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Foreign Language Education in Primary Schools (age 5/6 to 10/11

)

Language Policies

Council of Europe Press, 1997

Foreign Language Education in Primary Schools (age 5/6 to 10/11)

edited by Peter DO ! Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany "lison #$%%ELL Northern College of Education, Aberdeen, cotland

Education Committee Council for Cultural Co-operation

The o!inions e"!ressed in this wor# are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official !olicy of the Council for Cultural Co$o!eration of the Council of Euro!e% All corres!ondence concerning this !ublication or the re!roduction or translation of all or !art of the document should be addressed to the &irector of Education, Culture and !ort of the Council of Euro!e '($)*+*, trasbourg Cede"-% The re!roduction of e"tracts is authorised, e"ce!t for commercial !ur!oses, on condition that the source is .uoted%

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION Peter DOYÉ and Alison HURRELL 1. METHODS Lisbeth YTREBERG .Austria CONCLUSIONS Peter DOYÉ and Alison HURRELL . EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT Peter EDELENBOS . OBJECTIVES AND CONTENTS Manuel Antonio TOST PLANET . INTEGRATION AND CONTINUITY Hanna KOMOROWSKA . TEACHER EDUCATION Maria FELBERBAUER .Poland 5.Italy Appendix 1: Check-list for analysis and evaluation of text-books Appendix 2 : List of supplementary materials 4.Norway 3. RESOURCES Rita BALBI .Netherlands 6. ORGANISATION.Spain 2.

......................... 5 Introduction Peter DOYÉ (Germany) and Alison HURRELL (Scotland) ............................................................................................... ............... integration and continuity Hanna /O"ORO0S/A (Poland) . 5! Evaluation and assessment Peter EDELE%*OS (%et)erlands) ... 44 Profiles of the Contributors ....................................................... ! ' ........................................................... 1.............................................................................. ..............................................................References Bibliography Profiles of the Contributors Preface..................... 5 1 Objectives and contents "an#el $OS$ PLA%E$ (S&ain) ........................... Teacher Education "aria 2EL*ER*AUER (A#stria) .(-taly) .................................................................. Conclusions Peter DOYÉ and Alison HURRELL ............. 3 References ....... '5 Resources Rita *AL*....5 Organisation.. !5.................................................................................................................................. !5 Methods Lis(et) Y$RE*ERG (%or+ay) ............. 43 Bibliograph ........................ ..

normally o=er a t+o@year &eriod. &ro6ress re&orts and inde&endent st#dies. an initiatin6 +or<s)o& o8 some 8i=e days? d#ration +as )eld on t)e in=itation o8 one mem(er 6o=ernment. $)ese +ere nominated (y mem(er 6o=ernments and +or<ed to6et)er #nder t)e leaders)i& o8 ?animators? selected (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e 8rom amon6 t)e ac<no+led6ed leadin6 e>&erts in E#ro&e. &artly (y st#dies commissioned 8rom leadin6 e>&erts in t)e 8ield. -n addition. constraints on +or<s)o& time and re&ort s&ace )a=e &laced strict limits on t)e animators? introd#ctions to +or<s)o& t)emes. (#t mainly in a series o8 ?ne+@style? +or<s)o&s. eac) o8 +)ic) +o#ld (rin6 to6et)er a n#m(er o8 t)e more si6ni8icant . attended (y collea6#es &ro8essionally acti=e in t)e 8ields concerned. As a res#lt. t)is action &ro6ramme +as t)en cond#cted. and some t)emes to +)ic) a n#m(er o8 6o=ernments attac)ed im&ortance +ere t)e s#(9ects o8 a n#m(er o8 +or<s)o&s. +or< in t)ese areas +as intensi=ely &#rs#ed. to identi8y areas in +)ic) 8#rt)er researc) and de=elo&ment +or< +as needed. Eac) ?ne+@style? +or<s)o& )ad t)ree &)ases. "any o8 t)e ne+@style +or<s)o&s )a=e dealt +it) more t)an one &riority sector or t)eme. d#rin6 +)ic) t+o Pro6ress Re&orts on t)e cond#ct o8 t)e Pro9ects +ere &#(lis)ed. and t)en to set #& an ?action &ro6ramme? o8 &ro9ects to (e carried o#t (y indi=id#als or instit#tions in t+o or more mem(er co#ntries #nder a &ro9ect co@ordinator. contri(#tions relatin6 to &artic#lar &riority sectors and t)emes +ere s&read o=er a n#m(er o8 +or<s)o& re&orts. -n a second &)ase.PREFACE 0)en la#nc)in6 t)e recent 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e "odern Lan6#a6es Pro9ect: 'Language learning for European citizenship' t)e Ed#cation 7ommittee identi8ied a n#m(er o8 ed#cational sectors and t)emes 8or &riority treatment. t)e +or<s)o& concl#ded (y settin6 o#t concl#sions and recommendations re6ardin6 t)e 6eneral de=elo&ment o8 t)e 8ield and 8#t#re &olicy orientations. $)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e )as t)ere8ore decided to commission a series o8 7om&endia. 2ollo+in6 t)e disc#ssion o8 t)e &ro9ects and t)eir &rod#cts. -n a t)ird &)ase. -n t)e co#rse o8 t)e Pro9ect. 2irst. Here t)e aim +as to esta(lis) t)e ?state o8 t)e art? in t)e sector or +it) re6ard to t)e t)eme. )osted (y t)e second co@o&eratin6 mem(er 6o=ernment. A ?ne+@style? +or<s)o& +as )eld on t)e initiati=e o8 t+o co@o&eratin6 mem(er co#ntries to deal +it) a t)eme identi8ied (y t)em as o8 &artic#lar im&ortance. +)ic) +as cond#cted (et+een !434 and !44 . t)e o#tcomes o8 t)e Pro9ects +ere re&orted (y t)e 7o@ordinators to a 8ollo+@#& +or<s)o&.

!'. older learners a&&ear to (e more e88icient t)an yo#n6er learners (e>ce&t in res&ect o8 t)e ?nat#ralness? o8 s&eec)). 6eneralisations are )ard to ma<e and t)e A#estion +)et)er 8orei6n lan6#a6es s)o#ld or s)o#ld not (e introd#ced into &rimary ed#cation may mean =ery di88erent t)in6s accordin6 to t)e a6e@ran6e o8 t)e c)ildren a88ected. Pl#rilin6#alism )as (een 8o#nd to 8acilitate rat)er t)an disr#&t t)e de=elo&ment o8 t)e mot)er ton6#e. )o+e=er. or !5 accordin6 to t)e &artic#lar national systems concerned. Accordin6ly. and t)e terms #sed to la(el di88erent 8orms and sta6es o8 earlier ed#cation. c#rric#lar s&ace is restricted. -n a n#m(er o8 cases t)is meant lea=in6 aside a n#m(er o8 =al#a(le contri(#tions 8or +)ic) room co#ld not (e 8o#nd in t)e a6reed 8ormat. )o+e=er. +e may (e s&ea<in6 o8 a sector +)ic) starts some+)ere (et+een . 3. Di88erent inter8aces may (e &resent at a6e 1. -n &ractice. t)e a6e o8 transition 8rom &rimary to secondary ed#cation =aries. Researc) (and e>&erience) )as not con8irmed eit)er &osition. &arents +ill &ay 8or &ri=ate teac)in6. -n !41!. initially &olarised (et+een t)ose +)o (elie=ed t)at 8irst lan6#a6e de=elo&ment +o#ld (e dama6ed (y t)e learnin6 o8 a second lan6#a6e and ot)ers +)o )eld t)at t)ere +as a ?critical &eriod? d#rin6 +)ic) t)e &lasticity o8 t)e yo#n6 (rain #niA#ely 8a=o#red lan6#a6e acA#isition. U/) maintain a n#m(er o8 di88erent systems side@(y@side. closed. Lan6#a6e &ro=ision in &rimary sc)ools =aries =ery +idely across E#ro&e. A &arallel system o8 o#t@o8@sc)ool &ro=ision may de=elo& and &lace increasin6 &ress#re on state &ro=ision. 0)ere &ro8iciency in one or more 8orei6n lan6#a6es is 8elt to (e essential to &ro&er career de=elo&ment. !5. -n most res&ects. 0)ere 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro8iciency is not )i6)ly =al#ed. or are not t)o#6)t to (e =ery e88ecti=e. $)is is &artly (eca#se sc)ool systems di88er in t)e a6e at +)ic) com&#lsory ed#cation (e6ins. Some co#ntries (e. $)e teac)in6 o8 modern lan6#a6es to yo#n6 c)ildren )as (een one o8 t)e 8ocal &oints o8 t)e Pro9ect. t)e Second 7on8erence o8 E#ro&ean "inisters o8 Ed#ction in Ham(#r6 reA#ested t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e to in=esti6ate t)e ad=isa(ility o8 an early start to lan6#a6e learnin6. !. A6ain. national attit#des to early learnin6 are a 8airly sensiti=e indicator o8 t)e =al#e &laced on 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro8iciency in t)e society concerned.6. &arental &ress#re 8or an early start is =ery stron6. O=erall. Since t)at time e>&ert o&inion )as (een di=ided. )o+e=er. $)e iss#es are not. and and ends (et+een 3 and !5. !!.contri(#tions made to t)e Pro9ect in res&ect o8 one o8 its ma9or areas o8 concern. -8 sc)ools in t)e state ed#cation system do not &ro=ide it. &l#rilin6#alism is resisted and t)e lo+erin6 o8 t)e startin6 a6e is )eld to (e . es&ecially since a#t)ors )a=e (een 6i=en t)e o&&ort#nity to de=elo& and #&@date t)eir contri(#tions.

2rance. )a=e come 8irmly and #nanimo#sly to t)e concl#sion t)at t)e lo+erin6 o8 t)e startin6 a6e is. U/ (Scotland). Project Director . +ill 6i=e some o8 t)e e=idence on +)ic) t)is concl#sion is (ased and +ill.M. as t)e im&ortance o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro8iciency )as 6ro+n @ and (een seen to 6ro+ @ in res&onse to t)e re=ol#tion in comm#nications and in8ormation tec)nolo6y and its im&act on all as&ects o8 modern li=in6. -ne=ita(ly. $)e &a&ers collected )ere (y Peter DoyC and Alison H#rrell. (ot) o8 +)om &layed a =al#a(le &art in t)e series o8 +or<s)o&s. A#stria and S&ain )a=e o88ered +or<s)o&s in t)is area and t)at t)e RBD &ro9ects carried o#t in inter@ +or<s)o& action &ro6rammes )a=e &rod#ced interestin6 and =al#a(le res#lts. John L. ed#cationally (ot) desira(le and 8easi(le. Germany. continent@+ide &ress#re 8or an earlier start )as 6ro+n. -t is not s#r&risin6 t)at 8i=e mem(er co#ntries. $)e +or<s)o&s.im&ractica(le and a +aste o8 reso#rces. in one or ot)er o8 +)ic) almost all mem(er states +ere re&resented. (e o8 &ractical )el& to &ractitioners in t)e 8ield. +e tr#st. TRIM.

+)ere t)e <ey areas +ere lo+er secondary ed#cation. A(o=e all. (#t also stressed t)e need to contin#e t)e &rocess o8 re8orm. noted t)e enco#ra6in6 &ro6ress +)ic) )ad (een made. $)e ne+ sectors +ere @ &rimary ed#cation @ #&&er secondary ed#cation @ ad=anced ad#lt ed#cation and @ =ocationally oriented ed#cation $)e &riority the$es +ere @ t)e s&eci8ication o8 o(9ecti=esF @ t)e #se o8 mass media and ne+ tec)nolo6iesF @ (ilin6#al ed#cationF @ t)e ed#cational e>&loitation o8 =isits and e>c)an6esF @ t)e &re&aration o8 &#&ils and st#dents 8or inde&endent learnin6F @ a&&ro&riate met)ods and &roced#res 8or assessment and e=al#ationF -n order to co=er t)ese sectors and t)emes t)e 7D77 la#nc)ed a ne+ &ro9ect called GLan6#a6e Learnin6 8or E#ro&ean 7itiHens)i&G +)ic) )ad as its main &#r&ose t)e e>tension o8 t)e +or< done so 8ar to t)e a(o=e mentioned sectors and t)emes. ad#lt ed#cation and t)e ed#cation o8 mi6rants. t)e 7o#ncil 8or 7#lt#ral 7oo&eration (7D77) )as (een concerned +it) t)e &romotion o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 in its mem(er states and )as tried to s#&&ort national initiati=es 8or t)e im&ro=ement o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. At its 55t) Session in Ean#ary !434. -t +as t)ro#6) t)is ne+ &ro9ect t)at 2orei6n Lan6#a6e Ed#cation in . t)is &rocess +as to incl#de 8#rt)er sectors o8 ed#cation and to treat 8#rt)er iss#es 8elt to (e necessary com&onents o8 a conce&t#al 8rame+or< 8or t)e learnin6 and teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in E#ro&e. re=ie+in6 t)e o#tcomes o8 Pro9ect %°!'.INTRODUCTION Peter DOYÉ and Alison HURRELL !" The European Conte#t 2rom its ince&tion. -n t)e !435s an e>tensi=e &ro9ect entitled DLearnin6 and teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es 8or comm#nicationD (Pro9ect %°!') +as cond#cted and &rod#ced =al#a(le res#lts. t)e 7D77. 2rom !43' to !433 a series o8 international +or<s)o&s +ere )eld.

Primary Sc)ools (ecame a &riority area o8 t)e 7D77. .

"et)ods . in 2rance 3* in "ay !445 in A#stria ! in Se&tem(er !445 in S&ain Eac) o8 t)ese +or<s)o&s considered t)e +)ole s&ectr#m o8 early 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. $)e aims o8 t)e com&endi#m are !. t)e 7o#ncil 8or 7#lt#ral 7oo&eration commissioned a com&endi#m +)ic) mi6)t ser=e as a so#rce o8 in8ormation 8or all E#ro&ean teac)ers.to analyse t)e res#lts o8 t)e +or< o8 t)e international +or<s)o&s and o8 t)e related researc) and de=elo&ment &ro6rammes concernin6 t)e &riority sector IPrimary Ed#cationJ and '. $)e central &art o8 t)is (oo< consists o8 si> c)a&ters on t)e si> most im&ortant as&ects o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools as t)ey emer6ed o#t o8 t)e +or< o8 t)e 8i=e +or<s)o&s listed a(o=e and (eca#se t)ey seemed to (e t)e lo6ical com&onents o8 t)is ed#cation.* in Decem(er !44. in=esti6ations and re8lections o8 all 8i=e +or<s)o&s and to attem&t a syno&sis o8 t)e rele=ant iss#es. teac)er trainers and c#rric#l#m de=elo&ers in t)e 8ield. -nte6ration.A in E#ne !44! in Scotland 3A in "ay !44' in Germany .Or6anisation. $)e 7D77 entr#sted t)e editors o8 t)is (oo< +it) t)e &re&aration. (#t &laced s&ecial em&)asis on di88erent as&ects o8 t)is ed#cation.$eac)er Ed#cation . to inte6rate t)e res#lts o8 t)e disc#ssions.O(9ecti=es and contents '. $)e si> as&ects are treated in one c)a&ter eac): !. trends.2i=e +or<s)o&s +ere dedicated to t)is area: 0or<s)o& 0or<s)o& 0or<s)o& 0or<s)o& 0or<s)o& . coordination and &#(lication o8 s#c) a com&endi#m. 2or t)is &#r&ose. -t seemed desira(le.to identi8y t)e main as&ects. 7ontin#ity 5. t)ere8ore..Reso#rces ..E=al#ation and Assessment 1. t)eoretical a&&roac)es and inno=ati=e teac)in6 &ractices (y means o8 indi=id#al contri(#tions descri(in6 t)eoretical and &ractical de=elo&ments.

$)e si> a#t)ors are s&ecialists 8rom si> E#ro&ean co#ntries +)o @ in t)e &ast '5 years @ )a=e (ecome <no+n. as e>&erts in t)eir 8ield and +)o. . in at least one o8 t)e 5 +or<s)o&s. acted as directors o8 st#dies or as animators o8 one o8 t)e +or<in6 6ro#&s. at least in t)eir o+n co#ntries.

. $)ere8ore all national ed#cational systems in E#ro&e &ro=ide t)e o&&ort#nity 8or t)eir citiHens to acA#ire at least a (asic comm#nicati=e com&etence in lan6#a6es ot)er t)an t)eir o+n. $)ere8ore o#r &resent com&endi#m )as to incl#de a rationale 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation at t)e &rimary le=el and m#st &resent an o=er=ie+ o8 t)e &rinci&al ar6#ments 8or t)e introd#ction o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es into t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m. L#ite a n#m(er o8 teac)ers and ed#cationists +is) to stic< to t)e traditional &ractice o8 startin6 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 at t)e (e6innin6 o8 secondary ed#cation. i.e. and +anted to learn +)at t)is disci&line )ad to o88er. *#t s)o#ld s#c) acA#isition o8 necessity (e &art o8 ed#cation K &rimary 0e )a=e to realiHe t)at @ contrary to t)e 6eneral acce&tance o8 t)e im&ortance o8 o88erin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es to all &#&ils @ no common a6reement )as yet (een reac)ed a(o#t t)e desira(ility o8 ma<in6 it a constit#ent &art o8 t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m. $)ese ar6#ments 8all into 8o#r cate6ories and stem 8rom 8o#r scienti8ic disci&lines: @De=elo&mental &syc)olo6y @%e#ro@&)ysiolo6y @Ant)ro&olo6y @Peda6o6y a& 'e(elop$ental ps cholog 2rom t)e early days o8 researc) in o#r 8ield t)e &ro6rammes o8 in=esti6ation contained a 6ood deal o8 &syc)olo6ical ar6#mentation. $)e li(eratin6 =al#e o8 ste&&in6 o#tside oneJs o+n c#lt#re and oneJs o+n lan6#a6e )as lon6 (een reco6niHed in ed#cational &)iloso&)y and t)e com&etence to comm#nicate in more t)an one lan6#a6e )as (ecome an acce&ted &ost#late o8 modern ed#cational t)eory. at t)e a6e o8 !5 to !! as a r#le. Researc)ers t#rned to de=elo&mental &syc)olo6y as t)e disci&line directly concerned +it) t)e c)an6es in &eo&le?s dis&ositions and (e)a=io#r.%" Rationale $)e necessity o8 teac)in6 at least one 8orei6n lan6#a6e to e=ery E#ro&ean citiHen is so o(=io#s t)at t)ere remains )ardly any do#(t a(o#t its 9#sti8ication.

Arnold Gesell +as one o8 t)e 8irst &syc)olo6ists +)o 6a=e an ans+er to t)e A#estion o8 +)en to introd#ce 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 into t)e sc)ool c#rric#l#m: G$)e yo#n6 c)ild (elo+ t)e a6e o8 !5 en9oys lan6#a6e e>&erience. He is ready to learn; to listen; to comm#nicate (y +ord o8 mo#t); in &lay8#l and dramatic sit#ations. 0it) 8a=ora(le moti=ation )e is emotionally amena(le to a second and e=en a t)ird lan6#a6e.G (Gesell !451) 0)ile Gesell stressed t)e e$otional dis&osition 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6; 2rances -l6 em&)asiHed t)e intellectual readiness o8 yo#n6 c)ildren. S)e descri(ed t)ese c)ildren as; G6ro#&@minded; e>&ansi=e; and rece&ti=e. At t)is a6e; +)en e>&ansion and imitation are at t)eir )ei6)t; t)e c)ild can #nder 8a=ora(le conditions (e e>&ected to learn a second lan6#a6e +it) a r#s).G (-l6 !451) -n more recent years Rac)el 7o)en &oints to t)e 8act t)at an early (e6innin6 is necessary i8 a nati=e@s&ea<er@li<e accent is to (e acA#ired (7o)en; !44!). -t is )er =ie+ t)at Gt)e yo#n6er t)e (etterG; t)at t)e yo#n6 c)ild is (etter eA#i&&ed t)an an ad#lt; not only (eca#se )isM)er (rain is more dis&osed to lan6#a6e acA#isition (#t also (eca#se )eMs)e reads 8e+er &ro(lems into t)e &rocess t)an an ad#lt does. Her researc) indicates t)at immi6rant c)ildren o8 ,@. years o8 a6e; s&ea<in6 not a +ord o8 2renc) on arri=al at elementary sc)ool; learned 2renc) as a second lan6#a6e )olistically (y in=ol=ement in &lay; sin6in6; re&etition; ima6ination and story@tellin6. S)e 8o#nd t)at t)ree@year old c)ildren =ery A#ic<ly acA#ired a nati=e s&ea<er accent; t)at t)is too< lon6er in se=en@year@olds and t)at !!@ year olds; des&ite m#c) more time and e88ort; ne=er A#ite reac)ed t)e same le=el o8 &ro8iciency. Ho+e=er; t)ere is also considera(le o&&osition to t)is <ind o8 ar6#mentation 8rom some &syc)olo6ists +)o call it Gsim&listicG. $)e co#nter@ar6#ment is t)is: H#man dis&ositions at a certain a6e cannot determine (y t)emsel=es +)en an a(ility s#c) as comm#nicati=e com&etence in anot)er lan6#a6e is (est acA#ired. $)ey )a=e merely t)e 8#nction o8 ma<in6 s#c) an acA#isition &ossi(le. -t is t)e en=ironment; t)e ed#cational en=ironment mainly; t)at is t)e 8inal decisi=e 8actor. A re&resentati=e o8 t)is more critical &osition is t)e S+iss &syc)olo6ist Hans Ae(li (Ae(li !4 .; &. !3').

b& Neuro)ph siolog $)e second ar6#ment is similar to t)e 8irst; (#t it stems 8rom anot)er disci&line. -n t)eir 8amo#s (oo< GS&eec) and *rain "ec)anismG (!454) Pen8ield and Ro(erts &ost#late a (iolo6ical time@ta(le 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 on t)e (asis o8 t)eir e>&loration o8 t)e )#man (rain. $)ey re&ort t)at in cases o8 in9#ry; t)e )#man (rain o8 indi=id#als (elo+ t)e a6e o8 nine #s#ally reco=ers com&letely. $)e im&lication o8 t)is is clear: t)e early &lasticity o8 t)e (rain is a ca&ital t)at )as to (e e>&loited 8or second lan6#a6e learnin6. G2or t)e &#r&ose o8 lan6#a6e learnin6 t)e )#man (rain (ecomes &ro6ressi=ely sti88 and ri6id a8ter t)e a6e o8 nine ... *e8ore t)e a6e o8 nine (...) a c)ild is a s&ecialist in learnin6 to s&ea<.G (Pen8ield and Ro(erts; !454) Later researc) )as cast a lot o8 do#(t on t)is t)esis. Nan Parreren maintains t)at t)e &)ysiolo6ical ar6#ment is +ea<; (eca#se it does not ta<e into consideration t)e &ossi(ility t)at t)is early &lasticity can (e com&ensated (y t)e more )i6)ly de=elo&ed learnin6 strate6ies o8 t)e older c)ild (=an Parreren !4 1). His criticism is s#&&orted (y a n#m(er o8 em&irical st#dies (e.6. E<strand !4 4). $)ese a#t)ors deny t)e e>istence o8 an Do&tim#m a6eD 8or (e6innin6 t)e st#dy o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. Larsen@2reeman and Lon6 a6ree t)at t)ere are D(iolo6ical constraints on second lan6#a6e acA#isitionD; (#t t)ey cannot (e inter&reted in s#c) a +ay t)at as to s#66est a8ter t)e so@called critical &eriod lan6#a6e learnin6 m#st (e ine88ecti=e (Larsen@2reeman and Lon6 !445). c& Anthropolog $)e ant)ro&olo6ical ar6#ment )as a (etter 8o#ndation t)an t)e t+o &recedin6 ones. -t starts 8rom a &rinci&al )#man c)aracteristic: t)e indi=id#alOs o&enness at (irt). $)is o&enness ena(les )imM)er to acA#ire a 6reat =ariety o8 social; c#lt#ral and lin6#istic norms. 2or t)e ne+@(orn c)ild anyt)in6 is &ossi(le. Ho+e=er; socialisation normally 8orces t)e indi=id#al into one &artic#lar society; c#lt#re and lan6#a6e; and d#rin6 t)is &rocess o8 inte6ration and ada&tation t)e ori6inal o&enness 6ets lost. Ha(its are de=elo&ed; rein8orced and consolidated and t)ey restrict t)e &otential inde8initeness. $)e ori6inally o&en )#man (ein6 (ecomes a monoc#lt#ral; monolin6#al &erson.

$)ere are ant)ro&olo6ists +)o maintain t)at it is a (asic tas< o8 all ed#cation to <ee& t)is restriction +it)in close limits. $)ey ar6#e t)at t)is necessary &rocess @ a 8i>ation; one mi6)t call it @ m#st not 6o so 8ar as to &re=ent t)e indi=id#al 8rom e>&eriencin6 and ac<no+led6in6 ot)er +ays o8 li8e; and t)ey (elie=e t)at 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation is a 6ood means to t)is end. -t +as a central idea in t)e +or< o8 t)e German &)iloso&)er 0il)elm =on H#m(oldt; +)o re6arded di88erent lan6#a6es as e>&ressions o8 di88erent +orld@=ie+s; t)at i8 )#man (ein6s needed t)e ca&acity o8 loo<in6 at t)e +orld 8rom more t)an one &oint o8 =ie+; t)en t)e learnin6 o8 more t)an one lan6#a6e +as reA#ired. -n recent years H#m(oldtOs 8ollo+ers )a=e ta<en #& t)is ar6#ment and &ost#lated t)at 8orei6n lan6#a6e st#dy s)o#ld (e #sed more consistently as a medi#m 8or t)e reconstit#tion o8 a &l#ralistic +orld@=ie+. $)is claim is im&licitly an ar6#ment 8or an early start o8 2LE; i8 one ta<es into consideration t)at t)e descri(ed 8i>ation is a contin#o#s &rocess and t)at in all li<eli)ood; one can more s#ccess8#lly a=oid its ne6ati=e e88ects; t)e earlier one (e6ins +or<in6 a6ainst t)em.

-8 ed#cation is to re8lect t)e realities +it) +)ic) +e )a=e to li=e. &)ysiolo6ical and ant)ro&olo6ical sense is not eno#6). so to say. 7)ildren meet mem(ers o8 ot)er et)nic and s&eec) comm#nities more and more o8ten and )a=e to (e &re&ared 8or t)ese enco#nters. ot)er lan6#a6es and ot)er c#lt#res s)o#ld im&in6e on c)ildren 8rom t)e earliest sta6e o8 8ormal ed#cation. t)ey &ossess t)e necessary dis&ositions 8or t)e com&etence needed. 2or t)is. &. (#t it is not an ed#cational one ab ovo. And i8. H. t)e statement t)at an introd#ction o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 into t)e &rimary sc)ool ma<es &syc)olo6ical. -t is ar6#ed t)at t)e traditional &oint o8 =ie+ o8 &rimary ed#cation as =ernac#lar ed#cation is #nrealistic. $)e ed#cational lo6ic is t)is: $)e +orld )as c)an6ed. A 8#ndamentally ed#cational ar6#ment m#st &roceed 8rom t)e sit#ation o8 E#ro&ean c)ildren at t)e end o8 t)is cent#ry and it is t)e tas< o8 t)e sc)ool to )el& t)em de=elo& t)e attit#des and com&etences t)ey need to master t)is sit#ation. Ho+e=er =alid t)e t)ree &recedin6 ar6#ments mi6)t (e. (eca#se e=en (y a narro+ de8inition o8 (ilin6#alism at least )al8 o8 t)e +orldOs &o&#lation is (ilin6#alF and in any case e=eryone li=es in a +orld in +)ic) many di88erent lan6#a6es are s&o<en and t)ere8ore it is not de8ensi(le to create t)ro#6) ed#cation a ri6idly monolin6#istic settin6. t)en it is an ed#cational o(li6ation 8or ed#cators to )el& t)em ac)ie=e s#c) com&etence. '1) 2inally to cite an o#tstandin6 contem&orary ad=ocate o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. as &syc)olo6ical and &)ysiolo6ical 8indin6s tell #s. +)o adds some s&eci8ication to t)e 6eneral ed#cational ar6#ment: . $o A#ote one o8 t)e 6reat early &rota6onists o8 2LE in t)e &rimary sc)ool. A lot )as (een said and +ritten a(o#t t)is ed#cational necessity and it +ill t)ere8ore s#88ice to s#m #& t)e main ideas and to #nder&in t)em +it) t+o A#otations 8rom &rominent ed#cators. Eo)n $rim. $)ey need +)at +e s&ecialists call interc#lt#ral comm#nicati=e com&etence 8airly early.d& Pedagog $)e a(o=e ar6#ment s#rely contains &eda6o6ical as&ects.G (Stern !414. Stern: G$)e acA#isition o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e m#st (ecome &art o8 t)e (asic literacy o8 t)e c)ild on a &ar +it) readin6 and +ritin6.H. t)ey m#st acA#ire =er(al s<ills in at least one ot)er lan6#a6e and <no+led6e o8 ot)er c#lt#res. @ nor are t)e t+o ot)ers. S#c) an introd#ction m#st (e seen to (e ed#cationally necessary as +ell.

as t)e =ario#s early 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 initiati=es are 8#rt)er de=elo&ed across E#ro&e. $)e social.4) PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP $)ese 8o#r ma9or tenets +ill (e re=isited. o#r &resent com&endi#m +ill enco#ra6e more o8 t)e &eo&le in=ol=ed to co@o&erate in an e>tended E#ro&ean net+or<. . co#rse@+riters. . e>&lored and ela(orated in some o8 t)e s#cceedin6 c)a&ters. economic and ed#cational (ac<6ro#nd o8 a co#ntry determines to a considera(le e>tent D+)yD and D)o+D a 8orei6n lan6#a6e is introd#ced in &rimary sc)ools.G"odern lan6#a6e +or< can ma<e a contri(#tion to t)e 6eneral ed#cation o8 t)e yo#n6 c)ild and can ena(le )im to de=elo& a &ositi=e attit#de to+ards ot)er +ays o8 t)o#6)t and ot)er c#lt#res... . 3 or 4 years o8 a6e. &. 0e also )o&e t)at. c#rric#l#m de=elo&ers. .A +)olly oral a&&roac). $)e introd#ction and im&lementation o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in &rimary ed#cation di88ers 8rom one co#ntry to t)e ot)er.G ($rim !445. &olicy ma<ers and researc)ers.!. '. -t is o#r )o&e t)at t)e disc#ssion +)ic) mi6)t ens#e 8rom t)e contri(#tions +ill (e o8 interest to a +ide ran6e o8 a#diences: teac)ers."any lan6#a6e learnin6 acti=ities +)ic) are considered necessary 8or (e6inners a&&ear c)ildis) to t)e !!@ or !'@ year@old (#t are acce&ta(le at . Eac) o8 t)e contri(#tors descri(es t)e E#ro&ean conte>t +it)in +)ic) t)eir t)in<in6 )as de=elo&ed and lin<s t)is to t)e 8indin6s o8 t)e =ario#s +or<s)o&s mentioned in t)e introd#ction.$)e introd#ction o8 a 8irst 8orei6n lan6#a6e at an early sta6e may 8acilitate t)e introd#ction o8 a second 8orei6n lan6#a6e at a later sta6e in t)e co#rse. teac)er ed#cators. allo+s more &#&ils to s#cceed in modern lan6#a6e +or<. +)ic) is &ossi(le 8or a lon6er &eriod at t)is early sta6e and +)ic) may (e less acce&ta(le later.

t is is because #e refer more and more often to initiation to foreign language learning from t e age of $ or % on#ards. 45) 0)ate=er t)e case may (e. in t)is c)a&ter +e +ill endea=o#r to &ro=ide an o#tline o8 t)e c#rrent state o8 t)e initial as&ects cited. $)is means t)at ne+ &ro(lem areas emer6e 8or #s to try to #nderstand and sol=eG. t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools )as increased 6reatly in sco&eF it )as de=elo&ed in all senses. it means (in ad&ance( in relation to # at #ould be (usual( +(before t e due. (Little+ood !43. and become customary #it in our education systems! . +)ile (earin6 in mind t)at all s#c) iss#es are closely related and t)at only t)e need 8or clarity 9#sti8ies dealin6 +it) t)em in close s#ccession. it is especially because (early( is a relati&e term! )o a certain e*tent. -ndeed. s ould refer to t ose under t e age of . or to read t)e a6endas 8or colloA#ia. it +o#ld seem @ more so in &rimary sc)ools t)an at ot)er le=els o8 ed#cation @ t)at t)e time )as come to as< A#estions. +e merely )a=e to ta<e acco#nt o8 t)e di88erent re8orms introd#ced into ed#cation systems t)ro#6)o#t E#ro&e. assessment. contents. according to t e Concise Oxford dictionary. trainin6 reA#ired to &ro=ide t)em and so on. &. met)odolo6y. (#t in relation to t)e =alidity and con8irmation o8 e=eryt)in6 else : t)e aims. let alone to any de6ree o8 satis8action.1. or6anisation. +or<s)o&s and ot)er trainin6 meetin6s dealin6 +it) t)e teac)in6 o8 lan6#a6es: +)at +e still most o8ten re8er to (A#ite +ron6ly) as earl teaching! &lays an e=er increasin6 role.! -e consider t at (usual( or (normal(. Gas +e de=ise more and more tec)niA#es 8or dealin6 +it) t)e &ro(lems +e enco#nter. usual or e*pected time(. 1 "Early" is probably not t e most appropriate term to describe t e teac ing of foreign languages in primary sc ools! "n t e one and. o8 more direct concern to #s )ere. OBJECTIVES AND CONTENTS Manuel Antonio TOST PLANET . &rimarily in instit#tional terms (#t also. in relation to learning foreign languages in t e sc ool conte*t. # ic is ob&iously younger t an primary sc ool age' but on t e ot er and. it does not mean t)at all t)e A#estions relatin6 to t)is as&ect o8 ed#cation )a=e 8inally (een ans+ered. 2or e=idence o8 t)is. or at least no older t an t at. in didactic and met)odolo6ical terms. seminars.Spain -n t)e last 8e+ years. As Little+ood recently em&)asiHed. not in relation to t)e need to lo+er t)e a6e 8or t)ese 8orms o8 teac)in6 or to e>tend t)em (a 6eneral consens#s on t)ese matters +as reac)ed a8ter a lon6 and di88ic#lt &rocess). or 9. $)is is o(=io#sly an e>tremely 6ood t)in6F )o+e=er.. +e also disco=er t)at lan6#a6e learnin6 is more com&le> t)an +e )ad t)o#6)t. 8ar 8rom it.

