engine cycle. The piston underside heat transfer boundary condition The piston underside cooling system in the piston under study is oil splash cooling. In this study. 6) and the values of R1. the heat transfer coefficient value is calculated from the equation below [3]:  0:35 N huc2 ¼ 240 ð 8Þ 4600 engines that the piston slap and the clearance between piston and cylinder are high. we neglect this phenomenon and it is assumed that the oil film has its continuity. .2. the calculations are performed on this cylinder: hwater ¼ 1:48 kW=m2 K ð 5Þ To model the first ring. Heat transfer path from the rings. For 32% of the engine cycle. for the first ring we have hup ¼ 2673 Â 0:32 ¼ 855 W=m2 K hdown ¼ 2673 Â 0:68 ¼ 1818 W=m2 K T ¼ T water ¼ 353 K The other rings are modeled similar to the first ring. 6. The same method is used to model the skirt where the ring resistance (R1) is zero. formation of cavitation regions increases. it is in contact with the lower surface of the ring gap.023 0.

5%. Similarly. we discuss the effect of applying transient boundary condition during the cycle. there is no need to use the third methods for combustion side boundary condition. The combustion boundary condition treatment methods There are three methods of combustion boundary condition treatment 1. This is because it considers local heat flux for the piston top surface. This is because it considers all the heat transfer fluctuations locally. the heat is conducted through the gas with the convective heat transfer coefficient. iteration is needed to obtain the correct boundary conditions. the differences resulting from implementation of the above methods are compared to each other. 4. Moreover. other heat sinks like rings and underside oil cooling cause the piston surface to be cooled down. it gives h ¼ 88 W=m2 K. Our experience indicates that. Therefore. 7b. Esfahanian et al.1. the other heat sinks cause the piston surface to be cooled down. the captured gas temperature is the mean temperature of the crevice surfaces [6]. the heat is subjected to the piston surface. However.282 V. locally cycle averaged values for the gas heat flux at the piston top surface. fully locally transient values for the gas heat flux at the piston top surface. locally time averaged values of piston top surface temperature. Thus. it is time consuming. 7a. Heat transfer from the piston pin The heat transfer coefficient in this region is 1000 W/ m2 K with reference to the oil temperature [1]. Surface averaged and spatial combustion boundary condition The difference between applying a surface averaged combustion boundary condition and spatial combustion where d is crevice clearance. 2. although the temperature of the burnt gases is higher. the second methods are more accurate than the first options. 0. In addition. Therefore. From the piston thermal analysis point of view.3. During the combustion. At this point. . This variation is about 3 K or 0. The surface averaged value of heat flux (q00 ) variation on the piston crown is shown in Fig. this engine is modeled with KIVA-3V computational code. 4. The heat flux from the hot gases is modeled with Tgas and hgas in NASTRAN.425 mm for the engine under study.3. 7b).037 W/m2 K. fully locally transient values of piston top surface temperature. the piston temperature variation during the cycle does not affect the results of KIVA-3V code. By applying q00 as varying T and h during the cycle as input of NASTRAN and after transient analysis. For this boundary condition. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 The calculations at 5000 RPM resulting hun1 ffi 925 W=m2 K hun2 ffi 250 W=m2 K T oil ¼ 383 K 3. The heat transfer is modeled with a convective heat transfer to the cylinder wall: k T piston À T wall ¼ hðT piston À T wall Þ d k h¼ d There are also three similar methods to set the piston temperature boundary condition for the combustion model: 1. 4. time and surface averaged values of piston top surface temperature. 3.2. surface and cycle averaged values for the gas heat flux at the piston top surface. KIVA-3V is not sensitive to small temperature variations on the boundary as shown in Fig. 2. the heat flux of hot gases to the piston top surface (resulting from the KIVA-3V code) is required. Therefore. Applying transient boundary condition First. One can conclude that applying a variable heat flux boundary condition during the engine cycle does not affect the results of the piston thermal behavior. On the other hand. The crevice heat transfer coefficient Since there is a small gap between piston crown and the liner. The temperature of piston top surface is used for KIVA-3V. applying a variable piston temperature boundary condition during the engine cycle does not affect the results of combustion analysis. the third methods lead to more accurate results. For k = 0. these variations do not affect the piston thermal analysis using NASTRAN.4. It is evident that in piston and combustion boundary condition treatments. 3. Kgas. At the end of the cycle. Piston temperature is one of the thermal boundary conditions in KIVA-3V. heat is absorbed from the piston surface by cold gases. 3. At the beginning of the cycle. T ¼ T wall ¼ 400 K 4. The combustion side boundary condition The main heat source for the piston is the hot gases in the combustion chamber. the surface temperature of the piston is obtained (Fig.

