A Report On SATELLITE COMMUNICATION AND LAN/WAN NETWORKING TECHNIQUES Summer Training Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Samalkha

Submitted for the partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering) 2013-2014 Submitted By:Tushar Rishi (2811228) (Third Year, ECE) Submitted To: Mr Harish Sharma Assistant Professor Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Panipat Institute of Engineering & Techology, Samalkha Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Setting an endeavor may not always be an easy task; obstacles are bound to come in its way and when this happens, help is welcome and needless to say without he lp of those people whom I am mentioning here, this endeavor would not have been successful. The completion of any project brings with it a sense of satisfaction, but it is never complete without thanking those people who made it possible and whose cons tant support has crowned our efforts with success. I would like to express my gr atitude to Mr Anurag Ragta, Sr. Manager( IT) at NTPC for encouraging and inspiri ng me to carry out the project in the Central Satellite Earth Station, NTPC. I w ould also like to thank all the staff members of NTPC for providing me with the required facilities and support towards the completion of the project .My sincer e thanks to my faculty guide Mr. Harish Kumar for his constant support and guida nce. Without his corporation the project would not have been completed successfu lly. . I am extremely happy to acknowledge and express my sincere gratitude to m y parents for their constant support and encouragement.

Submitted By: Tushar Rishi (2811228)

Submitted to: Mr Harish Kumar Assistant Professor ECE Deptt., PIET, Samalkha

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled SATELLITE COMMUNICATION AND LAN/WAN NETWORKING TECHNIQUES is a bona fide record of the industrial training project un der my supervision and guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronic and Communication En gineering from Panipat Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Samalkha. .

Mr. HARISH KUMAR (guide) Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS Sr. No. Particulars Page No. 1. COVER PAGE i 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii 3. CERTIFICATE iii 4. CERTIFICATE (PHOTOCOPY) ISSUED BY INDUSTRY /COMPANY/ TRAINING INSTITUTE. iv 5. LIST OF CONTENTS v 6. LIST OF FIGURES vi 7. LIST OF TABLES vii 8. Chapter 1 ( Introduction) 1-10 9. Chapter 2 ( NTPC Company Profile) 11-20 10. Chapter 3 (Introduction to Networking) 11. Chapter 4 (Satellite communication Overview) 12. Chapter 5 (Very Small Aperture Terminal) 13. Chapter 6 (Central Satellite Earth Station NTPC Noida) 14. Chapter 7 (NTPC Network Today) 15. Conclusion 16. References/Bibliography 51

LIST OF FIGURES Sr. No. Name of the Figures Page No. 1, VSAT star-shaped network 24 2. Simplest form of computer network 353 3 An analogy of computer network 4 Multi-point line Configuration 5 Categories of Topologies 6 Fully connected mesh Topology 7 Star Topology 8 Tree Topology 9 Bus Topology 10 Ring Topology 11 Categories of Network 12 LAN

13 MAN 14 WAN 15 WAN 16 GEO 17 MEO 18 LEO 19 Spectrum 20 Transmission path Block Diagram 21 Receive path Block Diagram 22 Skyline(SCPC)Service hub to remote configuration

LIST OF TABLES Sr. No. Name Of The Tables Page No. 1. Various Bands

22

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

A satellite is an object that orbits or revolves around another object. Man-made satellites placed around the earth for the purpose of communication are called as communication satellites. They are highly specialized wireless receiver/trans mitters that are launched by a rocket and placed in orbit around the Earth. Ther e are hundreds of satellites currently in operation. Satellite communication is one particular example of wireless communication systems. Similar and maybe more familiar examples of wireless systems are radio and television broadcasting and mobile and cordless telephones. Satellite communication is very simply the comm unication of the satellite in space with large number of earth stations on the g round. Users are the ones who generate baseband signals, which is processed at t he earth station and then transmitted to the satellite through dish antennas. Th e satellite receives the uplink frequency and the transponder present inside the satellite does the processing function and frequency down conversion in order t o transmit the downlink signal at different frequency. The earth station then re ceives the signal from the satellite through parabolic dish antenna and processe s it to get back the baseband signal. 1 There are two basic elements of satellite communication:1) 2) Space segment Ground segment

The space segment is primarily the satellite that is used for communication. The satellites used are exclusively in the Geo-stationary orbit, located on an arc 36,000 km above the equator. This segment is available from organizations that h ave procured satellites, arranged launch and who operate these satellites on a c ommercial basis. In addition to international agencies, a number of private play ers have emerged who own or lease satellites which are used to carry their own o r their customer? data-traffic. The ground segment is primarily called the Earth terminal segment or the earth s tation. Earth stations are located either on the surface of the earth, or within earth? atmosphere. It maintains communication link between earth and the satell ite. . Major components of a earth station are generally grouped in two categori es, ODU (outdoor unit) and IDU (indoor unit). The indoor unit interfaces with th e end user equipment like stand alone PCs, LANs, Telephones. NTPC has a LAN for exchange of information within the building. A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a sh ared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, su ch as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few a s three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of peo ple. Communication to other sites takes place by a WAN via satellite. A Wide are a networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. ABSTRACT The project basically deals with the study of satellite communication and how it works. Organizations with many remote affiliates can create a private high-speed satell ite intranet, which links the main office reliably with all local sites. Within and amongst in stitutions there is an ever-growing need to communicate and to enhance the existing network s. These networks need high speed, reliable and cost-effective communications. This is es pecially true when the locations are dispersed over remote regions , and barely connectab le via a terrestrial network infrastructure. In this case, satellite communications are a n effective way to provide private or secure data networks. Therefore for communication and exchange of data between various sites a central satellite earth station has bee n installed at NTPC Noida since it is the hub station for communication with its various other sites. NTPC Satcom Network is working in STAR Configuration with this Hub Earth Station .NTPC has been assigned transponder number 3 in the recently launched satellite INSAT 3E.

The project covers detailed study of the ground segment of satellite communicati on. The transmission and receive path which include various sub components like MODEM, up/down Converters etc have been studied and how they are connected practically. NTPC has a LAN for exchange of information within the building and a WAN for communication with various other sites so the project also covers a brief study

of LAN and WAN networking techniques and basics of services like audio and video conferenci ng.