$)e A#estions raised (y t)e di88erent s&ecialists. it &romoted meetin6s o8 e>&erts ' +it) a =ie+ to #&datin6 t)e &riority iss#es relatin6 to t)is &ro(lem. 3* and ! ). at a =ery early sta6e. Federal Republic of :ermany. $)at said )o+e=er. 3A.. and a 8e+ s&eci8ic &ro&osals on t)e aims and contents at t)is le=el. $. t)e contents o8 +)ic) are s#mmarised in t)is &#(lication. in relation to t)e 6eneral sc)eme o8 aims and contents. 8 Early Modern Language Teaching and the pro lem of continuity et!een primary and secondary le"els. 8 Societal support for the early teaching of modern languages# The effects of pu lic opinion on the moti"ation and attitudes of children$ parents$ teachers and administrators .' 9 Council of Europe +197<. $. coll! LAL8 9 Council of Europe +197$. 7EC>6E:) +7<. 8or e>am&le. 11-17 3o&ember 197$. F"L7@ER:!E and >"RE3>E3!:.0e +ill t)ere8ore no+ disc#ss t)e as&ects relatin6 to t)e aims and contents o8 t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools (y reca&it#latin6 some o8 t)e iss#es raised in t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e?s recent +or<s)o&sF t)e (ac<6ro#nd to and a (rie8 s#r=ey o8 t)e iss#es relatin6 to t)e &arameters to (e considered +)en de8inin6 t)e aims and contents o8 t)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)oolsF t)e aims and o(9ecti=es o8 s#c) teac)in6F its s&eci8ic nat#re in relation to secondary sc)ools.1 Background and brief survey -n t)is area. al(eit (rie8ly. ?%' 9 Council of Europe +197<. Council for Cultural Co-operation.-?A >eptember 197<. 8 Modern Languages in %rimary School Teaching$ Copen agen. since 8rom t)e nineteen se=enties on+ards. 1. t)e 7o#ncil )as de=oted 8i=e ne+ style +or<s)o&s to it (. to t)e leadin6 role &layed (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e in t)is 8ield. 1. =ia t)eir =ario#s 2 /ere is t e bibliograp y 0uoted on t is sub1ect by C armian "23eil in is #or4 Les enfants et l'enseignement des langues étrangères. t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e sensed. . t)e im&ortance to (e attac)ed to t)e GearlyG teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es. >trasbourg. +ere es&ecially =aried and also co=ered a =ery (road ran6e o8 iss#es 8rom t)e aims o8 teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools to t)eir c#rrent and 8#t#re stat#s. 1. CCC6E:) +7%.F! . CCC6E:) +7%. trainers and &ractitioners d#rin6 t)e meetin6s.A. as in ot)ers relatin6 to t)e teac)in6 o8 lan6#a6es. c#lt#ral and ed#cational as&ects.' 9 Council of Europe +1977.m#st re8er. 8 Report of the Symposium on the Early Teaching of a Modern Language. -iesbaden. 7EC>6E:) +7<. Cr5dif-/atier67idier +199$. . Since t)at time. ?. relatin6 in &artic#lar to social. :=RAR7!7.' 9 Council of Europe +197%. 8 The Early Teaching of a Modern Language. Committee for :eneral and )ec nical Education. CCC6E:) +7<.*.

o&inions are centred on t+o di88erent s&)eres +)ic) also contain =ario#s com(inations: Integration Sub*ect Part of the Core Curriculu$ Acti(it S ste$atic Course Teaching =s =s =s Separate Optional Occasional Res&onses to t)e 8irst o8 t)ese dic)otomies +ere im&licitly &ro=ided +)en it +as stated t)at &rimary ed#cation is or s)o#ld (e essentially &#&il@centred. Re8errin6 to t)e G8#ndamental A#estions &osed (y all 8orms o8 modern@lan6#a6e teac)in6 at &rimary sc)ool le=elG. s#c) A#estions are a 6ood introd#ction to o#r attem&ted synt)esis. it may (e #se8#l to reiterate some o8 t)e (asic 8acts +)ic) determine s#c) aims and contents. 0)at is (or s)o#ld (e) t)e status o8 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)oolsK De&endin6 on t)e a&&roac) ado&ted to t)e A#estion. emotional and social de=elo&ment o8 eac) &#&il. -8 teac)in6 is to (e 8oc#sed on c)ildren. .8#nctions. e=en i8 o8 co#rse it means ta<in6 into acco#nt t)e &artic#lar sit#ations in +)ic) se=eral lan6#a6es are ta#6)t and +)ere it is necessary to ada&t &ro6rammes (+e are re8errin6 in &artic#lar to (ilin6#al re6ions +it) corres&ondin6ly full lin6#istic &ro6rammes). it is necessary to ta<e into acco#nt. in t)e sense t)at teac)in6 o(9ecti=es and sylla(#ses m#st (e desi6ned so as to meet t)e tastes and needs o8 learners at t)is le=el o8 ed#cation. at 0or<s)o& 3A Hans@E(er)ard Pie&)o &#t 8or+ard a series o8 s#c) A#estions in t)e 8orm o8 (inary 6ro#&in6s +)ic) may (e (ro#6)t to6et)er and re8orm#lated #nder t+o distinct )eadin6s. +it)in classroom &lannin6 and +it)in t)e ed#cation system as a +)ole. 0e +ill merely list t)em. 2#rt)ermore. on a &ermanent (asis. +it)o#t claimin6 in any +ay t)at t)e list is e>)a#sti=e. On t)e (asis o8 t)is o(ser=ation. it seems easier to res&ond to t)e ot)er alternati=es in t)e ta(le. t)e intellect#al. Prior to t)at )o+e=er.

. %#mero#s re8erences )a=e (een made to t)e iss#e o8 Gcomm#nicati=e com&etence =s sensitisationG. A certain lo6ic can #ndo#(tedly (e discerned 8rom a &erce&tion o8 t)e 8#nctions o8 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools e>&ressed (y t)e 8ollo+in6 demandin6 seA#ence: (a) t)e modern lan6#a6e learnin6 m#st consist o8 a &ro&er co#rse o8 st#dyF (() s#c) learnin6 m#st (e systematic. 8amiliarisin6 c)ildren +it) &ict#res o8 a 8orei6n co#ntry. elements are to be understood as t e essential components of a science # ic . S#c) o(9ecti=es are )ard to assess. As +ill (e seen later. prepare us first of all for study and t en lead us to#ards complete 4no#ledge of t e sub1ect(! . only )earin6 lan6#a6e in t)e 8orm o8 son6s. /#&er(er6 8or e>am&le @ e=o<es t)e idea o8 sim&le contact t)ro#6) acti=ities +)ic) are &rimarily (ased on 6ames and ser=e little or no &#r&ose in t)e sense t)at only 6eneral o(9ecti=es are assi6ned to t)em. n#rsery r)ymes and so on. it is rat)er a sort o8 middle +ay +)ic) t)e s&ecialists seem to &re8er.". t)ese o&tions do not a&&ear to )a=e (een c)osen.$)ere remains an initial series o8 A#estions +)ic) m#st (y t)eir =ery nat#re (e ta<en into acco#nt +)en de8inin6 t)e aims and contents o8 modern lan6#a6es teac)in6 in &rimary sc)ools. and conseA#ently it is di88ic#lt to or6anise any <ind o8 8ollo+ 3 Primary and not "elementary" in t e sense # ic an eig teent century educationalist delig ted in applying to t e term in a didactic #or4 8 (-it regard to sciences and education. because t ey are t e essential components. $)is seA#ence can (e contrasted +it) anot)er one +)ic) is eA#ally &ossi(le ((#t less ri6id) +)ic) +o#ld ma<e s#c) teac)in6 an a+areness@raisin6 disci&line and +o#ld constit#te a 8#lly@8led6ed 8orm o8 &rimary sc)ool teac)in6 . t)ere 8ollo+s a ta(le containin6 certain o&tions +)ic) are also 8easi(le. -n 8act. As 8or t)e functions +)ic) modern lan6#a6es are s#&&osed to 8#l8il at t)is le=el. s#c) as 6eneratin6 interest. $)e aim o8 GsensitisationG in relation to 8orei6n lan6#a6es and c#lt#res @ accordin6 to A. and (c) m#st ser=e as t)e 8o#ndation 8or secondary ed#cation. Language Learning A+areness =s Linguistic =s and Cultural Co$$unicati(e Co$petence Pri$ar Education =s Sensitisation Pre)Secondar Education $)ere are s#88icient &ossi(ilities 8or c)oices to (e made in accordance +it) t)e &ersonal Gco)erenceG on +)ic) indi=id#al teac)ers intend to (ase t)eir selection.

(y e>&lainin6 t)at. 8orei6n lan6#a6es. +)ic) does not mean )o+e=er t)at it s)o#ld (e &ercei=ed on t)e (asis o8 t)e criteria #sed 8or secondary sc)ools. Rat)er t)an merely (ein6 desi6ned to raise a+areness. $o come (ac< to anot)er o8 t)e alternati=es o(ser=ed (lin<ed to +)at +e )a=e 9#st descri(ed). $)#s. Ho+e=er. t)ese m#st (e t)e most common or t)e Gmost #se8#lG since t)ese are t)e ones +)ic) +ill &ro=ide t)e 6reatest (ene8it in t)e 8#t#re. or !5 years o8 a6e to disco=er anot)er lan6#a6eK 0)at do c)ildren 8eel +)en t)ey disco=er not only anot)er +ay o8 s&ea<in6 and comm#nicatin6 (#t also anot)er c#lt#re +it) ot)er =al#es and sym(olsK 0)at do t)ey 6et o#t o8 learnin6 lan6#a6es and +)at attit#de do t)ey ado&tK 7an +e say t)at t)e learnin6 o8 . (#t may also mani8est itsel8. Ana Ni=et ends (y stressin6 t)at Gt)e act#al needs o8 c)ildren t)emsel=es are i6nored and no one (ot)ers to as< +)at meanin6 lan6#a6es can )a=e in a c)ild?s li8e. 8or many teac)ers t)e res&onse to t)e A#estion &osed +o#ld (e t)at t)e Gsensitisation acti=ityG is an ins#88icient aim 8or &rimary sc)oolsF at t)at le=el. and 8inally t)at. (e t)ey &arents. &er)a&s e=en more t)an else+)ere. t)e mediate and instr#mental nat#re o8 t)e learnin6 o8 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools may not only corres&ond to a &re@secondary &erce&tion o8 s#c) teac)in6. co#rse desi6ners or certain teac)ers t)emsel=es. t)is 8orm o8 teac)in6 cannot and s)o#ld not (e &ercei=ed as (ein6 modelled on t)e antici&ation o8 modern@lan6#a6e teac)in6 at secondary sc)ool le=el. Ana Ni=et s#mmed #& t)is +ay o8 loo<in6 at modern@lan6#a6es teac)in6 (t)e in)erent &arado> in +)ic) is not al+ays immediately a&&arent). (roadly s&ea<in6 t)e 8ormer is (roader t)an t)e latter and s)o#ld (e #nderstood as real lan6#a6e learnin6. +)en as ad#lts t)ose &eo&le need t)em. (#t only (ecome so later.. real 8orei6n@ lan6#a6e learnin6 s)o#ld (e en=isa6ed. t)ere is o8 co#rse t)e idea t)at Gno+adays all c)ildren s)o#ld learn a 8orei6n lan6#a6eG. are ne=er desi6ned to (ene8it or to (e o8 interest to t)e &eo&le learnin6 t)em. in many &eo&le?s minds. e=en +)en t)ey are ta#6)t 8rom t)e earliest &ossi(le a6e. $)#s. (#t t)is is es&ecially tr#e (eca#se Git +ill (e (ene8icial to t)em +)en t)ey are ad#ltsGF t)e +idely@)eld =ie+ is t)at t)e learnin6 m#st start at as early an a6e as &ossi(le. Alt)o#6) it is tr#e t)at an introd#ction into a 8orei6n lan6#a6e also encom&asses GsensitisationG.#& to t)e acti=ities. t)e teac)in6 o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e at t)is le=el o8 ed#cation s)o#ld (e &ercei=ed as an introd#ctory &rocess. +)ile it is o8 co#rse necessary 8or t)em to learn 8orei6n lan6#a6es. decision ma<ers. 0)at does it mean to c)ildren o8 . in certain aims assi6ned to it (y some &eo&le. 7onseA#ently. (#t only (eca#se yo#n6 c)ildren )a=e a 6reat ca&acity 8or learnin6 lan6#a6es.

4 =n particular. t)is is (eca#se t)ere is no e>act eA#i=alence (et+een t)e entire section o8 t)e &o&#lation #nder consideration at t)is le=el o8 ed#cation (o#r &rimary sc)ool re8erence 6ro#& ran6es 8rom t)e a6es o8 5M1 to !5M!!). t)e a6e at +)ic) a 8orei6n lan6#a6e is introd#ced (in most cases t)is only )a&&ens at 3 years o8 a6e. t)e &eriod 8or +)ic) t)e modern lan6#a6e is ta#6)t =aries. and t)ere8ore de&end on t)e time +)en t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e is introd#ced. $)e A#estion o8 a6e in &rimary sc)ools is e>tremely im&ortant. since t)e 8act o8 )o+ early or late it is act#ally introd#ced )as s#88icient im&act in itsel8. t)eir tolerance to+ards +)at is alien or t)e a(sence o8 &syc)olo6ical in)i(itions. 6i=en t)e &syc)oco6niti=e and emotional de=elo&ment o8 t)e learners. $)is is demonstrated (y =ario#s remar<s made d#rin6 +or<s)o&s to t)e e88ect t)at certain o(9ecti=es only seem 8easi(le as &art o8 a s#88iciently lon6 &eriod o8 teac)in6. $)ere is )ardly any need to stress t)e im&ortance o8 t)e en=isa6ed d#ration o8 t)e lan6#a6e co#rse. -n s#c) di=erse sit#ations. and t)e de6ree to +)ic) a(stract conce&t#al t)o#6)t is #nderstoodF t)e le=el o8 &ro8iciency in t)eir o+n lan6#a6eF t)e de6ree o8 8amiliarisation +it) metalin6#istic acti=ityF t)e e>tent to +)ic) comm#nication (e)a=io#r strate6ies are masteredF t)e &erce&tion o8 lan6#a6e as a =e)icle 8or <no+led6e and t)e re9ection o8 6rat#ito#s lan6#a6e@related acti=ityG. $)is is e=en more rele=ant in =ie+ o8 anot)er im&ortant 8actor: t)e a6e 6ro#& #nder consideration. t)e aims. Gt)e e>tent to +)ic) &ractical conce&ts. as )as o8ten (een &ointed o#t. years? d#ration). and on t)e ot)er )and Gt)eir e6ocentricity: t)e (asis o8 t)eir lin6#istic needs.. deri=ed 8rom action and 8rom its in)erent lo6ic. by Anne-Barie Cuperberg . 6i=en t)e 8act t)at it determines 8or t)e learner. contents. 8#nction and so on +)ic) may (e assi6ned to s#c) 8orms o8 teac)in6 =ary si6ni8icantly.lan6#a6es is &ositi=e 8or t)eir de=elo&mentKG $)ese are all 8#ndamental A#estions on +)ic) it is necessary to re8lect +)en determinin6 t)e aims and contents o8 &rimary sc)ool teac)in6. are mastered. $)is =aria(le stron6ly conditions t)e de8inition o8 aims and contents: on t)e one )and. t)eir retenti=e &otential and corres&ondin6 non@recall &otentialG. On t)e ot)er )and. de&endin6 on +)et)er it is ta#6)t 8rom t)e a6e o8 3 or !5 on+ards (ie +)et)er t)e &eriod o8 learnin6 is o8 ' or . and o8ten later) and t)e di88erent sta6es +)ic) #s#ally &#nct#ate &rimary ed#cation.

str#ct#res and &)rases) +)ic) are necessary 8or t)e &er8ormance o8 lin6#istic acts in rele=ant comm#nicati=e sit#ations. s)o#ld (e (ased.. Ho+e=er. t)is (ot) im&lies and e>&lains +)y t)e strate6y recommended 8or s#c) teac)in6 is (ased or. and conseA#ently a 8#ndamental o(9ecti=e 8or learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in t)e &rimary sc)ool conte>t. Accordin6 to t)e analysis &resented (y Ean =an E<. -t is no+ A#ite clear @ as re&eated on se=eral occasions @ t)at +e are dealin6 +it) a com&le> notion. socioc#lt#ral com&etence is anot)er (asic element o8 comm#nication. s#c) 8actors are not #nrelated to t)e met)odolo6ical and didactic strate6ies #sed in t)is 8orm o8 teac)in6. O8 co#rse. in )is essay on t)e aims o8 learnin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es &#(lis)ed (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e in !431. a&art 8rom t)e lin6#istic and socioc#lt#ral as&ects. accordin6 to +idely )eld o&inion . s#c) com&etence is not s#88icient. and also A#oted d#rin6 +or<s)o&s. 7om&etent #se o8 t)at lan6#a6e.-n s)ort. t)is 6i=es rise to t)e idea t)at Gt)e #se o8 a &artic#lar lan6#a6e im&lies t)e #se o8 a re8erence 8rame +)ic) is at least &artly determined (y t)e socioc#lt#ral conte>t in +)ic) t)at lan6#a6e is #sed (y nati=e s&ea<ers. Some . All lin6#istic acts are &er8ormed in a socioc#lt#ral conte>t and are t)ere8ore 6o=erned (y a sit#ation +)ic) di88ers (et+een c#lt#res and lan6#a6es. on comm#nication and more directly oriented to+ards t)e acA#isition o8 real comm#nication s<ills. Accordin6 to =an E<. t)en. (=an E< !431. &res#&&oses a certain de6ree o8 8amiliarity +it) t)at socioc#lt#ral conte>tG.2 Aims and objectives of the teaching of foreign languages in primary schools General a6reement seems to )a=e (een reac)ed on t)is &artic#lar &oint: t)e aim o8 t)e curriculu$ at t)is sta6e o8 &rimary sc)ool @ as re&eated on many occasions d#rin6 +or<s)o&s @is not to teach a foreign language (#t to teac) )o+ to co$$unicate in a foreign language. comm#nication s<ills are made #& o8 &artial or s#(ordinated s<ills. lin6#istic com&etence is t)e essential in6redient in t)e a(ility to comm#nicate: it re&resents detailed <no+led6e o8 lin6#istic 8orms (+ords. 1. a n#m(er o8 e>tremely restricti=e 8actors determine t)e selection o8 t)e aims and contents o8 t)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)oolsF 8#rt)ermore. "oreo=er. Ho+e=er. teac)in6 a modern lan6#a6e at t)is le=el also incl#des o(9ecti=es +)ic) relate (ot) to t)e e88ect and t)e 6eneral o(9ecti=es o8 elementary le=el ed#cation. &.5) $)ere8ore.

comin6 into contact +it) ot)er c#lt#res (y means o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e &romotes #nderstandin6 and res&ect 8or ot)er +ays o8 t)in<in6 and actin6. in &artic#lar t)ose consistin6 o8 : @ o8 @ @ @ reco6nisin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e as a =al#a(le and desira(le means comm#nication #sin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e des&ite limited lin6#istic a(ilities en9oyin6 #sin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e acce&tin6 someone or somet)in6 +)ic) is #n8amiliar or stran6e @ &ractisin6 tolerance and interc#lt#ral #nderstandin6 @ enric)in6 one?s &ersonal e>&erience t)ro#6) contact +it) ot)er c#lt#res -n ot)er +ords. and &ro=ides a (roader and ric)er =ision o8 t)e real +orld. $)e sense and t)e 8#nctions o8 teac)in6 and learnin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools also ma<e a decisi=e contri(#tion to 6eneral ed#cational o(9ecti=es. !he objectives assigned to the teaching of foreign languages in primary schools Ha=in6 reac)ed t)is &oint. 2#rt)ermore. 1. /no+led6e o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e and t)e a(ility to comm#nicate in it (ot) &ro=ide a =ital 8orm o8 assistance in ac)ie=in6 &ro8iciency in one?s nati=e lan6#a6e. t)e o=erall o(9ecti=e in teac)in6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e at &rimary le=el s)o#ld (e to 6enerate in c)ildren an essentially &ositi=e attit#de to+ards t)e lan6#a6e (ein6 learnt. it dra+s co&io#sly on t)e c#rrent &erce&tions )eld (y e>&erts in t)e disci&line. /no+led6e o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es t)ere8ore ma<es a t+o8old contri(#tion to t)e a(ility to comm#nicate and also to &#&ils? &syc)oco6niti=e de=elo&ment. -n any case. 2#rt)ermore. +e can ma<e a &ro&osal relatin6 to t)e 6eneral o(9ecti=es to (e assi6ned to &rimary ed#cation. t)e &ro&osal @ +)ic) +e )a=e dra+n and ada&ted 8rom t)e c#rric#l#m &ro9ect contained in t)e Re8orm o8 Primary Sc)ool $eac)in6 in S&ain @ +as t)e s#(9ect o8 =ario#s disc#ssions at 0or<s)o& ! .o8 t)em )a=e (een de8ined as essential (y t)e e>&erts &artici&atin6 in +or<s)o& 3*. $o a certain e>tent. t)e com&onents o8 . i8 not as a model t)en at least as a note+ort)y e>am&le. +)ic) seems )o+e=er to (e a <ind o8 synt)esis o8 t)e di88erent &ro&osals st#died in t)e =ario#s 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s on t)e iss#e. it (ases t)e 6eneral o(9ecti=e o8 t)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools aro#nd t+o main s&)eres: one concerns comm#nication s<ills directly and t)e ot)er relates to ed#cational as&ects.

t)ose +)o s&ea< t)em and t)eir c#lt#reF 8.to establish relations (et+een t)e sense. in order to o(tain t)e desired in8ormation.to #se t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e orally to comm#nicate +it) t)e teac)er and ot)er &#&ils in normal classroom acti=ities and in inter&ersonal comm#nicati=e sit#ations (y ado&tin6 a res&ect8#l attit#de to+ards t)e contri(#tions made (y ot)ersF c.to use. (e it o8 a 6eneral or s&eci8ic nat#reF e. and also reco6nise its so#nds. on t)emes +)ic) are 8amiliar to &#&ilsF d.+)ic) (co6niti=e. introd#ctions. sit#ations and e=ents +)ic) incl#de in8ormation o8 (ot) a 6eneral and s&eci8ic nat#re con=eyed (y t)e te>ts 8or &ractical &#r&osesF (. as +ell as t)eir e>&eriences and interests. t)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools m#st )el& to de=elo& t)e 8ollo+in6 a(ilities in &#&ils: a.to read.to &rod#ce s)ort and sim&le +ritten te>ts +)ic) o(ey t)e elementary r#les o8 t)e +ritten code.to &ercei=e and a&&reciate t)e comm#nicati=e =al#e o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es and t)e ca&acity 8or learnin6 to #se t)em (y demonstratin6 an attit#de o8 #nderstandin6 and res&ect to+ards ot)er lan6#a6es. social and interc#lt#ral) are o(=io#sly essential at t)is le=el. con6rat#lations and so on) so as to ma<e comm#nication easier and more 8l#entF 6. r)yt)ms and intonation &atternsF . +it) a =ie+ to #nderstandin6. emotional. 8are+ells. in &artic#lar one?s nati=e lan6#a6e. Accordin6ly.to #nderstand and #se t)e lin6#istic and non@lin6#istic con=entions em&loyed (y t)ose +)o s&ea< t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e as learnt in e=eryday sit#ations (8or 6reetin6s. &ron#nciation and 6ra&)ic re&resentation o8 +ords and &)rases in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e.uired +)ile learnin6 ot)er lan6#a6es. +)ile learnin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. the -no+ledge and e#perience ac.to #nderstand sim&le oral and +ritten te>ts relatin6 to 8amiliar and c#stomary o(9ects. s)ort and sim&le te>ts related to classroom acti=ities and +)ic) ta<e acco#nt o8 t)e <no+led6e &#&ils )a=e o8 t)e o#tside +orld. and 6rad#ally de=elo& inde&endent learnin6 strate6iesF ).

descri(in6 and narratin6F @ e>&ressin6 8eelin6s. syntactic and te>t#al as&ects): 8or com&re)ension and e>&ression. / Social and intercultural content.i. =ario#s so#nds. re&ortin6 A#estions and so on. -n o#r =ie+ t)is tas< s)o#ld incl#de ta<in6 acco#nt o8 t)e =ario#s com&onents o8 t)e co#rse contents. an as&ect +)ose com&le>ity is #ltimately &ro(a(ly 6reater t)an in t)e case o8 o(9ecti=es. (ody lan6#a6e."#ontents assigned to the teaching of foreign languages in primary schools 0it) re6ard to contents. / Linguistic content (&)onetic. t)e ori6inal . correctin6 onesel8F @ acce&tin6. 1.to use non)linguistic $eans of e#pression (6est#res. 6i=in6 and reA#estin6 in8ormationF @ s&ellin6. +e (elie=e a8ter analysin6 t)e +or<s)o& re&orts t)at 8#rt)er restr#ct#rin6 +or< needs to (e done. locatin6 in time and s&aceF @ 6i=in6 orders and ad=iceF @ e>&ressin6 tastes and &re8erencesF @ e>&ressin6 one?s o&inion. ta<in6 into acco#nt t)e c)aracteristics o8 learners at t)is le=el and in &artic#lar t)eir &syc)oco6niti=e de=elo&ment. in accordance +it) t)e detailed 6#idelines already de=elo&ed in t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e &ro9ects. incl#din6: @ 6reetin6. At 0or<s)o& ! in San LorenHo del Escorial. 8or +)ic) +e also re8er to t)e +or< cond#cted #nder 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e s&onsors)i&. (e t)ey 6eneral or s&eci8ic. re8#sin6 an in=itationF @ com&arin6. oral and +ritten +or< (ie t)e 8o#r s<ills). a6reement and disa6reementF @ s&ea<in6 o8 &ast e=ents. $)ere is no need to em&)asise t)e im&ortance o8 t)e lin6#istic contentF t)is is and al+ays )as (een t)e most 8reA#ently and most (roadly detailed area. sayin6 6ood(ye. namin6. introd#cin6 (onesel8 and ot)ers)F @ identi8yin6 and e>&lainin6 +)ere yo# are 6oin6 M +)ere yo# are comin6 8romF @ startin6 and 8inis)in6 a con=ersation. in relation to it. +)ic) relate moreo=er to all t)e &oints dealt +it) #& to no+ and can (e re&resented in o#tline as 8ollo+s: / Functional and co$$unicati(e content . Peter DoyC &resented a re&ort +)ic) +as all t)e more interestin6 since )e ado&ted. co#ntin6 and calc#latin6. &ict#res and s#c)li<e) so as to try and #nderstand or ma<e onesel8 #nderstood in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. le>ical and semantic.

$o t)em s)o#ld (e added all t)e 8actors +)ic) (in terms o8 t)e contents. 8riends and &eers Home and toys Days.+ill t)ere8ore most &ro(a(ly )a=e t)e o&&ort#nity to ret#rn to t)is s#(9ect. c#stoms and traditions. +or<. +)ic) &ro(a(ly e>tends (eyond t)is area. educational content ) last but b no $eans least0 -n 8act. 0it)in t)is 8rame+or< +e +ill incl#de +)at is no+ con=entionally called the European di$ension o8 teac)in6 8orei6n lan6#a6es. it is t)is A#estion o8 rede8inin6 t)e aims and contents o8 teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools. learnin6 )o+ to learn. (#t re&resents one o8 t)e =ital elements o8 it. since it encom&asses all t)e ot)er as&ects. . . ecolo6y. i8 t)ere is one A#estion +)ic) (as recommended (y a certain classical a#t)or) needs to (e &#t (ac< t)ro#6) t)e mill t+ent ti$es. . tra88ic. ima6inary 9o#rneys 7artoons. / 8inally. acti=ities and &roced#res) are desi6ned to initiate &#&ils into inde&endent learnin6F all in all. or +)ic) ma<e it easier 8or )imM)er to disco=er a di88erent c#lt#re and to assimilate it @ +)ic) are (y de8inition and in t)eir o+n ri6)t im&ortant elements in lin6#istic and interc#lt#ral areas @ are also elements o8 t)e 6eneral ed#cational content +)ic) cannot (e omitted. s#c) content s)o#ld e=en (e 6i=en &riority.&ers&ecti=e o8 t)e teac)er as an Ginterc#lt#ral ed#cation mana6erG. comics and so on and more 6eneral to&ics s#c) as &eo&le?s (e)a=io#r and )a(its. All t)e 8actors +)ic) )el& to de=elo& a &#&il?s metalin6#istic conscio#sness.am A#ite a+are t)at in t)is c)a&ter . 6i=en t)e le=el o8 ed#cation +it) +)ic) +e are dealin6. s&ort and leis#re 2ood and meals 7lot)es and di88erent times o8 day 0eat)er (8orecasts) and )olidays Animals (&ets and ot)ers) Stories and 8airy tales. -t is none t)e less tr#e t)at. / The$atic and situational content +)ic). $)e c)a&ters +)ic) 8ollo+ +ill 6i=e 8#ller (ody to t)is o#tline. money.)a=e merely scratc)ed t)e s#r8ace o8 t)e +ealt) o8 e>&erience 6ained 8rom 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s in terms o8 t)e aims and contents o8 teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools. at t)is a6e le=el are o8 essential im&ortanceF a s)ort list o8 +)at it co=ers is &resented (elo+: @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Sc)ool. nat#re conser=ation.

