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**013(New) Lecture 1: Introduction to Wireless Communications
**

A. Wireless communications are ubiquitous

This first section of 6.013(New), Electromagnetics and Applications, focuses on wireless communications, which can involve point-to-point communications, broadcasting (one point to many), or passive sensing of natural or man-made signals. The original point-to-point wireless communications links for telephone and telegraph circuits sometimes were direct line-of-sight or diffracted paths and sometimes involved ionospheric reflections. They were largely superceded, initially by coaxial cables and multi-hop microwave links that were later supplemented by satellite links, and ultimately by optical fibers and cellular technology. Each technical advance markedly boosted capacity and generally increased reliability. Most homes and offices are currently served by twisted pairs of wires, each conveying ~50 kbs - 1.5 Mbps, although coaxial cables, satellite links, and even wireless services are making inroads. All of these modalities will be addressed in 6.013(New). The most common wireless services currently include cell phones, wireless phones (within a home or office), walkie-talkies (dedicated mobile links), satellite links, microwave tower links, and many specialized variations for private or military use. In addition, optical or microwave line-of-sight links between buildings offer instant broadband connectivity for the “last mile” to the consumer, which accounts for a significant fraction of all installed plant cost. Weather generally restricts optical links to very short hops or to weather-independent optical fibers. Specialized medical devices, such as RF links to video cameras inside swallowed pills, are also being developed. Broadcast services now include AM radio near 1 MHz, FM radio near 100 MHz and higher frequencies, TV in several bands between 50 and 600 MHz for local over-the-air service, and TV and radio delivered by satellite at many GHz. Shortwave radio below ~30 MHz also offers global international broadcasts dependent upon ionospheric conditions, and is widely used by radio hams for long-distance communications. The intensities of thermal and non-thermal microwave radiation from the terrestrial atmosphere and surface can be passively sensed for meteorological and other geophysical purposes. For example, almost all objects radiate radio waves in proportion to their temperature, just as a bonfire radiates heat. More precisely, the power P [W] radiated by any blackbody (reflectivity = 0) into a transmission line at radio or microwave frequencies within a bandwidth B [Hz] is kTB, where T is the temperature of the radiator [oK] and k = 1.38×10-23 [JK-1] is Boltzmann's constant. Similar passive sensors can monitor patients for medical purposes and artifacts of interest, such as motors, computers, or wildlife tracking devices. Wireless services are so ubiquitous today that we may take them for granted, forgetting that a few generations ago the very concept would have been considered magic. Despite the wide range of services already in wide use, it is reasonable to assume that over the next few decades numerous other wireless technologies and services will be developed by today’s engineering students. -16.013(New)-9/5/02

r) [Wm-2] = PR/4πr2 at distance r [m].φ. The shapes of typical antenna gain patterns are suggested below. a transmitter antenna radiating isotropically1 PR watts would produce a wave in direction θ. Communications requires power and energy Even the best current radio receivers require a certain amount of energy per bit of information.φ. The current nominal state-of-theart receivers require at least ~4×10-20 Joules per bit of information. and arrays. or ~7 arc minutes (the sun and moon have diameters of ~30 arc minutes).r)/(PR/4πr2) (1) Antenna gain is a dimensionless quantity. Slide L1-5 has photographs of three examples. For example. and that useful data rates are possible even via air links that are extremely weak. The middle illustration is of the National Radio Astronomy 300-ft paraboloic radiotelescope (now dismantled) in Greenbank.φ having Pr(θ. The remarkably low values for Eb imply enormous data transfer rates are possible at very reasonable power levels that are easily achieved via wire or fibers. -26. where M is the bit rate per second. Throughout these notes references will be made to the lecture slides. and so the power required at the receiver is simply EbM. we shall ignore these for now and shall assume power is conserved as it propagates. Eb. however. offering some “gain over isotropic”: G(θ.013(New)-9/5/02 . its beamwidth was ~λ/D ≅ 0. The upper illustration shows five microwave antennas operating near 1-cm wavelength that use bulbous lenses to focus the radio waves in a 10º beam. whether that information is analog or digital.B.φ) = Pr(θ. spherically. The bottom illustration is of a multi-aperture optical interferometer that successfully measured the relative positions of two orbiting stars to ~100 micro-arc-seconds 1 Isotropic means equal in all directions. where "L1-5" designates Slide 5 of Lecture 1. curved mirrors. West Virgina. Although electromagnetic waves are slightly absorbed by losses in air.r) r2 sinθ dθ dφ.φ. to concentrate their power in desired directions. Three standard approaches to concentrating electromagnetic waves are illustrated below: lenses. It follows that PR = ∫4π Pr(θ. even though it may weaken as it spreads out far from the transmitter. Most antennas are designed.2/100 radians.

