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Digital Signal and Image Processing - FAQ
BE Sem 7 - University of Mumbai

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Digital Signal and Image Processing

Frequently Asked Questions

In BE (Sem VII) – University of Mumbai

No Question Marks M/YY

JUSTIFY:

1. If the kernel of the image transform is separable and symmetric the transform

can be explained in matrix form. Justify.

5 D10

2. Laplacian is not a good edge detector – Justify 5 D10

3. Lossy compression is not suitable for compressing executable files – Justify 5 D10

J12

4. Low pass filter is a smoothing filter – Justify 5 D10

5. Unit step sequence is a power signal – Justify 5 D10

6. If the energy of a signal is finite, its power is zer. Justify 5 D11

7. Laplacian is better than gradient for detection of edges – Justify 5 D11,

J12

8. Walsh transform is nothing but sequently ordered Hadamard transform

matrix. Justify

5 D11

9. All image compression techniques are invertible. Justify 5 D11

10. For digital image having salt and pepper noise, median filter is best filter. 5 J12

11. Unit ramp signal is neither energy nor power signal. 5 J12

12. List and prove any four properties of DFT. 10 D10

13. Find the circular convolution on the given two sequences x1(n) = {1, -1, 2, -4}

and x2(n) = {1, 2}

5 D10

14. Compute the Hadamard of the image shown:

2 1 2 1

1 2 3 2

2 3 4 3

1 2 3 2

5 D10

15. Give the classification of noise in images. Compare restoration and

enhancement. What are the differences between the two? What do they have

in common?

10 D10

J12

16. Three column vectors are given. Show that they are orthogonal. Also generate

all possible patterns. X1 = [1 1 1], x2 = [-2 1 1], x3 = [0 -1 1]

10 D10

17. Explain image segmentation using thresholding. How to apply thresholding to

unevenly illuminated images?

10 D11

18. What is image segmentation? Explain the following methods of image

segmentation. (i) Region growing , (ii) region splitting , (iii) thresholding

10 D10

J13

19. Determine the Z-transform of the following discrete time signals and also

specify the region of convergence (ROC)

(i) X(n) = {1*, 2, 3, 4}, (ii) X(n) = {1, 3, 5, 7*},

(iii) X(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4*, 5, 6, 7}

10 D10

20. Explain log transformation. How is gamma correction done? 10 D10

21. Find the Huffman code for the following stream of data (28 points)

{1,1,1,1,1,1,1, 2,2,2,2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3,3, 4,4,4,4, 5,5,5, 6,6,7 }

10 D10

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22. What do you mean by Gaussian noise and why is averaging filter used to

eliminate it?

5 D10

23. List down the advantages and disadvantages of Wiener filter. 5 D10

24. Write short notes on

(i) KL transform (J13)

(ii) JPEG compression

(iii) Hough Transform

(iv) Classification of signals

(v) Discrete Cosine Transform (5) (D10) (J12) (J13)

(vi) Wiener filter (5) (2010)

(vii) Difference between low pass filter and median filter

(viii) Hough transform (5) (D10) (J12)

(ix) Homomorphic filter (5) (D10)

(x) 4,8,m connectivity of image pixels. (5) (D10)

(xi) Sampling and Quantization (5) (J12)

(xii) Wavelet transform (5) (J12)(J13)

(xiii) Properties of Fourier Transform (J13)

10

each

25.

10 D

2010

26. Obtain linear convolution of two discrete time signals as below:

10 D

2010

27. Find cross-correlation betweeen given signals

X(n) = {1, 2, 0*, 1} and y(n) = {4, 3, 2*, 1}

5 D

2010

28. Find Z transform of x(n) and draw its ROC

10 D

2010

29. Determine the auto corrrelation of the following signal x(n) = {1*, 3, 1, 1} 5 D

2010

30. Using 4 point FFT algorithm, calculate the 2-D DFT of

10 D10

31. Write 8 x 8 Hadamard transform matrix and its signal flow graph. Using the

butetrfly diagram, compute Hadamard transform for x(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 1, 2}

10 D10

32. Perform histogram equalization and draw new equalized histogram of the

following image data

Gray

Level

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 D11

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No of

pixels

790 1023 850 656 329 245 122 81

33. Equalize the given histogram. What happens when we equalize it twice?

Justify.

Grey Level 0 1 2 3

No. of pixels 70 20 7 3

10 D10

34. Perform histogram equalization for following. Obtain a plot of original as well

as equalized histogram.

Intensity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

No of

pixels

70 100 40 60 0 80 10 40

10 J12

35. Whatare the different types of redundancies in digital image? Explain in detail. 10 D

2010

36. For the 3-bit 4x4 size image perform following operations.

(i) Thresholding T = 4

(ii) Intensity level slicing with background r1 = 2 and r2 = 5

(iii) bit plane slicing for MSB and LSB planes

(iv) Negation

4 2 3 0

1 3 5 7

5 3 2 1

2 4 6 7

10 D

2010

37. A causal FIR system has three cascaded block, first two of them have individual

impulse responses h1(n) = {1,2,2} h2(n) = u(n) – u(n-2). Find impulse response

of third block h3(n) if an overall impulse response is h(n) = {2, 5, 6, 3, 2, 2}

10 J12

38. Explain in detail enhancement techniques used in Spatial domain used for

images.