2. METHODS Lisbeth YTRE ER! - Nor"a# 2.1 Basic theories of ho$ children learn a foreign language

0)en readin6 t)e re&orts 8rom t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&eJs +or<s)o&s on teac)in6 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ool; one is str#c< (y t)e 8act t)at t)ere seems to (e a #nanimo#sly &ositi=e attit#de to teac)in6 early learners; and a remar<a(le a6reement on t)e met)ods o8 s#c) teac)in6. A #nanimity li<e t)at may (e some+)at misleadin6; since t)e +or<s)o&s are es&ecially cond#ci=e to (#ildin6 #& a common ent)#siasm amon6 its &artici&ants; (#t in t)is case t)e &ossi(le disa6reements are really 8e+ and 8ar (et+een. $)e 8ocal &oint o8 t)e t)eories and (elie8s on )o+ early learners learn and s)o#ld (e ta#6)t; as e>&ressed in t)ese re&orts; is t)e +orld o8 t)e c)ild. $)e conce&t D)olisticQ is a <ey conce&t; em(racin6 t)e c)ildrenJs 8ac#lties and emotions; t)eir internalised <no+led6e o8 t)e +orld; and t)eir attit#de to li8e. -t also incl#des t)e idea t)at c)ildren; as +ell as ad#lts; )a=e an #r6e to ma<e sense o#t o8; and reac) a )olistic #nderstandin6 o8 all t)e di=erse as&ects o8 t)e +orld. -t is #& to t)e teac)ers; in t)is case t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)ers; to )el& t)em in t)at &rocess. 7)ildren o8 5 @ 1 <no+ a 6reat deal a(o#t lan6#a6e. 0it)o#t conscio#sly realisin6 it; t)ey <no+ )o+ a lan6#a6e can (e (#ilt #&; t)ey <no+ t)e +or<in6s and #se8#lness o8 a lan6#a6e; and t)ey <no+ t)at t)ere is still a lot to (e learnt. Pre@sc)ool learnin6 is e>&eriential. 0)en t)e c)ildren meet t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in sc)ool; it is t)ere8ore =ital t)at t)ey are 6i=en t)e o&&ort#nity to e>&ress and de=elo& t)is 8#nd o8 <no+led6e in +ays +)ic) are a&&ro&riate to t)eir di=erse learnin6 styles and t)eir emotional and intellect#al needs. -n teac)in6 it is #s#ally easier to 8ind common aims and o(9ecti=es t)an to a6ree on )o+ to &#t t)ese into act#al &ractice. *#t 8ollo+in6 on 8rom t)e consens#s descri(ed a(o=e; t)ere are some (asic tenets on +)ic) t)ere is little or no con8lict o8 o&inion: 7)ildren )a=e a nat#ral ca&acity 8or lan6#a6e acA#isition; and an early start +ill 8amiliarise t)em +it) t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in +ays +)ic) are deemed to (e (ene8icial. 7lose contact +it) a lan6#a6e ma<es t)e c)ildren sensiti=e to t)e modes and meanin6s o8 t)at

lan6#a6e; and at t)e same time; i8 t)e teac)in6 met)ods are a&&ro&riate; t)ey are ca&a(le o8 acA#irin6 si6ni8icant com&etence in t)e lan6#a6e. $)e o=erall aim o8 t)e teac)in6 met)ods is to +or< t)ro#6) nat#ral comm#nication in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. At all times 8l#ency is more im&ortant t)an acc#racy; and interaction (et+een t)e &#&ils; and (et+een t)e &#&ils and t)e teac)er; s)o#ld enco#ra6e t)is nat#ral 8lo+. -nitially t)e c)ildren +ill not (e a(le to s&ea< 8l#ently or 8or any len6t) o8 time. $)e sensiti=e teac)er +ill t)ere8ore acce&t t)e c)ildrenJs #se o8 t)eir mot)er ton6#e (sometimes mi>ed +it) t)e tar6et lan6#a6e) i8 it is o(=io#s 8rom t)e conte>t t)at t)ey #nderstand +)at is 6oin6 on; and s)o#ld &raise t)em 6enero#sly e=ery time t)ey say somet)in6 in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. -t m#st also (e acce&ted t)at many c)ildren )a=e a silent &eriod (e8ore t)ey try to s&ea<. 7)ildren )a=e di88erent learnin6 styles and di88erent strate6ies 8or learnin6. 7lass teac)ers in &rimary sc)ool +ill #s#ally <no+ t)eir &#&ils +ell. $)ey cannot al+ays analyse e=ery indi=id#al?s learner strate6ies; (#t can ens#re t)at t)e teac)in6 a&&roac)es #sed are =aried and e>&loit t)e +orld o8 t)e c)ild and t)e classroom. S)ort; 8reA#ent sessions; a s#(stantial collection o8 di88erent ty&es o8 acti=ities and a +illin6ness on t)e &art o8 t)e teac)er to (e 8le>i(le; are essential 8eat#res o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6. $)e acti=ities m#st 6i=e t)e &#&ils t)e o&&ort#nity to #se all t)eir 8ac#ltiesF to loo<; listen; to#c); mo=e; tal<; sin6 and s)o#tR $o t)e old slo6an Glearnin6 (y doin6G +e may add Glearnin6 (y &layin6G. -n a sense e=ery learner <no+s (est )o+ )e or s)e learns. Early learners cannot yet e>&ress t)is <no+led6e; (#t t)ey s)o#ld (e enco#ra6ed to tal< a(o#t it in sim&le termsF )o+ t)ey t)in< t)ey remem(er (est or +)at t)ey li<e to do and +)y. Re8lections in t)eir o+n +ords )el& to de=elo& t)eir metalin6#istic <no+led6e and t)at in its t#rn creates a (etter (asis 8or more learnin6. -n t)is &rocess t)e teac)er may (e t)e initiator; (#t 8irst and 8oremost +ill act as a 6#ide or a Gsca88oldG. 0e aim at more learner a#tonomy. A de=elo&ment to+ards sel8@a+areness and t)e o&&ort#nity on t)e &#&ilsJ &art to c)oose 8reely 8rom many acti=ities +ill &romote t)at aim. All 6ood teac)in6 )in6es to a lar6e e>tent on t)e attit#des o8 t)e teac)er. -n lan6#a6e teac)in6 and learnin6; not least +it) t)e (e6inners; t)e emotional tone o8 t)e classroom is all@im&ortant. -deally t)e teac)erJs attit#de is n#rt#rin6; t)e atmos&)ere &ositi=e; 8riendly and stress@8ree. $)ro#6) a =ariety o8 acti=ities t)e &#&ils +ill )a=e t)e o&&ort#nity to demonstrate 6ro+t) and a meas#re o8 s#ccess. Errors and mista<es s)o#ld (e treated as &roo8 o8 sta6es o8

learnin6; and #nder no circ#mstance s)o#ld &#&ils (e &#nis)ed 8or ma<in6 mista<es. -8 t)e teac)er sets a model o8 t)is <ind t)e &#&ils +ill see t)at o&en@mindedness and tolerance are intrinsic 8eat#res in learnin6 a ne+ lan6#a6e.

2.2

%election and organisation of content and language

-n most E#ro&ean co#ntries it )as (een decided (y sc)ool a#t)orities; +it) t)e a&&ro=al o8 t)e teac)ers t)emsel=es; t)at t)e &rimary sc)ool class teac)er s)o#ld also (e t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)er to early learners. $)is is o(=io#sly #se8#l; (eca#se t)e class teac)er <no+s t)e c)ildren +ell and is also in a <ey &osition to select t)e most a&&ro&riate content and lan6#a6e; and to &lan and or6anise t)at selection. A s#ccess8#l 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 &ro6ramme 8or (e6inners is de&endent on t)e total &ro6ramme and its relations)i& to all t)e ot)er areas o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. 2orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 in secondary sc)ools all too o8ten means teac)in6 in s&lendid isolationF t)e lan6#a6e seen as a little c#lt#ral island on its o+n in t)e sea o8 mot)er ton6#e. $)is is an #n8a=o#ra(le &osition at all le=els; (#t es&ecially so in t)e case o8 t)e yo#n6 (e6inners. $)e 8act t)at t)e &rimary class teac)er is s#&&osed to teac) t)ese &#&ils; )o+e=er; is one o8 t)e (asic &remises 8or a di88erent a&&roac). 0)en yo# learn a lan6#a6e yo# searc) 8or meanin6. -8 +e realise t)is; +e m#st arran6e learnin6 sit#ations in +)ic) t)e 8oc#s is on meanin68#l content rat)er t)an on acc#racy o8 8orm; and in +)ic) +e e>&loit t)e c)ildrenJs <no+led6e o8 t)e +orld; s#c) as it is. Ho+ is t)is to (e done in act#al &racticeK -n t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e re&orts; t)e idea o8 Gem(eddin6G is cr#cialF t)e t)emes and t)e met)ods o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 s)o#ld ori6inate 8rom t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m and de=elo& in close contact +it) t)e on6oin6 +or< in ot)er areas o8 t)e c#rric#l#m. An a&&roac) 8rom t)is an6le )as se=eral ad=anta6es. 2irstly; it 6i=es &riority to to&ics t)e c)ildren <no+ somet)in6 a(o#t; eit)er (eca#se t)ey )a=e learnt a(o#t t)em at sc)ool; or (eca#se t)ey are 8amiliar +it) t)em 8rom daily li8e. Secondly; teac)ers can select to&ics +)ic) are o8 s&ecial interest to or ser=e t)e needs o8 t)eir &#&ils in &artic#lar; and at t)e same time &ay attention to t)e local en=ironment. And last; (#t not least; t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e a&&ears in a nat#ral conte>t. Ho+e=er t)ere are disad=anta6es: *y de8inition t)e em(eddin6 model is lin6#istically di88#se. -t doesn?t teac) a &rede8ined (ody o8 lan6#a6e containin6 (#ilt@in &ro6ression o8 =oca(#lary; 6rammar and 8#nction @ +)ic) is +)at t)e s#(9ect model does. $)ere is a dan6er t)at t)is can lead to a rat)er 8ra6mented learnin6 o8 lan6#a6e. -n t)e em(eddin6

+)en 8ollo+ed #& &ro&erly in conte>t. Yo#n6 c)ildren are #s#ally o&en@minded and c#rio#s. (#t only in so 8ar as it clari8ies and ma<es #nderstanda(le lan6#a6e +)ic) t)e &#&ils )a=e e>&erienced in oral &rod#ction. 0e m#st. in a cyclical &rocess. At later sta6es.conce&t t)e &ro(lem o8 )o+ t)e =ario#s lin6#istic elements can (e &#t to6et)er in a co)erent system o8 lan6#a6e. so t)at +or< on one t)eme e>&loits t)e &#&ilsJ <no+led6e acA#ired earlier. t)e 8act t)at a t)eme can (e #sed on any le=el. -n addition to t)is. (#t )a=e no #nderlyin6 or6anisation. t)ey )a=e 8e+er mental (arriers to no=el &)enomena and no=el ideas. $)#s re&etition (ecomes less mec)anical. is &artic#larly 6reat. -t may a&&ear. One o8 t)e o(9ecti=es &resented in t)e t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&eGs +or< on 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation is to &romote c#lt#ral #nderstandin6 and a+areness. An a&&roac) (ased on t)emes reA#ires 6ood and systematic &lannin6 to s#cceed. +ill 8eel acce&ted and sa8e eno#6) to e>&lore and cele(rate . at all cost. and remedial teac)in6 8inds its &lace in a conte>t +)ic) may (e less stress8#l t)an it ordinarily is. and. Nery yo#n6 c)ildren are &er8ectly a(le to a(sor( t)e tar6et lan6#a6e t)ro#6) &lay and ot)er acti=ities +)ic) t)ey 8ind #se8#l and en9oya(le. +it) t)at &artic#lar class. GPetsG can (e 8ollo+ed anot)er year (y G2arm animalsG and later G0ild animalsG. teac)in6 6rammar as s#c) )as little or no &lace at t)e (e6inner sta6e. Acti=ities +)ic) 8oc#s on a certain lan6#a6e &oint may o8 co#rse (e #sed. more systematic +or< may (e #se8#l. (#t 6rammatical terms and teac)in6 6rammar as 6rammar is a +aste o8 time. -n a system li<e t)is. and colla(oration and co@o&eration +it) collea6#es across t)e c#rric#l#m. and it is 6enerally a6reed t)at an early start +ill 6i=e t)is as&ect a (on#s. )o+e=er. (#t also o8ten in &ro9ect +or< or ot)er ty&es o8 cross@c#rric#lar teac)in6. 7)ildren +)o are allo+ed to tal< a(o#t t)eir little +orld and +)o meet an a&&reciati=e a#dience. (eca#se t)ey )a=e little e>&erience. -n t)e &ossi(le con8lict (et+een GsamenessG and Got)ernessG +)at do +e c)ooseK $)e 6eneral 8eelin6 seems to (e t)at one +ants (ot) to )a=e one?s ca<e and to eat it. $)e teac)er?s main concern +)en it comes to t)e c)oice o8 lan6#a6e +ill (e to sim&li8y t)e synta> and to #se a =oca(#lary +)ic) is easy +it)o#t (ein6 #nnat#ral. &er)a&s. a=oid 6i=in6 t)e im&ression t)at acti=ities are collected t)at &ass t)e time. -t is also in t)e nat#re o8 t)eme@teac)in6 t)at =ery 8e+ t)emes can (e ta#6)t e>)a#sti=ely at one sta6e. $)e &ractical or6anisation o8 Gem(eddin6G +ill (e in t)e 8orm o8 daily classroom interaction. as i8 t)e stress on t)e &rimordial role o8 t)e class teac)er and t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m 6oes contrary to t)e idea o8 t)e inter@ c#lt#ral learner. +ill ma<e it easier 8or t)e teac)er to consider +)at may +or< (est in t)at &artic#lar sit#ation.

-n s#c) cases t)e teac)ers s)o#ld (e enco#ra6ed to try and ad9#st t)e te>t(oo< to t)e teac)in6 rat)er t)an t)e ot)er +ay aro#nd. $)e same a&&lies 8or t)e A#estion o8 +)et)er to #se a te>t(oo< or not. s&ea<in6. i. 2or t)e teac)er doin6 t)e &ractical +or< in t)e classroom t)e A#estions to t)is +ill (e: Ho+ am . t)e act#al sit#ation in many co#ntries 9#sti8ies a modic#m o8 realism. 8or instance (y incl#din6 locally (ased to&ics and materials. and a te>t may )a=e an a#t)entic rin6 to it e=en i8 it is &rod#ced 8or t)e classroom (y a teac)er or a te>t(oo< +riter. (#t on a comm#nicati=e approach. 0e may say t)at all t)e ar6#ments 8or em(eddin6. Ho+e=er. $)e stress is no lon6er on the ri6)t met)od. Since materials +it) (e dealt +it) else+)ere in t)is com&endi#m. +)ic) is de8ined as a set o8 ass#m&tions on t)e nat#re o8 lan6#a6e teac)in6 and learnin6. So. lead to t)e lo6ical concl#sion t)at teac)ers s)o#ld ma<e or 8ind t)eir o+n materials.to teac) listenin6. .e. t)eir o+n incom&lete lan6#a6e is also Ga#t)enticG. a#t)enticity etc. in t)e sta6es o8 learnin6 t)e &#&ils #nder6o. readin6 and +ritin6K 0)at sort o8 acti=ities +ill &romote t)ese c#rrent (asic ideas in met)odolo6yK -t is im&ossi(le to s#mmariHe all t)e met)odolo6ical &ro&osals 8rom t)e re&orts o8 t)e 8i=e +or<s)o&s. Ho+e=er. s#88ice it to say t)at in t)e lon6 r#n Gmeanin6G in an inter@c#lt#ral e>c)an6e can only (e 8#lly realised in a#t)entic re&resentations o8 a c#lt#re. Ot)er+ise it is di88ic#lt to (e 8le>i(le and c)ild@oriented. So. -t is no #se (ein6 do6matic i8 t)e te>t is moti=atin6 and leads to nat#ral comm#nication. One o8 t)e conseA#ences o8 a t)eme@(ased a&&roac) is t)e demand 8or a#t)entic materials. and +)ic) may com&rise se=eral met)ods. de=elo&ment to+ards learner a#tonomy. t)e #ltimate aim is clear. !eaching communicative competence -n many +ays Gcomm#nicationG is t)e &ass+ord in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 met)odolo6y o8 today. 2. (#t +e can at least mention and descri(e t)ose c)aracteristic 8eat#res t)at all t)e re&orts &resent as common traits.a lar6er and more 8orei6n +orld. s#c) as t)e ones disc#ssed a(o=e. in t)e selection o8 t)emes t)e &ersonal and local e>&eriences +ill (e t)e 8o#ndation. and t)e 8orei6n c#lt#ral elements t)e s#&erstr#ct#re. te>ts (in a +ide sense) +)ic) )a=e not (een made s&eci8ically 8or lan6#a6e teac)in6. $eac)ers +)o are not &ro&erly A#ali8ied and +)o may (e &ressed 8or time do not )a=e t)e &ro8essional s<ill and ener6y to do t)e +or< in=ol=ed.

t)en all met)odolo6ical ste&s m#st (e directed at t)e attainment o8 t)is aim. )o+e=er. on )el&in6 t)e c)ildren to ac)ie=e com&etence. 8reA#ent and allo+ 8or s&ontaneo#s &rod#ction o8 all <inds. 8or e>am&le). Acti=ities s)o#ld (e s)ort. e=en t)e #ni=erse. -8 +e ta<e a &#ristJs =ie+ o8 t)e sco&e 8or a#t)enticity in t)e classroom. as 8ar as t)e classroom sit#ation and t)e &artici&ants? ima6ination allo+. $)e teac)er may #se in&#t in t)e 8orm o8 tec)niA#es +)ic) are not in t)emsel=es comm#nicati=e in an introd#ctory &)ase (a model dialo6#e. +)ereas &ositi=e 8eed(ac< s)o#ld (e 6i=en +)ene=er t)ere is an o&&ort#nity. (#t only #& to t)e &oint +)ere t)e con8idence o8 t)e c)ild is still maintained. E=ery teac)er <no+s. as "an#el $ost )as descri(ed in t)e &recedin6 c)a&ter. many teac)ers )old t)at t)ere is little need to correct and c)ec<. *#t t)en imitation s)o#ld (e 8ollo+ed #& in meanin68#l comm#nicati=e sit#ations. $)e acti=ities s)o#ld )a=e G)i6) s#rrender =al#eGF +)en t)e c)ildren )a=e learnt somet)in6 t)ey s)o#ld (e a(le to try it o#t in interaction strai6)t a+ay and in an e=er@increasin6 =ariety o8 conte>ts. +e m#st concl#de t)at t)e only a#t)entic lan6#a6e t)at can (e elicited +o#ld (e tal<in6 a(o#t t)e classroom itsel8 and t)e sit#ations s&rin6in6 o#t o8 (ein6 in t)at room or its immediate s#rro#ndin6s.$)ey are .i!ing at "asic co!!unicati#e co!petence -E!phasis on the progressi#e $e#elop!ent of this co!petence -%isualisation an$ personalisation -Learning through pla& -'olistic approach -(ral interaction -Rea$ing an$ )riting -Repetition an$ fre*uenc& of e+posure %"1"! Ai$ing at basic co$$unicati(e co$petence -8 t)e o=erall aim o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in t)e &rimary sc)ool is to ena(le t)e c)ildren to comm#nicate in anot)er lan6#a6e. es&ecially 8ormal 8eat#res. Since errors are re6arded as &art o8 a nat#ral &rocess. i8 +e create it to6et)er. Ot)ers say t)at errors may (e corrected. t)at t)e classroom can (e t)e +)ole +orld. %"1"% E$phasis on the progressi(e de(elop$ent of this co$petence $)ere is a stress on training. $)is G+illin6 s#s&ension o8 dis(elie8G .

*y creatin6 G+innersG or GlosersG in lan6#a6e acti=ities +e 6ain =ery little. -n t)at res&ect a teddy(ear or a )and &#&&et is as 6ood as a &#&il. $)ro#6) 6ames and 6ame@li<e acti=ities t)e &#&ils are 6ettin6 moti=ated and in=ol=ed. So. A non@ com&etiti=e &lay8#l atmos&)ere is t)e most cond#ci=e to learnin6 (eca#se a lan6#a6e. 7)ildren are de&endent on ot)er stim#li t)an lan6#a6e. As t)ey 6ro+ older t)ey may rely to a lesser de6ree on =is#als. t)e tar6et lan6#a6e s)o#ld (e &resented so t)at it is connected to &ersons. Playin6 +it) t)e lan6#a6e is =ery common in 8irst lan6#a6e de=elo&ment and s)o#ld (e so in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e as +ell. in t)e 8irst years t)e yo#n6 learners . (#t an a&&eal to all senses +ill al+ays )el& &#&ils to learn. is lin<ed ine>ora(ly +it) a learnerJs &ersonality. $o (e e>&erienced and internalised. %"1"6 Oral interaction 2orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 is #nt)in<a(le +it)o#t a stron6 stress on natural oral interaction. $)ey &ractise lan6#a6e in meanin68#l c)#n<s in a&&ro&riate sit#ations. real or ima6ined. All t)e s<ills are to some e>tent inter+o=en and can =ery rarely (e totally se&arated. %"1"1 2isualisation and personalisation Any met)od 8or teac)in6 yo#n6 (e6inners +o#ld )a=e to rely )ea=ily on (isualisation and personalisation. %"1"4 5olistic approach Promotin6 t)e 8o#r comm#nicati=e s<ills is no contradiction to a )olistic a&&roac). On t)e ot)er )and. 7)ildren 6ro+in6 #& today are also in many +ays more so&)isticated +)en it comes to 8amiliarity +it) =is#al elements in t)e media and in daily li8e t)an c)ildren o8 a 6eneration a6o. learnin6 t)ro#6) all senses. Personalisation also means t)at t)e c)ildren #se t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e to tal< a(o#t t)emsel=es and t)e &eo&le aro#nd t)em. and =is#als and realia o8 all <inds are a m#st. and t)ey all in=ol=e (ot) social and co6niti=e &rocesses. and e=en more im&ortant. %"1"3 Learning through pla At t)e (e6inner sta6es almost all teac)in6 s)o#ld )a=e an element o8 ga$e. e=en a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. to distin6#is) (et+een t)em may 8acilitate an or6anised &resentation. and most lan6#a6e acti=ities )a=e as t)eir $ain 8oc#s one o8 t)e s<ills.is easier to (rin6 a(o#t +it) yo#n6 learners t)an +it) any ot)er a6e 6ro#&.

and t)ere are more o8 t)em t)an +e )a=e t)o#6)t. 2irst and 8oremost t)ey 6i=e t)e &#&ils a 8eelin6 8or t)e m#sic o8 t)e lan6#a6eF so#nds. 0)en t)ey start &artici&atin6 in &rod#cti=e acti=ities. (#t &er)a&s &artic#larly so in t)e case o8 t)ose c)ildren. Per)a&s t)e tellin6 o8 and listenin6 to stories is 9#st as 8#ndamental in )#man li8e as t)e dialo6#e. A6ain. Listening is sometimes called a recepti#e s<ill.s&end most o8 t)e time listenin6 to and s&ea<in6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. and so is learnin6 son6s. re&etition and =ariety in t)e &resentation o8 in&#t are cr#cial as&ects. *e6inners? teac)in6 #ses a lot o8 dialo6#e +or<. it (ecomes clear t)at t)ey )a=e internalised t)e &re=io#s in&#t 9#st as +ell as t)e ot)er &#&ils )a=e. r)ymes and riddles. r)yt)m. And last. $)is means t)at t)e learner +ill not (e a(le to determine t)e &ace. $)e most o(=io#s ones are t)e dialo6#es t)at s&rin6 8rom +or<in6 in a classroom. $)is is t)e case +)et)er t)ey are a#t)entic or not. and accom&anied (y mo=ements. Learnin6 stories t)ro#6) t)e ear is in=al#a(le. (#t . (#t im&ortant ste& to+ards loo<in6 at lan6#a6e 8rom t)e o#tside +)ic) is so #se8#l to t)e 6ood lan6#a6e learner. li<e e=eryday instr#ctions or c)at: G7ome to t)e (lac<(oard. $)en t)e &#&ils s)o+ t)eir #nderstandin6 +it)o#t )a=in6 to &rod#ce lan6#a6e and t)ey can do it in t)e sa8ety o8 n#m(ers. $)e teac)er +ill )a=e to stri<e a care8#l (alance (et+een o=erload o8 lan6#a6e and acti=ities +it) little meanin6. and listenin6 comes 8irst. P#&ils +)o &lay +it) t)e lan6#a6e t)ro#6) r)ymes and riddles learn to ta<e t)at small. (#t t)e term is misleadin6. intonation &atterns. es&ecially i8 t)ey )a=e not yet learnt to read. Usin6 8airy@ tales is &artic#larly re+ardin6 since t)e (asic story is o8ten 8amiliar to t)e c)ildren and at t)e same time eac) co#ntry )as &#t its o+n s&ecial mar< on it. -t is t)e s<ill t)at c)ildren acA#ire 8irst. (#t t)ere are se=eral ot)er ad=anta6es in #tilisin6 t)em to t)e 8#ll. A (asic acti=ity in all =er(al interaction is t)e dialogue. +)o need a relati=ely lon6 listenin6 &eriod (e8ore t)ey are &re&ared to &rod#ce anyt)in6 t)emsel=es. and +ill )a=e to concentrate A#ite )ard. and many (e6inners? sylla(i and te>t(oo<s ad=ocate stories as t)e &rimary so#rce 8or content in lan6#a6e teac)in6. $)en t)ey are instr#mental in de=elo&in6 metalin6#istic a+areness. "ost listenin6 reA#ires a readiness and an acti=e co@ o&eration on t)e &art o8 t)e listener. A c)aracteristic o8 t)e listenin6 s<ill is t)at once somet)in6 )as (een said and listened to. $)e &artici&atory nat#re o8 listenin6 is a&&arent in many +ays.G. Yo#n6 c)ildren deli6)t in stories. Li<e a#t)entic stories t)ey &resent as&ects o8 t)e c#lt#ral )erita6e. t)en it disa&&ears and yo# cannot re@listen to it. &lease. GGood +or<R 0ell doneRG Nery o8ten t)e dialo6#es +ill (e inte6rated into stories t)e c)ildren are listenin6 to.

$)is is sel8@e=ident +)en it comes to dialo6#e +or< and to &er8ormin6 r)ymes and riddles and re&etiti=e action stories. Gmatc)G. comm#nicate intentions and reactions. At t)e (e6inner sta6e t)e &re@ listenin6 &)ase is &ro(a(ly e=en more im&ortant t)an t)e 8ollo+@#& +or< e>&ected at later sta6es o8 learnin6. $)ey #s#ally e>&ect t)e &#&ils to Gtic< o88G. $)e role o8 reading and +riting is some+)at more contro=ersial. E>&erience s)o+s. Since many o8 o#r &#&ils at t)e 8irst sta6es o8 sc)ool may not yet )a=e (ro<en t)e readin6 code. Listenin6 8or in8ormation in t)is +ay is not es&ecially demandin6. . -8 teac)ers s#cceed in creatin6 t)e ri6)t atmos&)ere 8or it. -n t)eir o+n lan6#a6e t)e c)ildren are a(le to e>&ress emotions. seems to (e #ni=ersally acce&ted. -8 t)e control is too ti6)t. it is necessary to tread care8#lly. t)e &#&ils +ill soon 8ind t)e ne+ lan6#a6e #nnat#ral and limitin6. Gcolo#rG. e>&lore t)e lan6#a6e and ma<e 8#n o8 it. $)e &ro(lem o8 &ossi(le inter8erence (et+een t)e tar6et lan6#a6e and t)e mot)er ton6#e )as not (een sol=ed i8 &ositi=e &roo8 one +ay or anot)er is e>&ected. Since t)ere are o(=io#s limitations to +)at t)ey can act#ally say. %"1"7 Reading and +riting $)at listenin6 and s&ea<in6 are t)e 8irst and most im&ortant s<ills in teac)in6 (e6inners. t)e teac)er?s constant &ractice in classroom interaction and t)e teac)er?s #nderstandin6 attit#de to errors and to acce&tin6 t)e &#&ilsJ #se o8 t)e mot)er ton6#e +)en +ords 8ail t)em. Gdra+ linesG etc. Prod#cti=e s&ea<in6 is a lot more demandin6 o8 t)e teac)er and t)e &#&ils. t)ey create a rela>ed atmos&)ere +)ere realism and nonsense 6o )and in )and. (#t e=en so. t)at some ty&es o8 readin6 acti=ities can (e &#t to #se +it) s#ccess at t)e (e6inner sta6es i8 t)ey are #sed +it) discretion. +ill contri(#te to 8ree &rod#ction. Spea-ing is t)e ot)er side o8 listenin6.not least. t)e teac)er +ill )a=e to stri<e a (alance (et+een &ro=idin6 lan6#a6e t)ro#6) controlled in&#t and at t)e same time lettin6 t)em en9oy nat#ral tal<. t)e &#&ils s)o#ld (e &re&ared in one +ay or anot)er 8or +)at is comin6. 8or many &#&ils t)e classroom is t)e only &lace +)ere t)ey can #se t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. Primary sc)ool teac)ers +)o are trained in teac)in6 readin6 in t)e mot)er ton6#e +ill )a=e t)e met)odolo6y needed 8or t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e as +ell. t)is is +)at t)ey +ill e>&ect to do in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e as +ell. A6ain. Since teac)ers s)o#ld (e care8#l a(o#t e>&ectin6 too m#c) (y +ay o8 lan6#a6e &rod#ction at t)is sta6e. A#ite a 8e+ listenin6 acti=ities are made 8or t)e classroom and 8oc#s on one &artic#lar as&ect o8 content and lan6#a6e. )o+e=er. A8ter all.

it s)o#ld (e introd#ced 6rad#ally and related to t)eir indi=id#al de=elo&ment. A sce&tical attit#de to +ritin6 is #nderstanda(le.One o8 t)e most 8a=o#red readin6 acti=ities o8 all. is t)e teac)er readin6 stories to t)e c)ildren. 0ritin6 =ery rarely deals +it) t)e G)ere and no+GF it is dis&laced in time and content 8rom t)e classroom and t)e &#&ils? sit#ation. and t)ere is no )el& 8rom (ody lan6#a6e and ot)er &aralin6#istic 8eat#res. t)e +ritten code is di88erent 8rom t)e oral in almost e=ery +ay. is also a ty&e o8 te>t +)ic) can com(ine moti=atin6 content +it) s#ita(le lan6#a6e. )o+e=er. -8 t)e (oo<s )a=e (een &re=io#sly read alo#d (y t)e teac)er. once t)e &#&ils )a=e started to read little te>ts. $)e c)ildren can e>tract t)e essential in8ormation t)ro#6) t)e )el& o8 =ario#s cl#es +)ic) are not necessarily lan6#a6e@(ased. On t)e ot)er )and. tal<in6 a(o#t t)e &ict#res. Re&etitions. is a se&arate s<ill and s)o#ld (e #sed =ery s&arin6ly +it) t)e (e6innersF 8or instance in s)ado+in6 t)e teac)er?s readin6 in class or readin6 la(els and s)ort sentences in connection +it) ot)er acti=ities. +)en t)e sit#ation arises nat#rally. -n connection +it) t)e disc#ssion on +)en to start readin6 and +riting in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. And t)e (est t)in6 +it) 6ood stories o8 all <inds is t)at t)ey can (e en9oyed a6ain and a6ain. t)e sit#ation itsel8 is (ot) sa8e and stim#latin6. and t)e readin6 s)o#ld (e silent readin6. t)e readin6 (ecomes easier still. Also )istorically t)ere )as (een a stron6 mo=ement to+ards startin6 &eriods o8 some mont)s #& to t+o years o8 listenin6 and s&ea<in6 only. -ndi=id#al readin6 alo#d in class &#ts a strain (ot) on t)e &er8ormer and t)e a#dience +)ic) is not ad=isa(le at t)is sta6e. sylla(#s &lanners )a=e considered e>cl#din6 t)e latter alto6et)er. -8 t)e c)ildren are arran6ed aro#nd t)e teac)er. 0)en Greal (oo<sG are #sed @ sim&le (oo<s made 8or t)e tar6et lan6#a6e c)ildren and +it) content s#ita(le 8or t)e a6e@6ro#& @ t)ey )a=e t)e ad=anta6es o8 (ein6 8amiliar in one res&ect and at t)e same time 6i=in6 access to anot)er c#lt#re. And +)en t)e &#&ils )a=e learnt a r)yme or a &oem t)oro#6)ly (y )eart. and one +)ic) can start A#ite early. e>&lanations +)en necessary and a lot o8 6#essin6 are all means o8 introd#cin6 t)e +ritten 8orm o8 t)e lan6#a6e as 6ently as &ossi(le. So. and t)e c)ildren are allo+ed to ta<e t)in6s . or at least so t)at s)e can s)o+ t)em &ict#res and )a=e eye contact +it) eac). many o8 t)em +ill e>&ect to +rite as +ell. Pict#re (oo<s are e>cellent starters. &resented and commented orally in class 8irst. A teac)er@made s)ort te>t to t)e &#&ils? &aintin6s. t)ey can loo< at t)e te>t later at t)eir leis#re. 0)en t)e c)ildren start reading on t)eir o+n. Readin6 alo#d. since t)e +ritin6 s<ill is (y 8ar t)e most di88ic#lt one 8or t)e &#&ils.

