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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA

School of Advanced Manufacturing & Mechanical Engineering

Bachelor of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering
Final Year Project


DESING OF THE FRONT SUSPENSION
ON THE SOLAR COMMUTER



Student: Damian Gwizdon
Student ID: 00012066R
Supervisor: Mr Peter Murphy


December 2003
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Abstract


The aim of this project was to design and select a light weight suspension system
configuration for a solar commuter car. The presented results demonstrate that the double
wishbone suspension is the one of the best design solutions, proposed by this author, for the
solar commuter car. In this study a wide range of road conditions, vehicle load states and
speeds are examined to determine the optimum performance characteristics of the proposed
suspension. This suspension configuration has many advantages and hardly any disadvantages.
It is light in nature, and yet with the proper design and the correct pivot geometry the
suspension system can provide excellent performance. These factors are extremely important
because the overall performance of solar cars depends upon light components and efficient
energy distribution. The proposed pivot geometry gives minimal camber deviation and scrub
for the range of vertical travel. Light weight aluminium 6060 T5 was used as the material for
the final design.

The theoretical range of the vertical travel of the wheel is 60 mm upwards and 40 mm
downwards from the initial stationary conditions. This produces a maximum camber deviation
of 2.5 degrees, a maximum scrub of 1.9 mm from the initial stationary conditions and body
roll angle of 2 degrees at 8g lateral acceleration. Lengthening the linkages of the wishbone
suspension will reduce the camber change but due to the limited space in the body design of
the solar commuter this is not possible. The tyre scrub and camber change were minimised by
utilising high spring stiffness and damping level to limit the deflections of the suspension
components. The tyre scrub deviates up to 1 mm in normal working conditions. These factors
have a significant effect on the overall performance because the energy created by forward
motion is not absorbed significantly so the energy is used primarily for moving the vehicle
and not wasted by an inefficient suspension system.

The design model of the suspension system was developed by using modern engineering
techniques and computational methods. The CAD packages used for the drawing and analysis
of the suspension system were Unigraphics and AutoCAD. Computer models of the
suspension components were created from these software packages. A finite element analyses
is performed on these components to evaluate the stress distribution in them.
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Disclaimer

I declare the following to be my own work, unless otherwise referenced, as defined by the
University’s policy on plagiarism.



Damian Gwizdon

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Acknowledgments

In working on this project I have received a great deal of help and advice from my project
supervisor Mr Peter Murphy and my project advisor Dr Peter Pudney. I would like to thank
them for their help and support throughout the duration of the project.

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Contents


1. Project Background and Significance ..................................................................... 1
1.1 Aim of the Project ............................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Project Background and Significance .............................................................................. 1
2. Literature Research and Project Theory ................................................................ 4
2.1 Suspension Alignment ..................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1 Toe Setting ................................................................................................................ 5
2.1.2 Camber Angle ........................................................................................................... 6
2.1.3 Caster......................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.4 Thrust line ................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.5 Scrub Radius ............................................................................................................. 9
2.1.6 Set-Back.................................................................................................................. 10
2.1.7 Set Back by Design................................................................................................. 11
2.1.8 Roll Centres............................................................................................................. 12
2.1.9 Roll Axis ................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.10 Bump Steer Geometry........................................................................................... 14
3. Suspension Selection............................................................................................ 15
3.1 Active, Semiactive and Passive Suspensions................................................................. 15
3.1.1 Active Suspension................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2 Passive Suspension.................................................................................................. 16
3.1.3 Semi-Active Suspension ......................................................................................... 17
3.2 Suspension Types........................................................................................................... 18
3.2.1 Beam Axle............................................................................................................... 18
3.2.2 Trailing Arm............................................................................................................ 18
3.2.3 Split Beam............................................................................................................... 19
3.2.4 MacPherson Strut .................................................................................................... 20
3.2.5 Wishbones Suspension, Equal and Parallel ............................................................ 21
3.2.6 Wishbones Suspension, Non-Equal and Parallel .................................................... 22
3.2.7 Double Wishbones Non-Equal and Non-Parallel Suspension ................................ 23
3.2.8 Multi-Link Suspension............................................................................................ 24
3.3 Summary of Suspension Selection................................................................................. 25
4. Suspension Weight Transfer Analysis .................................................................. 26
4.1 Longitudinal Weight Transfer........................................................................................ 26
4.2 Total Lateral Load Transfer ........................................................................................... 29
4.3 Longitudinal Weight Transfer........................................................................................ 32
4.4 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 37
5. Suspension Design and Component Selection..................................................... 38
5.1 Suspension Frequencies and Shock Absorber................................................................ 38
5.3 Pivot Geometry .............................................................................................................. 41
5.4 Calculations of Camber Changes and Tyre Scrub ......................................................... 43
5.5 Adjustments of Camber and Caster................................................................................ 47
5.6 Suspension Bushes ......................................................................................................... 48
5.7. Ball Joint Selection ....................................................................................................... 49
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5.8. Material Selection and Weight Reduction .................................................................... 53
5.9 Fatigue Failure Analysis ................................................................................................ 54
5.9.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 54
5.9.1 Fatigue Design ........................................................................................................ 55
5.10 Finite Element Analysis ............................................................................................... 57
5.11 Aluminium Weldability ............................................................................................... 59
5.12 Chassis Body Roll ........................................................................................................ 61
5.13 Final product ................................................................................................................ 62
6. Conclusion and Recommended Further Works .................................................... 67
7. References:........................................................................................................... 68
Appendix A Literature Review and Research Methodology ...................................... 70
Appendix B Project Plan .......................................................................................... 84
Appendix C Multi Attribute Decision Analysis............................................................ 93
Appendix D Spring Calculation ............................................................................... 118
Appendix E Suspension Load Scenario Analysis................................................... 124
Appendix F Material Properties............................................................................... 128
Appendix G CAD Designs....................................................................................... 129
Appendix H Suspension Performance Calculations................................................ 141
Appendix I Roll Angle Calculation........................................................................... 149
Appendix J Work Experience...………………………………………………………….154
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List of Figures


Figure No. 2-1 Toe Setting 5
Figure No. 2-2 Camber angle 6
Figure No. 2-3 Caster Angle 7
Figure No. 2-4 Thrust Line and Angle 8
Figure No. 2-5 Scrub Radius 9
Figure No. 2-6 Set Back 10
Figure No. 2-7 Set Back by Design 11
Figure No. 2-8 Roll Centre 12
Figure No. 2-9 Roll Axis 13
Figure No. 2-10 Bumper Steer 14
Figure No. 3-1. Active Suspension 16
Figure No. 3-2. Passive Suspension 17
Figure No. 3-3 Semi-Active Suspension 17
Figure No. 3-4 Beam Axle Suspension 18
Figure No. 3-5 Trailing Arm 19
Figure No. 3-6 Split Beam 20
Figure No. 3-7 MacPherson Strut Assembly 20
Figure No.3-8 Equal and Parallel A-Arm 21
Figure No.3-9 Non-equal and Parallel A-Arm 22
Figure No.3-10 Non-Equal and Non-Parallel A-Arm 23
Figure No.3-11 Multi-Link Suspension 24
Figure No. 4-1 Weight Transfer 27
Figure No. 4-2 Braking Moment 27
Figure No. 4-3 Wheel lateral force 30
Figure No. 4-4 Speed Bump 32
Figure No. 4-5. Weight Transfer Scenario. 34
Figure No. 5-1 Spring Geometry 39
Figure No. 5-2 Constructing the Upper Inboard Pivot Point 41
Figure No. 5-3 Suspension Configuration 42
Figure No. 5-4 Tyre Scrub 43
Figure No. 5-5 Camber and Tyre Scrub 44
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Figure No. 5-6 Suspension Analysis 45
Figure No. 5-7 Camber vs Tyre Scrub 46
Figure No. 5-8 Caster & Camber Adjustment 47
Figure No. 5-9 Urethane Bushes 48
Figure No. 5-10 Heim Joint 49
Figure No. 5-11. T-Pin Heim Rod End 50
Figure No. 5-12 Ball Joint 51
Figure No. 5-13 Tie Rod End 51
Figure No. 5-14 Ball Joint 52
Figure No. 5-15 Weight reduction of Components 53
Figure No. 5-16 Fatigue Strength 55
Figure No. 5-17 Body Roll 61
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List of Tables


Table No. 5-1 Suspension Frequencies 38
Table No. 5-2 Material Properties 40
Table No. 5-3 Spring Properties 40
Table No. 5-4 Spring Characteristics Under Full Spring Compression 40
Table No. 5-5. Front Suspension Coordinates 42
Table No. 5-6 Weight Budget of the A-Arm Front Suspension 63
Table No. 5-7 Material Cost 64
Table No. 5-8 Damper Unit Cost 64
Table No. 5-9 Spring Cost 65
Table No. 5-10 Suspension Bushes & Ball Joint Cost 65
Table No. 5-11 Bolts, Nuts & Washers Cost 65


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Chapter 1: Project Background and Significance

1.1 Aim of the Project

The aim of the project comprises three main objectives. The first objective is to design a light-
weight front suspension system for solar commuter, which provides good stability and
handling. The second objective is to choose the best suspension configuration that will
accommodate the wheel and tyre. The final objective of the project involves work associated
in minimising the energy absorbed by the suspension while travelling. This is done by
optimising the pivot geometry so that the limit of the tyre scrub is a maximum of 1 millimetre
in normal working conditions.

1.2 Project Background and Significance

Solar car projects are to promote renewable energy resources in transportation. Solar cars are
vehicles which are environmentally friendly because they use the cleanest source of energy
available - the sun. This makes them very attractive. A solar vehicle uses solar cells to
generate electricity to drive its electric motor. They guarantee zero emissions and almost no
vehicle noise. Therefore these vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions of CO
2
and
other toxic exhaust gases. For this reason, South Australian Solar Car Consortium with the
University of South Australia and Regency TAFE have been developing solar cars and now a
solar commuter which is specifically designed for use in public roads.
This thesis is part of the solar commuter project and its primary objective is to design a
suspension system for the solar commuter car. The steering knuckle, hub and wheels are
excluded from this thesis because they are designed and selected by another member of the
solar commuter team.

Nowadays vehicles are utilised worldwide and provide personal mobility and transportation
of goods, which makes them an essential part in everyday life. The lives of a great number of
people are influenced by it.
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Their widespread activities are evident to everyone especially automotive engineers to design
and develop a suspension that will boost their useful features or to reduce their disadvantages.
A suspension system is generally intended to isolate passengers from vibrations caused by the
vehicle’s wheels as it rolls over a road surface.
Actually, without suspension, the vibrations would be directly transmitted to the vehicle’s
body which will cause discomfort and possible damage.
As a result, suspension systems are always limited by the compromise between ride and
handling. Too comfortable a vehicle may not be too stable during manoeuvres. That is why a
primary suspension is designed to optimise handling and stability of the vehicle, limiting the
shocks of road surfaces reaching the vehicle.

The first objective of this research was to design a light-weight front suspension system.
There are a wide variety of suspension systems which are implemented on solar cars. The
most common type of front suspension used in solar cars and in this design is the double A-
arm suspension. This suspension is similar to those used on some conventional vehicles.
Double A-arm suspension consists of lower and upper suspension arms, shock absorber with
spring, kingpin and spindle with hub which hold the wheel.

The main focus of this design is to improve the areas of performance and the driver’s comfort.
In many cases, a suspension system where the components fail to work in unison is one that
actually hurts performance. In order to achieve a better performance it is necessary to
investigate different suspension types suitable for its intended use and evaluate the advantages
and disadvantages of the different types of suspension. The performance selections are as
follows:
Î Good static and dynamic suspension configuration to prevent excessive tyre wear
Î Ease of manufacture and maintenance
Î Designed suspension must be adjustable to maintain proper alignment and
functionality
Î Low suspension weight
Î Good stability and handling qualities under varying body forces such as vehicle
load, cornering, braking and acceleration
The passenger comfort selections are: ride comfort, vibration isolation, stability and handling.
Suspension makes the vehicle more comfortable to drive, however it absorbs energy and
lowers the efficiency of the car.
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Adding suspension to a vehicle also brings some more disadvantages. The presence of
deflating components supporting the vehicle body will result in body roll when travelling
around corners, squatting at the front or rear during hard acceleration or braking, and the
vehicle will be positioned closer to the ground as the load carried is increased. At this point
the suspension components are compressed already, limiting the amount of deflection left in
the suspension for absorbing the shock loads.

The second objective dealt with the selection of the most suitable suspension configuration to
accommodate the tyre and the wheel. The pivot geometry is then optimised to minimise the
energy absorbed while the suspension travels, limiting the tyre scrub and maintaining tyre
alignment.
In this paper there are also diagrams included in every chapter of this research, where it is
necessary to show visibility of the project and all formulae and computations were written
using consistent units and symbols, and where numerical examples were given, references to
the author is given. These are all collated and mostly mentioned in the Appendices.
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Chapter 2: Literature Research and Project Theory

The purpose of this chapter is to give the reader necessary background information to
understand the research presented in this paper. There are a few very important fundamentals
such as wheel alignment, weight transfer and suspension configuration, which influence the
design of vehicle suspension. This chapter gives current knowledge which will introduce the
reader to comprehensive suspension design and development.

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2.1 Suspension Alignment

2.1.1 Toe Setting

Toe setting strongly affects the handling characteristics and transitional cornering of the
vehicle. It is the difference between the front and rear edges of the wheels as shown in Figure
2-1. Toe-in means the front edges are closer together than the rear edges and the wheels point
inward. Toe-out means the front edges are farther apart than the rear edges and the wheels
point outward. Extreme toe-in or toe-out will cause excessive tire wear and steering instability,
especially at high speeds. Most vehicles need a small amount of toe in for strait-line steering
stability. Toe setting is adjusted by lengthening or shortening the steering system’s tie-rods
and it usually varies between t 3 mm. An example of this is the Daihatsu Charade, model
G100, where the toe setting specification is between 1 mm toe out-3 mm toe in (Gregory’s
Automotive 1991, p 196).



Figure No. 2-1 Toe Setting (URL:http://www.specprod.com)
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2.1.2 Camber Angle

Camber angle is measured in degrees. It is the angle at which the wheels are angled i.e. the
angle between the centreline of the tyre and a vertical line. Extreme positive camber causes
wear on the outside of the tyre. Extreme negative camber causes wear on the inside of the tyre.
Excess negative camber will also tend to increase straight line stopping distances. The camber
angle should be optimised to minimise dynamic side forces acting on the wheel and
decreasing steering imbalance caused by lateral forces. The drawback of camber angle is
increased rolling resistance and tyre wear. This explanation is visualised in Figure 2-2.