Figure (1) - VSAT Star-shaped Network

2

CHAPTER 2 NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION COMPANY PROFILE

2.1 Overview of Organization India largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power develop ment in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in th e entire value chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generati on, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consult ancy, power trading, ash utilization and coal mining. NTPC ranked 317th in the ? 009, Forbes Global 2000?ranking of the World biggest companies. The total installed capacity of the company is 31,704 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition un der JVs, 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. B y 2017, the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mi x with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW, 10000 MW through gas, 9000 MW thr ough Hydro generation, about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW fro m Renewable Energy Sources (RES). NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strate gy which includes capacity addition through green field projects, expansion of e xisting stations, joint ventures, subsidiaries and takeover of stations. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the compa

ny has 18.10% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total powe r generation due to its focus on high efficiency. In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5 .25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thu s became a listed company in November 2004 with the government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Pu blic. The issue was a resounding success. NTPC is among the largest five compani es in India in terms of market capitalization. At NTPC, People before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR relate d policies. NTPC has been awarded No.1, Best Workplace in India among large orga nizations and the best PSU for the year 2009, by the Great Places to Work Instit ute, India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times. NTPC has integrated Information Technology as a strategic tool in its management systems and aligned Business & Process based on Enterprise Resource planning using SAP AG Product. Services covered include the following: 1) NTPC Ltd has mandated German business software major SAP selecting its e ntire module and has pioneered as first organization in the country to implement all modules. ERP software package that has helped NTPC in for better control ov er a host of business activities such as production, sales, Material management, Codification of Items, Plant & Operation Management, Customer Relation Manageme nt , C-Folder for receiving drawings, Inspection management, e-Procurement, Know ledge portal, etc. across the organizational structure. 2) Management Information Systems

3) Satellite Communication captive network of NTPC established since 1989 h iring 1/2 Transponders on INSAT series of Satellites. 4) Reviewed IT infrastructure for Network Strengthening in view of ERP, Vid eo-Conferencing, and other applications with retaining consultants from IIT-D . 5) Established Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Network with BSNL's Ba ckbone for Wide area Network connectivity. IP packets to travel through WAN netw orks as well as to ease the routers' overhead by simplifying routing tables.

CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Networking is the concept of sharing resources and services. A network of comput ers is a group of interconnected systems sharing resources and interacting using a shared communications link. A network, therefore, is a set of interconnected systems with something to share. The shared resource can be data, a printer, a f ax modem, or a service such as a database or an email system. The individual sys tems must be connected through a pathway (called the transmission medium) that i s used to transmit the resource or service between the computers. All systems on the pathway must follow a set of common communication rules for data to arrive at its intended destination and for the sending and receiving systems to underst and each other. The rules governing computer communication are called protocols. In summary, all networks must have the following:

1. 2. 3.

A resource to share (resource) A pathway to transfer data (transmission medium) A set of rules governing how to communicate (protocols)

Figure(2) - Simplest form of a computer n etwork Having a transmission pathway does not always guarantee communication. When two entities communicate, they do not merely exchange information; rather, they must understand the information they receive from each other. The goal of computer n etworking, therefore, is not simply to exchange data but to understand and use d ata received from other entities on the network. An analogy is people speaking, just because two people can speak, it does not me an they automatically can understand each other. These two people might speak di fferent languages or interpret words differently. One person might use sign lang uage, while the other uses spoken language. As in human communication, even thou

gh you have two entities who "speak," there is no guarantee they will be able to understand each other. Just because two computers are sharing resources, it doe s not necessarily mean they can communicate.

Figure (3) - An analogy of a computer networ k Because computers can be used in different ways and can be located at different distances from each other, enabling computers to communicate often can be a daun ting task that draws on a wide variety of technologies. The two main reasons for using computer networking are to provide services and t o reduce equipment costs. Networks enable computers to share their resources by offering services to other computers and users on a network. The following are s pecific reasons for networking PCs 1. Sharing files 2. Sharing printers and other devices

3. Enabling centralized administration and security of the resources within the system. 4. Supporting network applications such as electronic mail and database ser vices 5. 6. 7. Limited resources Desire to share the resources Cost Reduction

Today, that's a limiting view, because the most important resource is informatio n. Network lets us share information and Resource Sharing achieves the same. Resource Sharing The purpose of many computer networks is to permit a far-flung community of user s to share computer resources. Many such users now have their own microcomputers , so the shared resources have to be interesting enough to warrant access via a network. The facilities accessible by networks are in fact becoming more interes ting at a rapid rate.

The remote computer may contain software that a user needs to employ. It may be proprietary software kept at one location. It may require a larger machine than any at the user's location. The distant computer may provide access to data that is stored and maintained at its location. Sometimes the remote machine controls a large or special printing facility. Sometimes the remote machine compiles pro grams that are used on smaller peripheral machines. Cost Reduction There are various aspects of technology that are likely to force the price of te rminal usage drastically lower. This is important because almost all aspects of telecommunications are characterized by high price elasticity. In other words, w hen the price comes down, the usage goes up.