-t adds anot)er &)ysical dimension to t)e learnin6 &rocess. "any co#ntries start teac)in6 at a =ery early a6e.5 @ 15 min#tes lessons o8 older c)ildren. "ore lon6it#dinal lan6#a6e researc) st#dies are needed. "any o8 t)e oral acti=ities #sed in teac)in6 t)e (e6inners are o8 a re&etiti=e ty&e. Errors at t)is sta6e +ill not 8ossiliseF t)ey s)o+ sta6es in learnin6. t)e &lay area or lar6e &ict#res can (e la(elled. 0ritin6 acti=ities can also )el& to consolidate learnin6 in t)e ot)er s<ill areas. One o8 t)e most #se8#l +ritin6 acti=ities at t)e =ery (e6innin6 is +)en t)e teac)er acts as scri(e to t)e &#&ils. and t)e +ords can (e 8illed into s)ort te>ts made (y t)e teac)er. $)ere is (ot) sa8ety and en9oyment in &artici&atin6 in somet)in6 +ell@<no+n and t)oro#6)ly mastered. so t)at t)e &rod#ct is #nderstanda(le. $)e re&orts s)o+ indirectly t)at t)ere is a lot +e do no <no+ a(o#t )o+ early learners learn and +)at t)e (est met)ods are. +ritin6 in small meas#re can e=en (e a 6ood t)in6. Hands are added to eyes and ears. *y +ay o8 concl#sion. it may (e a&&ro&riate to mention some as&ects o8 teac)in6 yo#n6 learners +)ic) )a=e (een to#c)ed #&on. and de=elo&ment +or< s)o#ld (e e=al#ated as o(9ecti=ely as &ossi(le. t)e teac)er &ro=idin6 )el& +)ile t)ey are +ritin6. and t)e c)ildren lo=e t)em. so t)at a s)ort and =aried lesson is t)e most satis8actory. $)e #nanimity in ent)#siasm t)at is a&&arent in t)e re&orts )as an element o8 ." #oncluding remarks As stated at t)e (e6innin6 o8 t)is c)a&ter. %ot only is t)e &#&ils? attention s&an relati=ely s)ort. or later. $)e &#&ils s#66est content and +ords (#s#ally in a mi>t#re o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e and mot)er ton6#e). $o introd#ce =oca(#lary t)e classroom. $)ey also 8or6et more easily i8 t)e lessons are 8e+ and 8ar (et+een. and =ery li<ely more +ill 8ollo+. and t)e teac)er +rites t)e story correctly on t)e (lac<(oard. )o+e=er. 2. %"1"8 Repetition and fre.in t)eir o+n 6ood time. (#t not concl#si=ely dealt +it) in t)e +or<s)o&s. is t)at t)ey are means o8 de=elo&in6 t)e c)ildrenJs a(ility to e>&ress t)eir t)o#6)ts and emotions in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. S)ort and 8reA#ent lessons are considera(ly more e88ecti=e t)an t)e . t)e consens#s on 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 met)odolo6y in E#ro&e is considera(le. and indeed o8 readin6. *#t t)e most im&ortant as&ect o8 +ritin6. 0)en t)e &#&ils +ant to +rite somet)in6 on t)eir o+n t)ey s)o#ld (e allo+ed to #se t)e mot)er ton6#e +)en t)ere are +ords t)ey do not <no+.uenc of e#posure Repetition is =ital. $)e main t)in6 is t)at s&ellin6 and 6rammar are o8 no im&ortance as lon6 as t)e acti=ity is moti=atin6 and meanin68#l to t)e c)ildren.

And yet. (ot) 8or t)e slo+ learner +)o needs remedial +or< and t)e learner +)o needs to )a=e more sco&e 8or intelli6ence and reso#rce8#lness.). 0it) 8orei6n lan6#a6e as a #ni=ersal s#(9ect and +it) lar6e classes..idealisation o8 t)e c)ild +)ic) may lead to in8le>i(ility in t)e 8ace o8 ne+ and &er)a&s contrary 8indin6s. (elie8s. inde&endent@minded E#ro&ean citiHenry. =al#es and attit#des 8ace@to@8ace t)ro#6) a s)ared lan6#a6e t)at +e s)all de8initely o=ercome &re9#dice and intolerance (ased on i6norance and 8ear.G ($rim !445. more RBD +or< on di88erentiation and indi=id#alisation is essential. and in =alid t)eories on lan6#a6e teac)in6 and learnin6. t)e access to +orld+ide arenas +ill o&en ne+ =istas 8or comm#nication (et+een classes and &#&ils. Pre&arin6 8or t)e e88ects ne+ tec)nolo6y may )a=e on 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 is a m#st in t)e 8#t#re. 0e s#&&ort t)e stren6t)enin6 o8 socio@c#lt#ral as&ects o8 lan6#a6e learnin6.. +ill e>&ose t)e &#&ils to 8orei6n lan6#a6es to a de6ree t)at +e can )ardly realise today. (#t (eca#se +e are con=inced t)at e88ecti=e E#ro&ean co@ o&eration can only (e ac)ie=ed +it) a 6reat A#alitati=e and A#antitati=e im&ro=ement in &ersonal mo(ility and t)ere8ore in t)e a(ility o8 ordinary &eo&le in all o#r mem(er co#ntries to tra=el 8or +or< and &leas#re as inde&endent a6ents.. 0e &romote met)ods +)ic) em&)asise co@o&erati=e interaction amon6 t)e &artners to learnin6 and res&onsi(le inde&endence o8 learners (eca#se s#c) democratic &ractices stren6t)en t)e de=elo&ment o8 a in8ormed critical. e>c)an6in6 in8ormation.5) . des&ite t)e c)an6es +e may &redict or t)e ne+ c)allen6es +e may see. G0e &romote a comm#nicati=e a&&roac) to lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 not in t)e (elie8 t)at it is t)e only =alid a&&roac) to lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 not in t)e (elie8 t)at it is t)e only =alid a&&roac) in a(ol#te terms (. Acti=ity can easily (e eA#alled +it) learnin6. and #nless teac)ers are 8irmly rooted in &rimary met)odolo6y. . to6et)er +it) satellite tele=ision. Direct +orld+ide &erson to &erson interaction and doc#ment e>c)an6e. t)ey may 8all into 9#st t)at tra&. One o8 t)e most o(=io#s tra&s to 8all into +it) (e6inners is a concentration on 6ood acti(ities as t)e (e@all and end@all o8 teac)in6. social and c#lt#ral settin6. (eca#se it is only (y directly e>&eriencin6 eac) ot)er?s li=es in t)eir national.. -n t)e 8#t#re. t)e +ords o8 Eo)n $rim in )is introd#ctory s&eec) to 0or<s)o& 3* +ill s#rely )old 6ood 8or a lon6 time. And in all t)e comm#nal 8#n and 6ames and la#6)ter insti6ated (y t)e teac)er t)ere may not (e eno#6) room 8or indi=id#alisation in &ractice. $)e +or<s)o&s )a=e mainly considered traditional +ays o8 teac)in6 and learnin6. &. t)o#6).

. $)is article )o+e=er +ill 8oc#s mainly on t)ree <inds o8 reso#rces: realia. o8 co#rse. $)e article +ill also &ro=ide some 6eneral criteria 8or t)e selection and e>&loitation o8 reso#rces and &resent some concl#sions and some c)allen6es.2 'ealia Realia means Greal t)in6sG. Ot)ers. B9 )ere it is.3. materials. 2or eac) o8 t)e t)ree 6ro#&s considered t)ere +ill (e a de8inition and a descri&tion o8 t)e &otentialities and ris<s in=ol=ed.) interacti#e practice (E>am&le: A9 &ass me t)e PPPPPPPPP &lease. s#c) as =ideos and com&#ters. -n t)e conte>t o8 lan6#a6e teac)in6Mlearnin6 t)e term re8ers to real o(9ects #sed to s#&&ort lan6#a6e learnin6. RESOURCES Rita AL $ . 0)at is a resourceK 0)ate=er contri(#tes to t)e learnin6 o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e can (e de8ined as a reso#rce and a 6ood teac)er is.1 &ntroduction $)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in t)e &rimary sector )as traditionally (een associated +it) an e>tremely a(#ndant and =aried #se o8 reso#rces. -t +as 8irst introd#ced +it) t)e direct met)od and t)en ado&ted in com(ination +it) =ario#s met)ods and a&&roac)es inde&endently 8rom its ori6in. "any o8 t)em are sim&le and ine>&ensi=e s#c) as e=ery@day@li8e o(9ects (ro#6)t into t)e classroom. O(9ects o8 all <inds are traditionally #sed in many &rimary classes +it) t)e 8ollo+in6 &#r&oses: teaching #oca"ular& total ph&sical response acti#ities (E>am&le: to#c) t)e PPPPPPPPPP F &#t t)e PPPPPPPPPP near t)e PPPPPPPPPP F s)o+ a PPPPPPPPPP F etc. t)e most =al#a(le o8 reso#rces. media and tec)nolo6y. are so&)isticated and reA#ire adeA#ate 8#ndin6.$tal# . A9 t)an< yo#) . $)e a=aila(ility o8 e>&ensi=e reso#rces 6enerally de&ends on national or local &olicies +)ile a 6reat n#m(er o8 &rimary teac)ers seem to s)are t)e a(ility to e>&loit =ery sim&le t)in6s to moti=ate and 8acilitate learnin6.

$i-$o . -t may (e a &o+er8#l aid to memory as it relies on t)e =is#al element. $)e e>&erience o8 many &rimary teac)ers con8irms t)at &#&&ets are 6ood 8or enco#ra6in6 s)y c)ildren to ta<e ris<s. toys and materials s#c) as $ough . 8or role@&lays. +)ile at t)e same time t)ey de=elo& ot)er s<ills and not 9#st lan6#a6e s<illsF t)ey are #se8#l in t)e release o8 any &ossi(le tension occ#rrin6 +)en t)ere is too m#c) listenin6 to or s&ea<in6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e +it)o#t any re8erence to concrete t)in6s. on to#c).) practice on the function of i$entification an$ $escription (E>am&le: t)is is a PPPPPPPPF it is a small PPPPPPPPP F it is made o8 +oodF it is #sed to PPPPPPPPP ) h&pothesis !a. pongo . -deally t)ey s)o#ld (e made (y t)e c)ildren t)emsel=es and (e t)e e>&ression o8 t)eir tastes and c)oices. P#&&ets can (e #sed to in=ent c)aracters. All t)ese acti=ities may (e cond#cted in ot)er +ays and not necessarily #sin6 real o(9ects (#t t)eir #se seems to (e &artic#larly e88ecti=e +it) yo#n6er c)ildren and in t)e early sta6es o8 lan6#a6e learnin6. A s&ecial mention amon6 realia is deser=ed (y t)ose Greal t)in6sG t)at seem to (e &artic#larly attracti=e 8or c)ildren s#c) as &#&&ets.ing +)en t)e o(9ects and t)eir #se are #n<no+n to t)e class or are am(i6#o#s role pla&s (E>am&le: (#yin6 and sellin6) stor& telling (E>am&le: once #&on a time t)ere +ere a PPPPPPPPP and a PPPPPPPPP t)at li=ed in t)e same c#&(oard. Oral +or< can (e =ery demandin6 on t)e &#&ils es&ecially in t)e early &)ases o8 t)e learnin6 o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. -t creates immediate connections (et+een meanin6 and t)e lan6#a6e to (e learnt es&ecially at t)e le=el o8 indi=id#al +ords and. on concrete mani&#lation.guessing ga!es in=ol=in6 yesMno A#estions leadin6 to t)e identi8ication o8 an o(9ect in t)e )ands o8 a 6ro#& o8 &#&ils (#t #n<no+n to t)e rest (E>am&le: is it (i6K is it made o8 metalK can +e 8ind it in a <itc)enK etc. . $)eir ad=anta6e is t)at t)ey are real and 8ictitio#s at t)e same time.) and all 8orms o8 arts and cra8ts are an e>tremely =al#a(le so#rce o8 lan6#a6e in&#t and creati=e lan6#a6e #se. "ani&#lati=e acti=ities (8easi(le +it) do#6) etc. mas<s. i8 adeA#ately e>&loited. One day t)e PPPPPPPPP decided to e>&lore t)e room +)ere t)e c#&(oard +as &laced and PPPPPPPPP ) e+posure to so!e aspects of a specific culture (to t)e e>tent t)e o(9ect considered is meanin68#l in a s&eci8ic c#lt#re). at sentence le=el too. to &ractise all <inds o8 interacti=e and descri&ti=e lan6#a6e.

t)e 8ollo+in6 as&ects may (e considered: a#aila"ilit& : -s t)e item (e readily a=aila(le or does it reA#ire a lot o8 time and ener6y on t)e &art o8 t)e teac)er +)ic) is o#t o8 &ro&ortion to t)e res#lts in learnin6K 7an t)e c)ildren t)emsel=es &ro=ide realia 8or #se in classK suita"ilit& : -s t)e item co)erent +it) t)e acti=ities in +)ic) it +ill (e #sed and t)e e>&ected res#lts in learnin6K -s it a&&ealin6 and interestin6 8or t)e c)ildrenK Has it 6ot &otential =al#e to elicit c#riosity. -s t)e e>&loitation o8 t)e item co)erent +it) t)e learnin6 aimK 0)at im&act is it li<ely to )a=e on t)e c)ildrenK 0ill it (e 8#nctional to t)e learnin6 aim or +ill it act as a distractorK $)e dan6ers to (e a=oided +it) t)e #se o8 realia seem to (e: o#eruse : -t occ#rs +)en realia are &resent in all t)e acti=ities (#t are red#ndant instead o8 (ein6 8#nctional to learnin6 (e>am&le: A +)ole scene o8 a c)ild slee&in6 on a mattress and an alarm cloc< rin6in6 is set #& 9#st to teac): G6et #&. o#er-practice of the function of i$entification an$ $escription : $)is occ#rs +)en t)e lan6#a6e &ractice is limited to G+)at is t)isK -t is a PPPPPPPPPG and =ery 8e+ ot)er e>&ressions easily &ractised in . rarely #sed and ta<in6 a lot o8 s&ace. itJs se=en oJcloc<G). %oises and m#sic are a s&ecial ty&e o8 Greal t)in6sG t)at can contri(#te to ma<in6 a lan6#a6e lesson &alata(le to t)e c)ildren. B )as 6ot t)e toy t)at +ill (e reA#ested (y A in )isM)er )ands e=en (e8ore t)e reA#est is 8orm#lated) as it )a&&ens in t)e cases +)en c)ildren re)earse t)eir &arts (y )eart in a sort o8 8alse role &lay. lan6#a6e #seK Does t)e item re8lect t)e c#lt#re o8 any o8 t)e &laces +)ere t)e tar6et lan6#a6e is s&o<enK -n +)at +ayK e+ploitation : $)e &otential o8 realia as a reso#rce 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 deri=es 8rom t)e +ay t)ey are #sed and not 8rom t)e o(9ects &er se. $)e atmos&)ere resem(les a &oor A#ality 9#n<@s)o& and creates dis&ersion and distraction. -n order to select realia and decide +)et)er to ado&t t)em or not. Anot)er case o8 t)e ro#tinised #se o8 realia is +)en a =ery limited n#m(er o8 o(9ects is #sed in t)e same +ay t)ro#6)o#t t)e +)ole sc)ool@year o#ercro)$ing : -t occ#rs +)en class@rooms are st#88ed +it) all <inds o8 o(9ects.A c)allen6e o8 t)e ado&tion o8 man#al acti=ities d#rin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e lesson is t)e (alance (et+een t)e lan6#a6e &ractice and t)e rest. creati=ity. routine : -t occ#rs +)en t)e o(9ects are #sed in a rit#al +ay and add no interest and no learnin6 to t)e scenario (E>am&le: A 6oes to (#y a toy.

$)e tendency is to e>tend t)e =oca(#lary relati=e to concrete o(9ects and to i6nore ot)er as&ects o8 lan6#a6e and &artic#larly t)e &ra6matic #se o8 lan6#a6e. to teac)er@made lists o8 A#estions 8or a class s#r=ey. -n (ot) cases t)e conce&t o8 s#&&lementary material co=ers more t)an t)e conce&t o8 te>t as it incl#des any material s#&&ortin6 lan6#a6e learnin6 s#c) as &ict#res. controlled &ro6ression. . c#e cards etc. -n t)is case &ro6ression is limited mainly to a s&eci8ic area o8 =oca(#lary and it is immo(iliHed in ot)er areas. Accordin6 to t)is classi8ication t)e distinction is (et+een co#rse@(oo<s (man#als 8or lan6#a6e learnin6) and s#&&lementary materials incl#din6 a =ariety o8 te>ts ran6in6 8rom la(els on tins o8 8ood. 8las)@cards. $)e latter 6ro#& incl#des materials desi6ned 8or nati=e s&ea<ers and occasionally also em&loyed 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 &#r&oses. "aterials #sed in lan6#a6e learnin6 )a=e (een traditionally classi8ied as 8ollo+s: @ co#rse@(oo<s @ s#&&lementary materials @ a#t)entic materials Accordin6 to t)is classi8ication t)e t+o 8ormer 6ro#&s incl#de materials s&eci8ically desi6ned 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learners and 6enerally c)aracteriHed (y sim&li8ied lan6#a6e. sentences on $@s)irts. (aterials So$e basic considerations 1"1"! "aterials are t)e classic reso#rce in most <inds o8 sc)ool learnin6 incl#din6 lan6#a6e learnin6. -n recent years te>t(oo<s 8or t)e &rimary )a=e c)an6ed a lot. limited =oca(#lary. 1"1"% Course)boo-s 0)ile at ot)er le=els o8 sc)oolin6 t)e ado&tion o8 a te>t(oo< is o8ten ta<en 8or 6ranted t)is is not al+ays t)e case in t)e &rimary sector. inde&endently 8rom t)e 8act t)at t)ey +ere ori6inally +ritten 8or nati=e s&ea<ers or 8or lan6#a6e learners. $)ey are no lon6er s)orter =ersions o8 (oo<s 8or older st#dents (#t . A more recent &ers&ecti=e considers te>ts o8 any <ind 9#st as te>ts. Ho+e=er t)ere are many &#(lis)ed co#rses 8or c)ildren and national and international &#(lis)ers are ta<in6 an increasin6 interest in t)is sector.connection +it) realia.

7o#rse@(oo<s 6enerally consist o8 a $eac)er?s (oo<. $)e latter may (e easier and A#ic<er to #se 8or teac)ers +it) &oor command o8 t)e tar6et lan6#a6e (#t mi6)t rein8orce in t)em t)e idea t)at t)e nati=e lan6#a6e is to (e #sed +)en im&ortant messa6es )a=e to (e transmitted +)ile t)e tar6et lan6#a6e is to (e considered merely as an o(9ect o8 st#dy. $)e 8ormer may reA#ire more time and e88ort on t)e &art o8 t)e teac)er at t)e (e6innin6 (#t. in some cases. i8 a teac)er &re&ares lessons +it) a $eac)er?s (oo< in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e sM)e +ill (e more easily t#ned +it) t)e tar6et lan6#a6e +)en deli=erin6 t)e lessons. $)e Teacher:s boo&ro=ides a rationale 8or t)e +)ole co#rse. in t)e lon6 r#n. *ot) sol#tions )a=e ad=anta6es and disad=anta6es. Cassettes &ro=ide materials 8or listenin6 com&re)ension and a correct model o8 s&ea<in6. . $)e Pupil:s boo. Some $eac)er?s (oo<s also o88er e>am&les o8 tests and &)otoco&ia(le additional material 8or t)e c)ildren. $)e de(ate a(o#t t)e ri6)t s&eed 8or t)e s&ea<ers is endless: s)o#ld t)ey #se normal s&eed and (e &er)a&s less com&re)ensi(le or s)o#ld t)ey (e slo+er and more com&re)ensi(leK 0)at <ind o8 models are t)e (est 8or c)ildrenK 7)ildren?s =oices or ad#lt =oicesK A standard accent or a =ariety o8 accentsK Generally t)e cassettes accom&anyin6 (oo<s 8or t)e &rimary also contain a lot o8 son6s. $)ey s)o#ld (e o8 6ood tec)nical A#ality. a +or<@(oo<. a P#&il?s (oo<.&ro=ides 8#rt)er &ractice o8 t)e items introd#ced in t)e P#&il?s (oo<. $)e acti=ities in t)e P#&il?s (oo< are o8ten desi6ned to (e done (y t)e c)ildren in an a#tonomo#s +ay. $)e +or-boo. *esides.and t)e +or<(oo< are t)e main tools in t)e )ands o8 t)e learners. Eac) o8 t)ese com&onents )as its s&eci8ic role. r)ymes and stories.tend to inte6rate t)e cross@c#rric#lar dimension and t)e lan6#a6e 8oc#s. $)e P#&il?s (oo< introd#ces ne+ lan6#a6e items &ro6ressi=ely and &ro=ides acti=ities in t)e 8o#r s<ills or some o8 t)em. ad=ice 8or class@room mana6ement and a(o#t )o+ to 6i=e instr#ctions in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. s#66estions a(o#t t)e introd#ction and &ractice o8 ne+ lan6#a6e items in connection +it) t)e &#&il?s (oo<. =ideo@cassettes. it may res#lt in an im&ro=ement o8 t)e teac)er?s lan6#a6e com&etence deri=in6 8rom t)e daily e>&os#re to a te>t +ritten in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. Some Teacher:s boo-s are in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e and some are in t)e nati=e lan6#a6e. a#diocassettes and.

As said a(o=e. to a certain e>tent. &re@determines t)e contents o8 a co#rse +)ile it is (etter to &lan 8or t)e co#rse (ein6 o&en to t)e c)ildren?s c)an6in6 interests and t)eir &ace o8 learnin6. . $)e reasons in 8a=o#r o8 t)e ado&tion o8 a te>t@(oo< seem to (e t)at: @a te>t@(oo< &ro=ides a co)erent learnin6 &lan and correct and adeA#ate lan6#a6e in&#tF @a te>t@(oo< is a necessary s#&&ort 8or t)e teac)ers +)ose command o8 t)e tar6et lan6#a6e is limitedF @it is too time and ener6y cons#min6 8or teac)ers to desi6n all t)eir materials +)ile it is +ise and 8easi(le to inte6rate t)e co#rse@(oo< +it) teac)er made and ot)er materialsF @only t)e teac)ers +)o +o#ld 8eel li<e +ritin6 a te>t@(oo< t)emsel=es can do +it)o#t oneF @a 6ood (oo< can lead teac)ers to (etter &racticeF @t)e )a(it o8 ta<in6 (its and &ieces 8rom =ario#s te>t(oo<s does not lead to m#c) &ro6ression in t)e lon6 r#n. 7)ildren s)o#ld 8ind in t)e co#rse@(oo< a clear and s#&&orti=e re8erence &oint and s)o#ld (e ta#6)t to 8ind t)in6s in t)eir (oo<. t)e ado&tion o8 a te>t@(oo< in t)e &rimary is not 6eneral and t)e de(ate a(o#t its s#&&osed ad=anta6es and disad=anta6es is still o&en. *ot) t)e teac)er and t)e c)ildren s)o#ld 8eel at ease +it) t)e (oo<. As a concl#sion a(o#t t)is iss#e . $)ere?s no ideal (oo< 8or all circ#mstances.t)in< +e s)o#ld consider (ot) teac)ers and c)ildren. 2or a c)ec<@list to analyse co#rse (oo<s see A&&endi> !. to&ic +or<F @a te>t (oo<. $)e reasons a6ainst t)e ado&tion o8 a te>t (oo< seem to (e t)at: @a te>t(oo< is s#&er8l#o#s +)en t)e o(9ecti=e o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e is 9#st Gsensi(ilisationGF @a te>t (oo< is s#&er8l#o#s +)en t)e c#rric#l#m assi6ns one )o#r or one and a )al8 )o#rs &er +ee< to t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6eF @a te>t(oo< may not (e co)erent +it) an a&&roac) to t)e 2orei6n Lan6#a6e relyin6 mainly on &ro9ect +or<. (#t (oo<s t)at +or< in s&eci8ic sit#ations. A teac)er s)o#ld not (e 8orced to +or< +it) a co#rse (oo< +)ic) is not consonant +it) )isM)er &ersonality. $)e 6oal o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e lesson 6oes (eyond t)at o8 entertainin6 c)ildren +it) acti=ities 6ood and &leasant &er se (#t +it) no lin< amon6 eac) ot)er and no clear learnin6 aims. inte6ration o8 t)e tar6et lan6#a6e +it) ot)er areas o8 t)e c#rric#l#m.

ot)ers 8or o88erin6 e>tensi=e e>&os#re to t)e tar6et lan6#a6e. -n t)is case t)e teac)er )as a mediatin6 role and 6enerally ada&ts t)e material to )isM)er needs. -n 6ro#&s t)ey )a=e to decide )o+ t)ey are 6oin6 to s&end t)e day. ot)ers ser=e (ot) &#r&oses as t)ey elicit lan6#a6e &rod#ction as a res&onse to a lan6#a6e in&#t. as t)ey &ro=ide additional o&&ort#nities 8or e>&os#re to t)e tar6et lan6#a6e and &ractice. S#&&lementary materials )a=e an im&ortant role in lan6#a6e learnin6. 2or a list o8 s#&&lementary materials see A&&endi> '. An e>am&le o8 t)is latter case is t)e 8ollo+in6 acti=ity: c)ildren are 6i=en t)e &ro6ramme o8 a 8air +)ere =ario#s e=ents ta<e &lace at t)e same time. Some materials are s#ita(le 8or 6eneratin6 &rod#ction in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. a=oidin6 re&etition and (oredom.1"1"1 Supple$entar $aterials S#&&lementary materials rein8orce. inte6rate and e>&and t)e contents o8 t)e co#rse@(oo< (or (asic material +)en no co#rse@(oo< is ado&ted). -n 8act. $)e same materials may (e s#ita(le 8or 8oc#sin6 s&eci8ic lan6#a6e items or one or more s<ills. -n order to 8acilitate t)e #se o8 s#&&lementary materials. a c)aracteristic o8 s#&&lementary materials is t)at t)ey can (e #sed =ery 8le>i(ly and ser=e =ario#s &#r&oses. Ot)er materials are desi6ned to ena(le c)ildren to e>&erience a#tonomo#s +or<. $)ey are t)e so called Greso#rce (oo<sG or Greso#rce &ac<sG +it) ideas and materials 8or &resentations and acti=ities o8 =ario#s <inds. Some s#&&lementary materials may (e #sed (y t)e teac)ers to 6et ne+ ideas 8or acti=ities or to ma<e lessons more e88ecti=e. recycle. $)is acti=ity im&lies rece&ti=e s<ills to decode t)e &ro6ramme and &rod#cti=e s<ills in order to ma<e t)e necessary arran6ements. $)e or6aniHin6 criteria mi6)t (e as 8ollo+s: @ @ @ @ @ @ accordin6 to lan6#a6e contentF accordin6 to to&icF accordin6 to ty&e o8 acti=ityF accordin6 to s<illsF accordin6 to t)e nat#re o8 t)e materialF accordin6 to s#ita(ility 8or certain a6e 6ro#&sF . it is indis&ensa(le t)at teac)ers or6aniHe t)em accordin6 to criteria t)at ma<e t)em easy to 8ind +)en necessary.

$)ere are )o+e=er some .). $)ey can &ro=ide o&&ort#nities 8or di88erentiated +or<. conte>t &ro=ided (y t)e scene. lots o8 c#es in &ro&ortion to lan6#a6e in&#t etc. sM)e +ill (e 6reatly )el&ed (y a serio#s system o8 classi8ication 6i=in6 a synt)etic and clear &ict#re o8 t)e item and incl#din6 a com(ination o8 =ario#s &ieces o8 in8ormation.edia and ne+ technolog "edia and ne+ tec)nolo6y are (ecomin6 more and more &art o8 o#r daily li8e. coherence )ith the e$ucational goals . S#&&lementary materials s)o#ld ideally &ro=ide a c)allen6e 8or learners and reA#ire some e88ort on t)eir &art (#t t)e e88ort s)o#ld not (e disco#ra6in6. 0)at ma<es s#&&lementary materials #se8#l in t)e learnin6 &rocess is t)e +ay t)ey are #sed. a teac)er s)o#ld )a=e )isM)er data(ase to classi8y materials. suita"ilit& for the target group . A#dio and =ideo cassettes.@ accordin6 to s#ita(ility 8or certain le=els o8 com&etence. "edia )a=e a )i6) &otential 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 as t)ey rely on =ario#s dimensions (a#ditory dimension and =is#al dimension. creati=ity. di88erent st#dents or 6ro#&s o8 st#dents may +or< +it) di88erent materials. 1"3 . Here are some criteria 8or t)eir e88ecti=eness: coherence )ith the learning goals . S#&&lementary materials s)o#ld (e co)erent +it) t)e learnin6 6oals and s)o#ld not act as distractors 8rom t)e sylla(#s or stated 6oals. 7)ildren are attracted (y t)em and A#ic<ly 8amiliariHe t)emsel=es +it) t)eir #se at least at (asic le=els. 7assettes )a=e (ro#6)t nati=e s&ea<ers? =oices to t)e classrooms 8or more t)an A#arter o8 a cent#ry (#t t)e im&act o8 =ideo )as &ro=ed to (e e=en more e88ecti=eF c)ildren 6et tired and an>io#s +it) cassettes t)ey 8ind di88ic#lt to #nderstand. -n addition. -deally. +)ile t)ey are attracted (y =ideos e=en i8 t)ey are (eyond t)eir lan6#a6e le=el. ($)e tem&tation o8 doin6 GniceG t)in6s +it) no aim may (e =ery stron6 at timesR). 0)en a teac)er starts to acc#m#late materials. "edia o88er a ric) scenario incl#din6 t)e 8orei6n en=ironment and 6est#res #sed in comm#nication. a#tonomy in learnin6. media materials can (e classi8ied accordin6 to t)e &#r&ose and a#dience 8or +)ic) t)ey +ere ori6inally desi6ned and a distinction can (e made (et+een cassettes and =ideo ta&es &rod#ced 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 and &rod#ced 8or t)e 6eneral &#(lic. S#&&lementary materials s)o#ld enco#ra6e coo&erati=e learnin6. &rod#ced 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 are o8ten intended as s#&&ort to ot)er materials. as in some acti=ities.

. =oca(#lary) and 8or te>t#al +or< (rece&ti=e and &rod#cti=e). 7om&#ters can (e #se8#l in 6eneral lan6#a6e &ractice (6rammar. $raditional corres&ondence (et+een sc)ools can (e inte6rated or re&laced (y t)e #se o8 8a>es. e=en i8 t)e #se o8 some o8 t)ese is restricted (y (#d6et &olicies and (y attit#des considerin6 t)ese instr#ments to (e at t)e e>cl#si=e ser=ice o8 administrati=e rat)er t)an ed#cational &#r&oses.recent e>&eriences in +)ic) t)e =ideo@cassette to (e #sed in class is t)e main material and ot)er <inds o8 materials are meant to (e inte6rated +it) t)e =is#al com&onent.H. $)ese seem to (e t)e dan6ers too: &ositi=e as&ects. internet. t)eir #se. in t)e (est cases. =ers#s t)e traditional c)al< (oard (#t (y t)e +ay t)e teac)er #ses t)e a=aila(le inst#ments. As a concl#sion to t)is &art. $)e direct contact +it) ot)er s&ea<ers o8 t)e tar6et lan6#a6e (nati=e s&ea<ers or learners) is 6enerally moti=atin6 and &rod#ces learnin6 (eyond t)e &lanned sylla(#s. $)e A#ality di88erence is not made (y t)e #se o8 t)e O. Ho+e=er t)ere are some @c)ildren are attracted (y t)e com&#ter (#t may &ay no attention to t)e lan6#a6e contents and do t)in6s mec)anicallyF @t)e acti=ities may (e limited to mec)anical drills s#(stantially o8 t)e same <ind as t)e traditional onesF t)is )a&&ens +)en only lin6#istically and met)odolo6ically &oor material is a=aila(leF @c)ildren )a=e 8e+ o&&ort#nities to interact +it) ot)er )#man (ein6s. A ris< +it) =ideo is t)at c)ildren +atc) too m#c) o8 it d#rin6 t)e day (ta<in6 into acco#nt t)e #se o8 =ideo in many sc)ool s#(9ects and at )ome) and (ecome &assi=e +atc)ers. telematics and e>c)an6e o8 =ideo@ta&es +)ic) o88er 6reat &otential 8or direct and 8ast comm#nication (et+een sc)ools. &rod#ces coo&eration and e>c)an6e o8 ideas. A 8e+ =ery l#c<y sc)ools )a=e satellite tele=ision +)ic) &ro=ides o&&ort#nities 8or 8reA#ent e>&os#re to a ric) =ariety o8 lan6#a6e and c#lt#ral as&ects. it is necessary to say t)at e=en so&)isticated a#dio@=is#al means and tec)nolo6ies &rod#ce learnin6 only +)en #sed in a +ay +)ic) is cond#ci=e to &ersonal in=ol=ement. interaction and +it) teac)ers acce&tin6 t)e role o8 8acilitators o8 learnin6 rat)er t)an t)at o8 dis&ensers o8 <no+led6e. As t)e sit#ation is o8ten t)at t+o or e=en more c)ildren s)are t)e same mac)ine. re8lection. Anot)er ad=anta6e is t)e e>&erience o8 a#tonomo#s +or<.P.

