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# Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT

)
and Linear Amplifier
Chapter 1
BJT Amplifiers
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Outline
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Introduction
BJT Linear Amplifier
Graphical Analysis & AC Equivalent Circuit
Small-signal hybrid-t equivalent circuit
Hybrid-t Equivalent Circuit and Early Effect
Expanded Hybrid-t Equivalent Circuit
 Maximum Symmetrical Swing
Common-emitter Amplifier
Common-collector Amplifier
Common-base Amplifier

Introduction
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 Analog Electronic Circuits
 Analog Electronic Circuits produce an
analog signals

 Linear amplifier circuit
 Magnifies input signal & produce output
signal that is larger & directly
proportional to input signal

Electronic
Circuit
Signal
Input
Signal
Output
BJT Linear Amplifier
 BJT needs to be biased with DC voltage at
quiescent point (Q-point) where BJT is biased in
forward active region

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Linear Amplifier
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 Time-varying output voltage is directly
proportional to & larger than time-varying input
voltage

Graphical Analysis & AC
Equivalent Circuit
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 A common -emitter circuit with time-varying
signal source in series with the base DC source
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 Graph plots collector current (i
c
) vs collector-emitter potential (v
CE
).
 For different base currents (i
B
) different curves are obtained.
 AC base current superimposed on I
BQ
- time-varying base current induces
ac collector current superimposed on I
CQ

 AC collector-emitter voltage = output voltage - is larger than the input =
amplification
 Linear amplifier = ac added / superimposed on dc ==> superposition ==>
only if ac is small ==>small signal analysis.
Line between
V
CC
/R
C
and V
CC

Q-point is chosen where
distance between i
B
curves are
similar / even so that
amplification properties are
linear.
Cont’d…
 time-varying signals linearly related & superimposed
on dc values)

 If signal source, v
s
= 0:
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
be BEQ BE
ce CEQ CE
c CQ C
b BQ B
v V v
v V v
i I i
i I i
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
(6) loop) E - (C
(5) loop) E - (B
CEQ C CQ CC
BEQ B BQ BB
V R I V
V R I V
+ =
+ =
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Cont’d…
 For B-E loop, considering time varying signals:

Rearrange:

Base on (5), left side of (7) is 0. So:

 For C-E loop, considering time varying signals:

 9
 Base on (6), left side of (11) is 0. So:
(7) ) ( ) (
be BEQ B b BQ BE B B s BB
v V R i I v R i v V + + + = + = +
(8)
s be B b BEQ B BQ BB
v v R i V R I V ÷ + = ÷ ÷
(9)
be B b s
v R i v + =
(11)
(10)
ce c c CEQ C CQ CC
ce CEQ C c CQ CE C C CC
v R i V R I V
v V R i I v R i V
+ = ÷ ÷
+ + + = + = ) ( ) (
(12) 0 = +
ce c c
v R i
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I
B
versus V
BE
Characteristic
b B
T
be
BQ B
i I
V
v
I i + = + ~ ) 1 (
Time-varying signal source, v
s
applied
to base - time-varying base current
component
==> there is a time-varying base-
emitter component
Figure shows exponential relationship
between i
B
vs v
BE

IF MAGNITUDES of time-varying
signals superimposed on dc Q-pt are
small => develop linear relationship
between ac v
BE
and ac i
B

This relationship corresponds to slope
of curve at the Q-pt.
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Rules for AC Analysis
 Replacing all capacitors by short circuits

 Replacing all inductors by open circuits

 Replacing dc voltage sources by ground connections

 Replacing dc current sources by open circuits
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AC Equivalent Circuit
for Common Emitter
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 Equations
 Input loop

 Output loop
be
T
BQ
b
be B b s
v
V
I
i
v R i v
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
b c
ce C c
i i
v R i
| =
= + 0
0.026 V
The DC voltage sources have been set equal to zero or ground(V
CC
=0).
Only ACc condition are to be considered.
Small Signal AC Equivalent Circuit

 ac input signal voltages and currents are in the order
of ±10 percent of Q-point voltages and currents.

e.g. If dc current is 10 mA, the ac current (peak-to-
peak) < 0.1 mA.