Figure No. 2-2 Camber angle (URL:http://www.allwheelalignment.com/ )
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2.1.3 Caster


Caster is the backward or forward slope of the steering axis when viewed from the side.
Caster angles are used to alter the directional stability of the wheels.
Hence caster angle is a very dynamic setting. It changes as the suspension moves. As a result
the difference between caster angles of the left and right front wheels, should be as small as
possible to avoid steering imbalance. Proper caster angle provides the self-centre action to
pull the front wheels back to a straight ahead position after coming out of a corner. Proper
caster will also help to keep the vehicle in a straight line at high speeds. Caster angle is mostly
adjustable on suspensions arms for normal wear in suspension and steering. Negative caster
can cause hard steering when returning out of a turn and reduced straight line stability. Also
vehicles with a negative caster tend to pull from side to side. Most cars are designed with a
positive caster setting which is from + ½ degree to + 4 degrees, but there are some cars such
as Mercedes which have specified caster angle up to +10 degrees (Kerr 2003). The caster
angle is shown in Figure 2-3.


Figure No. 2-3 Caster Angle
(http://www.allwheelalignment.com)
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2.1.4 Thrust line
Thrust line is defined by the rear suspension’s relationship to the centreline of the car i.e.
direction in which the rear wheels are pointed. Thrust angle refers to the relationship of all
four wheels to each other with respect to the centre line. If the thrust line is to the right of the
centreline, the angle is said to be positive. If the thrust line is to the left of centreline, the
angle is negative. Excessive thrust angle can cause tyre wear, steering wheel misalignment, or
pulling to one side. Figure 2-4 displayed the relationship between the thrust line and the thrust
angle.


Figure no. 2-4 Thrust Line and Angle
(http://www.specprod.com)

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2.1.5 Scrub Radius
Scrub radius is the distance between the projected steering axis indication (SAI) and the tyre
tread centreline at the road surface. This distance must be exactly the same from side to side
or the vehicle will pull strongly to one side at high speeds. The Scrub Radius provides the
driver with better driving stability. In conjunction with toe setting the correct scrub radius
helps to bring the running toe to zero. Different wheels or tyres from side to side will cause
differences in scrub radius as well as a tyre that is low on air. Scrub Radius is set by the
designer and it is not adjustable. Figure 2-5 displays the scrub radius.



Figure No. 2-5 Scrub Radius
(http://206.117.169.65/alignment.htm)
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2.1.6 Set-Back

Set-Back occurs when front and rear axles (which should be perpendicular to the
centreline) are not parrel to each other. This means that one front wheel is set farther back
than the other wheel. This is usually the result of a collision, different regulation of caster
of the right and left wheels and sometimes by the car manufacture (see figure 2-6, Set
Back by design). Positive setback means the right front wheel is set back further than the
left. Excessive set back might affect steering system which can be indicated by pulling the
vehicle to one side. However small amounts of setback usually won’t cause any problems.




Figure No. 2-6 Set Back
(http://www.familycar.com/ )
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2.1.7 Set Back by Design

Set back by design. In some vehicles set back is designed by the manufacturer. The most
frequent cause for that is the torsion-bar spring which is fitted to front suspensions in vehicles
such as Mitsubishi Pajero, Daihatsu Feroza, and Renault 5. The most common technical
reasons for this are dynamics and weight distribution of a vehicle. Set back by design and
caster are diagnostic angles to identify chassis misalignment or collision damage (Figure 2-7).
The occurrence of setback can also cause some differences in alignment setting.



Figure No. 2-7 Set Back by Design
PS-left wheel base
PD - right wheel base

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2.1.8 Roll Centres

Roll Centre can be defined as a force centre. It is the point at which the vehicle rotates about,
when the vehicle is in a turn. Each front and rear suspensions have their own roll centres. The
roll centre is affected by the suspension arrangement, the location of the tyre contact patch,
and the amount of suspension deflection. The roll centre is one of the most important factors
that must be taken into consideration when one designs any suspension. It is relatively easy to
determine the static roll centre. However the dynamic roll centre is pretty hard to be found. It
can move up, down and sideways when cornering. There are theoretical ways, using computer,
to build mathematical model of suspension to analyse its dynamic behaviour. However when
cornering it is hard to exactly estimate the dynamic forces, which act on the suspension.
The front suspension roll-centre height should be as low as possible to give better stability
that is achieved by less weight transfer to the outer wheel. As a result, the jacking effect of
the suspension arms when cornering is reduced to give less understeering and more precise
handling. Figure 2-8 shows the Roll Centre of a suspension arm.

Figure No. 2-8 Roll Centre
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2.1.9 Roll Axis
The roll axis is the theoretical line which joins the front and rear roll centres. In general
the line is desired to be parallel to the surface of the road (front and rear roll centres at the
same height). It provides better vehicle stability and keeps the forces on the tyres more
evenly distributed for better grip. Figure 2-9 shows the three images depicting the Roll
Centre.



Figure No. 2-9 Roll Axis
(http://www.tonyfoale.com/Articles/carstuff/spring.htm)
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2.1.10 Bump Steer Geometry

Bump steer is the change of toe setting as a suspension system moves up and down. When it
travels up and down it forms an arc, therefore the wheel will have an increase or decrease in
toe as it is shown is figure 2-10. It is mainly observable on rough road surfaces, during hard
cornering and under heavy braking. Bump steer can exist in front or rear suspension designs.
It affects handling to a great extent. It causes tyre scrub and loss of traction if experienced
during cornering. If suspension springs are lowered the bump steer effects on the vehicle
handling are much greater. It is desired to minimise bumper steer as much as possible (zero
bump-steer is ideal). But in fact bump steer can never be eliminated; one can only minimise it
for a given suspension design.


Figure No. 2-10 Bumper Steer (Alexander 2002, p 56)


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Chapter 3: Suspension Selection

This chapter gives the reader comprehensive information on different types of suspension
systems and relates the advantages and disadvantages of each. There are several factors which
affect the selection of suspension system. These factors will be discussed in detail to provide
significant findings and recommendations for the solar commuter’s suspension selection.


3.1 Active, Semiactive and Passive Suspensions


3.1.1 Active Suspension
Active suspension uses an actuator with electronic controller to stabilise the velocity and
dynamic displacement of suspension elements. This reduces vibration in the suspension
system. A simplified illustrated representation of active suspension is shown in figure number
3-1. The controller in the active suspension optimises the vehicle’s body acceleration, velocity
and deflection which provide frequency dependent dumping of sprung and unsprung masses.
This way ride and stopping roll is softened to keep the wheels in ideal attitudes at all times.
In 1987 active suspension was introduced to Formula One. It is a revolutionary event because
active suspension gives improvements in cornering speeds on the road of between 10% to
15% (Staniforth 2002, p125). Active suspension would be an ideal design solution for the
solar commuter, however it will not be implemented due to larger design and production costs.
In addition design of an active system requires producing complex computer simulation
programs and advanced equipment for testing.

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Figure No. 3-1. Active Suspension



3.1.2 Passive Suspension

In conventional passive suspension a spring, and damper or shock absorber are used as
illustrated in figure 3-2. This kind of suspension is characterised by absence of any active
control system described in the active suspension section of this report. Passive suspension
systems are designed as a compromise between ride comfort and handling performance. They
have been used for decades as a simple, reliable and practical way of design. In passive
suspension the sprung mass is inserted between the unsprung mass (i.e. wheels and axle
assembly) supported by the tyre and the ground. The requirements for vibration isolation and
minimum relative displacement of the suspension components are satisfied by a
comprehensive passive suspension design. All energy which is created by the forward motion
of the vehicle over the road surface is degenerated or stored by suspension components. This
model of the passive suspension will be used in the design of the solar commuter suspension.

17

Figure No. 3-2. Passive Suspension


3.1.3 Semi-Active Suspension

Passive suspension can be improved by controllable dampers as illustrated in Figure no .3-3.
Semiactive suspension is similar to passive suspension. The only difference is that
conventional spring element is retained, but the damper is replaced with a controllable damper
adjustment. Semi-active suspension uses the possibility of varying a damping constant in a
controlled manner. It has been used successfully in a variety of different vehicles.

Figure No. 3-3 Semi-Active Suspension
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3.2 Suspension Types

3.2.1 Beam Axle
Beam Axle suspension is guided by leaf springs which resist lateral, longitudinal and vertical
loads. It is very heavy and it has a high roll centre. This is a dependent kind of suspension
which means that movements and shocks are transmitted from one wheel to the other. This
type of suspension was commonly used in different kind of vehicles before introducing
independent wishbones. This kind of suspension is good for heavy duty applications. For the
solar commuter Beam Axle suspension is too heavy and its roll centre is located too high.
Figure 3-4 shows a typical Beam Axle suspension set – up.


Figure No. 3-4 Beam Axle Suspension (Ellis 1994, p92)



3.2.2 Trailing Arm

The Trailing Arm was used in the front suspension of the BRM V16 type Grand Prix car until
1987. It was also used on VW Beetles as well. However this suspension, has only one
desirable feature, it has a low roll centre. It is too heavy, not practical and it does not provide
good vehicle handling characteristics for a vehicle during cornering where both wheels are at
the same angle as the vehicle is in roll.
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This kind of suspension has only one link (arm) on each side which puts greater structural
requirements on it. Strong bending forces in all directions (especially during cornering) must
be withstood by this suspension and as well as breaking, camber and steer torques.
Nevertheless trailing arm suspension has been used in many vehicles as a rear linkage,
because it requires little space to be accommodated. Figure 3-5 shows a typical Trailing Arm
Suspension.



Figure No. 3-5 Trailing Arm




3.2.3 Split Beam

Split Beam suspension has a lower roll centre then the beam axle system. But again this
system is too heavy and impractical for the solar commuter. This design is very old and
parentally Split Beam is only used in locomotive suspensions. The main design problem is the
camber setting which changes drastically under dynamics loads. When cornering the roll
centre makes both wheels slant towards the corner which make the vehicle oversteer. The
only advantage of this design is that it provides independent shock absorption. A typical Split
Beam suspension is shown in Figure 3-6.

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Figure No. 3-6 Split Beam
3.2.4 MacPherson Strut

MacPherson strut is one of the most extensively used front suspension system. It is simple and
it is fundamentally made of a coil spring and shock absorber. It is mounted between the top
arm of the steering knuckle and the inner fender panel. The MacPherson strut system does not
require upper suspension arm. It has relatively low and well controlled roll centres. It is also
cheap and very compact. The problem is that the MacPherson suspension tends to produce a
very steep camber angle which has an affect on tyre wear. Adjustments of camber and caster
are relatively complicated and they usually require fitting modified suspension bushes. Also
the high overall height may be a problem which prevents fitting the unit to low vehicles.
Taking into consideration the above constraints it is recommended that MacPherson strut can
be proposed as one of the best choices for the suspension selection design. Figure 3-7 displays
the MacPherson Strut Assembly.

Figure No. 3-7 MacPherson Strut Assembly (Jones 1990, p 227)
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3.2.5 Wishbones Suspension, Equal and Parallel

This kind of suspension has very low roll centres, good bump and droop control. It keeps the
tyre perpendicular to the ground which means that there is no camber change at all under
bump. However under body roll the camber changes as much as the body roll. This is
undesirable because it causes excessive tyre scrubbing. The Equal and Parallel A-Arm is
displayed in Figure 3-8.


Figure No. 3-8 Equal and Parallel A-Arm (http://autozine.kyul.net)

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3.2.6 Wishbones Suspension, Non-Equal and Parallel

In the Non – Equal and Parallel A-Arm design the camber variation is reduced under body
roll. However this design does not have such as good a bump and droop control as equal and
parallel wishbones. Figure 3-9 shows a typical Non – Equal and Parallel A-Arm set up.



Figure No. 3-9 Non-equal and Parallel A-Arm
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3.2.7 Double Wishbones Non-Equal and Non-Parallel Suspension

Double wishbones, non-equal and non-parallel, is the most ideal suspension. It has near
perfect camber control which gives very good handling characteristics. Unequal length non-
parallel double wishbones are very affective under different road conditions. The camber
angle hardly changes under body roll, however it is not so good under bump. Usually the
lower wishbone is longer than the upper and it is parallel to the road at normal ride height.
The roll centre height gives minimal weight transfer, and jacking effects and it keeps the
centre of gravity low which is very desirable.
In Figure 3-10 below it is shown how the double wishbones, non-equal and non-parallel
suspension deals with bump and body roll.

Figure No. 3-10 Non-Equal and Non-Parallel A-Arm
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3.2.8 Multi-Link Suspension

Multi-link suspension is any independent suspension having 3 or more control arms. The most
common multi-link suspension is based on the double wishbone system described above. The
only difference is that additional control arms are added to the system. It has many advantages
in kinematic design because it has many variables which can be optimised to meet the
design’s goals. It provides excellent performance and a high level of vibration isolation.
Unfortunately multi-link suspension is relatively heavy and requires more space for all the
links. Figure 3-11 shows the Multi-Link Suspension.




Figure No. 3-11 Multi-Link Suspension (http://autozine.kyul.net)
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3.3 Summary of Suspension Selection

The main requirements for the design of solar the commuter suspension are (refer to
Appendix C for full details of the selection process):

¾ The ride comfort and vibration isolation provided to the occupants
¾ A good static and dynamic suspension configuration to prevent excessive tyre wear
¾ Ease of manufacture and maintenance
¾ Designed suspension must be adjustable to maintain proper alignment and
functionality
¾ Low suspension weight
¾ Good stability and handling qualities under varying body forces such as vehicle
loading, cornering, braking, and acceleration.

The best selection for the suspension of the solar commuter is passive double wishbone
suspension which is relatively light, easy to manufacture and it has low roll centres.
The roll centre height gives minimal weight transfer and jacking effects. Double wishbone
suspension minimizes sideways scrubbing of tyres under bump and body roll which helps to
keep the tyre as perpendicular as possible to the ground. It is also light and easy to
manufacture. Therefore double wishbone non-equal and non-parallel suspension is the most
suitable design selection for the solar commuter.

The second design which could be used is passive multi-link suspension. However it is
heavier and occupies more space. Also the cost of manufacture is much higher comparing to
the double wishbone suspension.

The MacPherson Strut is the third and last alternative which can be considered for the final
design. It is a simple design which eliminates the upper suspension arm, however it produces
a steep camber angle that affects the overall efficiency of tyre wear and energy absorption.



26
Chapter 4: Suspension Weight Transfer Analysis

4.1 Longitudinal Weight Transfer

During braking, the weight of the vehicle is transferred from the rear wheels onto the fronts.
At the same time front wheels gain more traction while the rear ones lose it. A long wheelbase,
low centre of gravity resists this tendency for weight transfer which occurs during braking.
Longitudinal weight transfer during acceleration is directed in the opposite direction to
braking.