φ) [W].through the terrestrial atmosphere (the Hubble space telescope achieves ~100 milli-arc-second resolution). this reverse link is traditionally stronger and more reliable. where the data rate is M [bs-1] and we assume Eb = 4×10-20. We might guess that the base station antenna in this example directed primarily toward the horizon. but not upward into the sky nor particularly downward (any user positioned downward is so nearby that leakage radiation suffices).φ times the antenna effective area for that same direction. the bandwidth allocated to each user is generally the minimum required to convey intelligible speech. The receiving properties of antennas are commonly characterized by their “effective area” A(θ.3 cm. where A = Gλ2/4π. where the power recieved Prec is simply the incident flux [Wm-2] from direction θ.φ)λ2/4π [m2] With this simple definition we can now evaluate wireless communications links. under most circumstances. Prec = Pr(θ. and that at a range of 10 km we want an extra 40 dB at the receiver above the nominal threshold for detection (a factor of x = 104). where we assume the user’s phone transmits 1 watt (PR = 1) isotropically (which is a reasonable approximation).φ) = G(θ.φ) [W] (2) We shall show later that there is. To maximize the number of users served within any bandwidth allocation.013(New)-9/5/02 . (3) C. If this is a 900-MHz system. with G ≅ 10. This corresponds at the base station to a received power Prec = A(θ.φ) [m2]. The required bandwidth is generally proportional to data rate for any given modulation scheme. and 20 dB a factor of 100 [x = 100]. It follows that Prec = APr = 0. a simple relation between the gain and effective area of an antenna: they have the exact same shape such that: A(θ. (Recall that 10 dB is a factor of ten [x = 10]. and we find A = 0.088×8×10-14 = 7. The reason we don’t have cell phones with such high data rates is that they would require much greater bandwidths and spectrum utilization that is available today at reasonable cost.088 m2.φ)Pr(θ.. Later we shall discuss tricks to boost “frequency reuse” of cellular phones that might permit these higher data rates. then the wavelength λ = c/f = 33.φ)A(θ. A pattern like that illustrated in L1-6 is plausible. where dB = 10 log10 x. Cell-phone example In L1-6 a cellular phone example is presented. That is. and since the base station transmitter can be much more powerful.) Therefore we expect Pr [Wm-2] = 104PR/4πr2 = 8×10-14 at 10 km. Thus the received power here is enough to support a data rate of 176 kbps! The link in the reverse direction passes through the same two antennas and suffers the same 1/4πr2 “path loss”. -36.1×10-15 watts = MEb.

It follows then that Prec = <(VTh/2)2>/Rr. Although we have now seen the basic equations necessary to compute communications links for ideal cases. which is made equal to maximize intercepted power. we can send the data at slower rates consistent with speech (say 4. all in series. in general. how it propagates. Next. where <•> signifies “time average”. This extra margin provides power to reflect or diffract around buildings. Circuit properties of antennas Antennas must be connected to circuits and we therefore need to know their circuit properties. The radiation resistance Rr corresponds to power “lost” by radiation rather than by dissipation that heats the structure. and a Thevenin voltage source VTh. The one-watt transmitter limit is consistent with reasonable battery weights and lifetimes and with the desire not to injure the user’s head. how we design wireless communications systems using such waves. The circuit illustrated in L1-7 shows how the Thevenin voltage is divided across the radiation resistance and the load resistance. and through windows and walls. D.6). The power radiated PR = <i2(t)>Rr watts. Fortunately Maxwell’s equations are linear.013(New)-9/5/02 . a reactance X. which we shall also discuss at greater length later. or a total of ~53 dB margin. we shall extend this discussion briefly to optical communications links. Note that the radiation resistance is generally the same whether the antenna is receiving or transmitting. Since it permits higher data rates than frequency allocations and economics now allow.6 kbps) and obtain perhaps another 13 dB of margin (x = 176/9. how we launch and receive them and. The power density of radio waves [Wm-2] at the user’s head produced by a 1-watt transmitter is on the same order as that from sunlight.8-9. Therefore antennas can be modeled by Thevenin equivalent circuits consisting of a “radiation resistance” Rr. under bridges. -46. Later we shall see how to determine these equivalent circuit values. we have yet to learn exactly what an electromagnetic wave is.The margin of 40 dB assumed in this example is arbitrary.

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