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Small-signal hybrid-t
equivalent circuit
BQ F CQ
CQ
T F
BQ
T
b
be
I I
I
V
I
V
r
i
v
|
|
t
=
= = = ,
g
m
=I
CQ
/V
T
r
t
=|V
T
/I
CQ
v
be
=i
b
r
π

r
π
= diffusion
resistance /
base-emitter input
resistance

1/r
π
= slope of i
B

V
BE
curve
14
Phasor signals are shown in parentheses.
|
t
= r g
m
Common-Emitter Current Gain, | as constant;
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) (
b
b
I
i
|
|
Using common-emitter current gain (β) parameter
Small-signal hybrid-t
equivalent circuit
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How to construct Small-signal hybrid-t
Place a terminal for the transistor
 Common Terminal as ground
B
E
C
We know that
 i across B  ib
 i across C βib
 i across E  (β+1)ib
 r
π
between B -E
R
C
R
B
v
s
v
O
V
BB
V
CC
B
E
C
βib
r
π

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( )
C be m ce o
R V g V V ÷ = =
s
B
be
V
R r
r
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t
t
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = =
B
C m
s
o
v
R r
r
R g
V
V
A
t
t
gain, voltage signal Small
Output signal voltage
Input signal voltage
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Small-signal Voltage Gain
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Problem-Solving Technique:
BJT AC Analysis
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1. Analyze circuit with only dc sources to find Q
point.
2. Replace each element in circuit with small-
signal model, including the hybrid t model for
the transistor.
3. Analyze the small-signal equivalent circuit
after setting dc source components to zero.

Transformation of Elements
Element DC Model AC Model
Resistor R R
Capacitor Open C
Inductor Short L
Diode +V
¸
, r
f

r
d
= V
T
/I
D
Independent Constant
Voltage Source
+ V
S
-

Short
Independent Constant
Current Source
I
S

Open

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Example 1
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 Determine the small signal
voltage gain, including the
effect of the transistor
output resistance, r
o
.
Assume the transistor &
circuit parameter are β=100,
V
CC
=12V, V
BE
=0.7V,
R
C
=6kΩ, R
B
=50kΩ and
V
BB
=1.2V.
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Solution 1
 Do the dc analysis to find Q-point values

 Determine the small signal output resistance,

 Do the ac analysis to find the small signal base-emitter input resistance,
r , transconductance, g
m
and then voltage gain, A
V
V k m R I V V
mA I I
A
R
V V
I
C CQ CC CEQ
BQ CQ
B
BE BB
BQ
6 ) 6 )( 1 ( 12 then,
1 ) 10 ( 100 that so
10
50
7 . 0 2 . 1
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = =
=
÷
=
÷
=
µ |
µ
O = = = k
m I
V
r
CQ
A
o
50
1
50
4 . 11
50 6 . 2
6 . 2
) 6 ( 5 . 38 ) (
/ 5 . 38
026 . 0
1
6 . 2
1
) 026 . 0 ( 100
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = =
= = =
O = = =
m
R r
r
R g
V
V
A
V mA
m
V
I
g
k
m I
V
r
B
C m
S
o
V
T
CQ
m
CQ
T
t
t
t
|
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Hybrid-t Equivalent Circuit
and Early Effect
transconductance
parameter
current gain
parameter
r
o
=V
A
/I
CQ
r
o
= small-signal
transistor output
resistance
V
A
= early voltage
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Early Voltage
(V
A
)

Early Effect
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Example 2
 If the Early voltage, V
A
is 50 V, reconsider the
circuit in example 1 and determine the small-
signal voltage gain including the effect of the
transistor output resistance, r
0
.

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Solution 2
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 The transistor output resistance, r
0

 The small-signal voltage gain
O = = = k
mA
V
I
V
r
CQ
A
o
50
1
50
2 . 10
50 6 . 2
6 . 2
) 50 // 6 ( 5 . 38 ) // (
0
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = = m
R r
r
r R g
V
V
A
B
C m
S
o
V
t
t
Example 3
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 Given : | = 100, V
CC
= 12V, V
BE(ON)

= 0.7V, R
S
= 0.5kO, R
C
= 6kO, R
1
=
93.7kO, R
2
= 6.3kO and V
A
= 100V.
 Calculate the small-signal voltage
gain.

Solution 3
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( )( )
C o m o
R r V g V
t
÷ =
t
r R R R
i 2 1
=
C o o
R r R =
s
S
V
R r R R
r R R
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t
t
t
2 1
2 1
( )
C o
S
m
s
o
v
R r
R r R R
r R R
g
V
V
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = =
t
t
2 1
2 1
Expanded Hybrid-t Equivalent
Circuit
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h-Parameter Model for npn
|
µ t
=
+ =
fe
b ie
h
r r r h
o
oe
re
r r
h
r
r
h
1 1
+
+
=
~
µ
µ
t
|
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T-Model of an npn BJT
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4 Equivalent 2-port Networks
Voltage Amplifier
Current Amplifier
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Cont’…
Transconductance
Amplifier
Transresistance
Amplifier
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Basic Transistor Amplifier
Configuration
 3 basic configuration depending on three terminals
 Common emitter
 Common collector (Emitter follower)
 Common base