The longitudinal Weight Transfer for the solar commuter is:

1) Total static weight of solar commuter including batteries, engine, driver and passenger
m= 500 kg (330 kg front, 170 kg rear)
Static load = 3237.3 N (front wheels), 1667.7 N (rear wheel)
2) Deceleration of solar commuter a= 0.8 g
,
_

¸
¸
2
s
m
(for emergency braking)
3) Wheelbase length L= 2.350 m
4) CG (Centre of gravity) height h= 0.350 m

Longitudinal load transfer: (Milliken 1995, p.617)

L
h a m
Load
× ×
· ∆

where · ∆ Load actual change in wheel load (N)


( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
kg m
N Load
m
m
s
m
kg
Load
6 . 59 ass
4 . 584
.350 2
350 . 0 81 . 9 8 . 0 500

2
· ∆
· ∆
× × ×
· ∆ ∴

Therefore 59.6 kg is shifted from the rear wheel to the front ones as shown in figure 4-1.

27



Figure 4-1 Weight Transfer

The braking force acting on the wheels produces a moment about point A, which has to be
equal and opposite to the braking moment
b
M applied to the hub assembly. This braking
moment is driven by drive force
D
F as illustrated in Figure 4-2.



Figure No. 4-2
517 mm

D
F
b
M
Direction of Motion
b
F
A
28
where:
D
F -drive force
b
F -braking force
b
M - braking moment

ma F
D
5 . 0 ·
D
F =
,
_

¸
¸
× × ×
2
sec
m
81 . 9 8 . 0 kg 500 5 . 0
N 1962 ·
D
F

( )
Nm 18 . 507
m 517 . 0 5 . 0 N 1962
·
× × ·
b
b
M
M


When the brakes are applied the tyres are pushed forward against the road, and the road
pushes back. The higher the centre of gravity is, the greater the torque. On the other hand, the
longer the wheelbase is, the lesser the torque. This is just another way of saying that the
amount of weight transfer resulting from a change in speed is a function of the ratio of the
height of the centre of gravity to the length of the wheelbase. For front loading scenario refer
to Appendix E.



29
4.2 Total Lateral Load Transfer

Transverse weight transfer adds cross weight under centripetal acceleration, during cornering,
which means that the outside tyres carry more load than the inside tyres. Transverse weight
transfer it is influenced by:
¾ Overall weight of the vehicle
¾ Height of the centres of gravity and roll centre
¾ Track width
¾ Value of centripetal acceleration

For the solar commuter the Total Transverse Load Transfer (cornering) equals:

t
h a W
c

Load Lateral · ∆ (Milliken 1995, p.678)
(note:
ρ
2
v
a
c
· )

W = total solar commuter weight (kg)
h = height of CG (m)
c
a = centripetal acceleration
t = track or tread width (from wheel centres)

Using variables W=500 kg
h= 0.350 m

c
a = 1.93
2
s
m
(for 100
h
km
, radius of curvature 400 m)
Note: in this case
c
a = 0.2 g

30
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
N
m
m
s
m
kg
307
1 . 1
350 . 0 93 . 1 500
Load Lateral
2
·
× ×
· ∆

=31.3 kg
Therefore 30 kg is shifted to the outside wheel when cornering at
c
a = 0.2 g.

In an emergency turn, centripetal acceleration increases considerably. In case of a solar
commuter it is reasonable to assume that during an emergency turn
c
a = 1.2g.
( ) [ ]( ) ( )
( )
N
m
m
s
m
kg
8 . 1872
1 . 1
350 . 0 2 . 1 81 . 9 500
Load Lateral
2
·
× × ×
· ∆



If the vehicle is cornering at 1.2g the total lateral load transfer is 1872.8 N which in terms of
mass is 191 kg.
Consequently due to cornering, the wheel load increases in outside wheel and it decreases in
the inside wheel. For this reason the lateral force increases in the outside wheel and
decreasing in the inside one. Because solar commuter is a three wheeled vehicle, the total
lateral weight transfer is transferred between front wheels only. However, the applied lateral
force as shown in Figure 4-3, due to centripetal acceleration, acts on each wheel provided that
both front wheel still have traction.
In comparison four wheeled vehicle have this advantage that the lateral load transfer is shared
between front and rear wheels

Figure No. 4-3 Wheel lateral force

31
Therefore, to reduce the negative effects of weight transfer, four concepts have to be
considered (and if necessary optimised).

1) Reduce the vehicle’s total weight.
2) Reduce the centre of gravity (CG) height.
3) Increase the track width.
4) Rearrange weight within the chassis.

The amount of weight on a tyre at any given time dramatically affects the traction that the tyre
can generate. Also camber, ambient temperature, tyre temperature and track surface condition,
and obviously the tyre play an important role. In a good chassis and suspension design any
undesirable effects of weight transfer during cornering can be minimised as it has been stated
above. For a side front loading scenario refer to Appendix E.


32
4.3 Longitudinal Weight Transfer
(Driving Over a Speed Bump)
Driving over a speed bump is an excellent way to test suspension behaviour. Good design
of a passive suspension can to some extent optimise ride and stability. But it cannot
completely eliminate vibration transmitted to the vehicle when driving through rough
roads or driving over speed bumps. The magnitude of the vibration is determined by the
speed of the vehicle, weight distribution, and the roughness of the road’s surface. In the
example below it will be determined how much weight will be transferred to the front
suspension when the vehicle drives over a speed bump with given geometry
characteristics. Figure 4-4 shows the bump and the letters devoting the specific geometric
characteristics.








Figure No. 4-4 Speed Bump
The geometric characteristics of the bump are W=250 mm and h= 100 mm

Calculating the effects of tyre and suspension flex when going over a speed bump is very time
consuming and it has to be performed using computer simulation programs, taking into
consideration mass distribution, suspension geometry, tyre flexion, effective springs rates,
shocks, moment of inertia, etc. However, this problem can be solved in a more simplistic way
in which a speed bump in the road is treated as a pair of matched triangle as shown in figure
4-5. If the bump is shallow, (i.e. W h〈〈 ) it is reasonable to assume that the horizontal speed of
the vehicle driving over the speeding bump is constant. The velocity has two components -
horizontal
x
v and vertical
y
v - yielding
2 2 2
y x
v v v + · .
h
W
r
33
If vertical velocity
y
v is constant, from trigonometry
2 2
2 2
arctan sin
arctan cos
w h
vh
w
h
v v
w h
vw
w
h
v v
y
x
+
·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
+
·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
(Beckman 2002)

where
2 2
w h r + ≡

Using the same approximation as above it can be seen that the time for
y
v is given by
v
r
vw
wr
v
w
t
x
· · · and therefore the vertical acceleration is:

2 2
2
2
2
w h
h v
r
h v
v
r
r
vh
t
v
a
y
y
+
· · · ≈ (Beckman 2002)
For vertical velocity
x
v the time can be computed as follows:
v
w h
t
2 2
+
·

For graphical representation of the load transfer for the solar commuter when driving over a
speed bump, refer to figure 4-5.


34


Figure No. 4-5. Weight Transfer Scenario.

,
_

¸
¸
·
sec
m
10
X
v
a = 0.8 m
b = 1.55 m
H = 0.350 m
( ) N W
F
3 . 3237 81 . 9 330 · × ·
R
W =( ) N 7 . 1667 81 . 9 170 · ×
As earlier indicated the vertical acceleration is:
W ∆
a b
H
F
W
F
F
CG
R
W
x
F
y
F
x
v
35

,
_

¸
¸
·
+
×
·
+
·
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
sec
93 . 137
250 . 0 1 . 0
1 . 0 10
m
a
a
w h
h v
a
y
y
y


The vertical velocity is computed as follows:

,
_

¸
¸
·
+
×
·
+
·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
sec
28 . 9
250 . 0 1 . 0
250 . 0 10
arctan cos
2 2
2 2
m
v
v
w h
vw
w
h
v v
x
x
x



The horizontal accelerations:
( )
t
v v
a
x
x

· sec 027 . 0
10
250 . 0 1 . 0
2 2 2 2
·
+
·
+
·
v
w h
t
( )

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

·
2
sec
67 . 26
027 . 0
10 28 . 9
m
a
a
x
x






kg m
f
330 ·
36
y f y
x f x
a m F
a m F
·
·



( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 55 . 1 8 . 0 8 . 0 350 . 0 55 . 1 8 . 0 · × + × + × − × + × − × F F F F W W
Y x R F

F=16463.4 N


↓ ∆ ·
y
ma F


y
a since equal and opposite to ↑
y
a


· ∆
y
a
F
m
93 . 137
4 . 16463
· ∆m

kg 4 . 119 · ∆m




Therefore

kg m
m
front
front
4 . 449
4 . 119 330
·
+ ·

kg m
m
rear
rear
6 . 50
4 . 119 170
·
− ·




· 0
CG
M
37
4.4 Summary

The objective of this chapter was to develop an understanding of vehicle dynamics and the
applications of suspension weight transfer as they apply to the fundamental components of the
vehicle suspension analyses. These analyses are applied to the design of the solar commuter’s
suspension. Because the centre of gravity of a vehicle is located above the centres of wheel
rotation a change of speed (acceleration or deceleration) causes the centre of gravity to move.
The direction of this movement depends upon manoeuvring of the vehicle (braking, turning,
cornering, acceleration and deceleration). Accelerating shifts weight to the rear, deceleration
shifts it to the front and cornering shifts the weight to the opposite side. This phenomenon can be
referred to as a weight transfer. The most significant factors that affect weight transfer are:
¾ Rate of acceleration/deceleration
¾ Overall weight of the vehicle
¾ Height of the centre of gravity
¾ Location of roll centres
¾ Track width (distance between the vertical centrelines of each tyre) for cornering
¾ Wheelbase length ( in straight-line motion)

Therefore, when the vehicle's direction changes throughout braking, accelerating, or cornering,
each wheel will experience a gain or loss of mechanical down force. This weight transfer has
significant impact on traction for the reason that when the down force increases the traction
increases too and vice versa. Weight transfer is a result of inertia and momentum and it can be
minimised by a proper design.
38
Chapter 5: Suspension Design and Component
Selection

5.1 Suspension Frequencies and Shock Absorber

Suspension frequency is the number of oscillations of the suspension over a period of time when
a load is applied. Suspension frequency is a very important starting point for a suspension design
because it reflects suspension stiffness and it is needed for calculating roll resistance. The table
below shows different suspension frequencies and their applications.

Frequency
(Hertz)
Application
< 0.833
Dangerously low. The vehicle has to much
movement and is likely to “bottom out”
1 – 1.33 Suitable for comfortable road vehicles
1.33 – 1.67 Suitable for sportier road vehicles
1.67 – 2.1 Suitable for racing vehicles
2.1 – 2.9 Suitable for more extreme racing vehicles
2.9 + Typical to Formula One racing
Table No. 5-1 Suspension Frequencies (Riley 2003)

The natural frequency of the solar commuter can be calculated as follows:
d
f
2
1
· (Riley 2003)
where d – static deflection of the vehicle in meters (calculations of d are shown in Appendix D)
Hz f
f
5 . 2
040 . 0 2
1
·
·

As a result, the front suspension system on the solar commuter is stiff and less comfortable than
production passenger cars.
39
5.2 Spring and Shock Absorber

When a suspension spring encounters a disturbance in the road surface, the spring will compress
or extend. It will continue to oscillate at its natural frequency until friction reduces the movement
or another disturbance occurs. To control and stop the oscillation a shock absorber (damper) is
used. Shock absorbers are vital components. They are set in manufacture to control up-and-down
movements of the wheel in accordance with the design requirements of the vehicle. After long
service their resistance to bump and rebound will almost certainly have decreased and riding
comfort and handling of the vehicle will deteriorate accordingly. How much suspension travels
has a big influence on a shock absorbers selection. This information is very important for
selecting required damper stroke lengths. The solar commuter suspension was designed to
capable of a 40 mm droop and a 60 mm bump.
There are three positions which are of interest within damper stroke: full-open, medium height
and close-height. The static loaded height is also very significant because it helps to determine
the length of the spring. When driving the spring is compressed and extended due to disturbance
in the road surface and the shock absorber is to control and bring these oscillations back to a
steady state. In some shock absorbers there is an adjustment which allows regulating the ride
height suitable for a variety of conditions from daily driving to competition.
The new designed spring characteristics are listed in the tables 5-2, 5-3, 5-4. For all the spring
calculations refer to Appendix D. The front springs for the solar commuter front suspension can
be manufactured by UNIVERSAL SPRINGS, 44-48 Regency Road, Kilkenny, South Australia.
And the damper can be purchased at Japanese Motor Dismantles (comprehensive details about
the damper will be provided at the end of this chapter).

Figure No. 5-1 Spring Geometry (Shigley 1986)
40
Material Properties (Chrome vanadium AISI 6150)

G Shear Modulus of Elasticity 79.3 GPa
ut
S Tensile Strength 1413.23 MPa
y
S
Yield Strength 1059.92 MPa
sy
S
Shear Yield 611.57 MPa
Table No. 5-2 Material Properties

Spring Properties

o
D Coil Outer Diameter 56 mm
mean
D Coil Mean Diameter 48 mm
d Wire Diameter 8 mm
C Spring Index 6
P Pitch 24.84 mm
s
K Shear Stress Multiplication Factor 1.083
K Wahl Correction Factor 1.303
N
active
Number of Active Coils 8.5
N
dead
Number of Dead Coils 0.5
L
free
Free Length 220 mm
L
min
Minimum Length when fully compressed 76 mm
k Spring Constant 40466.25
m
N

Table No. 5-3 Spring Properties

Full Spring Compression


MAX
δ Maximum Deflection 144 mm
F
MAX
Maximum Force 5827.14 N
MAX
τ Maximum Shear Stress 227 MPa
Table No. 5-4 Spring Characteristics Under Full Spring Compression

The spring deflections are directly proportional to applied axial loads and damping rates are
proportional to the relative velocity between the body and the axle. Vertical vibration input from
the road surfaces are the primary source of roadway induced disturbance to a moving vehicle.
41
5.3 Pivot Geometry

It is necessary to determine the actual position of front and rear pivot points of the lower and
upper suspension arms, as well as the location of the suspension’s hard points. This was
conducted with the help of Dr Peter Pudney by constructing computer simulation calculations
using Haskell software. This software analyses suspension movements and suspension geometry
and wishbone angles. The user of this software has to specify some initial suspension geometry
such as steering axis inclination angle, lower and upper inboard pivot points, and lower and upper
wishbone angles. Upper outboard pivot point and or the upper wishbone angle are to be roughly
estimated. The upper inboard pivot point can be found by moving the lower end of the steering
axis vertically, as the wheel travels upwards and downwards keeping the lower end of the
steering axis alongside the desired path of the contact patch. When this happens the outer pivot of
the upper A-Arm creates a curve. Perpendicular lines to this curve will meet and intersect to form
the best positioned pivot point as shown in the simplified figure 5-2.


Figure No. 5-2 Constructing the Upper Inboard Pivot Point

42
Table 5-5 shows the actual positions for the front and rear pivots points of the front suspension
system by utilizing the design coordinate system.