8 J12

39. Explain homomorphic filtering in detail. 6 J12

40. Find the DFT of the given image:

0 1 2 1

1 2 3 2

2 3 4 3

1 3 2 3

6 J12

41. Define

(i) Eucledean distance

(ii) City block distance

(iii) Chess board distance

(iv) m connectivity

10 J12

42. Find the DFT of the given sequence (Use DITFFT algo) : x(n) = {1,2,3,4,4,3,2,1} 10 J12

43. Given below is the table of 8 symbols and their frequency of coccurence. Give

the Huffman code for each symbol.

Symbol S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

Frequency 0.25 0.15 0.06 0.08 0.21 0.14 0.07 0.04

10 J12

44. Perform the convolution of the following two sequences using Z transforms: 8 J12

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X(n ) = (0.2)

n

and h(n) = (0.3)

n

u(n)

45. Find the inverse Z transform H(z) = 1/ [1 – 3z

-1

+ 0.5 z

-2

] , |z| > 1 6 J12

46. Prove that two dimensional fourier transform matrix is an ordinary matrix. 5 D12

47. Derive 8 directional Laplacian filter mask 5 D12

48. Derive matrix representation of one dimensional Walsh tranbsform for N = 4

from forward Walsh transformation function.

5 D12

49. State fidelity objective and and subjective criteria of image evaluation. 5 D12

50. Derive the equation of contrast stretching transformation function on the

input image F and obtain the output image R.

6 D12

51.

Given ,

(i) Find 3 bit IGS coded image and calculate compression factor and bits per

pixel (BPP).

(ii) Find decoded image and calculate MSK and PSNR.

8 D12

52. Given h(n) = {1*, 2} find the response of the system to the input x(n) = {1, 2, 3}

using FFT and IFFT.

6 D12

53.

6 D12

54. Segment the following image such that the difference between the maximum

intensity value and minimum intensity value in the segmente region is less

than 18 using split and merge technique.

8 J12

55. Let x(n) be four point sequence with x(k) = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Find the DFT of the

following sequence using X(k).

(i) P(n) = x(n) cos (nπ/2)

(ii) q(n) = 2∆(n) + 3 {Four point u(n) } + 4 x(n)

6 J12

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56.

If the gray level intensity changes are to be made as shown in fig below, derive

the necessary expression for obtaining the new pixel value using slope.

(ii) Obtain the new image by applying the above mentioned transformation

function.

(iii) Plot the histogram of input and output image.

(iv) Compare the histogram of input and output image.

8 D12

57.

Apply the folllowing filter mask W1, W2 and W3 on the input image F and

obtain the output image.

6 D12

58. Given h(n) = (1/2)

n

u(n), find the response of the system to the input x(n) =

(1/4)

n

u(n) using Z transform method.

6 D12

59. Explain trimmed average filter. Find trimmed average value of the input image

F at the center position for R = 2 and S = 1 wher R is the number of

consecutive pixels to be trimmed from the minimum extreme and S is the

number of consecutive pixels to be trimmed from maximum extreme.

6 D12

60.

8 D12

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(ii) Calculate bits per pixel (BPP) and percentage of compression of compressed

image. Donot consider the payload of Huffman table.

61. X(t) = sin(480πt) + 3 sin(720 πt) is sampled with Fs = 600 Hz.

(i) What are the frequencies in radians in the resulting DT signal x(n)?

(ii) If x(n) is passed through an ideal interpolator, what sithe reconstructed

signal?

6 D12

62. Apply horizontal and vertical line detection mask on the following image F. Use

appropriate threshold value. Assume virtual rows and columns by repeating

border pixel values.

6 D12

63. Assume that the edge in the gray level image starts in the first row and ends in

the last row. Find the cost of all possible edges using the following cost

function.

Cost (p, q) = I

max

| f(p) – f(q)|

Where I

max

is the max intensity value in the image and f(p) and f(q) are pixel

values at points p and q resp. Find the edge with the minimum value of cost.

Plot the graph.

8 D12

64. How to find inverse one dimensional DFT using forward DITFFT flowgraph. 5 D12

65. Derive High Boost Filter mask (3 x3) 5 D12

66. Bitreversal technique in FFT 5 D12

67. Image enhancement using LOG transformation and power law trasformation. 5 D12

68. Explain signals and systems with the help of suitable examples. Give

applications of signals and systems.

5 J13

69. Find Z transform of the following finite duration signal and state its ROC: X(n) =

{1,2,5,7,0,1}

5 J13

70. Given X(n) = {0, 1, 2, 3} find X(k) using DIT-FFT algorithm. 5 J13

71. Find convolution of following signals: x(n) = {2, 1, 3, 5} and h(n) = {0, 1, 2, 4} 5 J13

72. Determine the sytem function and unit sample response of the system given

by the diffference equation Y(n) = (1/2) Y(n-1) + 2 X(n)

10 J13

73. Perform Histogram equalization for the following. Obtain a plot of original as

well as equalized histogram.

Grey

levels

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

No of

pixels

100 90 50 20 0 0 0 0

10 J13

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7 | P a g e

74. Given x(n) = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7}, find x(k) using DIT-FFT algo. 10 J13

75. Compute 2D DFT of given image using DIT-FFT algorithm.

10 J13

76. Explain in detail enhancement techniques in spatial domain used for images. 10 J13

77. What is HADAMARD transform? Write a 4x4 Hadamard matrix and its

applications.

10 J13

78. Explain image restoration and its applications. 10 J13

79. What do you understand by sampling and quantization with respect to digital

image pocessing? How will you convert an analog image into a digital image?

10 J13

80. Name and explain different types of redundancies associated with digital

image.

10 J13

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