 The input signal source can be modeled as either a
Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit

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Basic Common Emitter Amplifier
Circuit
 The signal from signal source is couple into the base through the
coupling capacitor.
 The coupling capacitor provide dc isolation between source and
amplifier.
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Small Signal Equivalent Circuit
 If

 The coupling capacitor is assumed to be a short
circuit. (If signal source >>> 2kHz)

TH
c
C
R
fC
Z <<< =
t 2
1
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Example
 Determine the small voltage gain for the circuit below if
β=100, V
CC
=5V, V
BE
=0.7Vand V
A
=100V
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Solution
 Do the dc analysis to find Q-point values

V k m R I V V
mA I I
A
k R
V V
I
V V
R R
R
V
k
k
k k
R R
R R
R
C CQ CC CEQ
BQ CQ
TH
BE TH
BQ
CC TH
TH
31 . 6 ) 6 )( 95 . 0 ( 12 then,
95 . 0 ) 5 . 9 ( 100 that so
5 . 9
9 . 5
7 . 0 756 . 0
756 . 0 ) 12 (
100
3 . 6
9 . 5
100
) 3 . 6 )( 7 . 93 (
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = =
=
÷
=
÷
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
O = =
+
=
µ |
µ
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Solution
 Determine the small signal output resistance,

 Do the ac analysis to find the small signal base-emitter input resistance,
r , transconductance, g
m
and then voltage gain, A
V
O = = = k
m I
V
r
CQ
A
o
3 . 105
95 . 0
100
163
5 . 0 87 . 1
87 . 1
) 3 . 105 // 6 ( 5 . 36
//
//
) // (
/ 5 . 36
026 . 0
95 . 0
74 . 2
95 . 0
) 026 . 0 ( 100
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = =
= = =
O = = =
k
m
R R r
R r
r R g
V
V
A
V mA
m
V
I
g
k
m I
V
r
S TH
TH
o C m
S
o
V
T
CQ
m
CQ
T
t
t
t
|
 The basic common-emitter circuit used in
previous analysis causes a serious defect :
 If BJT with V
BE
=0.7 V is used, I
B
=9.5 μA & I
C
=0.95 mA
 But, if new BJT with V
BE
=0.6 V is used, I
B
=26 μA & BJT
goes into saturation; which is not acceptable  Previous
circuit is not practical
 So, the emitter resistor is included: Q-point is stabilized
against variations in β, as will the voltage gain, A
V
 Assumptions
 C
C
acts as a short circuit
 Early voltage = ∞ ==> r
o
neglected due to open circuit
Basic Common-Emitter Amplifier
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Circuit with Emitter Resistor
 To improve dc biasing design
 A
V
with R
E
less dependent on
β.
 V
A
infinite, r
o
open circuit.
C b o
R I V ) ( tage, output vol ac | ÷ =
Common-Emitter Amplifier
with Emitter Resistor
 ac output voltage

 Input voltage loop

 Input resistance, R
ib

 Input resistance to amplifier, R
i

 Voltage divider equation of V
in
to V
s
Remember: Assume V
A
is infinite, ¬
r
o
is neglected
( )
C b o
R I V | ÷ =
( )
E b b b in
R I I r I V |
t
+ + =
( )
E
b
in
ib
R r
I
V
R |
t
+ + = = 1
ib i
R R R R
2 1
=
s
S i
i
in
V
R R
R
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
41
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E
C
E
C
V
E s i
s i
i
E
C
ib
in
s
C
s
C b
s
o
V
s
s i
i
in
ib i
E
b
in
ib
E b b b in
R
R
R
R
A
r R R R
R R
R
R r
R
R
V
V
R
V
R I
V
V
A
V
R R
R
V
R R R R
R r
I
V
R
R I I r I V
÷
~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
~
>> + >>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
÷
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=
= + + = =
+ + =
) 1 (
) 1 ( and if
) 1 (
) (
// // , resistance input
effect rule reflection resistance ) 1 (
) (
2 1
|
|
|
|
| | |
|
|
t
t
t
t
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43
Example
 Determine the small voltage gain for the circuit
with an emitter resistor below if β=100,
V
BE
=0.7Vand V
A
=∞.