Table No. 5-5. Front Suspension Coordinates
Part (x,y)
tyre contact patch (550,0)
steering axis contact point (535,0)
steering axis inclination 8°
lower inboard pivot point (335,200)
lower arm angle 0.00°
upper inboard pivot point (381,400)
upper arm angle 0.41°
Roll centre 3.9 mm


The calculated coordinates for the front suspension are listed in table 5-5. Each point was
calculated for optimum suspension performance. The designed low-mass chassis severely
limiting the available space for the front suspension. As a result, suspension control arm
dimensions are limited. This produces linkage arrangements creating a suspension system that is
very compact. Figure number 5-3 gives graphical representation of the suspension pivot
geometry.


Figure No. 5-3 Suspension Configuration
43

5.4 Calculations of Camber Changes and Tyre Scrub

In the given suspension configuration the wheel is designed to move downwards by 40 mm and
upwards by 60 mm. Up and down movements of the wheel produces side movement of the wheel,
which is called the tyre scrub. This is shown in Figure 5-4.





Figure No. 5-4 Tyre Scrub
As the wheel moves through its range of travel, the camber angle also changes. It is important to
design the suspension geometry to obtain smooth and predictable changes in camber. For these
above reasons the suspension was desired to minimise the tyre scrub and camber variations as
much as possible to lessen tyre wear and tyre energy absorption so that overall efficiency of the
solar commuter is increased. The tyre scrub and camber movements in relationship to the vertical
movement of the wheel can be visualised in Figure 5-5.
44
Camber & Tyre Scrub vs Vertical Travel
-60.000
-40.000
-20.000
0.000
20.000
40.000
60.000
80.000
-3.000 -2.500 -2.000 -1.500 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500
Camber (degrees) / Tyre Scrub (mm)
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

T
r
a
v
e
l

(
m
m
)
Tyre Scrub
Camber Change

Figure No. 5-5 Camber and Tyre Scrub

To calculate the tyre scrub and camber angle changes the following equations were used in the
analytical analysis. These equations were presented in an article published by the Western
Michigan University in the USA (http://homepages.wmich.edu.). Comparing the given equations
to the presented results in this article, it was found out that the equations of the angle theta
3
and
suspensions leverage ratio K
3
were typed inconsistently and they had to be rectified. The
equations are as follows (for graphical representation of these equations refer to figure 5-6):


( )
( )
ab
b a d c
b
d
ac
d c b a
c
d
a
d
K
2
K K
2
K K
2 2 2 2
5 4
2 2 2 2
3 2 1
− − −
· ·
+ + −
· · ·

45
D(t
2
)= cos(t
2
) - K
1
+ K
4
cos(t
2
) + K
5
E(t
2
) = -2sin(t
2
)
F(t
2
) = K
1
+ (K
4
– 1)cos(t
2
) + K
5
The theta 3 angle is calculated as follows:
( )
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
]
1

¸

− − −
·
D
DF E E
t t
2
4
sin 2 ) (
2
1
2
2 3

Camber (rad) = t
3
+ t
0
+ t
k

x
position
= (a.sin(t
2
+t
0
))+hsin(-t
3
-t
0
))
y
position
= -[-(a.cos(t
2
+t
0
)) + (hcos (-t
3
-t
0
))]



Figure No. 5-6 Suspension Analysis
46
It can be seen that the maximum camber changer for the proposed design is 2.5 degrees which is
satisfactory. This will result in less tyre wear and decrease the rolling resistance.
The excel model of this analysis can be found in Appendix E. The influence of camber changes
on tyre scrub is shown in figure 5 – 7.

Camber vs Tyre Scrub
-3.0000
-2.5000
-2.0000
-1.5000
-1.0000
-0.5000
0.0000
-2.500 -2.000 -1.500 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500
Tyre Scrub (mm)
C
a
m
b
e
r

(
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
)

Figure No. 5-7 Camber vs Tyre Scrub

47
5.5 Adjustments of Camber and Caster

In this suspension system the adjustment of camber and caster can be done by placing special
designed spacers which are to be positioned between the body and the suspension brackets. By
adding these spacers, the camber setting will change and at the same time if more spaces are
added to one side, this will change the caster setting as shown
in Figure 5-8. The adjustment of camber and caster should be performed on upper
A-Arm only.


Figure No. 5-8 Caster & Camber Adjustment
48
5.6 Suspension Bushes



Suspension Bushes are one of the most critical part in the suspension system which play a
significant role in car safety, ride comfort and handling. Suspension bushes are one of the most
highly stressed components fitted to a vehicle. Conventional rubber bushes deteriorate with age
allowing movement to occur between the suspension components. To greater extent this also
affects the geometry of the suspension. This can cause tyre wear, braking instability and poor
handling. If a bush is too hard, too soft or damaged in any way, the ride and the handling is
compromised and therefore the safety of the vehicle is reduced. Suspension bushes are made
from a number of different types of materials, including rubber, urethane and synthetic rubber
compound. Currently urethane bushes are one of the best on the market and they are the most
suitable for the solar commuter suspension. They are light and they have excellent anti-wear
resistance, noise and vibration absorption. For this reason Pedders urethane bushes have been
selected for the final suspension design. However their outside diameters have to be reduced by 3
mm to fit the suspension (refer to Appendix G). It is recommended that these bushes should be 1
mm oversized and be pushed in the suspension arms. Therefore no movements between
suspension components will occur and for this reason the bushes will not cause any vibrations
and dynamic misalignments of the suspension parts. Although out of focus Figure 5-9 shows the
typical urethane bushes.



Figure 5-9 Urethane Bushes
49
5.7. Ball Joint Selection

There are three most common designs of ball joints available on the market. The first design is
commonly referred to as Heim joints (figure 5-10). High strength Heim joints can handle high
misalignment angles. These joints are wildly available on the market at moderate prices. Metal-
to-metal, with a surface-hardened spherical ball, Heim joints resist higher ball push out forces.
The major disadvantage of these joints is that they do not absorb vibrations very well. In addition,
Heim joints require periodic washing and lubrication to prevent excessive deterioration.
However, Teflon lined Heim joints are sometimes used in precision linkages such as suspension
links of race cars because they locate wheels very precisely.




Figure 5-10 Heim Joint (Tuthill 2003)
50
The second design uses T-pin Heim Rod End (figure 5-11), which can handle an extensive range
of motion. This style of Heim joint requires periodic greasing and the replacement of deteriorated
bronze pivot bushing. The housing of this joint is usually made of low carbon steel, plated and
chromate treated for corrosion resistance. Suspensions using Heim rod ends are subjected to
moderate vibration and their joints require relatively high maintenance. Also a high
manufacturing cost makes this type of joints unattractive for the suspension design of solar
commuter.



Figure 5-11. T-Pin Heim Rod End



The third design uses ball joints. They are currently being used in the automotive industry. Ball
joints used for the steering system are called tie rod ends (figure 5-13) and they connect the
steering arm to the suspension linkages. They are designed to take extreme tensile and
compression loadings caused by driving over bumps in the road or cornering.
51

Figure No. 5-12 Ball Joint Figure No. 5-13 Tie Rod End


However, if tie rod ends are subjected to bending they are not so strong. They can break very
easily by fatigue failure. Teflon lined ball joints prevent road vibration from being transferred
from the joint as well as continuously cleaning and lubricate the bearing surface. These joints
allow smoother operation over a wider range of motion. When a ball joint is used in a suspension
arm application, it is subjected to bending stresses. In most motor vehicle to prevent fatigue
failure, ball joints as illustrated in figure 5-12 are used. Suspension ball joints facilitate the three
dimensional movements of a wheel that is necessary when a vehicle is turning and the suspension
is articulating to accommodate the rough surface of the road. As a result, a great deal of stress is
placed on ball joints making them one of the most common suspension components to wear out.
Typically, a worn ball joint will result in a clunking noise that occurs while driving. In extreme
cases, a worn ball joint can break in two causing the wheel to de-couple and the vehicle to lose
control. Press-in ball joints (figure 5-12) are actually not suitable to be used in the suspension of
the solar commuter. Press fit ball joints are designed to be pressed into suspension arms, which
are usually made of high strength steel; aluminium is too soft for press-fit applications. Subjected
to vibration press fit ball joints would become loose in the aluminium housing of the suspension
arm.
52
For this reason and to overcome this problem, the ball joints used in the suspension of the solar
commuter need to be mounted with bolts. After an extensive search two existing ball joints were
found which were suitable for the solar commuter suspension.
One of them is from the Holden Gemini 75 (figure 5-14) and the other one is from the Alfa
Romeo 85. It was decided that the Holden one is going to be used for the final design because it
is lighter, cheaper and widely available. In the Holden the ball joint is used in its upper
suspension arms. Stress analysis for this ball joint is not necessary because all manufactured ball
joints are tested by strict guidelines by the manufacturer.










Figure No. 5-14 Ball Joint









53
5.8. Material Selection and Weight Reduction

In selecting the most suitable material for the suspension components, there were several criteria
that had to be considered: safety, weight, material availability and compatibility with other
components of the solar commuter. The goals in the making of the suspension is to build a strong,
reliable, lightweight suspension possessing the ability to withstand various dynamic and static
loads acting on the suspension without failure or discomfort to the driver. Aluminium 6060 T5
(refer for material properties, Appendix F) is used in this application because it satisfies all these
requirements and has been selected as the best alternative. Aluminium 6060 T5 is cooled from an
elevated-temperature shaping process and artificially aged. The selection of this material was also
based on previous designs in which this kind of aluminium was used effectively. The weight
reduction of already light suspension components was performed by removing the material from
low stresses areas as shown in figure 5-15. Also to achieve maximum strength with minimal
weight an improved design was implemented through computer simulation analysis.



Figure No. 5-15 Weight reduction of Components



54
5.9 Fatigue Failure Analysis

5.9.1 Background

A fatigue failure occurs under repeated or fluctuating stresses having maximum value less then
tensile strength. The final fracture can have ductile and brittle characteristics. Materials with
higher toughness have ductile failures before brittle fractures. There are three stages of fatigue
failure:
¾ Initiation — this is a stage at which crack propagation starts taking place. The initiation
crack is very small in size and it is very hard to determine. If the loads are high there is a
very high stress concentration which cause crack propagation.
¾ Propagation- As a result of high cycling loads and stresses the initial crack starts to
propagate. Fatigue fractures produce unique patterns of propagation that are called beach
marks. If the material under failure mode has many initiation points the beach marks are
separated with ratchet marks. Therefore the greater the number of ratchet marks the
greater the number of initiation points.
¾ And final rupture — as the propagation of the crack continues the cross sectional area is
reduced and weakened and this eventually this leads to fatigue fracture.

Suspension components are subjected to sustained cyclic loads caused by vibration. The
amplitude and mean stress might be smaller than the tensile strength of the material, but the
repeated stress cycles may cause crack growth till a critical crack length is reached and the
material fails. Aluminium alloys are a class of materials which are particularly susceptible to
fatigue failure. So even small amplitudes of vibration transmitted to aluminium components
might eventually cause them to fail. Therefore special care ought to be taken when designing
suspension components from aluminium.
55
5.9.1 Fatigue Design

From the perspective of product durability, a designer’s goal is to specify a product that will
achieve the required reliability level. To accomplish this, a specific evaluation of the fatigue
strength characteristics of aluminium 6060 T5 is needed for fail safe design, shown in the Figure
5-17. This figure shows the fatigue strength to the tensile strength at
8
10 5× cycles.
In the fatigue design:
‹ Fatigue strength is about 0.35 times the tensile strength
‹ Mean stress must be less than the endurance limit S
n



Figure No. 5-16 Fatigue Strength (Juvinall 2000, p 309)
In the aluminium mechanical properties table (Appendix F) the yield strength of aluminium 6060
T5 is 180 MPa.. Extrapolating from figure 5-16 the fatigue strength of this alloy is about 70 MPa.
This value of fatigue strength was obtained by using the method described by C. Juvinall in
“Fundamentals of Machine Component Design.”
This conforms with the value of the fatigue strength of 69 MPa given by Alcan Aluminium
Centres, which is listed in the aluminium mechanical properties table (Appendix F). Now the
fatigue strength has to be multiplied by correction factors as shown below.
56
The endurance limit is:
S
n
=S’
n
C
L
C
G
C
S
(Jovenall 2000, p 317)
S
n
– fatigue strength 69 MPa
C
L
– load factor 1
C
G
– gradient factor 0.9
C
S
– surface factor 0.8
S
n
≈50 MPa

Thus, if the suspension components are subjected to a mean stress below 50 MPa they should not
fail.
Fatigue failure can also be prevented by:
¾ Eliminating or reducing stress raisers
¾ Avoiding sharp surface tears
¾ Reducing tensile residual stress
Fatigue is a significant problem because it can occur due to repeated loads below the static yield
strength. The results can be unexpected and catastrophic when failure does occur.
57
5.10 Finite Element Analysis

Finite Element Analyses were carried out on every component in the suspension system. FEA
were performed with Unigraphics, which is one of the best software packages for computer-based
modeling. FEA, fundamentally is a process where a component is tested for strength in a
computer simulation environment. The focus of FEA is to model the suspension to identify high
stress areas and find ways to eliminate any problems which could lead to a premature failure.
This enables the production of a final product which is safer, has a greater reliability, and cheaper
to manufacture. The loading scenario for FEA analysis is based on chapter 4 which covers weight
transfer analysis and Appendix E which cover individual loading conditions for the FEA testing.

In the first stage of this analysis a safety factor for the design has to be determined.

Reliability of the Material N
m
- 1.1
Workshop and Inspection Accuracy N
w
- 1.1
Design Accuracy N
a
– 1.05
Consequence of failure N
cf
– 1.2
Safety Factor
cf a w m
N N N N N × × × · (Murphy 2001, p 3)
N = 1.5
This design factor N
cf
is relatively low, however it would be unreasonable to utilise a higher
value. In this design well-known materials are used and they are subjected to loads and stresses
that can be determined without significant variations. In addition in this case higher value of N
cf

would make the suspension over designed and much heavier. Clearly the suspension system is
safe only if the actual stress applied to the components does not exceed the yield strength of the
material (refer to aluminium mechanical properties table in Appendix F)divided by the safety
factor. This applies only to the stress calculation based on the yield strength of the material. For
the fatigue analysis procedure refer to chapter 5.9.1.
58
The analysis identified a few locations that have relatively high stresses. Even though the
analysis showed no potential problems, it is advised that special attention should be taken during
inspection and maintenance of the suspension to make sure that no flaws are allowed in these
areas. The analysis assumes that all of the material used for the suspension is free of flaws and
the results of the testing are shown in Appendix G.