3.2 NETWORK TOPOLOGIES The term topology refers to the way a network is laid out, either phys ically or logically. Two or more devices connect to a link; two or more links fo rm a topology. The topology of a network is the geometric representation of the relationship of all the links and linking devices (usually called nodes) to each other. There are five basic topologies possible: mesh, star, tree, bus, and rin g. Figure (4) - Multipoint Line Configur ation

Figure (5) - Categories of Topolo gies These five labels describe how the devices in a network are interconnected rathe r than their physical arrangement. For example, having a star topology does not mean that all of the computers in the network must be placed physically around a hub in a star shape. A consideration when choosing a topology is the relative s tatus of the devices be linked. Two relationships are possible: peer-to-peer, wh ere the devices share the link equally, and primary-secondary, where one device controls traffic and the others must transmit through it. Ring and mesh topologi es are more convenient for peer-to-peer transmission, while star and tree are mo re convenient for primary-secondary, bus topology is equally convenient for eith er. 0· Mesh

In a mesh topology, every device has a dedicated point-to-poi nt link to every other device. The term dedicated means that the link carries traffic only

between the two devices it connects. A fully connected mesh network therefore has n*(n ?l)/2 physical channels to link n devices. To accommodate that many links, every devi ce on the network must have 7 input/output (I/O) ports. Figure (6) - Fully Connected Mesh T opology A mesh offers several advantages over other network topologies. First, the use o f dedicated links guarantees that each connection can carry its own data load, t hus eliminating the traffic problems that can occur when links must be shared by multiple devices. Second, a mesh topology is robust. If one link becomes unusable, it does not inc apacitate the entire system. Another advantage is privacy or security. When every message sent travels along dedicated line, only the intended recipient sees it. Physical boundaries prevent other users from gaining access to messages. Finally, point-to-point links make fault identification and fault isolation easy . Traffic can be routed to avoid links with suspected problems. This facility en ables the network manager to discover the precise location of the fault and aids in finding its cause and solution. The main disadvantages of a mesh are related to the amount of cabling and the nu mber of I/O ports required. First, because every device must be connected to eve r other device, installation and reconfiguration are difficult. Second, the shee r bulk of the wiring can be greater than the available space (in walls, ceilings , or floors) can accommodate. And, finally, the hardware required connecting eac h link (I/O ports and cable can be prohibitively expensive). For these reasons a mesh topology is usually implemented in a limited fashion?or example, as a back bone connecting the main computers of a hybrid network that can include several other topologies.

Star

In a star topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a ce ntral controller, usually called a hub. The devices are not directly linked to e ach other. Unlike a mesh topology, a star topology does not allow direct traffic between devices. The controller acts as an exchange. If one device wants to sen d data to another, it sends the data to the controller, which then relays the da ta to the other connected device.

Figure (7) - Star topology A star topology is less expensive than a mesh topology. In a star, each device n eeds only one link and one I/O port to connect it to any number of others. This factor also makes it easy to install and reconfigure. Far less cabling needs to be housed, and additions, moves, and deletions involve only one connection: betw een that device and the hub.

Other advantages include robustness. If one link fails, only that link is affect ed. All other links remain active. This factor also lends itself to easy fault i dentification and fault isolation. As long as the hub is working, it can be used

to monitor link problems and bypass defective links. However, although a star requires far less cable than a mesh, each node must be linked to a central hub. For this reason more cabling is required in a star than in some other topologies (such as tree, ring, or bus). 0· Tree

A tree topology is a variation of a star. As in a star, nodes in a tree are link ed to a central hub that controls the traffic to the network. However, not every device plugs directly into the central hub. The majority of devices connect to a secondary hub that in turn is connected to the central hub. The central hub in the tree is an active hub. An active hub contains a repeater, which is a hardware device that regenerates the received bit patterns before se nding them out. Repeating strengthens trans- missions and increases the distance a signal can travel.

Figure (8) - Tree Topolog y

The secondary hubs may be active or passive hubs. A passive hub provides a simpl e physical connection between the attached devices. The advantages and disadvantages of a tree topology are generally the same as th ose of a star. The addition of secondary hubs, however, brings two further advan tages. First, it allows more devices to be attached to a single central hub and can therefore increase the distance a signal can travel between devices. Second, it allows the network to isolate and prioritize communications from different c omputers. For example, the computers attached to one secondary hub can be given priority over computers attached to another secondary hub. In this way, the netw ork designers and operator can guarantee that time-sensitive data will not have to wait for access to the network. A good example of tree topology can be seen i n cable TV technology where the main cable from the main office is divided into main branches and each branch is divided into smaller branches and so on. The hu bs are used when a cable is divided. 0· Bus

The preceding examples all describe point-to-point configurations. A bus topolog y, on the other hand, is multipoint. Nodes are connected to the bus cable by dro p lines and taps. A drop line is a connection running between the device and the main cable. A tap is a connector that either splices into the main cable or pun ctures the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with the metallic core. As a signal travels along the backbone, some of its energy is transformed into heat. Therefore, it becomes weaker and weaker the farther it has to travel. For this reason there is a limit on the number of taps a bus can support and on the dista nce between those taps. Advantages of a bus topology include ease of installation. Backbone cable can be laid along the most efficient path, then connected to the nodes by drop lines o f various lengths. In this way, a bus uses less cabling than mesh, star, or tree topologies. In a star, for example, four network devices in the same room requi

re four lengths of cable reaching all the way to the hub. In a bus, this redunda ncy is eliminated. Only the backbone cable stretches through the entire facility . Each drop line has to reach only as far as the nearest point on the backbone.

Figure (9) - Bus Topology Disadvantages include difficult reconfiguration and fault isolation. A bus is us ually designed to be optimally efficient at installation. It can therefore be di fficult to add new devices. As mentioned above, signal reflection at the taps ca n cause degradation in quality. This degradation can be controlled by limiting t he number and spacing of devices connected to a given length of cable. Adding ne w devices may therefore require modification or replacement of the backbone. In addition, a fault or break in the bus cable stops all transmission, even betw een devices on the same side of the problem. The damaged area reflects signals b ack in the direction of origin, creating noise in both directions. 0· Ring

In a ring topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point line configuratio n only with the two devices on either side of it. A signal is passed along the r ing in one direction, from device to device, until it reaches its destination. E ach device in the ring incorporates a repeater. When a device receives a signal intended for another device, its repeater regenerates the bits and passes them a long. A ring is relatively easy to install and reconfigure. Each device is linked only to its immediate neighbors (either physically or logically). To add or delete a device requires moving only two connections. The only constraints are media and traffic considerations (maximum ring length and number of devices). In addition , fault isolation is simplified. Generally in a ring, a signal is circulating at all times. If one device does not receive a signal within a specified period, i t can issue an alarm. The alarm alerts the network operator to the problem and i ts location. However, unidirectional traffic can be a disadvantage. In a simple ring, a break in the ring (such as a disabled station) can disable the entire network. This w eakness can be solved by using a dual ring or a switch capable of closing off th e break. Figure (10) - Ring Topology 3.3 TYPES OF NETWORK- LAN, WAN AND MAN Today when we speak of networks, we are generally referring to three primary cat egories: local area networks, metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks . Into which category a network its size, its ownership, the distance it covers, and its physical architecture determine falls.

