You are on page 1of 7

Honors Chemistry Date: 14 November 2013

Names: Jocelyn H, Junsung P, Jay L, Janice P, Celine L Period: 5

Single Replacement Reactions Lab


Unit 3: Chemical Reactions

Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to determine which metals are most reactive and to create an order from most reactive to least reactive. Part I: Reactions with Aqueous Solutions Materials: Metals: Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Silver Calcium Solutions: Copper (II) sulfate Silver nitrate Lead (II) nitrate Zinc sulfate Magnesium nitrate

Table 1.1: Metals reacting with aqueous solutions

Cu CuSO4 Ag(NO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 ZnSO4 Mg(NO3)2 No reaction Turned black No reaction No reaction No reaction

Pb No reaction Turned black No reaction No reaction No reaction

Zn Turned black Turned black No reaction No reaction No reaction

Mg Turned black Turned black Turned black Turned black No reaction

Ag No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction No reaction

Procedures 1. Using a well plate and the chemical given, determine which reactions will occur between the metals and the solutions. 2. Add to each of the wells a small piece of the appropriate metal which has first been cleaned with sand paper. Note: Your teacher will provide the calcium when you are ready for it. 3. Create a data table to record your observations of before and after reactions. 4. Observe and record any evidence of a replacement reaction (i.e. a thin coating appears on the surface of the metal) occurring each of the test tubes. If no change is visible within five minutes, record this as no reaction

Part II: Reactions with Acids Materials:

Metals: Copper Magnesium Zinc Silver Lead Calcium

Solution: hydrochloric acid

Procedures: 1. Determine where H+ should be placed on an activity series by comparing the relative amount of bubbling when added to metals. 2. Create a data table and record your results. Table 1.2: Metals Reacting with Hydrochloric Acid HCl

Cu Mg Zn Ag Pb

No reaction Bubbles Bubbles No reaction No reaction

Part III: Demonstration Your teacher will demonstrate Calcium metal in acid. Write down your observations Discussion Questions 1. From Part I: Which of the metals gave (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) four reactions: Magnesium three reactions: None two reactions: Zinc one reactions: Copper, Lead no reaction: Silver

(Authors: Celine and Junsung) Use the answers from above to list the five metals in order of decreasing reactivity.

1. Magnesium 2. Zinc 3. Lead, Copper 4. Silver 2. From Part II: Describe the order of metals from those that bubble most to those that bubble least, or not at all. List the five metals in decreasing order of reactivity. Place hydrogen into the list. Most reactive 1. Magnesium -bubbles the most 2. Zinc -bubbles the second most 3. Hydrogen 4. Lead, Copper, Silver -no bubbles Least reactive (Authors: Celine and Junsung) 3. Compare the order of reactivity of metals from Part II with all of the metals in Part I and describe any relationships you can discover. Create a final list of reactivity in order of decreasing reactivity. In both experiments, magnesium was the most reactive, and zinc was the second most reactive. This could be shown by the fact that magnesium reacted with four aqueous solutions and produced rapidly bubbled while zinc reacted with two of the solutions and released the bubbles moderately. 1. Magnesium 2. Zinc 3. Hydrogen 4. Lead 5. Copper 6. Silver (Authors: Celine and Junsung)

4. From Part III: place calcium in your list of reactivity. 1. Calcium 2. Magnesium 3. Zinc 4. Hydrogen 5. Lead

6. Copper 7. Silver (Author: Junsung) 5. Compare this order with that of the reactivity series from your notes. Outline similarities and differences. Suggest several reasons for what might explain any differences. The order obtained from the experimentation was almost the same as the reactivity series from the notes. The only difference found was that the order of hydrogen and lead were flipped. According to the reactivity series from the notes, lead is more reactive than hydrogen, but the data from the experiment showed that hydrogen was more reactive. This could be because of a few problems, such as not rubbing off the tarnish that forms on the lead when it comes into contact with oxygen. In other words, the oxided cover of the lead could have stopped the pure lead from reacting as much as it should. Furthermore, perhaps we might not have been able to see the reaction take place. (Author: Jay Editor: Jocelyn and Junsung ) 6. Write net ionic equations for all the reactions that occurred (highlighting the ones that were supposed to occur that you may not have observed) Part I:
a a a a a a a a s s s s s s s s s s s a a a

n n n

s s s s s s

n n

a a

n
a

a a a

n We did not experiment with calcium due to its explosive tendencies. However, I still did the equations.

a a a

a a a a a

s s s s s

s s s

a a a a

a
a a a

a a

s s

Part II:

a a a

s s s s s

a a

(Done by: Jay) 7. For each of the reactions, determine which substances has been oxidized and which one has been reduced as well as which is the oxidizing agent and which is the reducing agent. Part 1:
a s s a

Oxidized: Cu (s)

Reduced: Ag+ (aq)


a s s a

Oxidized: Pb (s)

Reduced: Cu (aq)
a s s a

2+

Oxidized: Pb (s)

Reduced: Ag (aq)
a

Oxidized: Zn (s)

Reduced: Cu (aq)
a

2+

Oxidized: Zn (s)

Reduced: Ag (aq)
a

Oxidized: Zn (s)

Reduced: Pb (aq)
a s s a

2+

Oxidized: Mg (s)

Reduced: Cu (aq)
a s s a

2+

Oxidized: Mg (s)

Reduced: Ag (aq) n
a s

Oxidized: Mg (s)

Reduced: Zn (aq)
a

2+

Oxidized: Ca (s)

Reduced: Cu (aq)e
a

2+

Oxidized: Ca (s)

Reduced: Ag (aq)

Oxidized: Ca (s) Oxidized: s

Reduced: Pb (aq) Reduced: a


a

2+

Oxidized: n

Reduced:

Oxidized:

Reduced:

(Done y: Jocelyn and Jay) 8. A metal was found in the lab that was missing its labeling tape. In order to determine the identity of the metal several reactions were performed. When the metal was placed in hydrochloric acid, it bubbled. No reaction was noticed when placed in a solution of calcium nitrate. A reaction was observed when placed in a solution of zinc chloride. What could the metal possibly be? What further test could you run to determine the identity of the metal? The important thing to note here is that it reacted in zinc chloride. From data table 1.2, it can be seen that only two metals will react with zinc chloride: magnesium and calcium. Furthermore, they are both able to react with hydrochloric acid but not with calcium nitrate. With the given information, we can not determine which of the two it is. However, three experiments can be performed to determine which one it is. The first one would involve putting the unknown metal into water. While calcium reacts violently with water, ma nesi m doesnt. So if the nknown metal reacts violently in water, it can be determined as calcium. The second experiment would be putting the metal into a magnesium nitrate solution. If the metal is calcium, it should react with it. If it is magnesium, it would not react. A third test could be run by placing the unknown metal into a solution of sodium nitrate. If the metal were calcium, it would react with the sodium nitrate as it is more active than sodium. However, if the metal were magnesium, it would not react with the sodium nitrate because it is less active than sodium. (Author: Jay Editor: Jocelyn, Celine ) Conclusion: A statement about the activity series you discovered. In conclusion, the activity series discovered from most reactive to least reactive is in the order of: calcium, magnesium, zinc, hydrogen, lead, copper and silver. (Author: Jocelyn Editor: Jay)