If we apply an averaged q00 on the piston surface. Therefore. 8. Spatial cycle averaged boundary condition The heat flux (q00 ) from the hot gases and the gas temperature is averaged in an engine cycle for each element. the calculated q00 (heat flux on the piston top surface) will not be accurate enough for NASTRAN. we have to use spatial combustion boundary condition for piston thermal analysis in NASTRAN. boundary condition on the piston crown surface can be considered from different points of view. using R 4p Ti ¼ 0 R 4p q00 i ¼ 0 q00 i ðhÞdðhÞ 4p ð10Þ To obtain averaged h on any element of piston surface. and spark plug locations. Also. There are two treatment methods for temperature boundary condition in KIVA-3V. and combustion chamber shape are some examples of these parameters. (a) Piston top surface heat flux variation during one engine cycle and (b) temperature fluctuations of a point on the piston top surface in one engine cycle. considerably. an averaged boundary temperature (both cycle and surface averaged) and spatial boundary temperature (cycle averaged). one can use:  hi ¼ q00 i T i À ðT p Þi ð11Þ T i ð h Þ dð h Þ 4p ð 9Þ Fig. since there is not much heat flux around the piston crown. this effect is not considered. surface averaging decreases the accuracy of the boundary modification.4. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 283 Fig. This causes the temperature profiles on piston crown to vary significantly. this effect would not be captured.V. The main point is that if we use a surface averaged temperature as the input to the combustion code. Esfahanian et al. if we use an averaged heat flux in our calculation. . 7. the heat flux on the piston top surface is not symmetric. since the temperature variation on the piston top surface is about 30 K. There are many parameters that cause the heat flux (q00 ) to be nonsymmetric. to get better and more accurate results for piston temperature. especially at high engine speeds and loads. Exhaust and intake valves. Computational system flowchart. Another issue is that. 4. As we will see later.

The surface temperature and heat flux are shown in Fig. kinematical energy and Y is the distance from the wall. Esfahanian et al. Karman constant. Fig. 11. The input file of NASTRAN code is a formatted file in which T and h of each point of piston crown should be entered in a special format. On the other zones. wall temperature. the convergence criterion is reached. a new Tp is guessed. The reason is due to the impact of inlet cold air during the intake and reduction of flame speed because of flame quenching in the intake valve zone. After some iteration. 2400 cc [9]. The results show that. the temperature and heat flux on the piston surface is quite asymmetric. The comparison between the new and old piston temperature represents the convergence of the process. The flowchart of this process is shown in Fig. The laminar Prandtl number is supposed to be constant and equal to Prl = 0. the flame speed and turbulence increase which. As it can be seen. 9. The comparison of the results of computation and the experimental are shown in Fig. If the convergence is not achieved. Also cp has no significant variation. 9. There are no experimental data for the engine piston temperature. ml. To validate the combustion model the pressure curves resulted from KIVA-3V and experimental data in cylinder 4 are compared (Fig. the final piston temperature is calculated. The heat flux in turbulent flow is obtained from [10] q00 ¼ qml cp F ðT À T w Þ Prl Y ( R0 Pr ÂRPR 1 where R0 ¼ 1=4 1=2 cl K Y ml ð13Þ R0 > 11:05 R0 < 11:05 F ¼ l 1 ln R0 þBþ11:05ðPr ÂRPRÀ1Þ l k ð14Þ ð15Þ Fig. were Prl is laminar Prandtl number. The engine is a spark-ignited four stroke. K. as the temperature of the combustion chamber wall are higher. we introduce non-dimensional piston temperatures (with maximum piston temperature) along the pin line of the piston top surface. 5. The results of steady state analysis of NASTRAN code give a new piston temperature and consequently new q00 profile. One of the effective parameters for q00 variations is the temperature difference between gas and combustion chamber . Comparison of the computational and experimental pressure curves for cylinder 4. lead to increasing the heat flux to the combustion chamber walls. After six iterations. Therefore. To compare the results. i is the node number. Tw. The heat flux under the intake valve is less than the other zones. the piston temperature results for a similar engine were used for validation.74. kinematic viscosity. Comparison of the computational and experimental of nondimensional temperature on piston top surface. the experimental and computational data match relatively very well. k. The convergence criterion is defined as follows: n P ðj T new À T old jÞ i i i¼1 < Error ð12Þ n where n is the number of piston crown surface nodes. Results The first step in our study is to calibrate and validate the model. The value of error is considered 1 K. 8. 10.284 V. the inverse turbulent Prandtl number. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 In these equations. 10). RPR.