Figure(11) - Categories of networ ks

Local Area Network (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. Depending on the needs of an organization a nd the type of technology used, a LAN can be as simple as two PCs and a printer in someone's home office, or it can extend throughout a company and include voic e, sound, and video peripherals. Currently, LAN size is limited to a few kilomet ers.

Figure(12) - LA N LANs are designed to allow resources to be shared between personal comput ers or workstations. The resources to be shared can include hardware e.g., a pri nter, software e.g., an application program, or data. A common example of a LAN, found in many business environments, links a work group of task-related compute rs, for example, engineering workstations or accounting PCs. One of the computer s may be given a large-capacity disk drive and become a server to the other clie nts. Software can be stored on this central server and used as needed by the who le group. In this example, the size of the LAN may be determined by licensing re strictions on the number of users per copy of software, or by restrictions on th e number of users licensed to access the operating system. In addition to size, LANs are distinguished from other types of networks by thei r transmission media and topology. In general, a given LAN will use only one typ e of transmission medium. The most common LAN topologies are bus, ring, and star . Traditionally, LANs have data rates in the 4 to 16 Mbps range. Today, however sp eeds are increasing and can reach 100 Mbps with gigabit systems in development.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A metropolitan area network (MAN) is designed to extend over an entire city. It may be a single network such as a cable television network, or it may be a means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger network so that resources may be s hared LAN-to-LAN as well as device-to-device. For example, a company can use a M AN to connect the LANs in all of its offices throughout a city. Figure(13) - MAN A MAN may be wholly owned and operated by a private company, or it may be a serv ice provided by a public company, such as a local telephone company. Many teleph one companies provide a popular MAN service called Switched Multi-megabit Data S ervices (SMDS). Wide Area Network (WAN) A wide area network (WAN) provides long-distance transmission of data, voice, im age, and video information over large geographical areas that may comprise a cou ntry, a continent, or even the whole world.

Figure(14) - WAN In contrast to LANs (which depend on their own hardware for transmission), WANs may utilize public, leased, or private communication devices, usually in combina tions, and can therefore span an unlimited number of miles. A WAN that is wholly owned and used by a single company is often referred to as an enterprise networ k. 3.4 LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) Local area networks, generally called LANs, are privately-owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometres in size. They are widely u sed to connect personal computers and workstations in company offices and factor ies to share resources (e.g., printers) and exchange information. LANs are disti nguished from other kinds of networks by three characteristics: (1) their size, (2) their transmission technology, and (3) their topology. LANs are restricted in size, which means that the worst-case transmission time i s bounded and known in advance. Knowing this bound makes it possible to use cert ain kinds of designs that would not otherwise be possible. It also simplifies ne twork management. LANs transmission technology consisting of a cable to which all the Desktops/Nod es are connected, similar to like telephones connected to an EPABX Exchange, how ever here the data and voice both are transmitted. Various topologies are possible and are implemented for LANs such as; Star, Bus, or Ring topology. 3.5 WIDE AREA NETWORK A wide area network, or WAN, spans a large geographical area, often a country or continent. It contains a collection of machines intended for running user (i.e. , application) programs. These machines are called hosts. The hosts are connecte d by a communication subnet. The hosts are owned by the customers (e.g., people' s personal computers), whereas the communication subnet is typically owned and o perated by a telephone company or Internet service provider. The job of the subn et is to carry messages from host to host, just as the telephone system carries words from speaker to listener. Separation of the pure communication aspects of the network (the subnet) from the application aspects (the hosts), greatly simpl ifies the complete network design. In most wide area networks, the subnet consists of two distinct components: 1. 2. Transmission lines and Switching elements.

Transmission lines move bits between machines. They can be made of copper wire, optical fibre, or even radio links whereas; Switching elements are specialized computers that connect three or more transmis sion lines. When data arrive on an incoming line, the switching element must cho ose an outgoing line on which to forward them.

Figure(15)- W AN

CHAPTER 4 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION OVERVIEW

4.1 HOW IT WORKS The basic elements of satellite communication are the earth stations, terrestria l system and the users. The earth stations on the ground linked with a satellite in the space. The user is connected to the earth station through a terrestrial network and this terrestrial network may be a telephone switch or a dedicated li nk to the earth station. The user generates a baseband signal that is processed through a terrestrial network and transmitted to a satellite. The satellite cons ists of a large number of repeaters in space, that receives the modulated RF car rier in its uplink frequency spectrum from all the earth stations in the network , amplifies these carriers and retransmits them back to the earth stations in th e down link frequency spectrum. To avoid interference the downlink frequency spe ctrum should be different from the uplink frequency spectrum. The signal at the receiving earth station is processed to get back the baseband signal, it is sent to the user through a terrestrial network. There are various frequency bands ut ilized by satellites but the most recognized of them is the uplink frequency of 6 Ghz and the downlink frequency of 4 Ghz. Actually the uplink frequency band is 5.725 to 7.075 Ghz and the actual downlink frequency band is from 3.4 to 4.8 Gh z. Satellite communication is one particular example of wireless communication syst ems. Similar and maybe more familiar examples of wireless systems are radio and television broadcasting and mobile and cordless telephones.

4.2 TYPES OF SATELLITE:The satellite can be classified into two categories: 0· 0· Active satellite Passive satellite

The major difference between these two is that weather the communication relay i nvolves passive reflection or active electronic system An active satellite is one which has transmitting equipment abroad such as a tra nsponder. It is a device which receives a signal from earth, amplifies it and re transmits it back to earth. A passive satellite merely reflects or scatters the incident radiation from earth. Passive satellite relays would require surface tr ansmitters of greater power than would active relay , however the active satelli te relays must carry abroad receiving and transmitting equipment and the necessa ry power sources.

