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Digital Signal and Image Processing
Frequently Asked Questions
In BE (Sem VII) – University of Mumbai
No Question Marks M/YY
JUSTIFY:
1. If the kernel of the image transform is separable and symmetric the transform
can be explained in matrix form. Justify.
5 D10
2. Laplacian is not a good edge detector – Justify 5 D10
3. Lossy compression is not suitable for compressing executable files – Justify 5 D10
J12
4. Low pass filter is a smoothing filter – Justify 5 D10
5. Unit step sequence is a power signal – Justify 5 D10
6. If the energy of a signal is finite, its power is zer. Justify 5 D11
7. Laplacian is better than gradient for detection of edges – Justify 5 D11,
J12
8. Walsh transform is nothing but sequently ordered Hadamard transform
matrix. Justify
5 D11
9. All image compression techniques are invertible. Justify 5 D11
10. For digital image having salt and pepper noise, median filter is best filter. 5 J12
11. Unit ramp signal is neither energy nor power signal. 5 J12
12. List and prove any four properties of DFT. 10 D10
13. Find the circular convolution on the given two sequences x1(n) = {1, -1, 2, -4}
and x2(n) = {1, 2}
5 D10
14. Compute the Hadamard of the image shown:
2 1 2 1
1 2 3 2
2 3 4 3
1 2 3 2
5 D10
15. Give the classification of noise in images. Compare restoration and
enhancement. What are the differences between the two? What do they have
in common?
10 D10
J12
16. Three column vectors are given. Show that they are orthogonal. Also generate
all possible patterns. X1 = [1 1 1], x2 = [-2 1 1], x3 = [0 -1 1]
10 D10
17. Explain image segmentation using thresholding. How to apply thresholding to
unevenly illuminated images?
10 D11
18. What is image segmentation? Explain the following methods of image
segmentation. (i) Region growing , (ii) region splitting , (iii) thresholding
10 D10
J13
19. Determine the Z-transform of the following discrete time signals and also
specify the region of convergence (ROC)
(i) X(n) = {1*, 2, 3, 4}, (ii) X(n) = {1, 3, 5, 7*},
(iii) X(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4*, 5, 6, 7}
10 D10
20. Explain log transformation. How is gamma correction done? 10 D10
21. Find the Huffman code for the following stream of data (28 points)
{1,1,1,1,1,1,1, 2,2,2,2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3,3, 4,4,4,4, 5,5,5, 6,6,7 }
10 D10
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22. What do you mean by Gaussian noise and why is averaging filter used to
eliminate it?
5 D10
23. List down the advantages and disadvantages of Wiener filter. 5 D10
24. Write short notes on
(i) KL transform (J13)
(ii) JPEG compression
(iii) Hough Transform
(iv) Classification of signals
(v) Discrete Cosine Transform (5) (D10) (J12) (J13)
(vi) Wiener filter (5) (2010)
(vii) Difference between low pass filter and median filter
(viii) Hough transform (5) (D10) (J12)
(ix) Homomorphic filter (5) (D10)
(x) 4,8,m connectivity of image pixels. (5) (D10)
(xi) Sampling and Quantization (5) (J12)
(xii) Wavelet transform (5) (J12)(J13)
(xiii) Properties of Fourier Transform (J13)

10
each

25.

10 D
2010
26. Obtain linear convolution of two discrete time signals as below:

10 D
2010
27. Find cross-correlation betweeen given signals
X(n) = {1, 2, 0*, 1} and y(n) = {4, 3, 2*, 1}

5 D
2010
28. Find Z transform of x(n) and draw its ROC

10 D
2010
29. Determine the auto corrrelation of the following signal x(n) = {1*, 3, 1, 1} 5 D
2010
30. Using 4 point FFT algorithm, calculate the 2-D DFT of

10 D10
31. Write 8 x 8 Hadamard transform matrix and its signal flow graph. Using the
butetrfly diagram, compute Hadamard transform for x(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 1, 2}
10 D10
32. Perform histogram equalization and draw new equalized histogram of the
following image data
Gray
Level
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
10 D11
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No of
pixels
790 1023 850 656 329 245 122 81

33. Equalize the given histogram. What happens when we equalize it twice?
Justify.
Grey Level 0 1 2 3
No. of pixels 70 20 7 3
10 D10
34. Perform histogram equalization for following. Obtain a plot of original as well
as equalized histogram.

Intensity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
No of
pixels
70 100 40 60 0 80 10 40

10 J12
35. Whatare the different types of redundancies in digital image? Explain in detail. 10 D
2010
36. For the 3-bit 4x4 size image perform following operations.
(i) Thresholding T = 4
(ii) Intensity level slicing with background r1 = 2 and r2 = 5
(iii) bit plane slicing for MSB and LSB planes
(iv) Negation

4 2 3 0
1 3 5 7
5 3 2 1
2 4 6 7
10 D
2010
37. A causal FIR system has three cascaded block, first two of them have individual
impulse responses h1(n) = {1,2,2} h2(n) = u(n) – u(n-2). Find impulse response
of third block h3(n) if an overall impulse response is h(n) = {2, 5, 6, 3, 2, 2}
10 J12
38. Explain in detail enhancement techniques used in Spatial domain used for
images.
8 J12
39. Explain homomorphic filtering in detail. 6 J12
40. Find the DFT of the given image:
0 1 2 1
1 2 3 2
2 3 4 3
1 3 2 3
6 J12
41. Define
(i) Eucledean distance
(ii) City block distance
(iii) Chess board distance
(iv) m connectivity
10 J12
42. Find the DFT of the given sequence (Use DITFFT algo) : x(n) = {1,2,3,4,4,3,2,1} 10 J12
43. Given below is the table of 8 symbols and their frequency of coccurence. Give
the Huffman code for each symbol.