Here are some 6eneral recommendations =alid 8or t)e #se o8 all ty&es o8 reso#rces. s)o+in6 t)eir &otentialities and some &ossi(le ris<s. Parado>ically. as t)e 6a& (et+een t)e co6niti=e and t)e lin6#istic le=el is less &erce&ti(le in materials 8or t)at a6e. 0ritin6 t)in6s t)at +ill (e read and #sed (y ot)er c)ildren +ill (e moti=atin6 and c)allen6in6. and te>ts 8or a treas#re )#nt and ot)er 6ames. i" Children:s in(ol(e$ent 7)ildren can &ro8ita(ly contri(#te to t)e &ro=ision and desi6n o8 reso#rces. ii" E#tensi(e use of $aterials for nati(e spea-ers 7)ildren can &ro8ita(ly (e e>&osed to materials 8or nati=e s&ea<ers. $)e #se o8 com&#ters +ill add an element o8 &recision and real editin6 to t)ese e>&eriences. es&ecially =ideo@ta&es and (oo<s and (e enco#ra6ed to 6et t)e most o#t o8 t)em (y 8oc#sin6 on t)e contents +it)o#t +orryin6 too m#c) a(o#t t)e lan6#a6e details. t)e easier it is to 8ind s#ita(le a#t)entic materials 8or t)em. t)e yo#n6er t)e c)ildren are.. accordin6 to 6i=en models or 8reely. $)e (oo<s can t)en (e e>c)an6ed amon6 di88erent classes and sc)ools. 7)ildren can also &re&are A#estionnaires 8or class s#r=eys. t)is e>&os#re to t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e +ill (ecome a normal dimension o8 t)eir daily li=es. A =ery enric)in6 e>&erience is t)e &re&aration o8 (oo<s com(inin6 &ict#res and te>ts +ritten (y t)e c)ildren. Ho&e8#lly. $)eir lan6#a6e com&etence and t)eir lan6#a6e learnin6 a(ilities +ill de=elo& t)ro#6) t)e com(ination o8 o&&ort#nities 8or e>&licit teac)in6 and 8or nat#ral acA#isition.) #onclusions $)is c)a&ter )as analysed =ario#s <inds o8 reso#rces 8or t)e teac)in6 o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e +it) re8erence to t)e &rimary sector. An 2L can (e learnt e>&loitin6 some strate6ies o8 8irst lan6#a6e acA#isition (#t in com(ination +it) . *esides collectin6 realia and dra+in6 t)in6s t)ey can also &ro=ide te>ts. iii" Co$bination of $aterials +ith different perspecti(es 7)ildren +)o are not nati=e s&ea<ers also need e>&licit teac)in6.

Sc)ool c)ildren a6ed 1@!! are di88erent 8rom toddlers learnin6 t)eir nati=e lan6#a6e. Attention s)o#ld (e &aid to t)e e>&licit and im&licit re&resentation o8 c#lt#res in t)e reso#rces #sed. $)is reA#ires lin6#istic and met)odolo6ical s<ills t)at can (e acA#ired +it) &ro&er trainin6. o8 8orm. 7)ildren +ill 8eel at ease i8 t)ey can c)oose and not 9#st (e told all t)e time +)at to say or do. and a=oid (ot) total re8#sal and #nconditioned acce&tance. (i" Teacher training Analysin6 commercial materials. (ii" Attention to culture -t is 6enerally a6reed t)at comm#nicati=e com&etence also consists o8 interc#lt#ral com&etence. so t)at stereoty&ed ima6es and o=er6eneraliHation can (e a=oided. -n t)e case o8 readin6 materials. desi6nin6 materials (e=en m#lti@medial) is &art o8 t)e teac)er?s e>&ected &ro8essional com&etence.s&eci8ic s#&&ort. c)oice on t)e &art o8 t)e c)ildren is a m#st. ada&tin6 e>istin6 materials. o8 acti=ity. i(" Adoption of $aterials pro(iding an ele$ent of choice $)e c)oice can (e o8 contents. (" Adoption of rele(ant $aterials $)ere is no reason to as< t)e c)ildren to +or< +it) silly t)in6s 9#st (eca#se t)eir 2L com&etence is still limited. acce&t t)e e88ort necessary to #&@date t)eir s<ills. . 2L acti=ities s)o#ld (e similar to 6ood acti=ities 8easi(le in L!. o8 modality etc. and t)e a+areness o8 and res&ect 8or ot)er c#lt#res (and one?s o+n) is one o8 t)e &rimary aims o8 t)e 2L. (iii" Attention to the e(olution of $edia and technologies $eac)ers s)o#ld (e trained to co&e +it) t)e on@6oin6 de=elo&ment o8 media and tec)nolo6ies. 7)ildren +ill learn more i8 reso#rces inte6rate (ot) t)e a88ecti=e and t)e co6niti=e dimensions.

1. =s t e teac er2s boo4 accompanied by supplementary materialsD Are t ere any audio-cassettesD &ideo-cassettesD %" - <oals . . intercultural competence' Are t e goals co erent #it t e national6local guidelines and syllabus for t e foreign language in t e primaryD - 1" .integrated approac D *anguage input t roug e*amplesD t roug dialoguesD t roug acti&itiesD ot erD +specify.". language a#areness.at are learners e*pected to 4no#6to be able to do after #or4ing #it t e courseD Consider8 (sensibilisation(.2.t roug different modalitiesD +o$ is ne$ language understood. t roug drillsD t roug controlled acti&itiesD . . - Approach to language !heory of language structuralD situationalD notional6functionalD communicati&e approac D natural approac D . .Appendix 1: Check !i"# $%& 'n'!("i" 'nd e)'!*'#i%n %$ #ex# +%%k" !" Structure =s t ere a pupil2s boo4 and a #or4boo4D =s t ere a teac er2s boo4D + o# many &olumesD. t roug picturesD t roug translationD t roug concept 0uestionsD building on 4no#n languageD ot erD +o$ is ne$ language practised. - . communicati&e competence. - .

compre ensionD focus on spea4ingD +self e*pressionD interactionD. focus on reading-compre ensionD focus on #ritingD +#ritten e*ercisesD communicati&e #ritingD creati&e #ritingD.are t ere any acti&ities leading to autonomyD . - *anguage contents organiEed according to a linear se0uenceD organiEed according to a cyclical se0uenceD no organiEation is e&identD focus on &ocabularyD focus on structureD focus on functionsD focus on notionsD balance bet#een focus on &ocabulary and t e restD . focus on t e integration of t e four s4illsD focus on recepti&e s4illsD focus on producti&e s4illsD .- t t t t roug roug roug roug semi-controlled acti&itiesD free-practiceD communicati&e acti&itiesD cross-curricular acti&itiesD t roug a &ariety of modalitiesD is t e practice co erent #it t e stated goalsD .at is t e conte*t of t e boo4D +no e*plicit reference to any placeD in a country # ere t e target language is spo4enD in t e nati&e countryD. - !reatment of the four skills focus on listening.-. is t ere any e*plicit teac ing of cultureD is t e approac to culture prescripti&e or descripti&eD is culture introduced t roug descriptionD ( ( disco&ery and a#areness raising acti&itiesD ( ( obser&ationD ( ( p otosD 4" Songs easy and pleasant r yt mD .is t ere any a*plicit teac ing of grammarD 3" Approach to culture .).

- difficult musicD easy languageD difficult languageD are t e songs aut entic or #ritten for language learningD 6" - <a$es suitable for indoor-acti&ityD suitable for out-door acti&ityD competiti&e or cooperati&eD suitable for small groupsD suitable for t e # ole classD encourage production in t e target languageD do not re0uire production in t e target languageD are instructions clearD 7" La )out consistent lay-out for eac unitD clear lay-outD picturesD p otosD if t ere are pictures and p otos. obser&e t eir role + elp compre ensionD 1ust ornamentalD support to cultural informationD etc!. 8" Cassettes do t ey pro&ide &aried and natural models of spea4ingD do t ey pro&ide materials for listening compre ensionD do t ey pro&ide songsD do t ey pro&ide r ymesD ade0uate sound 0ualityD .

disco=ery o8 meanin6 etc. on descri&tions. are s#ita(le to learn a(o#t c#lt#re and 6eo6ra&)y. to constr#ct a model =illa6eMto+n and to +or< on t)e notions o8 s&ace and time. $@s)irts. &ractice on t)e notion o8 A#antity charts )ith ..i"# %$ "*pp!e-en#'&( -'#e&i'!" pictures of o"jects. 6enerally made o8 card(oard. mat)ematical acti=ities.Appendix 2 : . c#lt#re. )y&ot)esis a(o#t +)at )a&&ens in t)e middle s)o+in6 9#st t)e 8irst and last &ict#re etc. people.e& sentences are s#ita(le as re8erence 8or t)e c)ildren to sel8 monitor t)eir &rod#ction $ictionaries are s#ita(le to teac) sel8 )el& s<ills !aps of places an$ countries are suitable to learn about t e foreign country +geograp y and culture. . 8orei6n +ords 8o#nd in ne+s&a&ers are s#ita(le 8or disco=ery +or<. places etc. a+areness o8 (ot) c#lt#res. .) copies of !one& of the foreign -ountr& are s#ita(le 8or role &lays ((#yin6 and sellin6). can (e #sed in +ays =ery similar to t)e +ays realia are #sed sets of pictures illustrating a stor& are s#ita(le 8or story@tellin6F listenin6 com&re)ensionF creati=e +or< (in=ention o8 an alternati=e concl#sion. on as<in6 and tellin6 t)e +ay etc. si!plifie$ rea$ers are s#ita(le 8or 6eneral lan6#a6e rein8orcement. to #or4 on t e notion of space. to 6i=e a sense o8 ac)ie=ement as t)ey are 6enerally #ser 8riendlyF not =ery a&&ro&riate to acA#ire readin6 s<ills as t)ey reA#ire e>tremely limited strate6ies cue car$s are s#ita(le to stim#late comm#nication and interaction and t)e #se o8 &re=io#sly learnt lan6#a6e 6oin6 a6ainst t)e tendency o8 many learners to rely on a =ery limited #se o8 lan6#a6e (E>am&le o8 a ty&ical ro#tinary e>c)an6e: +)at did yo# do yesterday e=enin6K +atc)ed $NF #it cue cards ans#ers may &aryF. on com&arison. to #or4 on descriptions etc! !iniature !o$els of houses an$ "uil$ings .L foun$ in the nati#e countr& ad=ertisements. in=ention o8 a concl#sion. la(els. a+areness o8 t)e &resence o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in one?s o+n co#ntry.

e& sentences &ro=ide re8erence and 8acilitate sel8@ correction and sel8@monitorin6 train an$ "us sche$ules are s#ita(le 8or 6eneral ed#cational aims (&ro(a(ly c)ildren are not 8amiliar yet +it) t)is ty&e o8 te>t). recipes are s#ita(le 8or c#lt#re and many rece&ti=e and &rod#cti=e acti=ities. *uestionnaires are s#ita(le 8or &ractisin6 s&eci8ic lan6#a6e items and to 6i=e t)e c)ildren o&&&ort#nities to e>&ress t)e content t)ey li<e. (oo<s. gri$s.authentic !aterials (comics. acti=ity (oo<s ori6inally &rod#ced 8or nati=e s&ea<ers) are s#ita(le to enco#ra6e e>&os#re to t)e tar6et lan6#a6e in order to start en9oyn6 and a(sor(in6 it in a nat#ral +ayF also s#ita(le as a c)allen6e and to learn )o+ to co&e +it) &artial #nderstandin6 "oar$ ga!es &ro=ide &ractice in t)e 8o#r s<ills in a nat#ral conte>t and interaction o&&ort#nitiesF some 6ames are s#ita(le to learn a(o#t c#lt#re (di88erences and similarities) charts )ith . to &ractise t)e time etc. !enus. .

&ositi=e sensations. He (ecomes more sel8@con8ident t)ro#6) de=elo&ment o8 &ersonal and social s<ills. not 9#st t)e 6i8ted ones. As stated at t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e 0or<s)o& 3* at Nelm.. 2#rt)ermore )e is a(le to distin6#is) di88erent so#nds.. As is e>&licitly stated in t)e . t)e res#lt is de8initely +ort) t)e e88ort. $)e ar6#ments 8or t)e incl#sion o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m are o8ten related to 8#t#re rat)er t)an act#al needs o8 t)e c)ildren. -t is t)ere8ore im&ortant to stress t)e role o8 lan6#a6e learnin6 as a =al#a(le e>&erience 8or t)e c)ild. $)e cr#cial statement 8or o#r consideration is t)at e=eryone s)o#ld (e 6i=en t)e s<ills to &artici&ate in 8#t#re societies. to listen and react.2orei6n lan6#a6es can introd#ce c)ildren to a +orld o8 so#nds.:'3). OR/ANISATION0 INTE/RATION AND CONTINUIT1 Hanna %OMORO&S%A . as &art o8 t)e ne+@ style +or<s)o&s o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e.G (H#rrell !445: ').G (Ni=et !445:1). inte6ration and contin#ity in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation needs a commonly #nderstood 8rame o8 re8erence. 2orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 can also (e #nderstood as 8#n and la#6)ter t)era&y. G8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 en)ances t)e c)ild?s a(ility to comm#nicate. are not interested in 8orei6n lan6#a6es as s#c).Poland ". As Ana Ni=et &#t it in )er &resentation at 0or<s)o& ! . E=en i8 or6anisation o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation &oses &ro(lems and i8 ens#rin6 contin#ity o8 t)is ed#cation in (ot) t)e &rimary and t)e secondary sector calls 8or additional meas#res.1 Basic principles of primary foreign language education Any disc#ssion o8 or6anisation. G7)ildren. $)ro#6) learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e )e 6ains an a+areness o8 )is mot)er ton6#e. 2orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 s#&&orts t)e o=erall de=elo&ment o8 t)e c)ild. $)e 8rame o8 re8erence +e are loo<in6 8or can (e 8o#nd in &ro9ects carried o#t in se=eral E#ro&ean co#ntries. r)yt)ms and cadences. $)e c)ild (ecomes )i6)ly moti=ated to disco=er t)e +ider +orld aro#nd )im... e=ery c)ild s)o#ld (e 6i=en a c)ance to learn a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. o8 +)ate=er a6e. 7onsidera(le (ene8it is dra+n 8rom s#c) e>&eriences lon6 (e8ore c)ildren (ecome ad#lts. +)ic) seem to 8orm a solid (ase 8or a ne6otiated set o8 &rinci&les and reasons 8or lan6#a6e teac)in6 in t)e E#ro&ean co#ntries. alt)o#6) indi=id#al di88erences )a=e to (e ta<en into acco#nt (Pa6e !44. and t)ere8ore. ne+ disco=eries and stim#latin6 acA#isitions +)ic) 6o 8ar (eyond t)e narro+ (o#ndaries o8 a monolin6#al and monoc#lt#ral ed#cation.

A consens#s )as (een reac)ed in most o8 t)e im&ortant iss#es as +ill (e seen in t)e sections to 8ollo+. +)et)er inte6ration o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 +it) t)e rest o8 &rimary ed#cation s)o#ld (e so#6)t or +)et)er lan6#a6es s)o#ld (e ta#6)t as se&arate s#(9ects.recommendations o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e Nelm 0or<s)o&. t)at is. a n#m(er o8 more s&eci8ic iss#es remained to (e resol=ed in t)e researc) and de=elo&ment &)ases.2 . As stated at 0or<s)o& 3*. -nte6ration and em(eddin6 -nte6ration seems to (e t)e most im&ortant 8actor o8 all. L#estions relatin6 to or6anisation. +it) t)e aim o8 e>&lorin6 t)ese iss#es. as it )as a (earin6 on &ractically e=ery ot)er iss#e in=ol=ed and is no+ 6enerally &ost#lated as t)e ideal sol#tion and t)e only +ay 8or+ard in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation.vervie$ of outstanding issues in primary foreign languages education Alt)o#6) t)e (asic &rinci&les and ideas o#tlined a(o=e )a=e recei=ed t)e 8#llest s#&&ort 8rom mem(er states 8rom t)e =ery start o8 t)e &ro9ect. -n order to create t)ese conditions a&&ro&riate 6#idelines s)o#ld (e dra+n #& co=erin6 o(9ecti=es. "ay !445 (2el(er(a#er and Heindler !445:!55). ". $)is ans+ers one o8 t)e most im&ortant A#estions at t)e start o8 t)e RBD action &ro6ramme o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. materials and met)ods. inte6ration and contin#ity in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation to +)ic) +e no+ t#rn. A#stria.G $)e statements a(o=e +ill 8orm a 8rame o8 re8erence 8or t)e disc#ssion o8 or6anisation.A and 3A and +ere ela(orated in t)e t+o@year researc) and de=elo&ment net+or<s. G+e consider t)at it is 8easi(le and desira(le 8or one or more modern lan6#a6es to (e introd#ced into t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m 8or all c)ildren 8rom t)e a6e o8 3. +)ere res#lts o8 RBD action &ro6rammes +ere &resented. more realistic and rele=ant connections can (e made in all as&ects o8 t)e c)ild?s learnin6 +)ene=er inte6ration is introd#ced and 6reater o&&ort#nities e>ist to recycle t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in +ays and . 0e also recommend t)at ste&s (e ta<en to create conditions #nder +)ic) t)e startin6 a6e can (e &ro6ressi=ely lo+ered so t)at an element o8 modern lan6#a6e e>&erience o8 an a&&ro&riate <ind can (e &resent t)ro#6)o#t a c)ild?s sc)ool career. inte6ration and contin#ity. Policies s)o#ld (e de=elo&ed leadin6 to t)e a=aila(ility o8 a certain =ariety o8 lan6#a6es. +ere &osed at t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e 0or<s)o&s .

&#&&ets. ma<in6 mas<s. mat)ematics.(H#rrell !445: . (y s#&&ortin6 co6niti=e strate6ies s#c) as com&arin6. en=ironmental st#dies. As identi8ied (y H#rrell. ). 8ood and m#sic 8rom ot)er co#ntries. )F @ )el& c)ildren learn )o+ to learn. mimin6. Geo6ra&)yMEn=ironment: s)o&s and s)o&&in6. m#sic and P. 0e cite some o8 t)e e>am&les. &redictin6. meas#rin6. )o+ seeds 6ro+. -nte6ratin6 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 in t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m +ill: @ )el& s#&&ort t)e +or< o8 t)e c)ildren in all areas o8 t)e &rimary ed#cation and es&ecially in t)e mot)er ton6#e. "#sic and Drama:son6s and r)ymes. Science: animals. tellin6 t)e time. #sin6 ma&s and atlases. $)e teac)er +)o deli=ers t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e +ill see< o&&ort#nities to com&lement and s#&&ort t)e c)ild?s learnin6 in ot)er areas rat)er t)an 8ollo+ )is o+n 8orei6n lan6#a6e &at). &ro(lem@ sol=in6 and )y&ot)esiHin6 (*re+ster et al !44':. t)e c)oice o8 t)emes 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 m#st (e determined (y t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m rat)er t)an (y a &redetermined linear &ro6ression in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. History: #nderstandin6 c)ronolo6y and t)e &assin6 o8 time. t)e +eat)er and climates. t)ere(y s#&&ortin6 t)e de=elo&ment o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and consolidatin6 learnin6 in t)e ot)er areas o8 t)e c#rric#l#m. ot)er c#lt#res and o#r o+n. art. . co#ntin6 and A#antity. classi8yin6. cloc<s.conte>ts +)ic) are consonant +it) t)e c)ild?s normal learnin6 en=ironment. 8esti=als aro#nd t)e +orld. ma<in6 colla6es and &osters. &ar<s. s&orts and 6ames. Art B 7ra8t:dra+in6 and &rintin6. in order to do so. 7#lt#ral St#dies:t)e e=eryday li8e o8 ordinary &eo&le. t)#s ma<in6 nat#ral lin<s +it) t)e on6oin6 +or< o8 t)e class.) *re+ster et al (!44':.!) 6i=e a com&re)ensi=e list o8 t)e most common areas +)ic) can (e lin<ed to t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e.E. role &lay and dramatisation. o#ter s&ace.F @ rein8orce t)e o=erall conce&t#al de=elo&ment o8 a c)ild 6i=in6 )imM)er con8idence and en)ancin6 )isM)er moti=ation (*re+ster et al !44':. "at)s: n#m(ers. &re)istoric animals.

. Recommendations o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e no+adays mo=e to+ards 8#ll inte6ration t)ro#6) t)e medi#m o8 em(eddin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 in as&ects o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. $)is im&lies. rat)er t)an (y medi#m@oriented learnin6. t)in<in6 s<ills and creati=ity. -8 t)is is not t)e case.. settlin6 t)em do+n. to #se Ellis?s 8rame+or< (Ellis !43. doin6 t)e re6ister.) Em(eddin6 nat#rally im&lies o&erati=e <no+led6e o8 t)e lan6#a6e.G (H#rrell !445: 3@4) -8 a class teac)er. Recommendations o8 0or<s)o& 3* in Nelm stress t)e necessity Gto ens#re t)e contin#in6 lin6#istic com&etence o8 t)e &rimary class teac)erG and Gt)e a(ility to &resent t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e a&&ro&riately to c)ildren.mi6)t incl#de (rin6in6 in t)e &#&ils 8rom t)e &lay6ro#nd... is a com&etent s&ea<er o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e and a A#ali8ied 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)er. -nte6ration is more li<ely to (e s#ccess8#lly im&lemented. #nderstandin6 conce&ts connected to mat)ematics. im&lementin6 t)e idea o8 inte6ration and em(eddin6.).. $o 8acilitate coo&eration. A considera(le de6ree o8 colla(oration (et+een t)e class teac)er and t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)er +o#ld t)en (e needed. to &ara&)rase +)en t)e c)ildren?s #nderstandin6 (rea<s do+n and to am&li8y 8or t)ose c)ildren +)o +is) to &#s) t)eir <no+led6e o8 t)e lan6#a6e 8#rt)er.Em(eddin6. or6anisin6 6ro#&s.$)e &rimary c#rric#l#m ty&ically stresses t)e de=elo&ment o8 literacy and n#meracy. *ot) teac)ers +o#ld (e reA#ired to en6a6e in 9oint &lannin6 so as to em(ed t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in daily acti=ities and inte6rate it +it) t)e on6oin6 +or< o8 t)e class. 8l#ency and com&etence on t)e &art o8 t)e teac)er as +ell as a considera(le de6ree o8 lin6#istic com&etence... tal<in6 a(o#t t)e date and t)e +eat)er and mana6in6 t)e class in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. inter=ention o8 an a&&ro&riately trained teac)er may (e reA#ired and t)is +o#ld ine=ita(ly lead to t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e (ein6 ta#6)t as a se&arate s#(9ect +it) its in)erent &ro(lems. EnA#iry@(ased and disco=ery learnin6 centred aro#nd &artic#lar t)emes +ill s#&&ort t)e c)ild?s o=erall de=elo&ment and t)#s )el& inte6ration.G (H#rrell !445: .. science and social st#dies. it is recommended t)at an additional )o#r 8or meetin6s (e allocated +it)in t)e re6#lar teac)in6 load o8 class and 8orei6n lan6#a6e . im&lementation is a relati=ely smoot) &rocess. G&ermeatin6 t)e daily )a&&enin6s +it) t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m t)ro#6) de=elo&in6 cross@c#rric#lar lin<s. t)ro#6) to&ic (messa6e) and acti=ity@oriented lan6#a6e learnin6.

can only (e &laced +it)in t)e core c#rric#l#m at a relati=ely late sta6e.teac)er. it is no+ +idely acce&ted t)at t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e s)o#ld &ermeate t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m and t)#s acA#ire t)e stat#s o8 a core element. 3"1"!Earl stages of de(eloping progressi(e co$petence in the oung learner linguistic . t)e 8irst 8orei6n lan6#a6e. t)o#6) t)e idea s)o#ld (e +idely &romoted. $)is. $)is aim. to&ics and acti=ities. )o+e=er. -8 conte>ts o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation di88er considera(ly +it)in t)e national system. c#rric#l#m sta6in6 s)o#ld ena(le some c)ildren to (ene8it 8rom t)e early lan6#a6e start and at t)e same time ma<e it &ossi(le 8or ot)er c)ildren to 9oin t)e co#rse at a later sta6e o8 ed#cation +)en learners 8rom se=eral lo+er le=el sc)ools meet in )i6)er 6rades. realistically. to determine c#rric#lar areas to (e s#&&orted (y t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and to &lan learnin6 conte>ts. As 8ollo+s 8rom t)e a(o=e. $)is &res#&&oses sli6)tly di88erent a&&roac)es to t)e de=elo&ment o8 &ro6ressi=e lin6#istic com&etence at =ario#s sta6es o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools (5M1 to !5M!!). -8 t)e teac)er &ro=ision is not adeA#ate. S#c) decisions are &ra6matic sol#tions already ado&ted in a lar6e n#m(er o8 ed#cational systems on t)e (asis o8 t)e assessment o8 t)e &resent teac)er &ro=ision and s)o#ld not (e considered as an indicator o8 t)e c#rrent &)iloso&)y o8 ed#cation. as descri(ed a(o=e 6i=es rise to t)e A#estion o8 eA#al ed#cational o&&ort#nity. )o+e=er.rganisation and implementation of foreign language education in primary schools. or can t)ose c)ildren +)o are l#c<y eno#6) to attend adeA#ately sta88ed sc)ools (e 6i=en t)e o&&ort#nity o8 an early startK -t seems reasona(le to 8orsa<e #ni8ormity in t)e s)ort term and &ermit an earlier start +)ene=er &ossi(le and s#c) is indeed t)e &resent sit#ation in many mem(er co#ntries. $)e sit#ation. means t)at it does not seem &ossi(le to e>&ect an early start in all t)e &rimary sc)ools o8 all t)e mem(er co#ntries o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e in t)e near 8#t#re. s)o#ld a delayed start in 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 (e eA#ally distri(#ted. . can (e ac)ie=ed only in co#ntries +)ere teac)er &ro=ision is adeA#ate to t)e needs o8 &rimary ed#cation. ". D#e to teac)er s)orta6es in t)e ed#cational systems o8 many ne+ mem(er co#ntries o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e.

E>&loitin6 all t)e &ossi(ilities )ere is o8 6reat im&ortance d#e to t)e 8act t)at listenin6 s<ills (ecome less acti=e as c)ildren 6ro+ older and more selecti=e (/#&er(er6 !44.) 7)ildren #nderstand more t)an t)ey can say. accom&anied (y t)e so@called ?silent &eriod? +)en c)ildren are not &ress#red into s&ea<in6 #nless t)ey t)emsel=es attem&t to do so s&ontaneo#sly. t)ey #nderstand (e8ore t)ey can tal<. Pro=idin6 o&&ort#nities 8or listenin6 is. t)e 8oc#s s)o#ld (e on listenin6 8or com&re)ension. son6s. to train antici&ation and to #se constant re&etition (ased on str#ct#re. t)ere8ore.* at SS=res (/#&er(er6 !44. to de=elo& t)e ima6ination. sec#rity t)ro#6) r)yt)m and memory trainin6 in 8orms 8amiliar to and li<ed (y c)ildren o8 =ario#s nationalities and (ac<6ro#nds.:'4). r)ymes and &oems. $eac)in6 met)ods and classroom tec)niA#es are recommended to co=er 6ames. $o de=elo& rece&ti=e s<ills t)ro#6) listenin6F de=elo& a &ositi=e attit#de to+ards ot)er lan6#a6es and c#lt#resF sensitiHe t)e c)ild to similarities and di88erences o8 lan6#a6es and c#lt#resF (#ild moti=ation to learn more lan6#a6es. t)ere8ore. Halli+ell !44'). t)e cr#cial role o8 t)e rece&ti=e &at) is 8#lly a6reed on )ere. es&ecially at earlier sta6es o8 learnin6. As 8ar as t)e c)ild?s lan6#a6e de=elo&ment is concerned. Stories are also =al#a(le at t)is sta6e as t)ey o88er o&&ort#nities to &ercei=e similarities and di88erences. All t)e tec)niA#es and acti=ities. aim at pro(iding input and supporting co$prehension . drama tec)niA#es. Stories at t)e same time re&resent t)e earliest and most nat#ral 8orm o8 storin6 and retrie=in6 lan6#a6e (Gern6ross !445:31). t)#s 8ormin6 &art o8 t)e #ni=erse o8 c)ild)ood. introd#ced in accordance +it) t)e de=elo&ment o8 t)e c)ild?s moti=ation to &artici&ate acti=ely in t)e comm#nication &rocess. Spea-ing is. Listening in t)e &rimary is o8 e>treme si6ni8icance as t)e learnin6 seA#ence in t)e mot)er ton6#e and in t)e second or 8orei6n lan6#a6e is lar6ely similar.:'4). Ar6ondiHHo !44'. cr#cial.$)e 8ollo+in6 broad ai$s seem to (e im&ortant at earlier sta6es o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 as identi8ied at t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e 0or<s)o& . +)ic) not only 8orms &art o8 t)e ty&ical &rimary &ractice (0ri6)t !445). "oreo=er. role@&lay. (P)illi&s !44. story@tellin6 and &ractical tas<s (Scott and Ytre(er6 !445. incl#din6 t)ose in=ol=in6 s&ea<in6 s<ills. (#t also contri(#tes to t)e c)ild?s sec#rity and +ell@(ein6. $)at is +)y. ear@ trainin6. Son6s and r)ymes ta<e a =ery s&ecial &lace amon6 recommended tec)niA#es as t)ey o88er &leas#re and 8#n.

(. %ias et al !434. A=aila(ility o8 A#ali8ied teac)ers is. $)e a&&roac)es and met)ods descri(ed a(o=e 8orm a condition necessary. $)e list o8 s<ills needed in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 &resented a(o=e contradicts a &o&#lar (elie8 t)at &rimary sc)ool teac)ers do not need a solid &re&aration. Holt !43. Ga=oidin6 t)e +ides&read &ractice o8 e=al#atin6 ac)ie=ement only in terms o8 t)e s&ea<in6 s<illG (*al(i !44. 0ol88 !43!) (#t also 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 in &artic#lar (/ras)en !433). -n order to ac)ie=e (road aims and im&lement t)e met)odolo6ical a&&roac)es a&&ro&riate at earlier sta6es o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 t)e teac)er s)o#ld dis&lay a considera(le de6ree o8 lin6#istic com&etence and &eda6o6ical a(ility. as +ell as: @ ?n#rt#rin6 s<ills? ena(lin6 t)e teac)er to satis8y t)e emotional needs o8 t)e c)ildren as indi=id#als and to #ni8y t)e classF @ social s<ills and t)e a(ility to comm#nicate +it) &arents and t)e +ider comm#nityF @ s<ills and a(ilities to coo&erate +it) ot)er sta88 mem(ersF @ a &ositi=e attit#de to t)e &otential learnin6 a(ility o8 all c)ildrenF @&lannin6 s<ills and t)e ca&acity to re8lect on aims and realisa(le learnin6 o#tcomes. A 8riendly learnin6 en=ironment is also needed +)ere. Sc)ime< !445). to ens#re s#ccess8#l lan6#a6e learnin6 at early sta6es o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. H#rrell !445. $eac)in6 yo#n6 learners calls 8or t)e &ro8o#nd lin6#istic. still 8ar 8rom satis8actory in many o8 t)e mem(er co#ntries o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. &syc)olo6ical and c#lt#ral &re&aration o8 t)e teac)er and demands )i6) A#ali8ications incl#din6 social and comm#nication com&etences (DoyC !445a).through listening (/ras)en !433).). (DoyC !445. -t is o8ten &ointed o#t t)at com&re)ension itsel8 s)o#ld (e considered an ac)ie=ement. as Pollard and $ann &#t it. ed#cational systems 8ace t)e dan6er o8 met)odolo6ies +)ic) . ed#cational. +)ile ot)ers are &raised and t)eir +or< re6arded as settin6 a standard to +)ic) ot)er c)ildren s)o#ld as&ire. (Pollard and $ann !445: . +)ere t)e et)os is coo&erati=e rat)er t)an com&etiti=e and +)ere some c)ildren are not mar6inaliHed. )o+e=er.? $)e &syc)olo6ical role o8 a 8riendly learnin6 en=ironment )as lon6 (een )i6)li6)ted as s#&&orti=e not only 8or sc)ool learnin6 in 6eneral (Holt !43.:!5. (#t (y no means s#88icient. D#e to lar6e n#m(ers o8 #nA#ali8ied teac)ers in t)e &rimary ed#cation sector. e=ery c)ild 8eels )imsel8 or )ersel8 a =al#ed mem(er o8 t)e class.a.) 7lassrooms +)ic) &ro=ide a s#&&orti=e en=ironment o8 t)is <ind are #s#ally re8erred to as ?incor&orati=e classrooms.