59
5.11 Aluminium Weldability

Aluminium is a very difficult metal to weld because of its oxidisation and conductivity
characteristics. Conventional methods of welding aluminium require a great deal of skill and
expensive equipment. There are two dominating welding methods used to weld aluminum. These
are:
¾ Metal Insert Gas Welding (MIG).
¾ Tungsten Inert- Gas Welding (TIG).
In TIG welding an arc is formed between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the
component being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to the electrode and a filler rod can be fed
into the weld. The TIG method is better for thin light-gauge materials, when there is a need for a
good surface finish.
M.I.G welding uses direct current power source, with the electrode positive and an alloy wire as a
combined electrode and filler material. The filler metal is added continuously to the welded
components. During the wire feed, inert argon gas is expelled from the nozzle of the gun around
the area of the weld, preventing oxidation of the hot metal. MIG welding results in less distortion
in the welding zone and it is a more productive welding process and it is widely applied in
aluminium welding applications.
Aluminium has several welding characteristics such as:
¾ Low melting temperature
¾ High thermal conductivity
¾ It has the absence of colour change as temperature approaches the melting point
¾ Welding aluminium is subject to distortion and cracking through sudden heat changes
¾ High thermal expansion coefficient
¾ Significant decrease in tensile strength can occur when welding aluminium, due to over-
aging
60
Therefore when welding the suspension components extra care should be taken. The suspension
parts have to be manufactured with a high level of precision. Any distortion of the welded
components must be avoided.
The thermal expansion of aluminum is twice that of steel. In addition, aluminum welds decrease
significantly in volume when solidifying from the molten state. This considerable change in the
weld dimensions may cause distortion and cracking which can cause an additional decrease in the
residual stresses. This would be undesirable and could cause an opportunity for a crack to occur
resulting in a fatigue failure.
The welding of aluminium is a very specialised field and for this reason the suspension
components should be welded by an experienced welder.
61
5.12 Chassis Body Roll

The centre of gravity, which is located above the road surface, is acted upon by the
accelerations/decelerations resulting from the lateral forces. The centre of gravity generates a
moment which transfers the weight of the vehicle. For this reason, during cornering, centrifugal
force transfers weight from the inside wheels to the outside wheels (more information about
weight transfer is given in chapter four). This lateral weight transfer also causes chassis body roll
theta, which is illustrated in Figure 5-17. An excessive chassis roll is undesirable and it should
be minimised as much as possible. In the design of the solar commuter suspension, the body roll
during cornering was well thought-out and it was determined to be about 2 degrees at 0.8g lateral
acceleration. The comprehensive calculations of the chassis roll are shown in Appendix I.



Figure No. 5-17 Body Roll
62
5.13 Final product

The front Double A-Arm Suspension system that has been proposed for the final design is shown
in Figure 5-18. The 3-D model was created using the computer aided design software
Unigraphics. This drawing shows each piece of the suspension system. It indicates where each
part goes, the orientation of the parts and it provides general identification information. The
parts are identified using numbers.

Figure 5-18 Double A-Arm Independent Suspension
63
The table 5-6 shows the weight budget distribution for the proposed design. For part reference
numbers refer to figure 5-18.

Ref Description
Weight
(g)
Total Qty
Total
Weight
1 Damper Assembly 800 2 1600
2 Upper Bracket 183.85 4 735.4
3 Damper Bracket 94.74 2 189.48
4 Washer M6 0.59 40 23.6
5 Bolt M6 6.45 40 258
6 Bolt M8 16.08 4 64.32
7 Nut M6 1.15 40 46
8
Bushes & Tubes
(one set)
200 2 400
9 Bolt M8 24.71 8 197.68
10 Nut M8 4.54 8 36.32
11 Washer M8 0.98 10 9.8
12 Lower Bracket 105.92 4 423.68
13 Nut M10 7.09 4 28.36
14 Upper A-Arm 395.59 2 791.18
15 Washer M10 1.18 8 9.44
16 Ball Joint 300 4 1200
17 Bolt M10 34.76 8 278.08
18 Lower A-arm 618.85 2 1237.7
sum (g) 7529.04

sum (kg) 7.53

Note: Just Summing the bolts, washers and nuts gives:

bolts, washers & nuts (g) 951.6
bolts, washers & nuts (kg) 0.9516
Table No. 5-6 Weight Budget of the A-Arm Front Suspension

64
Tables 5-7 to 5-11 provide the comprehensive cost breakdown of all the suspension components
included in this design. The locations where these components/material can be purchased, are
given below.

Ullrich Aluminium,
103-107 South Terrace,
WINGFIELD SA 5013
Phone: 0883471522
Email: ullrich@ullrichmetals.com.au
Website: www.ullrichmetals.com.au

Material
Description
Size (mm)
Stock
Length (m)
Required
Length
(m)
Product
Number
Price per
Piece ($)
Alum Tube 6060 T5
D
out
= 25 mm,
D
in
=22.6 mm
6 m 0.5 EXT2512Q 21.18
Alum Tube 6060 T5
D
out
= 25 mm,
D
in
=19 mm
6 m 0.8 EXT2530R 47.75
Flat Bar 6060 T5 W=100, t= 6 4m 1 FBM04100 70.47
Flat Bar 6060 T5 W=100, t= 10 4m 0.4 FBM10100 117.45
Flat Bar 6060 T5 W=100, t= 30 4 m 0.4 FBM25100 291.18
Alum Tube 6060 T5
D
out
= 32 mm,
D
in
=26 mm
6m 0.4 EXT3216L 34.24
Sum 582.27
Table No. 5-7 Material Cost


Japanese Motorcycle Dismantles
428 Churchill Road
KILBURN SA 5084
Telephone: 08826256335
Part
Description
Required Qty Part Number
Length (mm)
(bush to
bush )
Total Price
($)
Damper Unit 2
SA 7 or
UBM07
325 320
Table No. 5-8 Damper Unit Cost

65
Universal Spring
44-48 Regency Road
KILKENNY SA 5009
Telephone: 0883471511
Part
Description
Required Qty Total Price ($)
Spring 2
The quote is not
given yet
Table No. 5-9 Spring Cost





Pedders Suspension
Cnr Coburn & Grand Junction Rd
ALBERTON SA 5015
Telephone: 0884476344
Email: portadelaide@pedders.com.au
Website: http://www.pedders.com.au
Part Description
Required
Qty
Part
Number
Total Price
($)
Suspension
Bushes Set
2 EP6139 104
Upper Ball Joint (1975,
Holden Isuzu
Gemini TX, Sedan)
4 PBJ117 132
Table No. 5-10 Suspension Bushes & Ball Joint Cost



Sprint Auto Parts
891 Main North Road
POORAKA
Telephone: 0883494467
Part
Description
Required Qty Part Number Total Price ($)
Suspension
Bolts, Nuts
& Washers
Refer to
Figure 5-18
N/A 85
Table No. 5-11 Bolts, Nuts & Washers Cost


66
These results indicated that approximately $1224 (excluding suspension spring) is needed to
build the independent double A-Arm suspension system. The suspension manufacturing and
assembling costs are not included. The provided cost analyses will become increasingly detailed
and accurate as the manufacturing development of the suspension moves forward. Therefore, the
actual cost price could vary.









67
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommended Further
Works


In this study a front passive suspension system was designed for the solar commuter. The main
specification of the suspension system was to minimise the tyre scrub to a limit of 1 mm in
normal working conditions. The selected system consists of a double wishbone configuration,
non-equal and non-parallel, with the kingpin inclination angle equal to approximately 8 degrees.
The suspension was designed to travel a maximum of 60 mm upwards (bump) and 40 downwards
(rebound). The double wishbone arrangement gives excellent control of the wheel/chassis relative
movement. It also reduces track variation (i.e. tyre scrub on bump) while leading to lower weight
transfers and lower roll angles in turning (the roll angle is 2 degrees at 0.8g). And yet the position
of roll centre is relatively low, 0.39 mm, which has a very positive affective on the weight
transfer (i.e. the weight transfer effects are restricted to a minimum to maintain relatively
invariable weight transfer).

The design of the system has already been completed however the suspension components still
have to be manufactured. Further optimisation and testing is recommended to improve the
suspension performance and handling. Nonetheless any passive system can be optimised only to
a point, and then to achieve a better performance it is necessary to introduce a different type of
suspension. For this reason, it is recommended to introduce semi-active or active system which
without any doubts would increase the suspension performance.

68
7. References:

Alignment Angles Explained, [accessed on line 25/03/2003],
URL: http://www.geocities.com/danielmacmillan/alignment/angles.htm

All Wheel Alignment & Brake Service, [accessed on line 18/03/2003],
URL:http://www.allwheelalignment.com/alignment.htm

Basic Wheel Alignment Fundamentals, Colorado, USA [accessed on line 15/03/2003],
URL:http://www.specprod.com/TECH_DIR/C_TECH_SUPPART_FUND_2.HTML#Scrub
Radius

Beckman, B., 2002, Bumps in the Road, [accessed on line 5/10/2003],
URL: http://www.racerpartswholesale.com/physics15.htm

Catalog 9510 , 2003, Superior Linkages Product, Tuthill Corporation, USA

Do you really need to measure set back? [accessed on line 25/03/2003], URL:
http://www.fasep.it/english/support/set-back.htm#SetBack "progettato" dal costruttore

Ellis, J. R., 1994, Vehicle Handling Dynamics, Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited,
London

Foale, T., Spring into Action, [accessed on line 04/04/2003],
URL: (http://www.tonyfoale.com/Articles/carstuff/spring.htm)

Gregory’s Automotive, 1991, Charade 3&4 Cylinder, Gregory’s Automotive Publications,
Sydney
69

Jones, M., 1990, Honda Prelude, Automotive Repair Manual, Haynes Publishing Group, USA

Jurvinall, R.,2000, Fundamentals of Machines Component Design, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc, USA

Kerr, J., 2003, Camber, Caster, and Toe, [accessed on line 14/10/2003]
URL: www.canadiandriver.com

MEA 358 Project, 2003, Sunseeker Suspension, [accessed on line 12/12/2003]
URL:http://homepages.wmich.edu/~e1ahlqui/analysis.htm

Milliken, W., 1995, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, SAE International, USA

Murphy, P., 2001, Mechanical Design, University of South Australia, Australia

Ofria, C., 2002, A Short Course on Wheel Alignment, [accessed on line 20/03/2003],
URL: http://www.familycar.com/alignment.htm#Set%20Back

Riley, R., 2003, Automobile Ride, Handling, and Suspension Design, [accessed on line
12/11/2003], URL: http://www.rqriley.com/suspensn.html

Shigley, J., 1986, Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc, USA.

Staniforth, A., 1999, Competition Car Suspension, Haynes Publishing, UK.
70
Appendix A Literature Review and Research
Methodology
71
1. Introduction
The aim of this literature search assignment is to gather background information about
suspension design for the solar commuter. All information with regard to content is carefully
selected according to a strict criteria with regard to content. It is very important not to be “re-
inventing the wheel” which means that previous knowledge should be used resourcefully. In
order to research efficiently, it is very essential to know where and how to look for information.
A good foundation for research require understanding the variety of resources that are available
and the acquaintance of knowing how to use these resources effectively
72
2. Methodology
To obtain and locate required information for this literature search assignment the following
sources of information are used:
¾ Library references
¾ The internet
¾ Databases
¾ Journals
¾ Previous Thesis
¾ Personal Communication
Subsequently the following keywords were used to obtain required information:
¾ Solar car
¾ Tyres
¾ Wheel alignment
¾ Handling
¾ Caster angle
¾ Roll centers
¾ Suspension set up
¾ Ride and roll rate
¾ Suspension geometry
¾ Wheel loads

¾ Suspension testing
¾ Suspension development
¾ Suspension handling
¾ Steering angles
¾ Suspension springs
¾ Dampers
¾ Tyre behaviour
¾ Vehicle dynamics
¾ Suspension design

73
The table below illustrate how to use a variety of research source effectively and be able to
correctly employ the features provided by the search engines.

Truncation and wildcard
* truncation use the asterisk in place of any number of characters to find variant
endings, eg econom* searches for economics, economic, economy,
economical etc
? wildcard each question mark stands for one character in a word, eg wom?n
or psych????? which matches woman or women; psychology or
psychiatry, but not psychotherapy
Logical (Boolean) Operators
and to include both terms
or to include one or both terms
not to eliminate a term not required with the other terms selected, eg
crime not murder. Articles where both terms are present will be
excluded
Table no. 1: Search Features
(http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/database/dbguides/ebscoguide.htm#Advanced%20Search)


74
3. UniSA Database Research

The library of University of South Australia has a wide-rage of databases on different subjects.
The most significant databases that have been researched for any information related to solar cars,
modifying the solar car suspensions and vehicle dynamics are:
¾ Ei Compendex
¾ Cambridge Journals on line via UniSA network
¾ Ei Engineering Village 2
¾ ENG:STREAMLINE
¾ Ebscohost Databases
¾ Engine (Australian Engineering Database)
¾ E&AS Database
¾ WebSPIRS Database
¾ Compendex
¾ ACM Digital Library
¾ Academic Search Elite
¾ Australian Transport Index ( ATRI)

By typing required key words and pressing ‘Find Relevant Data Bases’ it is very easy to find
relevant databases using the UniSA database search. This way one can find lots of interesting
articles. However the majority of these articles are not available in the databases nor in the library.
This is very unfortunate. The other drawback of these databases is that one gets disconnected
from them very often because the University of South Australia is licensed to a certain number of
students at a time. Also if a student uses discussed databases too long, they get automatically
disconnected.
Below there are listed some interesting articles which have been selected from the database
search:

75
Title: Sun Seeker Solar Powered Car
Database: Compendex
Source : ASME-JSES-JSME Iternational Solar Energy Conference, 1991, p169-174.
This article discusses many factors that are closely related to the design of a solar vehicle
including aerodynamics, suspension, ergonomics and solar array configuration. Light weight
aluminium suspension of this solar vehicle is mounted to modified bicycle wheels.



Title: Preparation and Testing of an Electric Competition Vehicle
Database: Engine
Source: SAE Technical Paper Series, 1991, p75-83
This article talks about preparation of solar and electric cars for competition events. The
preparation involved weight and friction reduction, suspension modification and collision safety
system analysis. This article is a very good reference source.




Title: Design Analysis and Optimization of Composite Leaf Springs for Light Vehicle
Applications
Database: Engineering Village 2
Source: Composite Structures, v 44, n 2-3, 1999, p195-204
This article gives a good explanation on design and manufacture for a composite leaf springs for
solar powered vehicles. These leaf springs are made of E-grass roving impregnated by an epoxy
resin for light vehicle applications. This article is also a good reference source.

76
Title: Active and Passive Suspension Control for Vehicle Dive and Squat
Database: University of Cambridge Journals on line via UniSA network
Source: Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Network (NACO 2), Workshop on Automotive Control,
Lund, May 18-19, 2001
Author: Fu-Cheng Wang and Malcolm C. Smith
This article talks about optimizing passive and active suspensions. The reduction of effects of
read disturbances is one of major topics in this article. Active suspension provides a softer ride
than the passive suspension when responding to road disturbances.
77
4. The Internet

The Internet is one of the fastest and most efficient ways of finding information. There are
thousands of internet sites which discuss in detail various topic about suspension. Some of them
are:


Basic Alignments Fundamentals
http://www.specprod.com/TECH_DIR/C_TECH_SUPPART_FUND_2.HTML#Scrub Radius
This web site is a good source of information about wheel alignment. It also discuss the
fundamental concepts of vehicle dynamics



Wheel Alignment
http://www.allwheelalignment.com/alignment.htm
This web site analyses wheel alignment in detail and it gives a fundamental explanation of the
different elements of motor vehicle suspensions.