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44
Solution
0 . 5
) 1 ( and if
53 . 4
06 . 8 // //
6 . 41 ) 1 (
/ 1 . 83
2 . 1
81 . 4 ; 16 . 2
2 1
÷ ~
>> + >>
÷ = =
O = =
O = + + = =
· = =
= =
O = =
= =
V
E s i
s
o
V
ib i
E
b
in
ib
CQ
A
o
T
CQ
m
CQ
T
CEQ CQ
A
r R R R
V
V
A
k R R R R
k R r
I
V
R
I
V
r
V mA
V
I
g
k
I
V
r
V V mA I
t
t
t
|
|
|
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45
Circuit with Emitter Bypass
Capacitor
 Use to effectively to short out a portion @ all of emitter
resistance by the ac signal.
R
S
R
1
R
2
R
E
R
C
v
s
v
O
C
C
V
CC
C
E
B C
E
V
o
V
s
R
C
R
S
r
t
r
o
R
1
||
R
2
g
m
V
t
Emitter bypass capacitor, C
E

provides a short circuit to
ground for the ac signals
Common-Emitter Amplifier
with Emitter Bypass Capacitor
Small-signal hybrid-π
equivalent circuit
Emitter bypass capacitor is
used to short out a portion or
all of emitter resistance by
the ac signal. Hence no RE
appear in the hybrid-π
equivalent circuit
46

Common-emitter Amplifier with
Emitter Bypass Capacitor
47
DC Load line: KVL on C-E loop

2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
1
1
1
1 1
E E C
E E C CQ CEQ
E E C C C CE
E E C CE C C
E E E CE C C
R R R
-
R R R I V V V
R R I R I V V V
IC IE V R R I V R I
V R R I V R I V
+ +
=
+ + + = ÷ ÷ +
~
|
|
.
|

\
| +
>>
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+ + = ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= + +
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
+ + + + =
÷ +
÷
÷ +
Slope
So,
1, when point, - Q For
when
) (
) (
, ) (
) (
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
48
Visualized the
relationship
between Q-point
& transistor
characteristics

AC Load Line - KVL on C-E loop
1
1 1
1
1 -
Slope
) (
Assuming
0
E C
E C c E c C c ce
e c
E e ce C c
R R
R R i R i R i v
i i
R i v R i
+
=
+ ÷ = + ÷ =
~
= + +
49
Visualized the relationship
between small-signal
response & transistor
characteristics
Occurs when capacitors

50
Example (DC & AC Load Line)
Determine the dc and ac load line. V
BE
=0.7V, β=150, V
A
=∞
51
Solution
 To determine dc Q-point, KVL around B-E loop
O
÷
=
+
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + = = =
=
+ +
÷
=
+ + + = + + =
÷ +
÷
÷
k R R
-
R I R I V V V
mA I I mA I I
A
R R
V V
I
R I V R I R I V R I V
E C
E EQ C CQ CEQ
BQ EQ BQ CQ
E B
EB
BQ
E BQ EB B BQ E E EB B BQ
15
1 1
Slope
53 . 6 ) ( point, - Q For
9 . 0 ) 1 ( & 894 . 0 Then
96 . 5
) 1 (
) 1 (
| |
µ
|
|
52
) // ( ) // )( (
/ 4 . 34
36 . 4
53 . 6 ; 894 . 0
L C c L C m e o
CQ
A
o
T
CQ
m
CQ
T
ECQ CQ
R R i R R v g v v
I
V
r
V mA
V
I
g
k
I
V
r
V V mA I
÷ = ÷ = =
· = =
= =
O = =
= =
t
t
|
53
54
Maximum Symmetrical Swing
 When symmetrical sinusoidal signal applied to the
input of an amplifier, the output generated is also
a symmetrical sinusoidal signal

 AC load line is used to determine maximum
output symmetrical swing
 If output is out of limit, portion of the output signal will
be clipped & signal distortion will occur

55
Maximum Symmetrical Swing
 Steps to design a BJT amplifier
 Write DC load line equation (relates of I
CQ
& V
CEQ
)
 Write AC load line equation (relates i
c
, v
ce
; v
ce
= - i
c
R
eq
,
R
eq
= effective ac resistance in C-E circuit)
 Generally, i
c
= I
CQ
– I
C
(min), where I
C
(min) = 0 or some
other specified min collector current
 Generally, v
ce
= V
CEQ
– V
CE
(min), where V
CE
(min) is
some specified min C-E voltage
 Combination of the above equations produce optimum
I
CQ
& V
CEQ
values to obtain maximum symmetrical
swing in output signal
56
Example (Maximum Symmetrical Swing )
Determine the maximum output symmetrical swing for the ac load
line in previous figure.