4.3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORBITS Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO): 35,786 km above the earth

Figure(16) -GEO

0· Orbiting at the height of 22,282 miles above the equator (35,786 km), th e satellite travels in the same direction and at the same speed as the Earth's r otation on its axis, taking 24 hours to complete a full trip around the globe. T hus, as long as a satellite is positioned over the equator in an assigned orbita l location, it will appear to be "stationary" with respect to a specific locatio n on the Earth. 0· A single geostationary satellite can view approximately one third of the Earth's surface. If three satellites are placed at the proper longitude, the he ight of this orbit allows almost all of the Earth's surface to be covered by the satellites.

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): 8,000-20,000 km above the earth

Figure(17) - MEO 0· These orbits are primarily reserved for communications satellites that c over the North and South Pole

0· Unlike the circular orbit of the geostationary satellites, MEO's are pla ced in an elliptical (oval-shaped) orbit

Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 500-2,000 km above the earth

Figure(18) -LEO 0· These orbits are much closer to the Earth, requiring satellites to trave l at a very high speed in order to avoid being pulled out of orbit by Earth's gr avity 0· At LEO, a satellite can circle the Earth in approximately one and a half hours GEO vs. MEO vs. LEO Most communications satellites in use today for commercial purposes are placed i n the geostationary orbit, because of the following advantages:

0· One satellite can cover almost 1/3 of Earth's surface, offering a reach far more extensive than what any terrestrial network can achieve 0· Communications require the use of fixed antennas. Since geosynchronous s atellites remain stationary over the same orbital location, users can point thei r satellite dishes in the right direction, without costly tracking activities, m aking communications reliable and secure 0· GEO satellites are proven, reliable and secure - with a lifespan of 10-1 5 years

4.4 FREQUENCY BANDS FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Satellite communications, like any other means of communication (radio, TV, tele phone, etc), use frequency bands that are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic radiation spectrum starts with the longest waves (including those in the audible range) and extends through radio waves and the visible ligh t, which is effectively a very small part of the spectrum, all the way to the ex tremely short wavelengths such as radioactive radiation. Within this broad range of frequencies, the International Telecommunications Union (the United Nations institution that regulates worldwide use of airwaves) has allocated parts of the spectrum that are suitable for and dedicated to transmission via satellite. Som e of these bands are exclusively dedicated to satellite transmission.

Figure (19 ) Spectrum

Band Downlink Uplink

L/S 1.610 to 1.625 GHz 2.483 to 2.50 GHz

C 3.7 to 4.2 GHz 5.924 to 6.425 GHz Ext C band 4.5 to 4.8 GHz 6.725 to 7.025 GHz

Ku 11.7 to 12.2 GHz 14.0 to 14.5 GHz Ka 17.7 to 21.7 GHz 27.5 to 30.5 GHz

Table 1:Various Band The satellite transmission bands that are of interest to us are the C-, Ku- and Ka-bands. C-band is the oldest allocation and operates in the frequency range around 6 GHz for transmission (uplink) and between 3.7 and 4.2 GHz for reception (downlink). Ku-band is the most common transmission format in Europe for satellite TV and u ses around 14 GHz for uplink and between 10.9 and 12.75 GHz for downlink. Ka-ban d uses around 30 GHz up- and between 18 and 20 GHz downlink frequency. C-band and Ku-band are becoming congested by an increasing amount of users, so s atellite service operators are more and more turning to the use of Ka-band. The selection of the band is not something that individual service providers dec ide, but is rather chosen by large satellite operators based on different factor s: 0· Availability: C-band is still the most widely available worldwide. Ku-ba nd is becoming more available recently in regions which were less covered in the past (South America, Asia, Africa) 0· C-band is more prone to interference from other transmission services th at share the same frequencies (adjacent satellites or terrestrial transmissions) than the higher bands 0· While the C-band technology is cheaper in itself, it requires larger dis hes (1 to 3 m) than Ku- and Ka-band (0.6 to 1.8 m) and therefore imposes relativ ely higher (installation) costs on the end-user 0· Ku- and especially Ka-band make better use of satellite capacity 0· Higher frequency bands (Ku- and especially Ka-) suffer significantly mor e from signal deterioration caused by rainfall: to ensure availability in bad we ather conditions, the signal has to be much stronger. 0.1% of unavailability mea ns in fact that the service will be interrupted for almost 9 hours over a 1-year period. 1% unavailability represents 90 hours or almost 4 full days

CHAPTER 5 VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL NETWORKS (VSAT)

Satellite Communication using VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) since the scie nce fiction on radio transmission through space using geo-synchronous earth sate llite, provider has progressed significantly in the field of satellite communica tions. VSAT is a satellite-based communications service that offers businesses a nd government agencies flexible and reliable communications solutions, both nati onally and internationally, on land and at sea. VSAT is a term widely used in th e satellite industry to describe an earth station that is installed on the groun d to receive communications from a satellite or to communicate with other ground stations by transmitting to and receiving from satellite spacecraft. The antenn a size being restricted to 3.8m.. Terminals installed at distant sites are conne cted to a central hub via satellite using small diameter antenna dishes. It is a n earth station connected to the geo-synchronous satellite suitable for supporti ng a variety of two ?way telecommunication and information, services like voice, data and video. 5.1 VSAT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE A VSAT system consists of a satellite transponder, central hub or a master earth station, and remote VSATs. The VSAT terminal has the capability to receive as w ell as transmit signals via the satellite to other VSATs in the network. Dependi ng on the access technology used the signals are either sent via satellite to a central hub, which is also a monitoring centre, or the signals are sent directly to VSATs with the hub being used for monitoring and control. In addition, the star topology allows VSATs to use smaller antennas and lower power transmitters, since they?e communicating on ly with the large hub antenna. National thermal power corporation limited has a VSAT network or a SATCOM networ k for communication and exchange of data and information amongst various sites. NTPC Noida is the central hub and also the monitoring centre.