Symbol S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
Frequency 0.25 0.15 0.06 0.08 0.21 0.14 0.07 0.04
10 J12
44. Perform the convolution of the following two sequences using Z transforms: 8 J12
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X(n ) = (0.2)
n
and h(n) = (0.3)
n
u(n)
45. Find the inverse Z transform H(z) = 1/ [1 – 3z
-1
+ 0.5 z
-2
] , |z| > 1 6 J12
46. Prove that two dimensional fourier transform matrix is an ordinary matrix. 5 D12
47. Derive 8 directional Laplacian filter mask 5 D12
48. Derive matrix representation of one dimensional Walsh tranbsform for N = 4
from forward Walsh transformation function.
5 D12
49. State fidelity objective and and subjective criteria of image evaluation. 5 D12
50. Derive the equation of contrast stretching transformation function on the
input image F and obtain the output image R.


6 D12
51.
Given ,
(i) Find 3 bit IGS coded image and calculate compression factor and bits per
pixel (BPP).
(ii) Find decoded image and calculate MSK and PSNR.
8 D12
52. Given h(n) = {1*, 2} find the response of the system to the input x(n) = {1, 2, 3}
using FFT and IFFT.
6 D12
53.

6 D12
54. Segment the following image such that the difference between the maximum
intensity value and minimum intensity value in the segmente region is less
than 18 using split and merge technique.


8 J12
55. Let x(n) be four point sequence with x(k) = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Find the DFT of the
following sequence using X(k).
(i) P(n) = x(n) cos (nπ/2)
(ii) q(n) = 2∆(n) + 3 {Four point u(n) } + 4 x(n)
6 J12
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56.
If the gray level intensity changes are to be made as shown in fig below, derive
the necessary expression for obtaining the new pixel value using slope.

(ii) Obtain the new image by applying the above mentioned transformation
function.
(iii) Plot the histogram of input and output image.
(iv) Compare the histogram of input and output image.
8 D12
57.
Apply the folllowing filter mask W1, W2 and W3 on the input image F and
obtain the output image.
6 D12
58. Given h(n) = (1/2)
n
u(n), find the response of the system to the input x(n) =
(1/4)
n
u(n) using Z transform method.
6 D12
59. Explain trimmed average filter. Find trimmed average value of the input image
F at the center position for R = 2 and S = 1 wher R is the number of
consecutive pixels to be trimmed from the minimum extreme and S is the
number of consecutive pixels to be trimmed from maximum extreme.

6 D12
60.

8 D12
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(ii) Calculate bits per pixel (BPP) and percentage of compression of compressed
image. Donot consider the payload of Huffman table.
61. X(t) = sin(480πt) + 3 sin(720 πt) is sampled with Fs = 600 Hz.
(i) What are the frequencies in radians in the resulting DT signal x(n)?
(ii) If x(n) is passed through an ideal interpolator, what sithe reconstructed
signal?
6 D12
62. Apply horizontal and vertical line detection mask on the following image F. Use
appropriate threshold value. Assume virtual rows and columns by repeating
border pixel values.

6 D12
63. Assume that the edge in the gray level image starts in the first row and ends in
the last row. Find the cost of all possible edges using the following cost
function.
Cost (p, q) = I
max
| f(p) – f(q)|
Where I
max
is the max intensity value in the image and f(p) and f(q) are pixel
values at points p and q resp. Find the edge with the minimum value of cost.
Plot the graph.

8 D12
64. How to find inverse one dimensional DFT using forward DITFFT flowgraph. 5 D12
65. Derive High Boost Filter mask (3 x3) 5 D12
66. Bitreversal technique in FFT 5 D12
67. Image enhancement using LOG transformation and power law trasformation. 5 D12
68. Explain signals and systems with the help of suitable examples. Give
applications of signals and systems.
5 J13
69. Find Z transform of the following finite duration signal and state its ROC: X(n) =
{1,2,5,7,0,1}
5 J13
70. Given X(n) = {0, 1, 2, 3} find X(k) using DIT-FFT algorithm. 5 J13
71. Find convolution of following signals: x(n) = {2, 1, 3, 5} and h(n) = {0, 1, 2, 4} 5 J13
72. Determine the sytem function and unit sample response of the system given
by the diffference equation Y(n) = (1/2) Y(n-1) + 2 X(n)
10 J13
73. Perform Histogram equalization for the following. Obtain a plot of original as
well as equalized histogram.

Grey
levels
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
No of
pixels
100 90 50 20 0 0 0 0

10 J13
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74. Given x(n) = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7}, find x(k) using DIT-FFT algo. 10 J13
75. Compute 2D DFT of given image using DIT-FFT algorithm.

10 J13
76. Explain in detail enhancement techniques in spatial domain used for images. 10 J13
77. What is HADAMARD transform? Write a 4x4 Hadamard matrix and its
applications.
10 J13
78. Explain image restoration and its applications. 10 J13
79. What do you understand by sampling and quantization with respect to digital
image pocessing? How will you convert an analog image into a digital image?
10 J13
80. Name and explain different types of redundancies associated with digital
image.
10 J13