Solution
 From the dc & ac load line, the maximum negative swing in the I
c
is from
0.894 mA to zero (I
CQ
). So, the maximum possible peak-to-peak ac
collector current:

 The max. symmetrical peak-to-peak output voltage:

 Maximum instantaneous collector current:

mA 79 . 1 ) 894 . 0 ( 2 (min)) ( 2 = = ÷ = A
C CQ c
I I i
V 56 . 2 ) 2 || 5 )( 79 . 1 ( ) || ( | | | | | | = = A = A = A
L C c eq c ce
R R i R i v
mA 79 . 1 894 . 0 894 . 0 | |
2
1
= + = A + =
c CQ C
i I i
57
C-C Small Signal Voltage Gain
Common
Collector Circuit
Small Signal
Equivalent
Circuit
58
) // (
) 1 (
E o o o
b o
R r I V
I I
=
+ = |
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
+
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ + =
= + + = + =
s i
i
E o
E o
s
s i
i
in
E o ib
ib b E o b o b in
R R
R
R r r
R r
V
R R
R
V
R r r R
R I R r r I V r I V
) // )( 1 (
) // )( 1 (
V
V
A
gain voltage signal Small
)] // )( 1 ( [
)] // )( 1 ( [
s
o
v
|
|
|
|
t
t
t t
59
C-C Input & Output Impedance
x
x
o
I
V
R =
o E
s
o
o o E s x
x
m
s
x
o
x
E
x
x
s
m
x
s
x
o
x
E
x
m x
x
s
s
x
o
x
E
x
m x
r R
R R R r
R
R r R R R R r V
I
r g
R R R r
V
r
V
R
V
V
R R R r
r g
I
R R R r
V
r
V
R
V
V g I
V
R R R r
r
V
R R R r
V
r
V
R
V
V g I
// //
1
// //
therefore,
1 1 1
// //
1
that Note
// // // //
// //
therefore,
// //
// //
node output at currents Summing
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
= + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
=
+
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
+ + + ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
+
+ + = +
|
|
|
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
60
Example
 Calculate
 the small signal voltage gain,
 the input and output resistance.
Assume the transistor & circuit parameter are;β=100, V
CC
=5V,
V
BE
=0.7V, V
A
=80V and r
o
=100kΩ.

61
C-C Small Signal Current Gain
 Can be determine by using the input resistance & the concept of
current dividers.
) 1 (
then , R r and R //R R that assume If
//
//
) 1 (
Therefore,
//
//
) 1 ( ) 1 (
//
//
E o ib 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
|
|
| |
+ ~
>> >>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=
i
E o
o
ib i
e
i
o
E o
o
e
i
ib
b o
i
ib
b
i
e
i
A
R r
r
R R R
R R
I
I
A
I
R r
r
I
I
R R R
R R
I I
I
R R R
R R
I
I
I
A
62
Common Base Amplifier
63
C-B Small Signal Equivalent
Circuit
64
C-B Small Signal Voltage Gain
zero] approaches R [as ) // (
// //
1
1
) // (
// //
1
then,
since
1 1 1
E] node at Equation [KCL 0
) (
) // )( (
S L C m V
S E
S
L C m
s
o
V
S E
S
s
m
S
s
S E
S
s
E
m
L C m o
R R g A
R R
r
R
R R g
V
V
A
R R
r
R
V
V
r g
R
V
R R r
V
R
V V
R
V
r
V
V g
R R V g V
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
= ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
=
÷ ÷
+ + +
÷ =
|
|
|
|
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t
t
65
C-B Small Signal Current Gain
infinity] approaches RE and zero approaches R [as
1 1
//
1
then,
) (
//
1
E] node at Equation [KCL 0
L
o
|
|
|
|
|
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
=
+
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
= + + +
r g
A
R
r
R R
R
g
I
I
A
R R
R
V g I
R
r
I V
R
V
r
V
V g I
m
i
E
L C
C
m
i
o
i
L C
C
m o
E i
E
m i
66
Input Impedance
e
i
ie
m m b i
r
r
I
V
R
r
V V g
r
V
V g I I
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= + = + =
|
|
t t
t
t t
t
t
t
1
resistance Input
1
input at the KCL
67
Output Impedance
C o
S E
m
R R
R
V
R
V
r
V
V g
=
= =
= + + +
resistance output The
0 V g means 0, V implies This
0
emitter at the KCL
zero. to equal set been has v
m
s
t t
t t
t
t
t
68
Summary & Comparison
Configuration Common
Emitter
Common
Collector
Common Base
Voltage Gain A
v
> 1 A
v
~ 1 A
v
> 1
Current Gain A
i
> 1 A
i
> 1

A
i
~ 1

Input
Resistance
Moderate
(kΩ)
High
(50-100kΩ)
Low
(Ω)
Output
Resistance
Moderate to
High
Low Moderate to
High

69