5.2 VSAT TOPOLOGIES 0· Star

The hub station controls and monitors can communicate with a large number of dis

persed VSATs. Generally, the Data Terminal Equipment and 3 hub antenna is in the range of 6-11m in diameter. Since all VSATs communicate with the central hub st ation only, this network is more suitable for centralized data applications. 0· Mesh

A group of VSATs communicate directly with any other VSAT in the network without going through a central hub. A hub station in a mesh network performs only the monitoring and control functions. These networks are more suitable for telephony applications. 0· Hybrid Network

In practice usually using hybrid networks, where a part of the network operates on a star topology while some sites operate on a mesh topology, thereby accruing benefits of both topologies. The satellite communication network of NTPC is operating in star topology with N TPC Noida being the Hub station. So a central satellite earth station (CSES) is installed at NTPC Noida (The study of which is the core aim of the project). One major advantage of this configuration is that there is virtually no limit on th e number of remote VSATs that can be connected to the hub.

5.3 HUB STATION The hub station is usually a relatively large, high performance earth station wi th an antenna diameter of anything between 6 and 9m or 11. The hub consists of a control centre which manages the network, including an outdoor antenna, for the transmission and reception of signals. Hub stations are quite expensive and con sist of several main subsystems; except for the antenna these are usually fully redundant with automatic switchover in the event of failure. Hub stations can be shared between several networks, resulting in a sharing of c osts. Two principal options for network implementation can be adopted. Firstly, some very large users will wish to purchase their own dedicated VSAT networks in cluding a hub. Other users will choose to buy or lease the user terminals and to lease access to a hub which will be owned by the system operator. In contrast t o the hub station, the remote terminals are much simpler. To minimise total syst em costs, VSAT networks are designed to have a single expensive hub and a large number of much smaller remote terminals. The actual communication between remote sites is through hub and happens in two steps because, of which there is a time delay of approximately 0.5 seconds and m akes the technology highly synchronized.

CHAPTER 6 Central satellite earth station- NTPC Noida

6.1

SPECIFICATIONS

1) NTPC has been assigned transponder number 3 in ISRO's communication sate llite INSAT 3E. 2) INSAT-3E, was successfully launched on September 28, 2003 by the Ariane5 launch vehicle of Arianespace. 3) INSAT-3E is positioned at 55 deg East longitude in the geosynchronous or bit. 4) INSAT-3E is being tracked, monitored and controlled from the Master Cont rol Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka 5) The INSAT series of satellites have typically 12/18 transponders in vari ous frequency bands; the bandwidth of each transponder is typically 40 MHz but t he usable bandwidth is only 36 MHz. Out of this 36 MHz bandwidth NTPC is allotte d only 27 MHz bandwidth. The Ku-Band is internationally popular frequency band. This Ku-Band because of its higher frequency can support traffic with smaller an tenna sizes in comparison to C/Ext C band. However it can be affected by rain wh ich makes it unsuitable for use in Southern regions. 6) Presently, Indian service providers hire a space segment only on the INS AT series and operate in C band only.

CSES NOIDA is the hub station for NTPC Satcom network providing facilities to:0· 28 power stations.

0· 0·

5 regional offices & NCPS, DADRI. Two corporate centre s at New Delhi.

Using transponder no. 3 of satellite INSAT 3E with allotted bandwidth of 27 MHz. Services provided by CSES 0· 0· Telephone & fax services among all sites & with CC. Connecting about 1000 users through transit switch at SCN.

0· Generation data from power projects to CC control room on high speed dat a (WAN) 0· Online packages of stores, finance, contracts & generation through WAN c onnectivity (256 -512 kbps) provided by multiport router at SCN, Noida . 0· Internet services to all sites through multiport router 0· Round the clock technical support to sites. 6.2 CSES NTPC BLOCK DIAGRAM 6.2.1 Transmission path

Figure(21) -transmission path block diagram .

6.2.2 Receive path

Figure (22)- receive path block diagram The hub station consists of several main subsystems:6.2.3 TRANSMISSION PATH SUBSYSTEMS:0· 0· Modem Up converters

0· 0·

High power amplifier (HPA) Antenna

6.2.4 RECEIVE PATH SUBSYSTEMS:0· 0· 0· Low noise amplifier (LNA) Down converters Modem

The modem interfaces with various end user equipment, ranging from stand alone c omputers, LAN's, routers, multiplexes, telephone instruments as per the requirem ent.

6.3 FUNCTIONING OF CSES NTPC 0· NTPC has a local area network (LAN) for exchange of data and information . So all the computers are connected by a switch. But in order to communicate wi th various other sites (stations) i.e. a wide area network (WAN) a router is req uired. Therefore the switch is connected to the router in order to establish a W ide area network. At NTPC along with data communication, voice communication is also taking place. for voice communication, earlier they were using a multiplexe r in which multiplexing of data and voice was done. But now they are using anoth er technology called VOIP for voice communication. VOIP is basically voice over internet protocol. It is a technology in which the telephone is connected to VOI P which converts voice signal into a digital signal. The output of VOIP is given to the switch to which all the PC s are connected. This forms the complete LAN at NTPC. The switch is connected to the router for WAN. 0· Now the modem interfaces with the end user equipment which is the router here. Since NTPC is the hub station working in star topology. There are around 28 sites located in various regions of the country. So for every site there is a modem. Now for the transmission of voice/data to a remote site the router outpu t is given to every modem. The modulator part of the modem modulates an analog carrier HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal_(information_theory)" s ignal to encode digital information. The modem has IF( intermediate frequency) output that is 70 ± 18 MHz 0· The output of modem is given to the up converter which translates or con verts this IF frequency to RF (radio frequency) 6GHz. Finally the up converter output is given to HPA for amplification the output of which is transmitted to the antenna which transmits the data out to the satellit e and eventually to other ground stations. 0· The receive subsystem consisting of a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) which re moves the noise present in the signal. The frequency of the signal received is 4 GHz. 0· The LNA output is given to the down converter which converts this RF fre quency to IF frequency i.e. 70 MHz 0· The output of down converter is given to the modem for the demodulation process in order to extract the baseband signal. And finally the modem interface s with the router and the information or data reaches the user.