Spring into Action
http://www.tonyfoale.com/Articles/carstuff/spring.htm
This web site is very useful; it provides a lot of comprehensive information about suspension roll
centers, suspension handling and performance.



SA Solar Car Consortium Technical Guide
78
http://scg.levels.unisa.edu.au/sascc/
This web site provides a comprehensive technical guide to relevant and important information
relating to solar cars. The web site contains many interesting articles on a solar car’s
performance, wheel suspension, steering, brakes, body, aerodynamics and ventilation. This is the
most useful internet resource.








79
3. Library Catalogue

The library resources are the most useful and affective way of finding information about the
suspensions. Most of these resources which are used below are related to race cars. However
fundamental concept of solar car suspension are pretty much the same.
As library resources the following books have been used as references in this thesis.

1. Milliken, W.F., Milliken, D.L., 1995, Race car vehicle dynamics, SAE International Edition,
USA.
This book is one of the most comprehensive resources which are available. This book discusses
the fundamental concepts of vehicle dynamics. Many of these concepts are closely related to
racing car suspension. Although the authors’ primary focus is the race car, the vehicle dynamics,
theories and principals can also be applicable to fundamentals of designing a solar car suspension.
Some of the topics which are included in this book are:
¾ Dynamics development
¾ Tyre data normalisation
¾ Tyre behaviour
¾ Ride and roll rate
¾ Suspension geometry
¾ Wheel loads
¾ Suspension springs
¾ Dampers
¾ Suspension set up
¾ Suspension testing and development


2. Alexander, D., 2002, High-Performance Handling Handbook, MBI Publishing Company,
USA
This book gives a comprehensive and very practical approach to suspension handling and
performance. The performance and handling are improved by accurately design of suspension
80
parts such as springs, shocks, antiroll bars, tyres and wheels. Also wheel geometry is discussed in
this book in detail. Some of the topics which are included in the chapters of the book are:
¾ Vehicle dynamics and suspension modification
¾ Shocks and springs
¾ Suspension alignment
¾ Wheels and tires
¾ Suspension set up
¾ Testing handling
¾ Tuning handling
¾ Tuning with shocks
¾ Weighting, cross-weights and tuning with cross-weights
¾ Antiroll bars, bushing, camber adjusters




3. Staniforth, A., 2002, Competition Car Suspension, Haynes Publishing, 3
rd
edition, England.
This book presents classic suspension’s design and major inventions and improvements in a
modern suspension design, made by different motor car manufacturers. The author of this book
gives wide-ranging explanations on different kinds of suspensions and gives advantages and
disadvantages of diverse suspension designs. Chapters of this book cover:
¾ Classic suspensions
¾ Suspensions springs
¾ Location of static and dynamic roll centres in various types of suspensions
¾ Problem solving approaches
¾ Suspension design
¾ Suspension construction and tuning
¾ Suspension set up
4. Gregory’s Automotive, 1991, Charade Service and Repair Manual No. 254, Gregory’s
Automotive Publications, Sydney.

81
This book is a very educational reference on light weight suspension (Daihatsu Charade
suspension), which covers:
¾ Suspension specification
¾ Suspension description
¾ Suspension and steering angles
¾ Suspension trouble shooting




5. Jones, R., Freund, K., Haynes, J., 1990, Honda Prelude Automotive Repair Manual,
J.h. Haynes & Co. Ltd, USA
Suspension sections of this book provide fundamental requirements and for suspension
contemplates the maintenance, repair and diagnostic procedures of Honda Prelude’s suspension.




6. Genta, G.,1997, Motor Vehicle Dynamics, Word Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore

The first two chapters of this book analyse the forces acting on the motor vehicle. Then the
behaviour of pneumatic tyres is analysed in detail. The following chapters deal with dynamic
performance of motor vehicles taking into consideration the presence of suspensions. The book
takes a mathematical approach to solve force analysis using computers.


82
7. Cambell, C., 1978, The Sport Car, Chapman & Hall, London.
This book is an excellent resource, easy to understand and follow. It provides useful technical
data, inclusive pictures and drawings. The outlined topics in this book cover:
¾ Handling characteristics
¾ Variety of effects which influence vehicle dynamics
¾ Handling characteristics
¾ Noise and vibration analyses
¾ Suspension design
¾ Suspension set up
¾ Wheel alignment


83
4. Previous Theses

1. Pudney, P.J, 2000, Optimal energy management for solar-powered cars, University of South
Australia.
This is very interesting and comprehensive material about solar-powered cars.
It discusses various aspects of practical strategy development to achieve high performance,
aerodynamic efficiency and low rolling resistance in solar cars.

2. Coffey, N., 2001, Solar Car Performance Improvements and Suspension System
Re-Design, University of South Australia.
This thesis gives a very academic and wide-ranging approach to suspension design, handling and
performance.

3. Grigg. S., Design of the Suspension on the Solar Car, University of South Australia.
This thesis is another good reference which discusses in detail suspension design of solar cars. It
is very easy to read and understand and it is a very good reference source.

84
Appendix B Project Plan
85
1. Scope Planning

The aim of the project is to design a suspension system for a solar commuter.
Proper scope planning is critical to the successful outcome of the project. It is necessary to
understand the foundation for all the work that has to be performed. In determining an
appropriate scope planning following steps were taken into consideration:
¾ Defining all the tasks which have to be carried out.
¾ Estimating the required time to complete each activity.
¾ Identifying the sequence in which the activity should occur.
¾ And Scheduling when the tasks will occur.
It has been determined that during the development of the project comprehensive
tasks which are presented in table no. 1 (next page), have to be completed.

86
2. Time Management

The time management of the project is presented in the Gantt chart which is easy and simple to
understand. The critical path of the project is drawn in red. It identifies tasks to be completed for
the whole project to be completed on time. The critical path also identifies the minimum length
of the project and it determines which activity can be delayed without affecting the overall length
of the project. The length of each activity was carefully evaluated to give priority to activities
which have significant importance to the project.


87
3. Cost Planning

The double wishbone suspension has been tested as the best designed solution for light vehicle
application in the past years. It has the ability to adapt effectively under different road conditions.
This suspension has a higher performance suspension in comparison to Macpherson Strut due to
its good handling and excellent camber angle control.

On the other hand, the Macpherson Strut is known to be a cost effective design for various
reasons. First, the material needed to produce this system is readily available. Second, it is very
compact by nature. Third, the time needed to manufacture this product is relatively low which
helps in reducing the overall cost.

It was found that Macpherson Strut tends to produce a very steep camber angle which can affect
the life span of the tyre. The double wishbone suspension’s camber angle is seen as more stable
because it rarely changes.

The capital investment of the Macpherson suspension is cheaper because it does not require an
upper suspension arm. But the adjustment of camber and caster are more complicated. For those
above reasons, it is evident that double wishbone suspensions are more recommended for the
final suspension design in the long run.

88
4. Quality Management

Upon the presentation of the strengths of each suspensions discussed in this project, it is
advisable to consider where the organisation is going in future years. In doing so, there must be
thorough planning on the management’s objectives. After a thorough analysis of the written
objectives, it is a critical process in convincing the client which product is more appropriate to
their needs and expectations.

There must be options to consider that can help the organisation reach its objectives quicker. In
this case, the options available to the client are the Double Wishbones Suspensions and the
Mapherson Strut Suspension.

There will be communication regarding the outcome of this project in connection to the vision
and methods required by the client.

After the notification of the outcome to the client, it is envisaged that a structure will be in place
for monitoring the progress and adjustments needed for the success of the project as a whole.

89
5. Risk Management

As good as it may sounds, every project and invention has its risks as well as its opportunities.
What can go wrong is likely to happen. The task is to prevent it from happening or minimising
the damages caused by this design, project or plan.

The design failure occurs when the required safety requirements are not met. For example, a
failure in the suspension system may mitigate consequences like body injury or worse death to
the user. Similarly, a failure in the suspension system can also affect the overall performance of
the vehicle.

Given the above possible failures that may occur, it is imperative for the designers as well as the
users of the suspension to comply with health and safety regulations. This includes the processes
of handling the suspension, down to the preventions and adjustments or corrections when
necessary to minimise the risk failure of every project implemented.

90
6. Resources Planning

Planning can be very difficult with the absence of one of the major resources. In order to reach
the most acceptable outcome, resources must be fully available. The success of every design
depends on the availability of resources.

In this course of planning, resources are defined as human, time constraints, plant and property
equipments and cash. The challenge is to increase the success based on the availability of the
resources at the time of planning. The ability to use alternative routes or options is also helpful.
For example in the absence of one resource, there must be a perfect substitute.

Depending on the availability of resources, the project leader must act in anticipation of any
shortage or scarcity of the resources. For instance, they can reschedule activities to avoid overlap
on resources. Whatever resources readily available at that point in time, must be used first, or if
needed, they can try to acquire more resources.

By now, there is a software package used to allow the uneven distribution of resource
requirements over the activity’s duration. This package is called Microsoft Project which uses
the Gantt Chart in assuming an early start schedule. Priorities must be assigned to projects, or to
activities within projects, so that high priority is given to scarce resources first.
91
7. Communications Management

The way to convince the user or the client is not just a mere presentation of the result of your
findings. Rather, it starts from the way it was written down to the way it has been presented to
them. In this stage, it is the communication process.

Communication is a very important media in delivering the result of every product, research, as
well as services readily available to the user.

The job of the designer here is to assure that the tasks outlined are completed on time and within
budget. He must have the overall understanding of the product or the service and rely heavily on
negotiations and persuasion skills to influence the array of lobbyists, or the end users.

Trying to find an answer to any conflicting goals and to find the optimal balance between the
pressure is probably the most important part of it. To convince the user, they must have access to
information regarding the two suspensions written on this paper, the cost and effect of the
implementation of the project as well as the advantages and opportunities in using this suspension
in contrast to the disadvantages and threats present.

Well informed users are more likely to be convinced in the process rather than users who are
misinformed.

92
8. Integration Planning

Planning can go both way, success or failure. The challenge is to pull the rope away from the
failure and push it towards the success.

In order for a plan to succeed, there must be certain steps or processes to follow. In this case, for
the user to be convinced to accept the drawn design, the steps must be clear as well as achievable.

The suspensions can be marketed to the user by using the life cycle style of a project. This
includes a brief summary of the conceptual design, the development, the detailed design where
the budgeting is inserted as well as the breakdown of the work structure, the production or other
call it as the execution of the design, the necessary improvements and adjustments of the design.

Granted that the above steps were adapted from the beginning of the planning, the likelihood of
the project or design to be accepted is higher than average.


93
Appendix C Multi Attribute Decision Analysis
94
1. Introduction

The scope of this assignment report is to evaluate the best possible suspension design for the
solar commuter. In order to do the evaluation the Analytic Hierarchy Process or AHP is applied.
AHP method is commonly used in early stages of engineering projects to take into consideration
identified criteria (attributes) of the project against the project alternatives. By incorporating these
attributes and alternatives of the project, complex decisions are reduced to a series of simple
pairwise comparisons and then synthesizing the results into the best optimal solution. Therefore
this AHP determines the importance of relative evaluation criteria and the relative strengths of
decision alternatives.
However Analytic Hierarchy Process can be time consuming and it requires long repetitive
calculations as illustrated in this report.

95
2. Analytic Hierarchy Process

2.1 Project Alternatives

There are three proposed alternatives for the project to satisfy design requirements.

P1 The first alternative that is considered in the multi-attributes decision analysis is a design of
the Double Wish-Bone suspension. This suspension is relatively light and it is one of the most
effective suspensions under varying road conditions. However, double wish-bone suspension
needs a lot of space to be accommodated.


P2 The second Alternative which is taken into consideration is the design of Macpherson
suspension strut. MacPherson Strut is a simple design which eliminates the upper suspension arm.
It is cheap and very compact. However, it produces a steep camber angle which has an affect on
tyre wear.


P3 Design of Multi-link Suspension is the third and last alternative that is considered for project
design. Multi-link suspension has many advantages in kinematic design because it has many
variables that can be optimised to meet the design’s goals. However this design is time
consuming and the suspension is relatively heavy and occupies a lot of space.
96
2.2 Project Attributes

For this project the following attributes are utilized:

A. The ride comfort and vibration isolation provided to the occupants are rated as one of the
highest attributes of the project. This attribute has to be implemented to provide
successful outcome of this project.


B. Low suspension weight is also rated as one of the highest attributes of the project. Weight
reduction must be taken into account to improve the overall performance of the solar
commuter.


C. Ease of manufacture is not considered as important as attributes A and B. However this
attribute should not be neglected because suspension components should be manufactured
without any unnecessary complexity.


D. Design time is a very significant impact on final outcome of the design. The project must
be completed on time and therefore any unpredictable delays must be avoided


E. Suspension performance (good stability and handling qualities under varying body forces
such as vehicle load, cornering, braking, and acceleration) also has high importance in
this project. It influences the over performance of the solar commuter.


F. Ease of design has moderate importance in this project. If the suspension system is not
easy to design, the design analyses will take more time which affects the final outcome
of the suspension design.
97

G. Cost of the design is considered as an attribute which has moderate importance to the
successful outcome of this project.

98
2.3 Priority Weights for Attributes

Pairwise comparisons between attributes are carried out. One attribute is compared to another
with respect to their importance.