3). A serio#s lan6#a6e &ro(lem also arises.are ina&&ro&riate 8or t)e a6e 6ro#& o8 5M1 to !5M!!. UnA#ali8ied teac)ers 8eel o(li6ed to cond#ct t)eir lessons in a 8orei6n lan6#a6e +it)o#t )a=in6 tr#e o&erati=e <no+led6e o8 it. t)e e88ecti=e #se o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e 8or comm#nicati=e &#r&osesF @ interc#lt#ral #nderstandin6 ie. res&ect 8or and acce&tance o8 ot)er +ays o8 doin6 t)in6s and ot)er (elie8s and =al#es +)ic) &res#&&ose t)e a&&reciation o8 similarities and di88erences (et+een t)eir o+n and ot)er c#lt#resMcomm#nities +)ere t)e tar6et lan6#a6e is s&o<enF @ sel8@reliance or res&onsi(ility 8or one?s o+n learnin6F @ social de=elo&ment. Recommended met)ods and tec)niA#es s)o#ld. 3"1"% Later stages of de(eloping progressi(e linguistic co$petence in the oung learner Broad ai$s o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro6rammes o#6)t to 8ollo+ t)e conce&ts o#tlined in t)e $)res)old Le=el !445. t)#s incl#din6 @ comm#nication ie. -n 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools comm#nicati=e o(9ecti=es are o8 6reat im&ortance and so is t)eir so@called ?+as)(ac< e88ect? on mot)er ton6#e learnin6 as +ell as on 6eneral comm#nication and con=ersational s<ills. 6i=en to interc#lt#ral. cassettes. t)ere8ore. A s&ecial em&)asis in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation is. con8idence and +illin6ness to attem&t to comm#nicate +it) ot)ersF @ t)e E#ro&ean Dimension ie. to: @ de=elo& a &ositi=e attit#de to+ards ot)er lan6#a6es and ot)er c#lt#resF @ de=elo& tolerance and acce&tance o8 ot)er c#lt#resF @ (roaden t)e =ie+&oint o8 t)e c)ildrenF @ s)are de=elo&mental e>&eriences +)ic) &re&are c)ildren 8or a ready acce&tance o8 &eo&le 8rom ot)er co#ntriesF @ acce&t a 8orei6n lan6#a6e as an ed#cational e>&erience 8or li8e (Sc)ime< !445:55@ 5!). t)e contri(#tion o8 lan6#a6e learnin6 to &re&aration 8or democratic citiHens)i& (S)eils !44. records and =ideos to com&ensate 8or t)e lac< o8 a nat#ral so#rce o8 lin6#istic in&#t. social and attit#dinal o(9ecti=es. Lan6#a6e &ro(lems s)o#ld o(=io#sly (e dealt +it) (y in@ser=ice teac)er trainin6 &ro6rammes. . )o+e=er.:. 8a=o#r t)e #se o8 a#t)entic and ada&ted listenin6 materials.

t)e 8ollo+in6 c)aracteristics tend to (e most commonly A#oted. &redis&ositions and learnin6 styles o8 t)e learners. lo=e o8 &ractice 8or its o+n sa<e @ a sense o8 t)e &o+er o8 (ody lan6#a6e @ com&etiti=eness @ a &ride in )isM)er o+n ac)ie=ements @ a sense o8 8#n @ <no+led6e o8 )o+ to e>&loit an a&&reciati=e a#dience @ t)e +ill to transcend ad#lt (orders o8 race and creed (2ec)ner !44':5 . As 8ar as lan6#a6e learnin6 is concerned. learnin6 a lan6#a6e +it) a de6ree o8 c#lt#ral a+areness is t)e only +ay 8or+ard. $)e list o8 (road aims a(o=e ans+ers one o8 t)e A#estions &osed at t)e (e6innin6 o8 t)e RBD action &ro6rammes o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e 0or<s)o&s. H#rrell !445: !). &rior to #nderstandin6 o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e #sed . t)ere8ore. +)et)er lan6#a6e or a com(ination o8 lan6#a6e and ?c#lt#re? s)o#ld (e ta#6)t. and +)et)er lan6#a6e o#6)t to (e ta#6)t as a system or &er)a&s a de6ree o8 c#lt#ral a+areness s)o#ld also (e incl#ded. 7)ildren =ery 8reA#ently demonstrate: @ a s)ort concentration s&an @ a &redis&osition 8or <inaest)etic learnin6 modes @ &re8erences 8or +)ole@(ody learnin6 @ concentration on t)e )ere and no+ @ #nderstandin6 o8 t)e sit#ation. $)e 8ollo+in6 c)aracteristics o8 t)e yo#n6 learner seem to (e &ercei=ed (y most o8 t)e a#t)ors +ritin6 on t)e s#(9ect to incl#de: @ a c#riosity and sense o8 enA#iry @ o&en@mindedness @ a sense o8 imitation. -t 8ollo+s t)at.$)is &laces a 6reat res&onsi(ility on t)e teac)ers +)o s)o#ld t)emsel=es a=oid stereoty&es. (e a+are o8 t)eir o+n c#lt#re and res&ect ot)er c#lt#res (DoyC !445a). to ac)ie=e (road aims incl#din6 tolerance and interc#lt#ral #nderstandin6 as +ell as to de=elo& &ositi=e attit#des and moti=ation. $eac)in6 met)ods and classroom tec)niA#es aimin6 at t)e de=elo&ment o8 (asic lan6#a6e s<ills at later sta6es o8 &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 )a=e to ens#re &roced#res a&&ro&riate to t)e needs. t)at is. A set o8 c)aracteristics o8 t)e yo#n6 learner is. indis&ensa(le +)en considerin6 classroom met)odolo6ies.

Ar6ondiHHo !44'. Halli+ell !44'. r)yt)m. Heindler and 2el(er(a#er !445). $)ese +ill incl#de: @ )olistic. =is#al and a#dial learnin6 styles o8 t)e yo#n6 learnersF @ com&re)ension (ased a&&roac)es are ad=ocated d#e to t)e mostly rece&ti=e lan6#a6e learnin6 o8 t)e yo#n6 learnersF @ acti=e and &lay8#l learnin6. =is#alisation and mo=ement is recommended (ased on t)e <inaest)etic. (Scott and Ytre(er6 !445. son6s. All t)e a(o=e c)aracteristics o8 t)e yo#n6 learner allo+ #s to dra+ A#ite a detailed &ict#re o8 t)e most a&&ro&riate a&&roac)es and met)ods to ado&t in 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 and learnin6. Hardy et al !445.@ A#ic< learnin6 accom&anied (y A#ic< 8or6ettin6 @ t)e &redominance o8 mec)anical o=er lo6ical memory @ t)e lac< o8 in)i(itions a(o#t s&ea<in6 @ t)e +illin6ness to ma<e errors and to ma<e errors +or< 8or t)em (2a+ and *el<in !435. m#ltisensory a&&roac)es in=ol=in6 stories. . dis&lay nat#ral com&etiti=eness and lac< in)i(itions a(o#t s&ea<in6. H#rrell !445. learnin6 (y doin6 and $otal P)ysical Res&onse are enco#ra6ed d#e to t)e &)ysical mo(ility o8 t)e c)ildren and to t)eir sense o8 enA#iryF @ teac)in6 lan6#a6e in a meanin68#l conte>t is necessary to s#&&ort com&re)ension and to stress t)e )ere and no+F @ c)ild@centred selection o8 a#t)entic content meanin68#l 8or t)e c)ildren and #nderstanda(le (y t)em is recommended in order to )el& rece&ti=e learnin6F @ a sylla(#s or6anised aro#nd t)ematic areas is recommended in order to de=elo& and s#stain moti=ationF @ no 8ormal trainin6 in 6rammar is recommended d#e to t)e domination o8 mec)anical o=er lo6ical memoryF @ met)ods stren6t)enin6 c)ildren?s memory are recommended d#e to t)e dominance o8 mec)anical o=er lo6ical memory at t)is a6eF @ noise and mo=ement s)o#ld (e acce&ted as &art o8 t)e lan6#a6e learnin6 d#e to t)e &re=alence o8 <inaest)etic learnin6 styles o8 t)e c)ildrenF @ a stress@8ree atmos&)ere o#6)t to &re=ail +it) im&lications 8or error )andlin6 and monitorin6 in order to maintain nat#ral s&ontaneity and moti=ation in yo#n6 learnersF @ &ositi=e 8eed(ac< s)o#ld (e 6i=en to enco#ra6e s#ccess and (#ild con8idence +)ic) is (asic 8or t)e c)ild?s de=elo&mentF @ ris<@ta<in6 strate6ies s)o#ld (e enco#ra6ed to de=elo& social and strate6ic com&etence as c)ildren learn (y trial and error. r)ymes. learn 8rom mista<es. acti=ity (ased learnin6. Gern6ross !445. Edel)o88 !44'. 0ilson !445).

it s)o#ld )i6)li6)t c)ildren?s ac)ie=ements. (#t also to t)in< 8or+ard to secondary ed#cation in order to ens#re )armonisation o8 o(9ecti=es.A&&ro&riate met)odolo6ies can only (e s#ccess8#l +)en 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 ta<es &lace at a time (est s#ited to t)e &#&ils +it) sessions &ossi(ly s)ort. 2reA#ent sessions also ma<e inte6ration easier (Sc)ime< !445:5!@5'). *eca#se t)ey 8or6et A#ic<ly re=ision (ecomes essential. H#rrell !445:35). $)e most im&ortant o8 t)ose identi8ied at 0or<s)o& 3* +ere: . +)ic) incl#des &ositi=e statements a(o#t t)e lin6#istic de=elo&ment o8 eac) c)ild. in order to ens#re contin#ity and &ro6ression o8 t)e c)ildren?s 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6. in t)e &rimary or secondary sector. co)erence and &ro6ression (et+een &rimary and secondary ed#cation le=els. it is im&ortant not only to ens#re contin#ity +it)in t)e &rimary sector. Recommendations o8 0or<s)o& 3* at Nelm identi8y c)ildren?s ri6)ts as: @ @ @ t)e ri6)t to a stress@8ree transition 8rom one system to anot)erF t)e ri6)t to t)e systematic contin#ity o8 learnin6 e>&eriencesF t)e ri6)t to (#ild on ac)ie=ements. E=al#ation o8 t)is <ind. analysin6. 2reA#ent sessions are recommended d#e to t)e 8act t)at recall in yo#n6 c)ildren is de8icient. (Gritsc) !445:!51. descri(in6 and re&ortin6. e=al#ation s)o#ld not (e 6i=en in t)e 8orm o8 a mar<. contin#ity. E=al#ation s)o#ld not determine t)e c)ildren?s 8#t#re sc)ool &at). Smoot) transition (et+een t)e &rimary and secondary sector is still (y no means a reality in many o8 t)e mem(er co#ntries. (earin6 in mind t)e c)ildren?s limited concentration s&an. Assessment s)o#ld not (e #sed to eliminate yo#n6 learners 8rom t)e lan6#a6e &ro6ramme or to si6nal non@&romotion to t)e ne>t sta6e in t)e &rimary sc)ool. On t)e contrary. Descri&ti=e e=al#ation is recommended as it consists in o(ser=in6." #ontinuity in foreign language learning 0)ile disc#ssin6 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in t)e &rimary. -n order to 8#l8il t)ese reA#irements. Descri&ti=e e=al#ation +ill )el& identi8y. ac<no+led6e and cele(rate t)e c)ildren?s ac)ie=ements and &ro=ide enco#ra6ement. $)ere are n#mero#s reasons 8or t)e &)enomenon. -t +ill stress t)e stron6 &oints o8 t)e learner rat)er t)an )i6)li6)t )isM)er 8ailin6s and &ro=ide a &ositi=e acco#nt o8 +)at t)e learner can do rat)er t)an a ne6ati=e acco#nt o8 +)at t)e c)ild cannot do. s)o#ld (e transmitted to t)e ne>t sta6e and to t)e recei=in6 teac)er. ".

!44':44). An inte6rated c#rric#l#m ty&ical o8 &rimary ed#cation is <no+n to re=eal considera(le co)esion (et+een areas o8 e>&erience at t)e cost o8 contin#ity. )o+e=er. more &air +or< and team +or< +ill (e needed alon6side (etter &ro9ect and tas< or6anisation o8 t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 &rocesses. Learners can t)en c)oose 8rom a =ariety o8 o&tions. -t does not. Eoint &re@ser=ice trainin6 in didactics and met)odolo6ies mi6)t also remedy t)e sit#ation to a considera(le de6ree (H#rrell !445:35). sa8e6#ard contin#ity in t)e case o8 c)an6e o8 sta88 or a c)an6e o8 sc)ool +it)in t)e &rimary sector.@ t)at t)ere is 6enerally little contact (et+een t)e teac)ers in &rimary and secondary sc)oolsF @ t)at secondary sc)ools )a=e an im&o=eris)ed a+areness o8 t)e learnin6 o(9ecti=es in t)e &rimary sectorF @ t)at teac)in6 styles and a&&roac)es +)ic) do not ta<e t)e c)ildren?s &rior learnin6 into acco#nt are li<ely to demoti=ate &#&ilsF @ t)at relations)i&s (et+een &rimary and secondary sc)ool sta88 are o8ten strained. A clearer ind#ction in a#tonomo#s learnin6 is also recommended. to ens#re contin#ity +)en =irt#ally no coo&eration e>ists (et+een &rimary and secondary sc)ool teac)ers. )a=e a say in t)e s)a&in6 o8 o(9ecti=es and content. As m#lti@le=el and mi>ed@a(ility teac)in6 is li<ely to ta<e &lace at later sta6es. Pro&er c#rric#l#m sta6in6 as +ell as d#e attention (ein6 6i=en to learner a#tonomy. Smoot) transition can (e &ossi(le only +)en models 8or &rimary and secondary teac)ers? coo&eration )a=e (een +or<ed o#t and in8ormation circ#lated (et+een &rimary and secondary sc)ools (Sc)ime< !445:5. as +ell as de=elo& t)eir o+n a(ility to &lan.). Later sta6es o8 ed#cation are more li<ely to (e s)oc<@&roo8 in t)is domain as t)ey are commonly located +it)in a collected s#(9ect@(ased c#rric#l#m +it) less co)esion (et+een areas o8 e>&erience. (#t considera(le co)esion +it)in eac) o8 t)em (Pollard and $ann. monitor and e=al#ate t)eir learnin6 (Holec and H#tt#nen !445:! ). Smoot) &assa6e can (e 8acilitated (y s&ecial transition acti=ities s#c) as &er8ormances 6i=en (y &rimary &#&ils in t)e 8irst +ee<s o8 t)eir secondary sc)ools to s)o+ +)at t)ey )a=e learnedF &rimary teac)ers? =isits to t)e secondary sc)ool to see t)eir &#&ils? &ro6ressF secondary &#&ils? =isits and &artici&ation in &rimary lessons to ena(le t)em to &ercei=e t)eir o+n &ro6ressF common to&ic &ro9ectsF &rimary@ . $)e &ro(lem is not t)at o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 alone. sa8e6#ards contin#ity in sit#ations ty&ical to a c)an6e o8 sc)ools at t)e &rimaryMsecondary 9#nct#re. -t is di88ic#lt. i8 not im&ossi(le.

&osters. t)o#6) considera(le amo#nts o8 m#ltile=el and mi>ed@a(ility teac)in6 +ill still enter t)e &ict#re. streamin6). it mi6)t (e ad=isa(le in s#c) cases to introd#ce settin6 as a &roced#re ena(lin6 learners to (e 6ro#&ed accordin6 to t)eir s<ills in a 8orei6n lan6#a6e rat)er t)an accordin6 to t)eir a6e and 6rade. son6s.secondary &en@&al acti=ities and local 8esti=als o8 lan6#a6es (Gritsc) !445:!!5). readin6 record. +or<(oo<s. materials and s#ccess8#l acti=ities (H#rrell !445:35). $o 8acilitate contin#ity. $)is +ill ens#re a stress@8ree transition 8rom one system to anot)er. class s+a&&in6 are also recommended alon6 +it) trans8er o8 in8ormation t)ro#6) lea8lets and )eadteac)ers? meetin6s as +ell as teac)ers? net+or<s aimin6 at 9oint &lannin6 and at dissemination o8 6ood &ractice (Gritsc) !445:!!!) All t)e a(o=e recommendations are related to si> iss#es +)ic) are considered indis&ensa(le to ens#re contin#ity: a+areness@raisin6 colla(oration trans8er o8 in8ormation transition acti=ities dissemination trainin6 . A&&ro&riate &lacement may (e )el&ed (y &ort8olios o8 &#&ils? +or< +)ic) +ill s)o+ t)e secondary teac)er t)e sco&e o8 t)e c)ild?s e>&erience t)ro#6) creati=e +or<. Ho+e=er. to 1 years o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. o(ser=ation. 9oint cross@sector in@ser=ice trainin6 and dissemination o8 6ood &ractice s)o#ld also (e enco#ra6ed (Gritsc) !445:!!5@!!!). t)e systematic contin#ity o8 learnin6 e>&eriences and (#ildin6 on ac)ie=ements (Gritsc) !445:!!'). Sta88 de=elo&ment &ro6rammes to incl#de e>&erience in t)e ot)er sector t)ro#6) team teac)in6. settin6. insi6)ts. all t)e a(o=e recommendations can only (e accommodated (y national systems +it) a satis8actory de6ree o8 ed#cational contin#ity in 6eneral. r)ymes and some 8orms o8 recordin6 o8 t)e c)ild?s ac)ie=ement le=el t)ro#6) descri&ti=e e=al#ation (Gritsc) !445:!!5). (road (andin6. -n@ser=ice o&&ort#nities s)o#ld (e created to enco#ra6e &rimary and secondary teac)ers to s)are met)odolo6ies. O8ten eno#6) secondary ed#cation (ecomes a meetin6 &oint 8or (ot) ne+comers +it) no lan6#a6e (ac<6ro#nd and 8or t)ose +it) . $a<in6 co6nisance o8 a 6reat =ariety o8 classroom con8i6#rations in t)e secondary sector (mi>ed@a(ility.

Git is not necessary 8or t)e o(9ecti=es or <inds o8 &ro6ression in eac) o8 t)e c)osen lan6#a6es to (e t)e same. . tends to (e #n(alanced d#e to: @ a 6reater mastery o8 one lan6#a6e com&ared to t)e ot)ersF @ a di88erent &ro8ile o8 one lan6#a6e com&ared to t)e ot)ers. similarity o8 o(9ecti=es and met)ods s)o#ld not necessarily (e so#6)t.) &ntegration and continuity vis/a/vis multilingual and multicultural competence of the young learner Secondary ed#cation in some o8 t)e E#ro&ean sc)ool systems ma<es it o(li6atory 8or t)e learners to ta<e t+o or more 8orei6n lan6#a6es. -t also entails di=ersity in secondary ed#cation +)ere contin#ity o8 one 8orei6n lan6#a6e accom&anies a start 8or t)e learnin6 o8 a second 8orei6n lan6#a6e. a tendency identi8ied at 0or<s)o& 3* (Heindler and 2el(er(a#er !445:.5). 8or e>am&le. t)ere8ore. o(9ecti=es and met)ods em&loyed in lan6#a6e ed#cation o88ered (y t)ose &rimary sc)ools +)ic) introd#ce more t)an one 8orei6n lan6#a6e into t)e c#rric#l#m. $)e trend to learn more t)an one 8orei6n lan6#a6e is de8initely 6ro+in6 in E#ro&e and so is t)e ran6e o8 lan6#a6es o88ered in t)e E#ro&ean ed#cational systems. t)e ed#cational system allo+ed &#&ils to (e6in learnin6 t+o lan6#a6es at a &re@determined sta6e t)e startin6 &oint need not al+ays (e &re&aration 8or &ractical e>c)an6es satis8yin6 t)e same comm#nicati=e needsG (7ommon E#ro&ean 2rame+or< !44. 8or e>am&le. As t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e states. Accordin6 to t)e set o8 &rinci&les laid o#t (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e in t)e 7ommon E#ro&ean 2rame+or< 8or Lan6#a6e Learnin6 and $eac)in6 (77@LA%G 4. i8.cit: ).@' . Stras(o#r6.: 5). "#ltilin6#al and m#ltic#lt#ral com&etence at e=ery sta6e. %o=em(er !44. t)o#6) at t)e same time. 8or e>am&le. +)en t)e 8irst 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 concentrates on listenin6 and s&ea<in6 and t)e second 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 on readin6 and +ritin6F @ a m#ltilin6#al &ro8ile di88erent 8rom t)e m#ltic#lt#ral &ro8ile. "#ltilin6#al and m#ltic#lt#ral com&etence t)en entails di=ersity o8 aims.". Gc#rric#la s)o#ld (e in line +it) t)e o=erall o(9ecti=es o8 &romotin6 lin6#istic di=ersityG.) +)en se=eral lan6#a6es are ta#6)t +it)in t)e same ed#cational sta6e. $)is s)o#ld (e considered in t)e &rocess o8 sylla(#s desi6n 8or &artic#lar lan6#a6es as o8ten +ron6 decisions can (e ta<en in an #nnecessary &#rs#it o8 t)e system?s #ni8ormity. a 6ood <no+led6e o8 t)e c#lt#re o8 a comm#nity (#t a &oor <no+led6e o8 its lan6#a6e or =ice =ersa (o&.

0e s)o#ld <ee& in mind t)e c)ild?s ri6)t to error and sensiti=e error@)andlin6 and t)e ri6)t to a 8riendly and s#&&orti=e lan6#a6e learnin6 en=ironment. t)e ri6)t to 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation im&lies co)erent or6anisation and im&lementation o8 an a&&ro&riate teac)in6 &ro6ramme and a smoot) transition 8rom &rimary to secondary. .-n concl#sion. 8acilitated (y t)e e>c)an6e o8 in8ormation and a s)arin6 o8 6ood &ractice.

c#rric#l#m. or instit#tions +)ile assessment re8ers to t)e a&&raisal o8. c#rric#la.to &rod#ce a re&ort 8or 0or<s)o& . ! 88) assessment and e=al#ation +ere introd#ced (y disc#ssin6 t)e Scottis) &ers&ecti=e on t)ese s#(9ects. !445). !44. t)e %et)erlands (Nin9C. +)ere necessary. to )i6)li6)t iss#es t)at are not consens#al and t)at reA#ire 8#rt)er e>&lorationF ii. desi6ned to &ro=ide rele=ant in8ormation on +)at a net+or< )as ac)ie=ed and to sim#lateMill#minate disc#ssion at t)e +or<s)o&. &. 8or e>am&le. !44. t)e terms ?e=al#ation? and ?assessment? do not )a=e 6enerally a6reed@#&on meanin6s. EVA.as 8ar as &ossi(le to reac) consens#s on 6eneral &rinci&lesM6#idelines 6o=ernin6 sylla(#s and e=al#ation. (#t also. ). *y incl#din6 e=al#ation and assessment o&timally #se8#l e=idence can (e 6at)ered. S+eden (*al<e.*. 2oc#sin6 e>cl#si=ely on &ro6ramme e=al#ation or e=al#ations o8 c#rric#la or teac)in6 &rocesses +o#ld e>cl#de a +ide ran6e o8 st#dies 8rom. contin#ity. $)ese st#dies are in 8act e=al#ations. interc#lt#ral learnin6. e=al#ation is considered as t)e a&&raisal o8 teac)in6 &rocesses.1 Evaluation and assessment -n 2LE and in t)e 6eneral s&)ere o8 ed#cation. -n 0or<s)o&s 3A and 3* t)e 8ollo+in6 t)emes +ere addressed: a s#r=ey o8 a&&roac)es. -n t)e conte>t o8 t)is c)a&ter.UATION AND ASSESSMENT Peter EDELEN OS .). analyHed and a&&raised +it) res&ect to 2LE in a more co)erent 8rame+or<. (eca#se t)ey a&&raise t)e attained le=el o8 command in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e at t)e end o8 &rimary sc)ools. =aria(ility and t)e &ossi(le A#estions 8or disc#ssion at t)e +or<s)o&. 8or e>am&le. met)odolo6y. !44'). t)e data@6at)erin6 &roced#res. &ro6rammes. E=al#ation and .2 Evaluation and assessment in the conte0t of the $orkshops D#rin6 0or<s)o& .) or H#n6ary (Radnai. $)e title ?E=al#ation and Assessment? )as (een c)osen deli(erately.2. learnin6 res#lts o8 indi=id#als ("ada#s B /ella6)an. S&eci8ic to&ics +ere: t)e researc) aims.A (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& . $)e aims 8or t)is %et+or< +ere: i. materials and teac)er ed#cation.Netherlands ). One o8 t)e res#lts o8 t)e +or<s)o& relatin6 to e=al#ation +as t)at a %et+or< 8or -n8ormation on 7#rric#l#m and E=al#ation +as set #&.A.

8or e>am&le. t)e 8ollo+in6 te>ts +ill 8oc#s on t)e +or< o8 t)e %et+or< 8or -n8ormation on 7#rric#l#m and E=al#ation. Ho+e=er. #onte0ts for evaluation and assessment1 differences and similarities $)e social and &olitical conte>t in +)ic) initiati=es )a=e (een ta<en 8or introd#cin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in &rimary sc)ools is almost #niA#e 8or e=ery E#ro&ean co#ntry. $)is stron6 emer6ent role 8or ministries )as )ad di88erent sorts o8 im&lications in di88erent co#ntries. -n t)e li6)t o8 t)is.6. c#lt#ral learnin6 is t)o#6)t to (e almost sel8@e=idently inte6ral. -n Germany. Nin9C &. (#t +ere treated as as&ects o8 t)e +or< o8 t)e +or<6ro#&s. d#rin6 s)o+ and tell sessions. 2LE is no+ seen as an e>&ression o8 &olitical +ill and . 0)ereas many o8 t)e e>&eriments in 2LE t)at +ere #nderta<en some t+enty or more years a6o +ere a re8lection o8 t)e initiati=es o8 interested 6ro#&s. Des&ite t)e di88erences a n#m(er o8 common strands may also (e detected. 2actors s#c) as t)ese. o&eratin6 in t)e social conte>t. Primary@sc)ool c)ildren in Holland recei=e m#c) more e>&os#re to a 8orei6n lan6#a6e o#t@o8@sc)ool t)an do t)eir co#nter&arts in (say) S&ain or -reland. m#st )a=e direct conseA#ences 8or c)ildren?s moti=ation to learn and #se t)e lan6#a6e and t)e rate at +)ic) t)ey ma<e &ro6ress in acA#irin6 it (Edelen(os B Eo)nstone. !5'@!51). *#t none o8 t)is +or< can (e a&&raised +it)o#t descri(in6 t)e conte>t 8or e=al#ation and assessment in se=eral co#ntries in E#ro&e. t)e &olitical +ill t)at +as =ital in ena(lin6 t)e national &ilots to ta<e &lace initially sa+ t)e 9#sti8ication 8or 2LE more e>&licitly in instr#mental terms o8 (#siness com&etiti=eness +it)in t)e Sin6le "ar<et rat)er t)an as an ed#cational. -n Germany 8or e>am&le. o8 #ni=ersities. t)e emer6ence o8 a stron6 role 8or national or 8ederal state ministries in =alidatin6 and &romotin6 2LE +it)in t)eir &artic#lar co#ntries.assessment +ere not addressed as se&arate to&ics. e. s&eci8ic in8ormation +as &resented on assessments (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3A. t)e de=elo&ments c#rrently ta<in6 &lace in E#ro&e 6enerally )a=e a more 8ormal national im&rimat#r. -n Scotland. ). -n co#ntries t)at +ere 8ormerly (e)ind t)e -ron 7#rtain =ery di88erent roles )a=e (een &ercei=ed 8or German. local a#t)orities or sc)ools. $)e aims and a&&roac)es t)at #nderlie de=elo&ments to+ards 2LE in &rimary sc)ools also di88er dramatically. !441). R#ssian and En6lis) as 8orei6n lan6#a6es. one t)at is 8#rt)er enco#ra6ed (y &o+er8#l and in8l#ential s#&ra@national str#ct#res s#c) as t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e and t)e E7 (es&ecially t)ro#6) its L-%GUA &ro6ramme). c#lt#ral or lin6#istic contri(#tion to c)ildren?s &ersonal de=elo&ment. 2irst.

" !he transition phase D#rin6 t)e &eriods (et+een t)e initial A@+or<s)o&s and t)e *@+or<s)o&s. !445) +ere aimed at &ro=idin6 in8ormation a(o#t t)e s#ccess o8 t)e initiati=es. DoyC (!44. in -taly (y $aesc)ner (!445) and . namely S+eden (%ort)ern E#ro&e).considered =alidated.A (Edin(#r6)). $)ese 8o#r co#ntries are not re&resentati=e o8 t)e total n#m(er o8 st#dies &#(lis)ed. +it) many &ro(lems and &it8alls on t)e +ay. t)e de(ate on t)e moti=es 8or introd#cin6 2LE +as carried o#t at a national le=el. 2irst. 2#rt)er in8ormation a(o#t e=al#ation and assessment &ro9ects into 2LE in Germany is &resented (y *l#da# (!44. many years o8 6rad#al de=elo&ment +ere necessary (e8ore t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e (ecame an o(li6atory s#(9ect and national core 6oals +ere im&lemented. -t is =ery m#c) to t)e credit o8 t)e =ario#s national or ot)er a#t)orities t)at t)ey )a=e ac<no+led6ed t)e im&ortance o8 a researc)@(ased dimension to t)e national &ro6ramme 8or t)eir co#ntry and &ro=ided t)e 8#nds 8or t)is. Ho+e=er. (ased on an adeA#ate s#&&ly o8 teac)ers +)o )a=e (een a&&ro&riately trained 8or t)e &#r&ose. 8o#r co#ntries 8rom di88erent &arts o8 E#ro&e )a=e (een incl#ded. $)e o#tcomes o8 t)ese st#dies +ere monitored (y t)e mem(ers o8 t)e %et+or< 8or -n8ormation on 7#rric#l#m and E=al#ation initiated in 0or<s)o& . Scotland (Great *ritain) and H#n6ary (Eastern E#ro&e). )o+e=er. 6i=en t)at t)is conte>t may in many cases (e one o8 6rad#al &ro6ress to+ards a distant 6oal. ).) and /#(ane<@German (!441).) and in S+eden (*al<e. 2or t)is selection t+o criteria )a=e (een #sed.). (#t o88er an indication o8 t)e +or< #nder s#r=ey. E=en in co#ntries +)ere t)e social conte>t 8or 2LE at &rimary sc)ool is com&arati=ely more 8a=o#ra(le. -n t)e conte>t o8 t)is article. ma9or e=al#ation and assessment &ro9ects t)ro#6)o#t E#ro&e +ere cond#cted. a selection )as )ad to (e made 8rom t)e o=er+)elmin6 amo#nt o8 &#(lications.F Nin9C. !44. A second as&ect t)at occ#rs in se=eral di88erent co#ntries is t)e enormity o8 t)e &ro(lem o8 act#ally im&lementin6 a &olicy 8or 2LE across all &rimary sc)ools. -n S+eden and Holland. E=al#ations in t)e %et)erlands (Edelen(os. t)e %et)erlands (0estern E#ro&e). -t +ill t)ere8ore ta<e a considera(le amo#nt o8 time (e8ore most co#ntries in E#ro&e )a=e reac)ed t)e &oint at +)ic) t)ey co#ld claim t)ey are im&lementin6 anyt)in6 li<e t)eir &re8erred model o8 2LE. Any 8indin6s 8rom e=al#ations +ill )a=e to (e e>amined +it) care8#l attention to t)e conte>t 8or t)e de=elo&ment. !44. researc)@(ased e=al#ations o8 t)is sort ine=ita(ly entail tensions and di88ic#lties.