Now each subcomponent of the centralized earth station NTPC will be discussed in a little more detail. The router and the LAN part will be discussed in the netw orking part to follow.

6.4 THE VARIOUS SUBSYSTEMS:-

6.4.1 MODEM A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier sig nal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. A satell ite modem or sat modem is a modem used to establish data transfers using a commu nications satellite as a relay. Data to be transmitted are transferred to a mode m from Data terminal equipment (e.g. a computer). The modem usually has Intermed iate frequency (IF) output (that is, 50-200 MHz). At NTPC the modems has an outp ut of IF that ranges from 70±18 MHz .This frequency has to be converted using an u p .converter before amplification and transmission. Similarly, a signal received from a satellite is firstly down converted then demodulated by a modem, and at last handled by data terminal equipment. Popular modulation types being used for satellite communications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Binary phase shift keying (BPSK); Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK); Orthogonal quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK); 8PSK; Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), especially 16QAM.

The modulation techniques used at NTPC are mainly QPSK and 16QAM. MODEMS USED AT NTPC:NTPC is currently using four types of modems:-

2) 3) 4)

1) UMOD SSE Datum DMD 20

DMD 20 is the latest modem used here. The main features of this modem are:0·Frequency- 50-90 MHz At NTPC 70±18 MHz

0·Data rate- 2.4 Kbps-20Mbps At NTPC 6Mbps 0·Modulation At NTPC QPSK, 16QAM The various options available in it are:0· 0· 0· 0· 0· Monitor Modulation Demodulation Test Interface etc

The various configurations done in the DMD 20 are:0· 0· 0· Frequency Modulation Data rate

0· FEC rate etc 16QAM is the latest modulation technique used at NTPC. The main advantage of thi s technique is that it saves the bandwidth. Since there are around 28 sites to w hich service is provided so the bandwidth is allocated to each site according to the site traffic and the requirement. So the 27 Hz bandwidth is allocated accordingly.

6.4.2 UP/DOWN CONVERTER An up converter works in the transmitting side whereas the down converter functi ons in the receive path. The main function of the up converter is that it conver ts or translates the intermediate frequency (which is the output of the modem) t

o the radio frequency (RF) which is 6GHz. The up converter used at NTPC is a blo ck up converter which converts a band (or "block") of frequencies from a lower f requency to a higher frequency. Just the opposite work is done by the down conve rter that is it takes the radio frequency and converts it to an intermediate fre quency before giving to the modem.

6.43 HIGH POWER AMPLIFIER (HPA) The high power amplifier (HPA) is an earth station facility that provides the RF carrier power to the input terminals of the antenna. The output power typically may few watts for a single data channel, around a hundred watts or less for a l ow capacity system, or several kilowatts for high capacity traffic. An RF power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low power radio fr equency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically for driving the antenna of a transmitter. It is usually optimized to have high efficiency, h igh output power compression, good return loss on the input and output, good gai n, and optimum heat dissipation. C-band high power amplifiers offer output powers of 50, 100, 150 or 200 watts Bu ilt for reliable, trouble-free service, the amplifiers incorporate microprocesso r-based monitor and control systems. 6.4.4 LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER

The low-noise amplifier (LNA) is a special type of electronic amplifier or ampli fier used in communication systems to amplify very weak signals captured by an a ntenna. It is often located very close to the antenna, so that losses in the fee d line become less critical. Using an LNA, the noise of all the subsequent stage s is reduced by the gain of the LNA, while the noise of the LNA itself is inject ed directly into the received signal.

6.4.5

ANTENNA SUBSYSTEM

The antenna subsystem consisting of a large antenna (6 to 9 m or 11m in diameter ) on a mount with a tracking system which allows the antenna to follow the satel lite as it moves very slightly in the sky. A feed horn is fitted at the focus of the dish to collect the received signals from the antenna and to feed the trans mit signals to it.

Software configuration (in NTPC): IF frequency: 70+-18 MHz Threshold level (at the Rx side): -70 dB Power range (at the Tx side): -25 dB to 0dB

Signal to noise ratio (at the Rx side): 9dB Type of modulation: BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM Data rate: 512 Kbps 6.5 MULTIPLE ACCESS SCHEMES The primary objective of the VSAT networks is to maximize the use of common sate llite and other resources amongst all VSAT sites. The methods by which these net works optimize the use of satellite capacity, and spectrum utilization in a flex ible and cost-effective manner are referred to as satellite access schemes. . Go od network efficiency depends very much on the multiple accessing schemes. There are many different access techniques tailored to match customer applications. The VSAT services are primarily based on one of two technologies: i.Single-carrier per channel (SCPC) and ii. Time-division multiple access (TDMA).

6.5.1 SCPC (Single-Carrier Per Channel) SCPC-based design provides a point-to-point technology, making it the VSAT equiv alent to conventional leased lines. figure(22) 6.5.2 TDMA (Time-division multiple access) In a TDMA network, all VSATs share satellite resource on a time-slot basis. Remo te VSATs use TDMA channels or inroutes for communicating with the hub. There cou ld be several inroutes associated with one outroute. Several VSATs share one inr oute hence sharing the bandwidth. Typical inroutes operate at 64 or 128 Kbit/s.

6.5.3 FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) It is the oldest and still one of the most common methods for channel allocation . In this scheme, the available satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequ ency bands for different earth stations. This means that guard bands are needed to provide separation between the bands. i. PAMA (Pre-Assigned Multiple Acceess) It implies that the VSATs are pre-allocated a designated frequency. Equivalent o f the terrestrial leased line solutions, PAMA solutions use the satellite resour ces constantly. Consequently, there is no call-up delay what makes them most sui ted for interactive data applications or high traffic volumes. As such, PAMA con nects high data traffic sites within an organization. SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier) refers to the usage of a single satellite carr ier for carrying a single channel of user traffic. The frequency is allocated on a pre-assigned basis in case of SCPC VSAT which is also synonymously known as P

AMA VSAT. ii. DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) The network uses a pool of satellite channels, which are available for use by an y station in that network. On demand, a pair of available channels is assigned s o that a call can be established. Once the call is completed, the channels are r eturned to the pool for an assignment to another call. . DAMA systems allow the number of channels at any time be less than the number of potential users. Satel lite connections are established and dropped only when traffic demands them.

iii. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Under this, a central network monitoring system allocates a unique code to each of the VSATs enabling multiple VSATs to transmit simultaneously and share a comm on frequency band. Although this is best applicable for very large networks with low data requirements, there are practical restrictions in the use of spread sp ectrum. It is employed mainly for interference rejection or for security reasons in military systems.