The scale for pairwise comparison is:
0 ⇒ No relationship
1 ⇒ Equal importance
3 ⇒ Moderate importance
5 ⇒ Strong importance
7 ⇒ Very strong importance
9 ⇒ Absolute importance
2, 4, 6, 8 ⇒ Intermediate values

Importance Unimportance
Attribute
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Anti –
Attribute
⊗ B
⊗ C
⊗ D
⊗ E
⊗ F
A
Vibration
Isolation
⊗ G
⊗ C
⊗ D
⊗ E
⊗ F
B
Weight
Reduction
⊗ G
⊗ D
⊗ E
⊗ F
C
Ease of
Manufacture
⊗ G
⊗ E
⊗ F
D
Design
Time
⊗ G
⊗ F
E
Suspension
Performance
⊗ G
F
Ease of
Design

G
Cost

Table no.1 Rating Attribute against Attribute
99
2. Using the scores displayed in Table 1 following data was formulated. Pairwise comparisons
between attributes are completed within every group and the relative local priorities of the factors
are computed. The reciprocal ratio scale which was utilized is:
ij
ji
a
a
1
· .
A B C D E F G
A 1.000 1.000 7.000 1.000 1.000 5.000 3.000
B 1.000 1.000 5.000 1.000 1.000 5.000 5.000
C 0.143 0.200 1.000 0.333 0.200 0.333 3.000
D 1.000 1.000 0.143 1.000 0.333 5.000 7.000
E 1.000 1.000 5.000 3.000 1.000 3.000 7.000
F 0.200 0.200 3.000 0.200 0.333 1.000 0.333
G 0.333 0.200 0.333 0.143 0.143 3.000 1.000
Sum 4.676 4.600 21.476 6.676 4.009 22.333 26.333
Table no.2

3. The next step of Analytic Hierarchy Process is formulating decimal equivalents of for
attributes from table 2.

A B C D E F G

Row
7

Row

A 0.214 0.217 0.326 0.150 0.249 0.224 0.114 1.494 0.213
B 0.214 0.217 0.233 0.150 0.249 0.224 0.190 1.477 0.211
C 0.031 0.043 0.047 0.050 0.050 0.015 0.114 0.349 0.050
D 0.214 0.217 0.007 0.150 0.083 0.224 0.266 1.160 0.166
E 0.214 0.217 0.233 0.449 0.249 0.134 0.266 1.763 0.252
F 0.043 0.043 0.140 0.030 0.083 0.045 0.013 0.396 0.057
G 0.071 0.043 0.016 0.021 0.036 0.134 0.038 0.360 0.051
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 7.000 1.000
Table 3.
100
4. The next step of AHP is creating comparison matrices from results displayed in tables 2 & 3.

[ ]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 3.0000 0.1430 0.1430 0.3330 0.2000 0.3330
0.3330 1.0000 0.3330 0.2000 3.0000 0.2000 0.2000
7.0000 3.0000 1.0000 3.0000 5.0000 1.0000 1.0000
7.0000 5.0000 0.3330 1.0000 0.1430 1.0000 1.0000
3.0000 0.3330 0.2000 0.3330 1.0000 0.2000 0.1430
5.0000 5.0000 1.0000 1.0000 5.0000 1.0000 1.0000
3.0000 5.0000 1.0000 1.0000 7.0000 1.0000 1.0000
A

[ ]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.0510
0.0570
0.2520
0.1660
0.0500
0.2110
0.2130
B [ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.4116
0.4259
1.9520
1.3231
0.4003
1.1320
1.6300
B A C




Vector [ ]
T
D is determined by dividing each element of vector [C] by its corresponding element
in vector [B].

[ ]
1
]
1

¸

0.0510
0.4116

0.0570
0.4259

0.2520
1.9520

0.1660
1.3231

0.0500
0.4003
·
0.2110
1.1320

2130 . 0
630 . 1
T
D




[ ] [ ] 8.071 7.472 7.746 7.970 8.006 5.365 · 653 . 7
T
D



101
MAX
λ is the approximation of maximum eigenvalue of the comparison matrix A. It is calculated
as follows:

469 . 7
7
071 . 8 472 . 7 746 . 7 970 . 7 006 . 8 365 . 5 653 . 7
·
+ + + + + +
·
MAX
λ



To represent random index (RI) Saaty table was used.

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RI 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.32 1.41 1.45 1.49

Table No. 1 Estimation of RI (Shtub 1994, p 179)




078 . 0
1 7
7 469 . 7
1
·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


Therefore CR<0.1 OK

0592 . 0
32 . 1
078 . 0
·
·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR



To be fully confident of the results it is required that the consistency ratio (CR) should be less than
0.1
102
2.2 Priority Weights for Alternatives A

Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3


P1 P2 P3
P1 1 3 0.33
P2 0.33 1 0.2
P3 3 5 1
Sum 4.33 9 1.53


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.231 0.333 0.216 0.780 0.260
P2 0.076 0.111 0.131 0.318 0.106
P3 0.693 0.556 0.654 1.902 0.634
Sum 1 1 1 3 1


1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 5.0000 3.0000
0.2000 1.0000 0.3300
0.3300 3.0000 1.0000
A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.6340
0.1060
0.2600
B

1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
1.9440
0.3186
0.7872
B A C

[ ] [ ] 3.066 3.006 · 028 . 3
T
D
103
033 . 3
3
1 . 9
· ·
MAX
λ
0165 . 0
1 3
3 033 . 3
1
·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


028 . 0
580 . 0
0165 . 0
·
·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR
Therefore CR<0.1 OK

104
2.3 Priority Weights for Alternatives B

Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3



P1 P2 P3
P1 1.0 1.0 5.0
P2 1.0 1.0 3.0
P3 0.2 0.3 1.0
Sum 2.2 2.3 9.0


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.455 0.429 0.556 1.439 0.480
P2 0.455 0.429 0.333 1.217 0.406
P3 0.091 0.142 0.111 0.344 0.115
Sum 1 1 1 3 1.000


1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 0.3000 0.2000
3.0000 1.0000 1.0000
5.0000 1.0000 1.0000
] [ A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.1150
0.4060
0.4800
] [B


1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.3328
1.2310
1.4610
] [ ] [ ] [ B A C
105
[ ] 2.894] 3.032 · 044 . 3 [
T
D


99 . 2
3
970 . 8
· ·
MAX
λ
01 . 0
1 3
3 99 . 2
1
− ·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


017 . 0
580 . 0
01 . 0
− ·

·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR



Therefore CR<0.1 OK
106
2.4 Priority Weights for Alternatives C

Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3



P1 P2 P3
P1 1.00 0.20 3.00
P2 5.00 1.00 5.00
P3 0.33 0.20 1.00
Sum 6.33 1.40 9.00


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.158 0.143 0.333 0.634 0.211
P2 0.790 0.714 0.556 2.060 0.687
P3 0.052 0.143 0.111 0.306 0.102
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.000



1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 0.2000 0.3300
5.0000 1.0000 5.0000
3.0000 0.2000 1.0000
] [ A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.1020
0.6870
0.2110
] [B

1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.3090
2.2520
0.6544
] [ ] [ ] [ B A C

107
[ ] [ ] 893 2. 3.278 3.101 ·
T
D

091 . 3
3
272 . 9
· ·
MAX
λ

045 . 0
1 3
3 091 . 3
1
·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


0775 . 0
580 . 0
045 . 0
·
·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR
Therefore CR<0.1 OK
108
2.5 Priority Weights for Alternatives D


Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3


P1 P2 P3
P1 1.00 0.20 3.00
P2 1.00 1.00 5.00
P3 0.33 0.20 1.00
Sum 2.33 1.40 9.00


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.429 0.143 0.333 0.905 0.302
P2 0.429 0.714 0.556 1.699 0.566
P3 0.142 0.143 0.111 0.396 0.132
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.000




1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 0.2000 0.3300
5.0000 1.0000 1.0000
3.0000 0.2000 1.0000
] [ A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.1320
0.5660
0.3020
] [B

1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.3449
1.5280
0.8112
] [ ] [ ] [ B A C
109
[ ] [ ] 2.613 2.700 · 686 . 2
T
D


666 . 2
3
999 . 7
· ·
MAX
λ

167 . 0
1 3
3 613 . 2
1
− ·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


288 . 0
580 . 0
167 . 0
− ·

·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR

Therefore CR<0.1 OK
110

2.6 Priority Weights for Alternatives E


Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3


P1 P2 P3
P1 1.00 0.33 0.20
P2 1.00 1.00 0.14
P3 5.00 7.00 1.00
Sum 7.00 8.33 1.34


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.143 0.040 0.149 0.331 0.110
P2 0.143 0.120 0.106 0.369 0.123
P3 0.714 0.840 0.745 2.299 0.766
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.000



1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 7.0000 5.0000
0.1430 1.0000 1.0000
0.2000 0.3300 1.0000
] [ A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.7660
0.1230
0.1100
] [B

1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
2.1770
0.3425
0.3038
] [ ] [ ] [ B A C
111
[ ] [ ] 2.842 2.785 2.762 ·
T
D

796 . 2
3
388 . 8
· ·
MAX
λ

102 . 0
1 3
3 796 . 2
1
− ·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


201 . 0
580 . 0
102 . 0
− ·

·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR

Therefore CR<0.1 OK
112
2.7 Priority Weights for Alternatives F




Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3


P1 P2 P3
P1 1.00 0.20 5.00
P2 1.00 1.00 7.00
P3 0.20 0.14 1.00
Sum 2.20 1.34 13.00


P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.455 0.149 0.385 0.988 0.329
P2 0.455 0.745 0.538 1.738 0.579
P3 0.091 0.106 0.077 0.274 0.091
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.000


1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 0.1400 0.2000
7.0000 1.0000 1.0000
5.0000 0.2000 1.0000
] [ A
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.0910
0.5790
0.3290
] [B

1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.2379
1.5450
0.8998
] [ ] [ ] [ B A C
113
[ ] [ ] 2.614 2.668 · 735 . 2
T
D


678 . 2
3
018 . 8
· ·
MAX
λ


114
161 . 0
1 3
3 678 . 2
1
− ·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ



278 . 0
580 . 0
161 . 0
− ·

·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR



Therefore CR<0.1 OK
115
2.8 Priority Weights for Alternatives G



Importance Unimportance
Solution
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ani-
solution
⊗ P2
P1
⊗ P3
P2 ⊗ P3


P1 P2 P3
P1 1 0.2 7
P2 1 1 3
P3 0.143 0.333 1
Sum 2.143 1.533 11

P1 P2 P3

Row
3

Row

P1 0.467 0.130 0.636 1.233 0.411
P2 0.467 0.652 0.273 1.392 0.464
P3 0.067 0.217 0.091 0.375 0.124
Sum 1.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.000


[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1.0000 0.3300 0.1430
3.0000 1.0000 1.0000
7.0000 0.2000 1.0000
A [ ]
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
0.1240
0.4640
0.4110
B


[ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1
1
]
1

¸

· × ·
0.3359
1.2470
1.3718
B A C
116


[ ] [ ] 2.709 2.688 3.338 ·
T
D



911 . 2
3
734 . 8
· ·
MAX
λ
0445 . 0
1 3
3 911 . 2
1
− ·


·


·
CI
CI
n
n
CI
MAX
λ


077 . 0
580 . 0
0445 . 0
− ·

·
·
CR
CR
RI
CI
CR


Therefore CR<0.1 OK
117
Summary

Summarised priority weights for each alternative are given below.

A B C D E F G
0.213 0.211 0.050 0.166 0.252 0.057 0.051
l
i
w
P1 0.260 0.480 0.211 0.302 0.110 0.329 0.411 0.219
P2 0.106 0.406 0.687 0.566 0.123 0.579 0.464 0.396
P3 0.634 0.115 0.102 0.132 0.766 0.091 0.124 0.353
≈ Sum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Where


·

·
1
1
1
l
n
i
l
j
l
ij
l
i
w w w (Shtub 2002, p 180)
l
n = number of factors at level l
·
l
i
w global weight at level l for factor i
·
l
ij
w local weight at level l for factor i with respect to factor j at level l-1

The concluding objective of strategic planning process, which was illustrated in this report,
shows how to develop and adopt a strategy resulting a good fit between internal and external
factors and objectives of decision makers.
A combined method utilizing pairwise comparisons of Analytic Hierarchy Process analyses
assessing priorities of the project against the project alternatives synthesized P2 as the best
solution for the given situation and provided clear clarification for the choice.
Currently design of Macpherson strut has been proposed as one of the best choices for the
suspension design.


118
Appendix D Spring Calculation
119

MECHANICAL COIL SPRING CALCULATION

For linear springs where F = ky.
Based on method of Mechanical Engineering Design ,
Shigley. J., 1986, McGraw-Hill, Inc, USA, pp358-373



mm 56 ·
o
D → outside diameter

D a
N N N − ·
a
N = number of active coils
N = total number of coils
d
N = number of dead coils



Types of ends for compression springs (Shigley 1986)

5 . 8 ·
− ·
a
d a
N
N N N



120
Material:
Chrome vanadium AISI 6150.
Size range 0.8-12 mm
Exponent m=0.167
Constant A = 2000 MPa
MPa 10 80
9
× · G



Figure No. 1 Spring Geometry



1) Spring constant for initial deflection of 40 mm.

1 -
Nm 25 . 40466
040 . 0
81 . 9
2
330
·
×
· ·
y
F
k


a
N D
G d
k
3
4
8
·

4
9
3
3
4
10 3 . 79
5 . 8 048 . 0 25 . 40466 8
8
×
× × ×
·
·
d
G
N kD
d
a


d = 8 mm
121



2) Tensile yield strength of the wire

MPa 23 . 1413
8
2000
167 . 0
·
·
·
ut
ut
m
ut
S
S
d
A
S



MPa 92 . 1059
75 . 0
·
·
Y
ut Y
S
S S


The tensional yield strength
MPa 57 . 611
577 . 0
·
·
sy
y sy
S
S S





3) Spring index (it ought to be between 6-12)


d
D
C
mean
·

6
8
48
·
·
C
mm
mm
C




122

4) shear-stress multiplication factor


083 . 1
6
5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
·
+ ·
+ ·
s
s
s
K
K
C
K




5) Wahl correction factor

303 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
·
+


·
K
C C
C
K





6) Pitch

( )
a
o
N
d L
p

·


( )
mm p
p
94 . 24
5 . 8
8 220
·

·



123

6) Maximum deflection

S O
L L − ·
max
δ

where Ls is solid length of the spring (the minimum length of the spring, when the load is
sufficiently large to close all the gaps between the coils)

( )
( )
mm L
L
d N L
S
S
a S
76
8 1 5 . 8
1
·
× + ·
× + ·



mm
MAX
MAX
144
76 220
·
− · ∴
δ
δ



7) Maximum Force

( )
N F
F
k F
MAX
MAX
MAX MAX
14 . 5827
10 144 25 . 40466
3
·
× × ·
× ·

δ





8) Maximum shear stress in the wire

3
8
d
D F
K
MAX
MAX
×
·
π
τ

( )
( )
3
3
3
10 8
10 48 14 . 5827 8
303 . 1


× ×
× × ×
× ·
π
τ
MAX



MPa
MAX
227 · τ
124
Appendix E Suspension Load Scenario Analysis


125
Load Scenario – Side Loading





· 0
a
M

( )
N 2000
2 . 0
4 . 0 1000
0 2 . 0 4 . 0 1000
·
×
·
· × − ×
b
b
b
F
F
F



N F
F
F
a
a
X
1000
0 2000 1000
0
·
· + −
·



126
Front Loading Scenario


This part of the report analyses the loading condition described in the previous part of this report
to determine the dynamic forces applied to the elements of the suspension system. The wheel
carrier is attached to the chassis by double A-arms. The loading scenario analysis will be later
used for FEA analysis.