$)e &#&ils are o8ten e>&osed to En6lis) o#tside sc)ool. S+eden $)e S+edis) e=al#ation o8 t)e teac)in6 o8 En6lis) in com&#lsory sc)ools +as cond#cted (y *al<e (!445).) o8 t)e (D#tc)) %ational -nstit#te 8or Ed#cational "eas#rement &resented t)e o#tcomes o8 t)e %ational Assessment Pro6ramme (in D#tc) a((re=iated to PPO%) 8or En6lis) at t)e end o8 &rimary ed#cation. only t)e ma9or &#(lications i. Second. $)e aim o8 t)e e=al#ation is to 6et a =ie+. $)e discre&ancy (et+een t)e act#al teac)in6 on t)e one )and and teac)in6 (ased on t)e 6oals stated in t)e c#rric#l#m on t)e ot)er )and can. t)o#6) most o8 t)em state t)at t)ey are a(le to say only a 8e+ +ords. Generally. &#&ils )a=e &ositi=e attit#des to+ards t)e #se o8 En6lis) and are also rat)er con8ident in t)eir #se o8 En6lis) in real settin6s. $)e more #ncertain t)e teac)ers are o8 t)eir o+n com&etence. Accordin6 to *al<e. A ma9ority o8 t)e !5 &er cent +)o 8ail in one s<ill also 8ail in t)e ot)ers. s<ills and attit#des. t)e more traditional t)eir teac)in6 is and t)e more de&endent on te>t(oo<s t)ey are. at least to a certain de6ree. A 6reat ma9ority listen to En6lis) on $N and to En6lis) son6s almost e=ery day. (#t com&ared to t)e attit#des to+ards En6lis) o#tside sc)ool. as .e. $)e aim o8 t)e assessment +as to s#r=ey.$itone (!44. The Netherlands Nin9C (!44. -ncl#ded in t)e &ro6ramme is a rec#rrent assessment o8 &#&ils? <no+led6e. t)e ent)#siasm a(o#t En6lis) as a sc)ool s#(9ect is lo+er. Re6ardin6 t)e res#lts on t)e ac)ie=ement tests. it is 8o#nd t)at ninety &er cent o8 t)e &#&ils attain a (asic le=el o8 &ro8iciency in eac) o8 t)e 8o#r s<ills. A salient res#lt is t)e 6reat =ariation (et+een classes. $)e &oint o8 de&art#re 8or t)e %ational E=al#ation Pro6ramme is t)e &resent c#rric#l#m (+)ic) dates 8rom !435). (e e>&lained (y t)e inadeA#ate com&etence o8 many teac)ers. A ma9ority o8 t)e &#&ils t)in< t)at it is 8#n to learn En6lis) in sc)ool and to s&ea< En6lis) d#rin6 t)e lessons. (ot) in test res#lts and in t)e sel8@assessments o8 sc)ool &er8ormance.) and in 2inland (y H#tt#nen B /#<<onen (!445). as com&re)ensi=e as &ossi(le. P#&ils? ans+ers to A#estions a(o#t t)e acti=ities in sc)ool s)o+ t)at &#&ils +o#ld li<e more o&&ort#nities to s&ea< En6lis) d#rin6 lessons. all &artici&atin6 teac)ers 8ind t)e em&)asis in t)e &resent c#rric#l#m on comm#nicati=e com&etence 9#sti8ied. o8 t)e sc)ool system. -n tests 8or &rod#cti=e s<ills &#&ils can (etter s)o+ t)eir 8#ll comm#nicati=e a(ilities. 8inal re&orts and articles in acclaimed 9o#rnals on e=al#ation and assessment )a=e (een #sed. Ot)er rat)er 8reA#ent acti=ities incl#de listenin6 to En6lis) radio &ro6rammes and &layin6 com&#ter and role 6ames.

$)e +ords t)at are most di88ic#lt 8or D#tc) c)ildren are t)ose needed to descri(e 8amily relations. &. On a=era6e.) di88erent teac)in6 styles and a&&roac)es +)ic) are li<ely to disco#ra6e &#&ils and . "ore t)an 55T o8 t)e c)ildren say t)at t)ey learn t)e same amo#nt o8 En6lis) o#tside sc)ool. a lac< o8 didactical contin#ation and a lac< o8 contin#ity in s#(9ect matter. Accordin6 to e>&erts. (#t t)is st#dy con8irmed t)at t)e contin#ity &ro(lem in essence is made #& o8 8i=e elements: a comm#nication 6a&. time s&eci8ications and &eo&le?s clot)in6. !5!@!!'). Alt)o#6) t)e &ro(lem o8 contin#ity in 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 is se=ere.o(9ecti=ely as one can. $)e e=al#ation in t)e %et)erlands s)o+ed em&irically t)at t)e contin#ation &ro(lem is mainly &ercei=ed as discontin#ity in t)e a&&roac) and or6aniHation o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in t+o s#(seA#ent ty&es o8 sc)ools ca#sed (y a lac< o8 comm#nication (et+een t)e t+o consec#ti=e sc)ool systems (at (ot) teac)er and mana6ement le=els). A remar<a(le 8indin6 is t)at concernin6 t)e interaction o8 t+o di88erent s<ills: in=estin6 a lot o8 time in teac)in6 En6lis). #sin6 a co#rse +it) s&ecial attention to 6rammar (as is done in a small n#m(ers o8 sc)ools) leads to ne6ati=e &er8ormance le=els 8or readin6. it is no +orse or (etter t)an s#(9ects li<e D#tc) or mat)ematics. An a=era6e &#&il can co&e A#ite +ell in many sim&le comm#nicati=e sit#ations. $)e contin#ity &ro(lem +ill &resent itsel8 in di88erent s)a&es t)ro#6)o#t E#ro&e. &#&ils at t)e end o8 &rimary sc)ool (a6e !!) can #nderstand s&o<en En6lis). ?t)e +eat)er? and ?descri(in6 (#ildin6s? )as (een mastered most e88ecti=ely. 1 @ . $)e stri<in6ly 6ood res#lts 8or listenin6 raise t)e s#66estion t)at &#&ils learn En6lis) o#tside o8 sc)ool as +ell. Noca(#lary needed to tal< a(o#t t)emes li<e ?trans&ort?.) in=esti6ated t)e contin#ity (et+een &rimary and secondary ed#cation. inadeA#ate testin6 o8 &#&ils at t)e (e6innin6 o8 t)e secondary le=el and t)e #se o8 in8ormation on t)e le=el o8 command (y secondary teac)ers. $)e res#lts o8 t)is e=al#ation can =eri8y t)e ideas o8 t)e +or<6ro#&s on contin#ity in t)e 0or<s)o&s 3A (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3A. t)e reasons 8or many teac)ers at t)e secondary le=el to start 8rom scratc) +ere t)e 8ollo+in6: !) 6enerally t)ere is little contact (et+een teac)ers in &rimary and secondary sc)oolsF ') an in8ormation de8icit at t)e secondary le=el a(o#t &rimary o(9ecti=esF . teac)ers in &rimary and in secondary ed#cation 6enerally consider t)e mastery le=el o8 En6lis) to (e satis8actory.) strained relations)i&s (et+een &rimary and secondary sc)ool sta88. res#lts in se=eral 8ields o8 ed#cation and to descri(e t)em as clearly as &ossi(le.) and 3* (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. es&ecially +it) re6ard to listenin6 &er8ormance. &. Accordin6 to mem(ers o8 t)e +or<6ro#& in Nelm. $)e 8inal PPO% re&ort on En6lis) s)o+ed t)at t)e readin6 ac)ie=ements o8 t)e a=era6e &#&il are moderate. lac< o8 8ine@t#nin6 in aims and 6oals (at se=eral . Edelen(os (!44.

assessment o8 t)e lin6#istic attainments o8 c)ildren in=ol=ed in t)e &ilot &ro9ects. Scotland -n Scotland e=al#ations o8 national &ilot &ro9ects +ere cond#cted (y Lo+ et al (!44. $)e !445 re&ort indicates t)at t)e 6reat ma9ority o8 &#&il &airs +it)in t)e Pro9ect 6ro#&s (+)et)er 6irls or (oys. dra+in6 on classroom acti=ities and s&ecial assessments. Proced#res and criteria +ere de=elo&ed 8or selectin6 &airs. Paired inter=ie+s +ere selected as t)e main assessment met)od 8or com&arin6 &ro9ect &#&ils (+)o (e6an t)eir 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 at &rimary sc)ool) +it) non@&ro9ect &#&ils (+)o (e6an at secondary). Essentially t)e same inter=ie+ 8ormat and codin6 system +ere a&&lied a6ain in !44. $)e !44' &aired inter=ie+s re&resented t)e researc)ers? 8irst attem&t at 6a#6in6 t)e e>tent to +)ic) &ro6ression )ad ta<en &lace +it)in t)e Pro9ect co)orts 8rom Primary to Secondary! to Secondary'. incl#din6 descri&tion o8 and commentary on 8actors s#c) as t)e nat#re o8 t)e co#rses and &eda6o6ical met)ods +)ic) en)ance or in)i(it t)e lin6#istic &er8ormance o8 t)e c)ildren in=ol=ed. di88erences in didactical a&&roac)es and t)e s#(9ect matter o88ered to &#&ils. e=al#ation o8 t)e &ro9ect co#rses.. rel#ctance at t)e secondary le=el to ac<no+led6e t)e learnin6 res#lts at t)e &rimary le=el and s)ortcomin6s in initial and in@ser=ice trainin6 to address t)e a(o=e@ mentioned &ro(lems.intermediate sta6es). incl#din6 com&arison +it) t)ose not in=ol=ed and '. $)e &rescri(ed aims (y t)e Scottis) O88ice Ed#cation De&artment o8 t)e 8irst e=al#ation +ere: !. -n t)is st#dy a n#m(er o8 &rinci&les to 6#ide t)e researc) a&&roac) +ere ela(orated. comm#nication strate6ies and readiness to ans+er in class (Lo+ et al. !44. str#ct#ral com&le>ity. #se o8 disco#rse tec)niA#es. and +)et)er cate6orised (y t)eir teac)er as )i6). +it) increasin6 em&)asis on +it)in@ Pro9ect rat)er t)an on Pro9ect =ers#s %on@Pro9ect com&arisons. middle or lo+ ac)ie=ers) +ere a(le to s#stain an .). a(ility to s#stain &atterns o8 initiation and res&onse. 8or im&lementin6 and =alidatin6 t)e tas< and 8or analysin6 &#&il &er8ormance. $)e !44! &aired inter=ie+s &rod#ced e=idence s#66esti=e o8 an ad=anta6e 8or Pro9ect o=er %on@Pro9ect &airs across t)e a(ility ran6e. and !44. A ran6e o8 data@6at)erin6 &roced#res +ere ado&ted. $)e ad=anta6e s)o+ed #& most clearly in &ron#nciation and intonation.) and Lo+ et al (!445).

$)e 8indin6s to (e disc#ssed )ere )a=e (een attained in 8o#r lar6e@scale &ro9ects t)at +ere carried o#t (et+een !43! and !44!. $)e desi6n o8 t)e lan6#a6e . t)e ad=anta6e in terms o8 certi8icate a+ards +as essentially one o8 a lar6er &ro&ortion o8 t)e co)ort (ein6 entered 8or a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. cond#cted almost e>cl#si=ely in t)eir 8orei6n lan6#a6e.. in t)e sense t)at eac) older co)ort +as a(le to &#t more lan6#a6e into t)e same ty&e o8 &aired inter=ie+ tas<. +it) t)e lan6#a6e com&onent 8ormin6 a si6ni8icant &art. $)e !445 re&ort con8irmed &ro6ression +it)in Pro9ect co)orts 8rom Primary1 to Primary to Secondary! to Secondary'. $)e to&ics co=ered in t)e &ro9ects mentioned in t)is section ran6ed 8rom c#rric#l#m desi6n t)ro#6) acA#isition orders to a ne6otiated sylla(#s. "oreo=er. () t)ey treat 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation as an or6anic com&onent o8 t)e o=erall sc)eme o8 lan6#a6e and comm#nication de=elo&ment (closely lin<ed +it) t)e teac)in6Mlearnin6 o8 t)e mot)er@ton6#e). and .. A national trainin6 &ro6ramme )as (een de=ised in order to eA#i& &rimary class teac)ers +it) t)e necessary 8orei6n@lan6#a6e <no+led6e and s<ills. +)ile &ro9ects . t)ere +as clearest e=idence o8 6rammatical@le>ical and strate6ic com&etence. !445). $)e &ilot &)ase came to its end in !445 to (e s#cceeded (y a 6eneralisation &)ase intended to ens#re t)at a 8orei6n lan6#a6e +o#ld (e ta#6)t in all Scottis) &rimary sc)ools. in t)at it is to (e #nderta<en lar6ely (y &rimary sc)ool classteac)ers rat)er t)an (y =isitin6 teac)ers 8rom secondary. t)o#6) t)e &ro6ression 8rom Secondary! to t)e end o8 Secondary' seemed less stron6 t)an 8or t)e ot)er years. some o8 +)ic) )a=e (een 8ollo+ed t)ro#6) to t)e &resent time. $)e 8o#r &ro9ects )a=e similar (#t not identical (ac<6ro#nds: &ro9ects ! and ' em(race t)e +)ole o8 t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m. So 8ar as t)e teac)in6 is concerned t)ere )as (een a ma9or c)an6e o8 direction. are 8oc#sed on t)e lan6#a6e com&onent. t)e researc) team?s in=esti6ation o8 t)e &er8ormance o8 t)e 8irst co)ort o8 Pro9ect &#&ils to ta<e t)e national e>aminations to+ards t)e end o8 t)eir 8o#rt) year o8 secondary s#66ested a contin#in6 ad=anta6e o=er %on@&ro9ect 6ro#&s: ?. $)is also )olds 8or t)e &ro9ects in +)ic) t)e lan6#a6e com&onent is +)olly or &artially inde&endent 8rom ot)er researc) lines. 5ungar $)e main c)aracteristics o8 e=al#ation &ro9ects in H#n6ary are t)at a) t)ey are &art o8 a 6eneral 8rame+or< o8 ed#cational researc) at t)e &rimary le=el. O8 t)e s#(@com&onents o8 comm#nicati=e com&etence. and c) t)ey all deal +it) =ery yo#n6 learners.interaction +it) a researc)er. and t)e res#lts ill#stratin6 t)at t)is lar6er entry )ad (een at no cost to t)e sc)ool?s &er8ormance in com&arison +it) &re=io#s years +it) more selected 6ro#&s o8 &#&ils? (Lo+ et al.

$)e 8reA#ency o8 t)e lessons a&&ears to &lay a role in t)e sense t)at 5 +ee<ly lessons o8 '5 min#tes are more e88icient t)an . Readin6 and +ritin6 acti=ities need more time. &redicta(le res#lts. !44. !445). so t)eir introd#ction demands ne+ arran6ements.5 min#tes. moreo=er. and &rod#ce standard. Yo#n6 learners need more )el& in analyHin6 and &rod#cin6 lar6er c)#n<s o8 s&eec). older c)ildren (a6e !!@!') )a=e sli6)tly (etter res#lts t)an yo#n6er ones (a6e 3@4) in tas<s on t)e +ord and sentence le=el. $)e . $)e most im&ortant 8indin6s concern t)e time 8actor (Radnai. t)e 8reA#ency o8 lan6#a6e sessions s)o#ld (e <e&t as )i6) as &ossi(le. A lar6e n#m(er o8 str#ct#ral items (&atterns) are 8irst acA#ired as ?c)#n<s? in t)e 8orm o8 =oca(#lary #nits. !44. -n t)e 8ield o8 sylla(#s desi6n. #ntil readin6 and +ritin6 in t)e second lan6#a6e are introd#ced. Radnai (!441) states t)at an early start in 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 is 8easi(le and e88ecti=e 6i=en t)e necessary conditions. and t)eir d#ration s)o#ld (e ad9#sted to t)e attention s&an and end#rance o8 t)e learners. As to t)e a6e 8actor. $)e )i6)est correlation (et+een res#lts and time 8actors can (e 8o#nd in t)e case o8 act#al classroom )o#rs s&ent learnin6 t)e lan6#a6e. -n case o8 an early start. ne6otiated (&rocess) sylla(#ses &ro=ed to (e a&&lica(le +it) yo#n6 learners. Prod#ction tends to ta<e &lace at a le=el (+ords and sentences) lo+er t)an rece&tion. do a&&ear =ery early in c)ildren?s second lan6#a6e acA#isition. Also related to t)e a6e 8actor is t)e 8indin6 t)at t)e a(ility to &er8orm certain tas<s. $)e tas< and im&ortance o8 8#rt)er researc) in t)is 8ield is to loo< into t)e &ossi(ilities o8 de=elo&in6 &ro6rammes +)ic) are a&&lica(le on a lar6e scale. As to t)e &eda6o6ical im&lications. A&&arently t)e de=elo&ment o8 str#ct#ral s<ills de&ends m#c) more on time 8actors t)an does t)e de=elo&ment o8 comm#nicati=e a(ilities. Scores on t)ese tas<s do not im&ro=e si6ni8icantly +it) more e>&os#re or +it) an increase in a6e. $)e acA#isition o8 6rammar and =oca(#lary are not so se&ara(le in t)e case o8 yo#n6 learners as t)ey are +it) older c)ildren or ad#lts.F Radnai. $)e &rocesses o8 analysis and synt)esis. $)is meant t)at t)e e>&eriences 6ained in any one &ro9ect co#ld (e directly a&&lied in t)e ot)ers. s#c) as carryin6 o#t instr#ctions or sim&le readin6 tas<s de=elo&s rat)er early. )o+e=er.). and t)e o#tcome o8 t)e e>&eriments )as (een meas#ra(ly &ositi=e in many 8ields (/elemen B Radnai. Res#lts.com&onent in t)e =ario#s &ro9ects )as 8ort#nately (een 8airly #ni8orm d#e to t)e 8act t)at t)e researc)ers )a&&ened to (e t)e same &eo&le. lessons o8 . s)o+ t)at t)e com&le> s<ill o8 oral te>t &rod#ction (e)a=es in a di88erent +ay t)an all ot)er s<ills. Later on t)e e88ect o8 8reA#ency disa&&ears. Ho+e=er. t)is is only t)e case (e8ore readin6 and +ritin6 are introd#ced.

can (e descri(ed #nder t)e 8ollo+in6 )eadin6s. -n conseA#ence. E=en +)en a domain )as (een in de=elo&ment 8or a len6t)y &eriod. &. <oal)related E=al#ation and assessment s)o#ld (e desi6ned so as to &ro=ide in8ormation to =ario#s a&&ro&riate 6ro#&s on t)e e>tent to +)ic) t)ese 6oals are (ein6 ac)ie=ed. 13@ ).im&lications 8or sylla(#s desi6n are t)at more in&#t on t)e te>t le=el is necessary.) (ot) 6ro#&s started +or<in6 on dra+in6 #& t)e &ractical &rinci&les 6o=ernin6 e=al#ation and assessment at sc)ool le=el. $)e earlier a second lan6#a6e is acA#ired. . -t s)o#ld )a=e a stron6 dia6nostic 8#nction t)at +ill &ro=ide #se8#l in8ormation to teac)ers and learners in ena(lin6 t)em to ta<e stoc< o8 +)ere t)ey are and i8 necessary to ada&t t)eir &artic#lar strate6ies.*. and t)at more attention needs to (e &aid to e>ercises and a+areness@raisin6 on t)e le=el o8 te>t and disco#rse. Integration in the processes of teaching and learning Assessment s)o#ld re6#larly and systematically (e inte6rated into t)e &rocesses o8 learnin6 and teac)in6.*. as stated (y one 6ro#&. to ta<e acco#nt o8 t)e di88erent rates and r)yt)ms o8 learnin6 +it)in t)e class. $)ere is 8or e>am&le little &oint in assessin6 c)ildren in domains t)at )a=e not 8ormed &art o8 t)eir c#rric#l#m to t)at &oint or t)at )a=e (een introd#ced (#t are still at a =ery initial and &remat#re sta6e o8 de=elo&ment. $)e &ractical &rinci&les 6o=ernin6 assessment. ). rat)er t)an al+ays (e administered to all &#&ils at t)e one 8i>ed time. it is li<ely t)at +it)in classes t)ere +ill (e considera(le =ariation in t)e e>tent to +)ic) &artic#lar &#&ils are ready at a 6i=en time. it s)o#ld re8lect t)e <inds o8 acti=ity t)at re6#larly occ#r in class and +it) +)ic) &#&ils are 8amiliar. assessment tas<s may )a=e to (e s&read o=er a &eriod o8 time. t+o 6ro#&s co=ered t)e t)eme e=al#ation (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& .A to . t)e more li<ely it (ecomes t)at anot)er 8orei6n lan6#a6e or more lan6#a6es can (e learned in t)e &eriod o8 &#(lic ed#cation. $)at is.* (see section .) Proceedings in the $orkshops D#rin6 0or<s)o& . A8ter ta<in6 stoc< o8 t)e de=elo&ments occ#rrin6 +it)in t)e timescale o8 0or<s)o& . 51@1 and &. Readiness Assessment s)o#ld ta<e &lace at times +)en &#&ils are ready to (e assessed.

=oca(#lary and 6rammar acti=ated (or mastered) in &er8ormin6 t)ese tas<s. $o some e>tent. 5) t)e le=el o8 lan6#a6e at +)ic) t)ey &er8orm (ta<in6 acco#nt o8 8actors s#c) as ran6e. analysin6. $)is 8rame+or< +ill necessarily incor&orate a set o8 ass#m&tions concernin6 &ro6ression in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. a&&ro&riateness. t)e 8rame+or< +ill consist o8 mental sc)emata t)at t)e teac)er )as internaliHed and can o&erate in e=eryday interactions +it) &#&ils. descri(in6 and re&ortin6 on t)e &ro6ress o8 learners in t)e de=elo&ment o8 t)eir &ro8iciency in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and &ossi(ility o8 ot)er constr#cts s#c) as t)eir attit#de. . 8l#ency. assessment s)o#ld (e recorded &ositi=ely. non@=er(al). t)e criteria 8or &artici&atin6 in a . %ormally. comm#nication strate6ies). E#plicit criteria.Record of progress Assessment at &rimary sc)ool s)o#ld consist o8 o(ser=in6. -n8ormation s)o#ld (e &ro=ided on: !) t)e <inds o8 tas< t)at &#&ils are a(le to accom&lis).e. t)ese criteria s)o#ld (e ada&ted to t)e &artic#lar tas<s t)at &#&ils are attem&tin6.for progression 7lassroom teac)ers s)o#ld &ossess a 8rame+or< o8 descri&tions o8 +)at &#&ils can do (or not do) at di88erent sta6es in t)eir 8orei6n lan6#a6e de=elo&ment. t)eir a+areness o8 lan6#a6e and o8 c#lt#re and t)eir &ersonal de=elo&ment. readin6. s)o#ld incl#de e>&licit criteria 8or &#&il &er8ormance. it s)o#ld &ro=ide an acco#nt o8 +)at &#&ils )a=e s)o+n t)emsel=es a(le to do (rat)er t)an re&resent an in=entory o8 8ail#re). . adapted to particular tas-s $)e a(o=e 8rame+or< o8 descri&tions. i.) t)e s&eci8ic 8#nctions. acc#racy. e6 8l#ency.) t)e conditions o8 ac)ie=ement (e6 conte>t identical to M similar to M di88erent 8rom t)e ori6inal learnin6 conte>tF t)e e>tent to +)ic) s#&&ort is &ro=ided (y t)e teac)er or ot)ers (e8ore andMor d#rin6 t)e tas<). 0it)o#t s#c) ass#m&tions. re6ional or local 6ro#&s) t)at ena(le &#&il &er8ormance on &artic#lar sorts o8 tas< to (e c)arted. a&&ro&riateness ran6e. teac)ers +ill not (e in a &osition to dia6nose di88ic#lties or to #nderstand +)et)er or not &#&ils are ma<in6 &ro6ress. notions. +)et)er deri=in6 8rom mental sc)emata or tas<@related c)ec<lists. 2or e>am&le. ') t)e modes o8 comm#nication t)at t)ey are a(le to ado&t in doin6 so (listenin6. +ritin6. -t s)o#ld (e em&)asiHed t)at t)is 8rame+or< o8 ass#m&tions concernin6 &ro6ression +ill al+ays (e &ro=isional and s#(9ect to modi8ication. s&ea<in6. Positi(e account %ormally. command o8 disco#rse. in order to ma<e sense o8 t)e lan6#a6e and ot)er &er8ormance o8 &#&ilsF and to some e>tent it may consist o8 c)ec<lists t)at t)e teac)er )as com&iled (&ossi(ly +it) t)e colla(oration o8 national. A pro(isional fra$e+or. acc#racy.

&rocess 8actors and o#tcome 8actors. One sin6le 8rame+or< o8 descri&tions 8or all o8 t)e a(o=e 6ro#&s is #nli<ely to s#88ice. $)e 8rame+or< is ill#strati=e only. 2#rt)ermore one +or<6ro#& &rod#ced t)e (road o#tlines o8 an ill#strati=e 8rame+or< 8or t)e e=al#ation o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro6rams. Transparenc of co$$unication +ith other bodies -t +ill (e im&ortant to (e a(le to comm#nicate in8ormation on &#&ils? &ro6ress a&&ro&riately to 6ro#&s s#c) as &arents. O8 &artic#lar im&ortance +ill (e t)e comm#nication o8 in8ormation to sta88 in secondary sc)ools. &oliticians.@&erson con=ersation +ill (e di88erent 8rom t)e criteria 8or tellin6 a s)ort story and di88erent a6ain 8rom t)e criteria 8or #nderstandin6 t)e teac)er +)en s)eM)e is tal<in6 in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e.for progra$$e e(alua) tion foreign languages in pri$ar schools -%PU$S →→→→ PRO7ESS →→→→→→→ OU$7O"ES @ -ntended @ Unintended Learners @ A&tit#de @ Attit#de @ A(ility @ Personality a+areness Learning Learning Outco$es @ Learnin6 strate6ies @ Pro8iciency @ 7omm#nication strate6ies @ Attit#des @ Sel8@conce&t @ 7#lt#ral a+areness @ Lan6#a6e @ :eneral cogniti&e de&elopment Teachers Teaching Teacher Outco$es . $)ese descri&tions o8 &#&il &er8ormance s)o#ld (e trans&arent eno#6) 8or (ot) s&ecialists and non@s&ecialists to #nderstand and acce&t t)em as +ort)+)ile. $)e 8rame+or< &ro=ides an indication o8 t)ree im&ortant ty&es o8 8actor to (e ta<en into acco#nt: in&#t 8actors. in t)at 8or eac) set one +o#ld )a=e to add many additional e>am&les (e8ore a com&re)ensi=e list +as esta(lis)ed. sta88 at secondary le=el.. -t is more li<ely t)at t)e descri&tions +ill reA#ire to (e ada&ted to s#it t)e needs o8 eac) &artic#lar 6ro#&. researc)ers and o8 co#rse &#&ils t)emsel=es. teac)er trainers. &ro=idin6 t)em +it) a (asis on +)ic) to )el& &#&ils de=elo& 8#rt)er rat)er t)an ma<e a 8res) start. 'iagra$ !" An illustrati(e fra$e+or. national and re6ional o88icials. ot)er &rimary sc)ool sta88.

a sc)ool?s socio@economic stat#s. &atience. e6. O#tcome 8actors re&resent t)e di88erent constr#cts one may +is) to (ear in mind in order to ma<e a 9#d6ement as to t)e &ro6ram School Outco$es @ 7#rric#l#m c)an6e @ Parental @ Relations +it) @ Lin<s +it) sc)ools Societal Outco$es @ %#m(er o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e s&ea<ers @ Lin<s +it) 8orei6n comm#nities .@ Primary @ Secondary @ De6ree o8 8oc#s @ Ada&ta(ility @ 7)oice o8 acti=ities @ De6ree o8 9o( satis8action @ %e+ insi6)ts B a&&roac)es @ %ati=e S&ea<er @ Di88erentiation a&&roac)es @ %on@%ati=e S&ea<er @ S#&&ort 8or learners @ %e+ contacts @ 7ommitment. (#t also senior sta88 in sc)ools and ot)ers incl#din6 &arents. t)ose )a&&enin6 inside &eo&le?s )eads) are not directly o(ser=a(le. Process 8actors can (e &artic#larly di88ic#lt to identi8y and #nderstand. @ $rained 8or 8orei6n ent)#siasm lan6#a6e teac)in6 @ Le=el o8 &ro8iciency Resources Teacher Support @ EA#i&ment B materials@ 2#rt)er trainin6 to meet ne+ needs @ %#m(er o8 teac)ers @ S#&&ort 8rom senior mana6ement @ Rooms School factors @ State M-nde&endent @ Socio@economic (ac<6ro#nd satis8action @ SiHe o8 sc)oolMclass secondaries @ Location (city. since many o8 t)e most im&ortant &rocesses occ#rrin6 in classrooms (ie. to+n. Process 8actors re&resent +)at occ#rs as t)e &ro6ram is im&lemented. teac)ers +ill (e inte6ral to many di88erent sorts o8 &rocessF &#&ils too. 7learly. =illa6e) a(road @ Et)os o8 sc)ool Progra$$e t pe @ 2orei6n lan6#a6e as s#(9ect @ Em(eddin6 @ -mmersion @ A+areness Ti$e for foreign language @ D#ration B -ntensity -n&#t 8actors at t)e start o8 t)e &ro6ramme descri(e +)at t)e sit#ation is li<e.

2LE +ill not (e e>cl#ded 8rom t)is dri=e 8or acco#nta(ility (eca#se a) 2LE ta<es #& &recio#s teac)in6 and learnin6 time. ). One only )as to loo< at t)e increasin6 im&act o8 com&#ters in daily li8e and t)e necessity 8or &#&ils to o&erate t)em. sc)ools and society. As soon as 2LE )as (een more or less acce&ted and inte6rated in t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m t)ose ener6etic dri=es +ill diminis) and 6rad#ally a state o8 eA#ili(ri#m +ill (e reac)ed. O#tcome 8actors are 8or e>am&le learnin6 res#lts. are still )ard to 6ras& (com&are +it) mat)ematics) and c) t)e &ro(lem o8 contin#ity into secondary ed#cation is not yet sol=ed in an adeA#ate +ay. $)e im&lications o8 determinin6 e88ecti=e . t)ere are s&eci8ic needs 8or e=al#ation and assessment d#rin6 t)is consolidation &)ase. A =ery (road ran6e o8 to&ics 8or e=al#ation co#ld (e identi8ied. and teac)in6@time can only (e s&ent once. in terms o8 o=ert assessa(le learnin6 res#lts 8or 8#t#re li8e. *#t one may also t)in< o8 o#tcomes in relation to teac)ers. $)is statement is made 8rom t)e &ers&ecti=e t)at 2LE. to #nderstand t)at in t)e near 8#t#re teac)in6@time +ill (ecome e=en more scarce.- %pecific needs for evaluation and assessment -n most E#ro&ean co#ntries 2LE is still in a ?&ilot &)ase? (Edelen(os B /oster. D#rin6 t)is consolidation &)ase A#estions +it) re6ard to t)e o#tcomes 8or &#&ils. &rocess and o#tcome 8actors are )i6)ly com&le> and di88ic#lt to #nderstand. At t)is sta6e an a(#ndance o8 &ositi=e ener6y is (ein6 &#t into inno=atin6 and stim#latin6 de=elo&ments to ma<e 2LE +or<. () res#lts. So. t)e ?consolidation &)ase? )as se=eral in)erent t)reats.). sc)ools and society +ill (e raised. i& Effecti(e foreign language teaching $)ere is m#c) &ress#re on t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m. +ill (ecome a +ell esta(lis)ed &art o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. -n t)e li6)t o8 t)e a(o=e mentioned &ro(lems d#rin6 t)e &ercei=ed consolidation &)ase t+o essential t)emes 8or e=al#ation and assessment deser=e 8#rt)er consideration. A c#rsory 6lance at t)e 8rame+or< ma<es t+o t)in6s clear: !) di88erent com(inations o8 in&#t and &rocess 8actors may lead to =ery di88erent sorts o8 o#tcomes. and ') t)e relations)i&s (et+een t)ese in&#t. 0it)in a 8e+ years 2LE +ill 6o into a ne+ &)ase t)at &ro(a(ly can (e ty&i8ied as t)e ?consolidation &)ase?. Ho+e=er. 2or s#(9ects s#c) as mat)ematics t)e searc) 8or cr#cial =aria(les in e88ecti=e teac)in6 )as (een 6oin6 on 8or years. in terms o8 &#&ils? command o8 t)e lan6#a6e or t)eir attit#des.o#tcome. +it)o#t reasona(le do#(t. !44.