6.6 IMPLEMENTING VSAT The Pros: 0· 0· Provides an integrated solution for Voice, data and video communication. Better Reach- Installable in difficult terrain, remote areas.

0· Reliability uptime of up to 99.5 % is achievable in VSAT network compare d to lease line (in Indian conditions). 0· Maintenance - A single point contact with the service provider ements involved and hence easy fault finding. 0· 0· Better Network Management. Quick establishment of new sites. 0· Wide geographic coverage. The Cons: 0· 0· Very high Initial Cost of Implementation. High Propagation delay lesser el

CHAPTER 7 NTPC NETWORK TODAY

NTPC Communication Network connects all its Projects, Regional HQ s, and Regional Inspection Offices & Commercial Offices to Corporate Centers at SCOPE and at EOC NOIDA for Voice and Data Communication via Satellite, MPLS & Leased Lines. The data network supports all applications like Internet, Email, etc. NTPC Satcom Network working in STAR Configuration with the Hub Earth Station loc ated at EOC Noida (U.P.). These are working in C Band on leased capacity on the INSAT satellite. Data Links are working at the data rate of 1024/512kbps on PAMA to form WAN connectivity using Multiport Router at hub earth station. Internet, Mail & GDAMS are working on Satcom Network. Telephony is through DAMA/VOIP in m ost location.NTPC has implemented MPLS Network hired from supplier for ERP and other online applications at the data rate of 34 Mbps for Data Center Noida,2 Mbps fo r power plants & RHQ s and 256 Kbps lines for RIO s & Commercial offices. For runnin g ERP 24 *7 a Back up router in case of failure of main router at Data Centre NO IDA, is to be installed which shall be exact replica of Main Data Centre router but work in 1+1 with mail router. Satellite Communication Network Network Features SATELLITE C-BAND LEASED TRANSPONDER (3/4th) CAPACITY ON INSAT 3E. HUB: INSAT TYP E A WITH 11m Ø ANTENNA SATELLITE EARTH STATION Phase I: 5 NOS. INSAT TYPE B WITH 7.5 m Ø ANTENNA WITH MCPC 512 Kbps DATA RATE

Phase II: 6 NOS. 3.8 m Ø ANTENNA WITH MCPC 512 Kbps DATA RATE. Phase III: 8 NOS. 3 .8 m Ø ANTENNA WITH 256 Kbps DATA RATE Phase IV: 3 NOS. 3.8 m Ø ANTENNA WITH 256 Kbps DATA RATE MICROWAVE LINKS: 2 GHz 2/ 8 MBPS DIGITAL RADIO SYSTEM. NODES CONNECTED: 29 (22 POWER PROJECTS, 5 RHQS TO CC & EOC NOIDA)

NTPC

Business Reach

COAL BASED SITES - 15 No s SINGRAULI, RIHAND, DADRI, UNCHAHAR, BADARPUR TANDA NR / NCR ER WR

FARAKKA, KAHALGAON, TALCHER,TTPS KORBA, VINDHYACHAL, SIPAT RAMAGUNDAM, SIMHADRI SR

COMBINED CYCLE - 7 No s (6+1) DADRI**, AURIYA, ANTA, FARIDABAD KAWAS, GANDHAR KAYAMKULAM HYDRO KOLDAM CC HEAD QUARTER / REGIONAL HQ. 8 No s (3 + 5 No s) SCOPE, EOC, PMI, NOIDA LUCKNOW, PATNA, MUMBAI, HYDERABAD ** CO - LOCATED WITH DADRI THERMAL WR SR NCR

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION Hence we have seen the NTPC s communication network and learnt about the satellite link, satellite bandwidth what we are using, and about the main equipments and their technical specifications. I have

also learnt the basics of networking and the LAN/WAN networking techniques. Sin ce the central satellite earth station that has been installed at NTPC Noida is the hub statio n for various other sites therefore it needs a continuous supervision so that the requests and the traffi c from various other sites is efficiently handled and managed. I have learnt how satellite communication p ractically works and the functioning of a VSAT hub station. Latest technologies keep coming in the m arket and NTPC also tries to update itself so that it is able to manage the increasing traffic and utilize the bandwidth allotted to it efficiently.

CHAPTER 9 FUTURE IMPLICATIONS

In future if I get an opportunity to work on the same project then I would like to learn more about the networking in NTPC. Now in the new era of ERP the communication facilities have to very rugged and they should provide communication with zero down time. NTPC has introduced new services like ERP. Due to time limitation our main focus was on the satellite communication b ut in future I would

like to research and study further about how the video conferencing works in NT PC and the latest services that are being introduced in its IT department. I would also like to un derstand how link budget calculations are done.

CHAPTER 10 REFERENCES 0· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_satellite

0· http://www.tutorialsweb.com/satcom/fundamentals-of-satellite-HYPERLINK "http://www.tutorialsweb.com/satcom/fundamentals-of-satellite-communications.htm " communications.htm 0· http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/524891/satellite-HYPERLINK "h ttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/524891/satellite-communication" commun ication 0· 0· 0· 0· 0· 0· http://www.gatewayforindia.com/technology/satellite.htm http://www.wtec.org/loyola/satcom/toc.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_station http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Very_small_aperture_terminal http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/vikram/tech/vsattut.html http://hubpages.com/hub/How-the-VSAT-Technology-Works

http://www.crystalcommunications.net/satellite/vsat/about_vsat.htm Page=how_to_communicate_acros

0·http://www.gilat.com/Content.aspx? s_satellite_networks