The points that are indicated by labels 1. Fig. Point 2 has the maximum heat flux while point 1 has the minimum. 12. Fig. Fig. The regions near the exhaust valve have higher heat flux compared to intake valve regions. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 285 Fig. Esfahanian et al. 2 and 3 are of special interests which are explained here in detail. . wall. On regions just under the spark plug. the heat flux intensity is less than the opposite regions which have higher heat flux.V. 11. Variation trend of the piston top surface heat flux during the combustion process (MW/m2). The parameter F represents the turbulence intensity of the flow. 13 shows the heat flux on these three regions in a complete cycle. 14 shows the temperature variation in these regions. This figure shows that the gas temperature has Fig. (a) Piston top surface temperature after convergence (K) and (b) piston top surface heat flux after convergence (MW/m2). 12 shows the variation trend of q00 contours on the piston surface.

Comparison of the piston top surface heat flux at three different points. Fig. the pressure of the unburnt gases ahead of the flame increases resulting in increasing the density that leads to increasing the heat flux. Table 5 shows a comparison between three methods of combustion side boundary condition treatment. In this case. the results of thermal analysis are within engineering approximations. This is one of the reasons for heat flux difference at these three points. Fig. point 2 has the highest value of turbulent kinetic energy. As the flame front leaves the spark plug. 14. . point 3 has a higher density than points 1 and 2. minor contribution in heat flux differences because at all the three points temperature rises nearly in the same manner. During the combustion. 13. It can be seen that point 2 has the higher value of F. 16 shows the variations of F at these three points. Fig. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 Fig. 15. Fig. the comparison show applying a time varying piston temperature boundary condition during the engine cycle does not affect the results of combustion analysis. Also the density of point 2 is more than point 1 in this period (Fig. Density variation affects the heat flux in another manner. Comparison of the gas density on the piston top surface at three different points. Fig. 15).286 V. As a result. Esfahanian et al. Also. This parameter is related to the turbulence of the flow. It is concluded that the transient boundary condition is very time consuming. Comparison of the gas temperature on the piston top surface at three different points. 17 shows the turbulent kinematic energy variation for these three points. Comparison of the F on the piston top surface at three different points. during the combustion period. 16.

Baker. Mr. A thermomechanical model of direct injection diesel engine piston. Assanis. Li. It is found that.M. Liu. SAE Paper 960073. Bounif. Kiva-3v: a block structured KIVA program for engines with vertical or canted valves. Int. Skandarpour. 212. 1997. IMechE. Esfahanian et al. New York. Part D.D. [7] S.M. [4] Y. Fig. Modeling the effects of combustion and turbulence on the near-wall temperature gradients in the cylinder of spark ignition engines. Part D: Automotive Engineering. James. ASM Handbook. Salavati Zadeh.A. Tahar Abbas. J.J. Malalasekera. P.H. 1990. IMechE. J. McGraw-Hill. vol. Aghakhanlou. [6] R. [5] M. Modeling of heat conduction within chamber walls for multidimensional internal combustion engine simulations. Admeson. Frene. A global model for steady state and transient SI engine heat transfer studies. SAE Paper 971539. 1. 218. Reitz. Moreover. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Bohac. vol.D. vol. Ziaee. References [1] C. / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 277–287 287 analysis. Conclusion Three different combustion side boundary condition treatment methods for piston thermal analysis are carried out and a good interface between NASTRAN and KIVA-3V codes is developed. Steels and High Performance Alloy. SAE Paper 820086. R. Heywood John. Mr. MR. Acknowledgement The authors would like to express thanks to Mr. using spatial and time averaged combustion side boundary condition is an effective way as is compared with surface and time averaged boundary condition in piston thermal . Mr. Jenkin. applying a time varying piston temperature boundary condition during the engine cycle does not affect the results of combustion analysis. W. ASM International. [10] A. in: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. [2] Properties and Selection: Irons. 1998. 1996. Reitz. NM. applying the transient boundary condition is very time consuming and does not affect the results of piston thermal analysis within engineering approximations. Multidimensional modeling of combustion chamber surface temperatures. Comparison of the turbulent kinetic energy on the piston top surface at three different points. 17. D. 1988. Los Alamos National Laboratory Report. Heat Mass Transfer 41 (6–7) (1998) 859–869. [3] Y. 2004. May 1997. In addition. D. 1982.V. Piston thermal deformation and friction considerations. R. LA-11560. A. Maspeyrot.V. Table 5 Comparison between three combustion side boundary condition treatment methods Surface and Spatial and time averaged time averaged Time (h) Accuracy 100 Low (For a good estimation) 150 Good (For engineering application) Fully transient 1700 High (For considering piston and combustion transient interaction) 6. Rajabali. USA. E. [9] B.N. in: Proceedings of the institution of mechanical engineers.H. and all the partners in Irankhodro Powertrain Company and University of Tehran. Liu.

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