Figure 4 -3






127
Therefore:


085 . 0 115 . 0
B A
F F
·

B A
F F 353 . 1 · ⇒

From previous calculations in chapter 4, the braking moment about the wheel axle at point O
equals 507.18 N. This yields:


N F F
B A
18 . 507 085 . 0 115 . 0 · +

Hence 1
( ) N F F
A A
18 . 507 353 . 1 085 . 0 115 . 0 · × +

→ · N F
A
2205


Hence 1
← ·
· ·
N F
F
F
B
A
B
1630
353 . 1
2205
353 . 1



↑ · N F
BY
1897


1
128
Appendix F Material Properties
129
Appendix G CAD Designs
130








FEA Analysis

131
FEA TEST – LOWER A-ARM



Applied loads :

F
x
= 1000 N
F
y
= 1000 N
F
z
= 1000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 37.4 MPa

MPa S
y
8 . 74 〉 ok

MPa S
n
4 . 37 〉 OK

Note: The mean stresses of the system occur when the loads are up to 1000N in x, y , z directions.
132
FEA TEST – LOWER A-ARM



Applied loads :

F
x
= 2000 N
F
y
= 2000 N
F
z
= 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).

FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 74.8 MPa

MPa S
y
8 . 74 〉 ok

Note: The fatigue endurance limit is not applicable in this loading scenario because the applied
forces are much greater than the mean ones, which the suspension will experience (the mean
stresses of the system occur when the loads are up to 1000N in x, y , z directions).

133
FEA TEST – UPPER A-ARM


Applied loads :

F
x
= 1000 N
F
y
= 0 N
F
z
= 1000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).

FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 24.45 MPa

MPa S
y
45 . 24 〉 OK

MPa S
n
45 . 24 〉 OK

Note: The mean stresses of the system occur when the loads are up to 1000N in x, and z
directions.
134
FEA TEST – UPPER A-ARM


Applied loads :

F
x
= 2000 N
F
y
= 0 N
F
z
= 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 49.9 MPa

MPa S
y
9 . 49 〉 ok

MPa S
n
9 . 49 〉 OK

Note: The mean stresses of the system occur when the loads are up to 1000N in x, and z
directions.
135
FEA TEST – LOWER BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 2 x 1000 N
F
z
= 2 x 1000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 19.59 MPa

MPa S
y
59 . 19 〉 ok

MPa S
n
59 . 19 〉 OK


136
FEA TEST – LOWER BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 2 x 2000 N
F
z
= 2 x 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 39.18 MPa

MPa S
y
18 . 39 〉 ok

MPa S
n
18 . 39 〉 OK
137
FEA TEST – SHOCK ABOSORBER BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 1 x 2000 N
F
z
= 1x 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 15.51 MPa

MPa S
y
5.51 1 〉 ok

MPa S
n
15.51 〉 OK

138
FEA TEST – SHOCK ABOSORBER BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 2 x 2000 N
F
z
= 2 x 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 31.02 MPa

MPa S
y
02 . 31 〉 ok

MPa S
n
02 . 31 〉 OK


139
FEA TEST – UPPER A-ARM BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 2 x 1000 N
F
z
= 2 x 1000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)

S
n
- Fatigue endurance limit = 50 MPa (refer to Chapter 5.9.1).


FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 25.73 MPa

MPa S
y
73 . 25 〉 ok

MPa S
n
73 . 25 〉 OK
140
FEA TEST – UPPER A-ARM BRACKET




Applied loads :

F
x
= 0 N
F
y
= 2 x 2000 N
F
z
= 2 x 2000 N


Material: Aluminium 6060 T5

S
y
-Yield Strength = 120 MPa (Using Safety factor of 1.5, 180/1.5= 120 MPa)




FEA RESULTS

Maximum Stress = 51.45 MPa

MPa S
y
45 . 51 〉 ok


141








Suspension Bushes
142



UPPER A-ARM
BRACKET
143




LOWER A-ARM
BRACKET
144




UPPER A-ARM
145




LOWER A-ARM
146
Appendix H Suspension Performance Calculations
147

Suspension Performance Calculations

a 171.8900 K1 1.1939
b 201.9655 K2 2.0988
c 97.7800 K3 1.2028
d 205.2218 K4 1.0161
h 201.9600 K5 -1.4819
theta 0 0.2261
delt 3 3.1400
theta k 0.1396

theta2 D E F theta3 cam (rad) cam(deg) x position y position dis travel tyre scrub
0.9967 -1.5809 -1.6793 -0.2792 -0.4098 -0.0441 -2.5277 198.479 -139.939 60.000 -1.919
1.0083 -1.6007 -1.6919 -0.2794 -0.4068 -0.0411 -2.3551 198.555 -141.939 58.000 -1.843
1.0200 -1.6207 -1.7042 -0.2796 -0.4039 -0.0382 -2.1908 198.635 -143.938 56.000 -1.763
1.0317 -1.6408 -1.7163 -0.2797 -0.4012 -0.0355 -2.0343 198.720 -145.938 54.000 -1.678
1.0433 -1.6610 -1.7282 -0.2799 -0.3986 -0.0329 -1.8852 198.809 -147.939 52.000 -1.589
1.0550 -1.6813 -1.7398 -0.2800 -0.3961 -0.0304 -1.7435 198.900 -149.939 50.000 -1.498
1.0666 -1.7018 -1.7511 -0.2802 -0.3938 -0.0281 -1.6089 198.992 -151.939 48.000 -1.406
1.0782 -1.7224 -1.7622 -0.2804 -0.3916 -0.0259 -1.4811 199.086 -153.939 46.000 -1.312
1.0898 -1.7431 -1.7731 -0.2805 -0.3894 -0.0237 -1.3600 199.179 -155.939 44.000 -1.219
1.1015 -1.7639 -1.7837 -0.2807 -0.3874 -0.0217 -1.2453 199.272 -157.939 42.000 -1.126
1.1131 -1.7849 -1.7941 -0.2809 -0.3855 -0.0198 -1.1369 199.364 -159.939 40.000 -1.034
1.1247 -1.8059 -1.8042 -0.2810 -0.3838 -0.0181 -1.0347 199.455 -161.939 38.000 -0.943
1.1363 -1.8270 -1.8141 -0.2812 -0.3821 -0.0164 -0.9384 199.543 -163.938 36.000 -0.855
1.1478 -1.8483 -1.8238 -0.2814 -0.3805 -0.0148 -0.8478 199.629 -165.939 34.000 -0.769
1.1594 -1.8696 -1.8331 -0.2815 -0.3790 -0.0133 -0.7630 199.711 -167.939 32.000 -0.687
1.1710 -1.8911 -1.8423 -0.2817 -0.3776 -0.0119 -0.6838 199.790 -169.939 30.000 -0.608
1.1826 -1.9126 -1.8512 -0.2819 -0.3763 -0.0106 -0.6100 199.866 -171.939 28.000 -0.532
1.1941 -1.9343 -1.8598 -0.2821 -0.3752 -0.0095 -0.5416 199.937 -173.939 26.000 -0.461
1.2057 -1.9560 -1.8682 -0.2822 -0.3741 -0.0084 -0.4785 200.004 -175.939 24.000 -0.394
1.2173 -1.9778 -1.8763 -0.2824 -0.3730 -0.0073 -0.4206 200.066 -177.939 22.000 -0.332
1.2288 -1.9997 -1.8842 -0.2826 -0.3721 -0.0064 -0.3678 200.123 -179.939 20.000 -0.275
1.2404 -2.0217 -1.8918 -0.2828 -0.3713 -0.0056 -0.3201 200.175 -181.939 18.000 -0.223
1.2520 -2.0438 -1.8992 -0.2829 -0.3705 -0.0048 -0.2775 200.222 -183.939 16.000 -0.176
1.2635 -2.0660 -1.9063 -0.2831 -0.3699 -0.0042 -0.2399 200.263 -185.939 14.000 -0.135
1.2751 -2.0883 -1.9132 -0.2833 -0.3693 -0.0036 -0.2073 200.299 -187.939 12.000 -0.099
1.2867 -2.1107 -1.9198 -0.2835 -0.3688 -0.0031 -0.1796 200.330 -189.939 10.000 -0.068
1.2983 -2.1331 -1.9262 -0.2837 -0.3684 -0.0027 -0.1569 200.355 -191.939 8.000 -0.043
1.3099 -2.1557 -1.9323 -0.2838 -0.3681 -0.0024 -0.1393 200.374 -193.938 6.000 -0.024
1.3215 -2.1783 -1.9382 -0.2840 -0.3679 -0.0022 -0.1266 200.387 -195.938 4.000 -0.011
1.3331 -2.2010 -1.9438 -0.2842 -0.3678 -0.0021 -0.1189 200.396 -197.939 2.000 -0.002
1.3447 -2.2239 -1.9491 -0.2844 -0.3677 -0.0020 -0.1164 200.398 -199.938 0.000 0.000
1.3563 -2.2468 -1.9542 -0.2846 -0.3678 -0.0021 -0.1189 200.396 -201.939 -2.000 -0.002
1.3680 -2.2698 -1.9590 -0.2847 -0.3679 -0.0022 -0.1267 200.388 -203.939 -4.000 -0.010
1.3797 -2.2928 -1.9636 -0.2849 -0.3681 -0.0024 -0.1398 200.375 -205.938 -6.000 -0.023
1.3914 -2.3160 -1.9679 -0.2851 -0.3685 -0.0028 -0.1582 200.357 -207.938 -8.000 -0.041
148
1.4031 -2.3393 -1.9719 -0.2853 -0.3689 -0.0032 -0.1822 200.335 -209.938 -10.000 -0.063
1.4148 -2.3627 -1.9757 -0.2855 -0.3694 -0.0037 -0.2119 200.309 -211.938 -12.000 -0.089
1.4266 -2.3861 -1.9792 -0.2857 -0.3700 -0.0043 -0.2473 200.279 -213.938 -14.000 -0.119
1.4384 -2.4097 -1.9825 -0.2859 -0.3707 -0.0050 -0.2887 200.245 -215.938 -16.000 -0.153
1.4503 -2.4334 -1.9855 -0.2861 -0.3716 -0.0059 -0.3364 200.209 -217.939 -18.000 -0.189
1.4621 -2.4572 -1.9882 -0.2862 -0.3725 -0.0068 -0.3904 200.170 -219.938 -20.000 -0.228
1.4740 -2.4810 -1.9906 -0.2864 -0.3736 -0.0079 -0.4512 200.130 -221.938 -22.000 -0.268
1.4860 -2.5050 -1.9928 -0.2866 -0.3748 -0.0091 -0.5189 200.089 -223.938 -24.000 -0.309
1.4980 -2.5291 -1.9947 -0.2868 -0.3761 -0.0104 -0.5939 200.048 -225.938 -26.000 -0.350
1.5100 -2.5534 -1.9963 -0.2870 -0.3775 -0.0118 -0.6767 200.008 -227.938 -28.000 -0.390
1.5221 -2.5777 -1.9976 -0.2872 -0.3791 -0.0134 -0.7676 199.971 -229.938 -30.000 -0.427
1.5343 -2.6022 -1.9987 -0.2874 -0.3808 -0.0151 -0.8672 199.936 -231.938 -32.000 -0.462
1.5465 -2.6268 -1.9994 -0.2876 -0.3827 -0.0170 -0.9760 199.907 -233.938 -34.000 -0.491
1.5588 -2.6516 -1.9999 -0.2878 -0.3848 -0.0191 -1.0947 199.885 -235.938 -36.000 -0.513
1.5711 -2.6765 -2.0000 -0.2880 -0.3871 -0.0214 -1.2241 199.871 -237.938 -38.000 -0.527
1.5836 -2.7016 -1.9998 -0.2882 -0.3895 -0.0238 -1.3650 199.868 -239.938 -40.000 -0.530


149
Appendix I Roll Angle Calculation
150
Roll Angle Calculation

The chassis roll angle can be calculated as follows:

t
h a W
c

Load Lateral · ∆ (Millicent 1995, p.678)

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
N
m
m
s
m
kg
55 . 1248
1 . 1
350 . 0 ) 81 . 9 8 . 0 ( 500
Load Lateral
2
·
× × ×
· ∆



The spring deflection is:
m y
y
x
F
y
xy F
030854 . 0
55 . 40466
55 . 1248
·
·
·
·


where:
y = spring deflection
x = spring constant
F = applied force

151
Roll Angle
( )
( ) Rr Fr
LM SW
RA
+
×
· (Staniforth 1999, p 211)

Front Roll Resistance


( )
180
2
2
2
π
× × · TF
SmF
WmF
SF
Fr (Staniforth 1999, p 205)


Rear Roll Resistance
( )
180
2
2
2
π
× × · TR
SmR
WmR
SR
Rr

Schedule of Terms:
¾ SF-front spring rate
¾ WmF- front wheel movement
¾ WmR- rear wheel movement
¾ SmF – actual front spring movement
¾ SmR – actual rear spring movement
¾ TF- track
¾ LM – mean roll movement of sprung weight
¾ SR – spring rate
¾ Fr – front roll resistance
¾ Rr – rear roll resistance
152
Front Roll Resistance
( )
180
2
2
2
π
× × · TF
SmF
WmF
SF
Fr

( )
180
2
1 . 1
674 . 0 0308536 . 0
0308536 . 0
25 . 40466
2
2
π
× ×
×
· Fr

Fr = 776.965 Nm per degree



Roll Angle
( )
( ) Rr Fr
LM SW
RA
+
×
·


( )
( ) 0 965 . 776
35 . 0 81 . 9 450
+
× ×
· RA

Note: there is only one rear wheel therefore rear roll resistance can be assumed to be zero.


RA = 1.989 degrees

RA = 2 degrees

The roll angle is 2 degrees
153
Appendix J Work Experience
154
EMPLOYMENT HISTORY:


2004 YORKE MOTORS
Pre-Delivery Inspector
South Australia
Tel: (08) 82234000


1996 – 1999 AGOSTINO MITSUBISHI
Motor Mechanic
South Australia
Tel: (08) 82695888


1996 DON’S AUTO SERVICE
Motor Mechanic
South Australia
Tel: (08) 8472935

1994 REGIONAL POLICE HEADQUARTER
Motor Vehicle Mechanic
Poland

1993 ‘ALAMA’ SERVICE & TRADE COMPANY
Motor Vehicle Mechanic

1991-1992 “PKM” MUNICIPAL TRANSPORT
ENTERPRISE
Motor Vehicle Mechanic (repairs of Soviet - made and
Polish/French made trolleybuses)
Poland

1989-1991 MILITARY UNIT NO. 2697
Electrical Mechanic (during National Military
Service Poland)

1988-1991 “PKS” POLISH ROAD TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE
Motor Vehicle Mechanic (repairs of a wide range of
Polish-made and foreign-made buses)
Poland

155
1987-1988 “IKARUS” Motor Vehicle Mechanic
(regeneration of Diesel engine accessories) Poland

1986-1987 “MERASTER” CONTROL SYSTEMS RESEARCH &
PRODUCTION CENTRE
1/ Trainee
2/ Motor Vehicle Mechanic (Poland)