) s)o#ld (e added c)aracteristics t)at are s&eci8ic to modern 8orei6n or second lan6#a6es. en6a6in6 &#&ils in dialo6#e so as to )el& t)em de=elo& a&&ro&riate learner strate6ies in <ee&in6 +it) t)eir a6e and sta6e o8 de=elo&ment. tec)niA#es and mental o&erations t)at ta<e &lace in t)e learnin6 &rocess in8l#ence t)e o&&ort#nities to learn and in t)e end e88ect t)e learner?s com&etence and &ro8iciency in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. 6eneral co6niti=e a(ility. ma>imisin6 t)eir time@on@tas<. 6ood comm#nications amon6 sta88. 88) t)at co#ld (e incor&orated in 8#t#re models 8or e88ecti=e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6. Ho+e=er. Teacher characteristics t)at mi6)t (e o8 in8l#ence are: creation o8 rela>ed. At the school le#el t)e 8ollo+in6 c)aracteristics mi6)t (e o8 in8l#ence: A&&ro&riate. le=el o8 meta@lin6#istic a+areness. correcti=e instr#ction. At the curriculu! le#el t)e 8ollo+in6 c)aracteristics mi6)t (e o8 im&ortance: sylla(#s t)at ta<es acco#nt o8 national. s)ared et)os and =al#es amon6 sta88. and &#r&oses in learnin6. materials and a&&roac)es t)at &ro=ide ad=ance or6anisers. a&&ro&riate 6ro#&in6. 8eed(ac<. researc)@(ased model o8 ?e88ecti=e 8orei6n@lan6#a6e teac)in6? t)at incor&orates essential c)aracteristics s#c) as ?time 8or learnin6? and ?time on tas<? (7arroll. c#rric#l#m de=elo&ment and teac)er ed#cation are e=ident. !434) still )as to 8ind its &lace in researc) &#(lications on 8orei6n@lan6#a6e learnin6.8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 8or &olicy@ma<in6. le=el o8 8irst lan6#a6e literacy. c)aracteristics at se=eral le=els are identi8ied (y Edelen(os B Eo)nstone (!441. t)o#6) t)ere )a=e (een many st#dies on &artic#lar as&ects. &ositi=e attit#des and moti=ation 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and #se and a+areness o8 a&&ro&riate strate6ies 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6. . !44. ma<in6 clear +)at &#&ils are to do. settin6 o8 )i6) e>&ectations and standards. $o e>istin6 models 8or e88ecti=e teac)in6 (7reemers. o=erall. s#88icient time and o&&ort#nity made a=aila(le 8or learnin6 and #sin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e (y teac)ers and &#&ils. &arents and &#&ils. A con=incin6. 7)aracteristics o8 learner s#&&ort o#t o8 sc)ool are &arents and ot)ers +)o s#&&ort t)e sc)ool?s . di88erentiation. (eca#se s#c) models do not reac) t)e )eart o8 8orei6n@lan6#a6e teac)in6: t)e learnin6 &rocess. ca&a(ility 8or sel8@e=al#ation. &. stron6 &olicy 8or liaison (et+een &rimary B secondary. $)e strate6ies. local and indi=id#al needs. )el&in6 t)em +it) t)eir +or<. learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e not only as s#(9ect (#t also #sed as means o8 learnin6 ot)er s#(9ect@matter. en9oya(le and +or<@oriented atmos&)ere in +)ic) t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e is consistently #sed. e=al#ation. At the pupil le#el one may identi8y: a&tit#de 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6.

e=al#ations co#ld (e cond#cted to esta(lis) t)e ca#ses o8 t)e &ro(lem and t)e stren6t) o8 t)e &ro(lem.e. 8ine t#nin6 o8 a&&roac)es to 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 and learnin6 in (ot) ty&es o8 sc)ools and m#t#al in@ser=ice trainin6 o8 teac)ers in &rimary and secondary ed#cation. -n some co#ntries. -n ot)er co#ntries on t)e ot)er )and. clari8yin6 and 8ine t#nin6 o8 6oals.=al#es. (#t 8i=e elements can (e identi8ied: an in8ormationMcomm#nication 6a&. di88erences in didactical a&&roac)es and s#(9ect matter. 8or st#dy and $)e im&act o8 t)ese c)aracteristics on eac) ot)er +ill +or< o#t in di88erent +ays in di88erent co#ntries. e>&ert researc)ers. $)e &lace.. +)ere societal attit#des are less stron6 and +)ere t)ere is considera(ly less e>&os#re to and #se o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. (#t t)ey +ill )a=e to a(andon t)e role o8 distant o(ser=ers in 8a=o#r o8 t)at o8 s<il8#l 6at)erers o8 in8ormation. rel#ctancy at t)e secondary le=el to ac<no+led6e t)e learnin6 res#lts at t)e &rimary le=el and s)ortcomin6s in initial and in@ser=ice trainin6 to address t)e a(o=e@mentioned &ro(lems. At national le=els and a s#&ra national le=el. $)ere co#ld (e a role 8or action@researc) (ased on colla(orati=e 6ro#&s t)at incl#de classroom &ractitioners +)o )a=e an interest in inno=atin6 as&ects o8 t)eir o+n &ractice. . 8acilities and enco#ra6ement at )ome socio@economic (ac<6ro#nd o8 t)e 8amily. ii& The continuit into secondar education As stated in section 5. societal attit#des to t)e learnin6 o8 a &artic#lar 8orei6n lan6#a6e +ill (e so stron6 and &ositi=e t)at &#&ils +ill learn t)e lan6#a6e (to some e>tent at least) +)et)er or not t)e sc)ools or t)e teac)in6 are &artic#larly e88ecti=e. st#dies into t)e contin#ity into secondary ed#cation are needed. esta(lis)in6 8#nctional comm#nication &atterns (et+een t)e &rimary and secondary sectors. and on t)e ot)er )and small scale st#dies co#ld (e set #& to in=esti6ate t)e e88ects o8 &ossi(le sol#tions i. t)e role o8 e88ecti=e sc)ools and teac)in6 +ill (e cr#cial in )el&in6 to create a&&ro&riate le=els o8 attit#de and moti=ation t)at mi6)t ot)er+ise not (e t)ere. On t)e one )and. t)e contin#ity &ro(lem +ill &resent itsel8 in di88erent s)a&es t)ro#6)o#t E#ro&e.2 &nstruction and learning processess $)e com&le>ity o8 t)e conte>ts t)at )a=e to (e ta<en into acco#nt means t)at m#c) o8 t)e 8#t#re e=al#ations and assessments s)o#ld (e #nderta<en (y trained. lac< o8 8ine@t#nin6 in aims and 6oals (at se=eral intermediate sta6es). ). 8or e>am&le. dealin6 +it) com&le> and c)an6in6 ed#cational systems.

8#nctions and 6oals o8 e=al#ations and assessments +it) a stron6 em&irical (ac<6ro#nd. researc) is needed into t)e relations)i& (et+een teac)in6 and learnin6. -n t)e t)ird &lace. D#rin6 t)is +or<s)o&. . E=al#ations and assessments related to t)e +or< t)at )as (een done in international +or<s)o&s or6aniHed (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e and related researc) and de=elo&ment &ro6rams. )o+e=er. Researc) into e88ecti=e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 in &rimary sc)ools as descri(ed in section 5 co#ld 6i=e an e>tra dimension to t)ese t)ree areas o8 =ital im&ortance. researc) is a(sol#tely necessary into t)e +ay lan6#a6es are learnt (y &#&ils in sc)ools. t)e arran6ements in t)e learnin6 en=ironment and acti=e en6a6ement in learnin6 tas<s. -n t)e 8irst &lace. )a=e not #nco=ered t)e s#ccess o8 inno=atin6 a&&roac)es to teac)in6 and learnin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools. s#c) as &syc)olo6ical 8actors. -n t)e second &lace. t)ree essential areas +ere identi8ied in +)ic) e>tensi=e ed#cational researc) into 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 is needed. t)e di88ic#lty o8 tas<s. $)e o#tcomes o8 t)e Ed#cational Researc) 0or<s)o& on t)e e88ecti=eness o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 and teac)in6 or6aniHed (y t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e in GraH (A#stria). #nderline t)e need 8or researc) into t)is 8ield. di88ers 8rom #nstr#ct#red and #ncontrolled +or< +it)in colla(orati=e 6ro#&s. -n t)e last decade =ery 8e+ st#dies )a=e (een carried o#t into t)is =ery com&le> area. $)is is not d#e to t)e +or< done. 0)at s)o#ld (e #nco=ered is +)at is 6oin6 on in t)e classroom and )o+ instr#ction and classroom interaction in8l#ences learnin6 &rocessess and indi=id#al di88erences in learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. researc) )as to identi8y t)e 8actors t)at in8l#ence lan6#a6e learners and t)eir learnin6. (eca#se 8#ndin6 8or essential 8#ndamental researc) into inno=atin6 a&&roac)es to teac)in6 and learnin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es )as (een rat)er mea6er.

son6s. and to #se 8#n acti=ities &re8erred (y =ery yo#n6 learners.. At &resent teac)ers come 8rom +it)in t)e &rimary or t)e secondary sector. +)o are e>&erts in &rimary sc)ool met)odolo6y. a=era6e or ad=anced lin6#istic s<ills t)ey need trainin6 &ro6rammes +)ic) are 6eared to t)eir indi=id#al reA#irements.'( TEA)HER EDU)AT$ON Maria *EL ER AUER . s#c) as c)ildrenJs r)ymes.1Background G-n =ie+ o8 t)e necessity o8 introd#cin6 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation into t)e &rimary sc)ools o8 all E#ro&ean co#ntries. +e (elie=e t)at one o8 t)e conditions to (e 8#l8illed is t)e s#&&ly o8 s#ita(ly A#ali8ied teac)ersG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*.23eveloping the concept -n order to de=elo& a 6eneral conce&t 8or trainin6 teac)ers. !. Lately. international or6anisations )a=e recommended a 6reater di=ersi8ication o8 lan6#a6es at all le=els. c)ants and stories. -8 t)ey )a=e limited. -8 t)ey (elon6 to t)e 6ro#& o8 Ga( initioG lan6#a6e learners trainin6 t)em +ill (e &ossi(le only at 6reat e>&ense. $)ere8ore ed#cational a#t)orities +ill try to o88er more t)an one 8orei6n lan6#a6e at &rimary sc)ools so t)e de=elo&ment o8 e88ecti=e trainin6 &ro6rammes (ecomes e=en more im&ortant. Primary sc)ool teac)ers.Austria -. to rely on t)e s<ills o8 listenin6 and s&ea<in6. t)e s#ccess or 8ail#re o8 all &ro6rammes 8or learnin6 8orei6n lan6#a6es at &rimary le=el de&ends on t)e A#ality o8 t)e teac)ers. Priorities and acce&ted &ractices m#st (e re=ie+ed and additional com&etence in certain areas )as to (e acA#ired. -. Secondary sc)ool lan6#a6e teac)ers m#st learn to a&&roac) t)e lan6#a6e in a more nat#ral and s&ontaneo#s +ay.). L#ite o(=io#sly. may lac< lin6#istic com&etence. $)eir trainin6 m#st concentrate on )o+ to com(ine 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 +it) &rimary met)odolo6y. $)is e88ects t)e +ei6)tin6s o8 t)eir lin6#istic or &eda6o6ical trainin6. Secondary sc)ool teac)ers are #s#ally e>&erts in 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6. lan6#a6e 6ames. t)e Mo$ern Languages /ection of the -ouncil of Europe initiated t)e .

7once&ts t)at +ere de=elo&ed (y t)e &artici&ants o8 +or<s)o&s or (y e>&erts in Researc) and De=elo&ment %et+or<s (et+een t+o G%e+ StyleG 0or<s)o&s. $)ey m#st o(ser=e t)e 6eneral criteria 8or 6ood &rimary ed#cation. c#lt#ral a+areness and attit#dinal dis&osition o8 t)e &ros&ecti=e teac)ers. select certain mod#les. Ho+e=er. $)ese &re@ser=ice co#rses s)o#ld (e s#&&lemented t)ro#6)o#t t)e teac)er?s &ro8essional career (y in@ser=ice trainin6 &ro6rammes. Lan6#a6es cannot not (e se&arated 8rom t)eir c#lt#ral (ac<6ro#nd. at t)e same time. E>&erts a6ree t)at teac)er ed#cation in modern lan6#a6es can (e started at &re@ or in@ser=ice le=el. #ni=ersities and colle6es m#st o88er initial trainin6 &ro6rammes 8or all &ros&ecti=e &rimary sc)ool teac)ers. i6nore ot)ers and &#t to6et)er t)eir o+n indi=id#al trainin6 co#rses. -t is t)ere8ore necessary to com(ine lin6#istic s<ills +it) interc#lt#ral <no+led6e. -t is ad=isa(le to s&end a &eriod o8 time in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e co#ntry. $)ere8ore +or<s)o& &artici&ants decided t)at internationally a&&lica(le conce&ts s)o#ld (e as com&re)ensi(le as &ossi(le and. a8ter st#dyin6 t)e res#lts o8 t)e +or< o8 se=eral +or<s)o&s. re8lect t)is idea. t)e need 8or A#ali8ied teac)ers in many co#ntries can only (e met (y in@ser=ice trainin6 instit#tions. E>&erts seem to )a=e learnt t)at A#ali8yin6 as a 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)er 8or &rimary sc)ool reA#ires more t)an ac)ie=in6 a certain le=el o8 lin6#istic and met)odolo6ical com&etence. met)odolo6ical (ac<6ro#nd. 6#arantee 8le>i(ility and ada&ta(ility. 2orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 at &rimary le=el )as to (e c)ild@ and needs@ . determine t)e ran6e o8 com&etences t)e teac)ers already )a=e. Disc#ssions amon6 t)e &artici&ants &ointed o#t t)at national conte>ts di88er +idely +it) re6ard to t)e lan6#a6e com&etence. *ecomin6 a teac)er o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es is a &rocess +)ic) reA#ires &ro8essional and &ersonal in=ol=ement. a=oidin6 stereoty&es and acce&tin6 c#lt#ral di88erences. $)ere are also ot)er areas o8 6eneral consent. $)is &rocess may tri66er a reconsideration o8 one?s o+n attit#des to+ards a m#ltic#lt#ral society.international +or<s)o&s mentioned in t)e introd#ction. it (ecomes o(=io#s t)at t)is initial idea +as ne=er 8#lly realised. At &resent. $)e 8irst idea +as to de=elo& a mod#lar trainin6 &ro6ramme. S#ccess8#l 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 at &rimary le=el de&ends on t)e a(ility o8 t)e teac)ers to lin< it +it) t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. -n t)e lon6 r#n. t)ey st#dy t)e &ro6ramme. it may mean a(andonin6 &re9#dices. -t may c)an6e one?s &ersonal o#tloo< and add a m#lti@c#lt#ral &ers&ecti=e to a teac)er?s &ro8essional A#ali8ications. -ts ad=anta6es are A#ite o(=io#s: 0)ene=er national a#t)orities decide to incl#de a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m.

e>&eriential acti=ities. &ro=ision o8 8eed@(ac< a(o#t t)e &er8ormance in classG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& . no matter )o+ small.). teac)ers m#st learn to #se t)e classroom sit#ation 8or lan6#a6e learnin6 &#r&oses. 3efining the principles G$eac)er Ed#cation is a &ermanent &rocess o8 &ro8essional learnin6 6eared to t)e needs (ot) o8 t)e indi=id#al and t)e ed#cational system and sc)oolG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. in . "ore s&eci8ically. can (e =ery tal<ati=e. 2or in@ser=ice teac)ers. Primary sc)ool c)ildren are not as tar6et oriented as older &#&ils.. -t may not (e easy to realise t)at lan6#a6e learnin6 can (e a &leasant and re+ardin6 e>&erience. $)ey react s&ontaneo#sly and sometimes +ant to c)an6e A#ic<ly 8rom one acti=ity to t)e ne>t. Some o8 t)em may )a=e )ad an #ns#ccess8#l and #nen9oya(le 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 e>&erience in t)e &ast. S#c) dimensions are incom&re)ensi(le and 8ri6)tenin6 8or yo#n6 c)ildren and may lead to disco#ra6ement. are +illin6 to acce&t anot)er identity and act o#t little scenes. &ersonal st#dy and researc) and. $)eir rece&ti=e s<ills can (e trained (y #sin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e 8or classroom mana6ement and or6anisation. 3'). $)ey )a=e a 6reat nat#ral c#riosity. $)e lan6#a6e teac)er at t)e &rimary le=el m#st t)ere8ore try to con=ey t)e im&ression t)at eac) ste& in t)e lan6#a6e learnin6 &rocess. is a real ac)ie=ement. +ill teac)ers (ecome Gs&ecialists (ot) in &rimary ed#cation and 8orei6n lan6#a6e &eda6o6yG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. interc#lt#ral.oriented. %o matter +)ic) instit#tion is res&onsi(le 8or it. demonstration acti=ities. e>&eriential. i8 &ossi(le. a#t)entic and a#tonomo#s. Lan6#a6e learnin6 &rocesses tend to stretc) o=er lon6 &eriods. "aterials and reso#rces #sed in 6eneral teac)in6 can (e ada&ted 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 &#r&oses and )el& to inte6rate t)e ne+ s#(9ect into e=eryday classroom +or<. !. Generally it is s#66ested t)at teac)er ed#cation (e Ga com(ination o8 t)eory. &lay8#l. Only i8 teac)er ed#cation s#cceeds in ma<in6 t)ese 6oals trans&arent. !. (#t are +illin6 to remain 8or any len6t) o8 time at a tas< +)ic) most ad#lts +o#ld consider (orin6. a+areness@raisin6 acti=ities.*.*. )olistic and comm#nicati=e.5). 3!) o8 t)e trainees. -. trainin6 s)o#ld ta<e into acco#nt Gt)e di88erent &re=io#s learnin6 e>&eriencesG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& . "ost teac)er st#dents and sc)ool teac)ers +ill )a=e no 8ormer e>&erience o8 learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e at &rimary le=el. sometimes o=er a li8etime o8 learnin6.

$)e &artici&ants o8 0or<s)o& 3*. +e +ill a6ree +it) Alison H#rrell. O(=io#sly t)ese cate6ories are a&&lica(le 8or an in@ser=ice rat)er t)an a &re@ser=ice trainin6 sit#ation. +)o claimed t)at trainin6 s)o#ld incl#de: @ lan6#a6e learnin6 aims @met)odolo6ical aims @attit#dinal aims (0or<s)o& ! @ $e>ts o8 t)e Animators). Later on s#c) a teac)er may not 8eel inclined to moti=ate )is yo#n6 learners. it may (e di88ic#lt to de=elo& sel8 con8idence in a 8ield +)ere t)ey 8eel o#t o8 t)eir de&t). too< a more com&re)ensi=e o#tloo< and 6ro#&ed t)e aims as 8ollo+s: @<no+led6e @attit#des @com&etences (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. 3!) +ill )a=e to (e ta<en into acco#nt. -8 t)e trainin6 &ro6ramme does not meet e>&ectations. !. . +)o de=elo&ed a model 8or &re@ ser=ice trainin6. a teac)erJs moti=ation to learn ne+ tec)niA#es +ill (e minimal. $)e 8ollo+in6 s#mmary is an attem&t to dra+ t)e t)e t+o &ositions to6et)er. $)is calls 8or 6reat sensiti=ity on t)e &art o8 t)e trainer. $)is &roced#re )el&s to raise t)e le=el o8 con8idence trainees may )a=e +it) re6ard to im&ro=in6 t)eir <no+led6e o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e and c#lt#re.5). ed#cation or &rimary sc)ool &eda6o6y are not incl#ded. O(=io#sly Gt)e di88erent &re8erred learnin6 styles o8 t)e teac)ers and t)eir =aried and =ario#s e>&ectations o8 a&&roac)es and content o8 t)e trainin6 &ro6rammeG (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& . General aims in t)e 8ields o8 &syc)olo6y. Glan6#a6e@(asedG +ay. (eca#se t)ey are not &art o8 in@ser=ice trainin6. 2or t)e sa<e o8 clarity and a&&lica(ility t)e Glan6#a6e@ (asedG a&&roac) +as 6i=en &re8erence to ser=e as a 6eneral 8rame+or<. -.*. -t is =ery im&ortant t)at &artici&ants (e enco#ra6ed to e>&loit t)eir e>&ertise in &rimary met)odolo6y andMor lan6#a6e com&etence.&artic#lar." 3etermining the aims -8 +e a&&roac) t)e A#estion o8 aims in a &ra6matic. S#c) insi6)ts s)o#ld (e s)ared m#t#ally +it) t)e ot)er mem(ers o8 t)e trainin6 &ro6ramme.

#se media and )andle te>ts t)at are s#ita(le 8or t)e a6e 6ro#&. a&&lyin6 a m#lti@sensory a&&roac). enco#ra6in6 t)e &#&ils (y means o8 &ositi=e 8eed(ac<. a=oid stereoty&es and &ractice em&at)y. etc. t)eory and &ractice &lay eA#ally im&ortant &arts. $eac)ers m#st learn to ada&t reso#rces and materials. $)ey m#st (e sel8@directed. 8or t)e deli=ery o8 cross c#rric#lar acti=ities. $)e teac)er s)o#ld learn to res&ect and tolerate c#lt#ral di=ersity.) 4inding the methods G$)e met)ods o8 initial teac)er ed#cation and in@ser=ice teac)er ed#cation )a=e a common (asis. . t)eory@led. +ill (e reA#ired. !.G (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. Attitudinal ai$s concern t)e teac)er?s &ersonal attit#des to+ards )is o+n and to+ards t)e 8orei6n c#lt#re. $)ere is common a6reement t)at in s#ccess8#l teac)er trainin6. ada&tin6 t)e lan6#a6e le=el to t)e needs o8 t)e learners. socio@ and &syc)o@lin6#istics. r)ymes and story tellin6. -. Primary sc)ool lan6#a6e teac)ers m#st aim at an e>cellent standard o8 artic#lation and (e es&ecially com&etent in t)e s<ills o8 listenin6 and s&ea<in6. de=elo&in6 strate6ies 8or em(eddin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e in t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. son6s. or6anisin6 acti=ity (ased lan6#a6e teac)in6. in t)e de=elo&ment o8 lan6#a6e(s). lan6#a6e learner strate6ies and learnin6 styles. &ractice rooted. . Essential teac)in6 strate6ies li<e as<in6 real A#estions.ethodological ai$s ran6e 8rom t)e de=elo&ment o8 &ro8essional s<ills and attit#des to creatin6 a&&ro&riate lan6#a6e learnin6 sit#ations in t)e &rimary classroom.Language learning ai$s incl#de <no+led6e in 6eneral lin6#istics. o8 6ames. e>&lainin6 ne+ +ords and &)rases =er(ally and non=er(ally. -n &re@ser=ice trainin6. 8or comm#nicati=e &#r&oses. $)ere are certain di88erences in intensity and distri(#tion.1). 8or t)e &ersonal lin6#istic reso#rce o8 t)e teac)er. -n addition t)ey m#st (e com&etent in s&eci8ic lan6#a6e areas 8or &rimary sc)ools: @t)e @t)e @t)e @t)e @t)e lan6#a6e lan6#a6e lan6#a6e lan6#a6e lan6#a6e 8or classroom interaction and mana6ement.

2L PEDAGOGY The in)ser(ice training $odel (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3A. $)e 8irst model +as de=elo&ed at 0or<s)o& 3* 8or &re@ser=ice trainin6. $)e lan6#a6e &art o8 t)e lessons +ill ser=e as a (asis 8or tryin6 o#t teac)in6 tec)niA#es. -. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ $)e model +as considered a&&lica(le 8or 8or t+o 6ro#&s o8 teac)ers: @t)ose +it) some trainin6 in a 8orei6n lan6#a6e andMor lan6#a6e com&etence @t)ose trained in a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. only e>&erience in secondary sc)ool). The reflecti(e $odel for initial teacher training (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. 3 ) co#rse ! ⇒ &ractice (8eed(ac<) ⇒ co#rse ' ⇒ &ractice (8eed(ac<) ⇒ co#rse . +)ic) in d#e co#rse )a=e an e88ect on t)eir classroom &er8ormance (@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@U). $)e second model +as de=ised at 0or<s)o& 3A 8or in@ser=ice &#r&oses. $)e 8ollo+in6 6ra&)s ill#strate t)e im&ortance o8 t)e interrelations)i& (et+een t)eory and &ractice.1) $)e st#dents? &ractical classroom +or< is t)eory (ased. -n an in@ser=ice sit#ation t)e trainee <no+s t)e met)ods and )as t)e o&&ort#nity to concentrate on t)e lan6#a6e &art o8 t)e lesson.- 3escribing the contents .6. EDU7A$-O% L-%GU-S$-7 B 7UL$URAL PSY7HOLOGY S$UD-ES PRACTIC=. (#t +it) no +or<in6 e>&erience in &rimary sc)ool (e. and t)is t)eoretical <no+led6e is modi8ied (y t)eir classroom e>&erience (─────────U). !. +)ere st#dent teac)ers can de=elo& indi=id#al teac)in6 styles.8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation +ill (e one o8 t)e areas amon6 many ot)ers. -n t)eir sc)ool &ractic#m t)ey recei=e stim#li 8or t)eir t)eoretical +or<.

The Prague .A8ter 0or<s)o& 3A. $)e model is t)ere8ore called t)e Prague Mo$el. -nterc#lt#ral Relations)i&) L' :Grammar Le>icolo6y P)onolo6y ↓ Ps cholog De=elo&mental Psyc)olo6y Psyc)olo6y o8 Learnin6 Social Psyc)olo6y Psyc)olin6#istics -n t)e 8ollo+in6 list o8 items t)e (o>es o8 t)e Pra6#e "odel are s&eci8ied in detail. . a 6ro#& o8 teac)ers and teac)er trainers 8rom nine E#ro&ean co#ntries (e6an to +or< on an o&timal model 8or teac)er ed#cation. Pra6matics) $)eory o8 7#lt#re (inc.ethodolog Aims and o(9ecti=es "et)ods and &roced#res "edia E=al#ation ↓ Linguistic and Cultural Studies $)eory o8 Lan6#a6e (incl. $)e +or< +as 8inalised d#rin6 an interim meetin6 (et+een 0or<s)o& 3A and 3* in Pra6#e. On acco#nt o8 its str#ct#re it is a&&lica(le in many conte>ts and contains a detailed descri&tion o8 all t)e elements t)at can (e incl#ded in a trainin6 &ro6ramme.odel Education Primary Ed#cation Lan6#a6e Ed#cation -nterc#lt#ral Ed#cation FL .

ethodol og Aims and o(9ecti=es "et)ods and &roced#res "edia E=al#ation @7omm#nicati=e com&etence as t)e o=erall aim @A+areness o8 one?s 8irst lan6#a6e and o8 t)e &ossi(ility to comm#nicate (y ot)er means @$)e 8o#r comm#nicati=e s<ills and t)eir interrelations)i& .Educati on Primary Ed#catio n Lan6#a6 e Ed#catio n -nterc#lt #ral Ed#catio n @$)e role o8 &rimary ed#cation +it)in t)e ed#cation system as a +)ole @P#r&oses o8 &rimary ed#cation @Primary sc)ool met)ods @L! and L' ed#cation in t)e &rimary sc)ool @ m#t#al s#&&ort and co@ o&eration @$)e necessity o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation at t)e &rimary le=el @$)e aims and met)ods o8 interc#lt#ral ed#cation @$)e inte6ration o8 2L ed#cation into t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m @7lassroom mana6ement @7lassroom researc) @ strate6ies and met)ods Foreign Language .

sociolects @7#lt#re Vas a +ay o8 li8eD @Lin6#istic <no+led6e and s<ills in t)e tar6et lan6#a6e: &ron#nciation. &)antasy tri&s. Pra6matics) $)eory o8 7#lt#re (inc. =arieties. role &lays. irres&ecti=e o8 8ormal mar<in6 @7ross@c#rric#lar teac)in6 @-nteracti=e teac)in6 M learnin6 @$)e &lannin6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e lessons Linguistic and Cultural Studies $)eory o8 Lan6#a6e (incl.@$)e lin6#istic and c#lt#ral contents o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation @7ontent@(ased instr#ction @$)e e>&lanation o8 meanin6 @$)e teac)in6 o8 lin6#istic 8orm(s): im&licit 6rammar. &ron#nciation @Holistic and m#ltisensory a&&roac)es @S&eci8ic &roced#res: 8#n acti=ities. storytellin6 @O=er=ie+ o8 t)e media a=aila(le and t)eir #sa(ility in 2L ed#cation @7)aracteristics o8 t)e media and t)eir s#ita(ility in t)e =ario#s ed#cational conte>ts @E=al#ation @ its 8orms and 8#nctionsF its im&ortance 8or t)e assessment o8 learnin6. -nterc#lt#ral Relations)i&) L' :Grammar Le>icolo6y P)onolo6y @Lan6#a6e as a system o8 si6ns @$)e 8#nction o8 lan6#a6e @7om&etence and &er8ormance. dialects. le>is and synta> @-nterc#lt#ral a+areness and res&ect 8or c#lt#ral di=ersity @/no+led6e o8 and insi6)t into t)e c#lt#re o8 t)e co#ntry or co#ntries +)ere t)e tar6et lan6#a6e is #sed as t)e mot)er ton6#e @Di88ic#lties in interc#lt#ral comm#nication and t)e &ossi(le means o8 o=ercomin6 t)em @Relations)i& (et+een 8irst lan6#a6e and second M 8orei6n lan6#a6e Ps cholog . 6ames. ima6ination e>ercises.

6ro#&s and society as a +)ole @Stereoty&es. &re9#dices and discrimination -. -n d#e co#rse.2 #onclusion 2orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 is one o8 t)e main mediators 8or interc#lt#ral ed#cation. Ho+e=er. t)e relations)i& (et+een t)e t+o @Positi=e and ne6ati=e trans8er @*ilin6#alism @-nterlan6#a6e @H#man (e)a=io#r in relations)i& to ot)er &ersons. . +)o s)o#ld recei=e an adeA#ate A#ali8ication in 8orei6n lan6#a6e &eda6o6y. @s)are. and 8or t)is reason t)e &erson teac)in6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e s)o#ld also (e t)e class teac)er. @can &artici&ate in e>c)an6e &ro6rammes so t)at t)ey can ada&t t)eir attit#des. <no+led6e and s<ills +it) res&ect to interc#lt#ral ed#cation . all &ros&ecti=e teac)ers s)o#ld recei=e initial trainin6 in t)e 8ield o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation.De=elo&mental Psyc)olo6y Psyc)olo6y o8 Learnin6 Social Psyc)olo6y Psyc)olin6#istics @H#man de=elo&ment @De=elo&ment o8 L! and L' @De=elo&ment o8 (inter)c#lt#ral a+areness @7onditions and +ays o8 learnin6 @2irst and second M 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6. @are in8ormed a(o#t ne+ met)ods in 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. @)a=e t)e o&&ort#nity to e>c)an6e materials and de=elo& ne+ conce&ts. e>&lore and de=elo& ideas on )o+ to &romote t)e &rinci&le o8 contin#ity in 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation to6et)er +it) secondary sc)ool teac)ers. &re@ser=ice co#rses s)o#ld (e s#&&lemented (y in@ser=ice trainin6 in order to 6#arantee t)at teac)ers @can +or< on t)eir lan6#a6e com&etence.

7)an6es in ed#cational &olicies are ne=er s#ccess8#l +)en attem&ted )al8@)eartedly. $)e &artici&ants o8 0or<s)o& 3* made t)is =ery clear +)en t)ey acce&ted t)e 8ollo+in6 te>t as 8inal resol#tion: GAn e88ecti=e. -ntrod#cin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in &rimary sc)ools +it)o#t initiatin6 an adeA#ate &ro6ramme o8 &re@ and in@ser=ice teac)er ed#cation +o#ld mean 9#st t)at. inte6rated &ro6ramme o8 initial and in@ser=ice teac)er trainin6 is essential to t)e &ro&er de=elo&ment o8 modern lan6#a6e teac)in6 in &rimary sc)ools. . 7ontin#in6 sta88 de=elo&ment s)o#ld also (e &ro=ided incl#din6 t)e &romotion o8 teac)er co@o&eration and net+or<in6 across disci&linary and sector (o#ndaries. S&ecialised trainin6 in &rimary met)odolo6y s)o#ld (e com(ined +it) ste&s to ens#re t)at teac)ers )a=e t)e s&ecialised lan6#a6e com&etence necessary to teac) e88ecti=ely #sin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e accordin6 to t)e met)ods (ein6 #sed in t)ese sc)ools.G (Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. !51).

&ntegration vs %eparate %ubject 0)at is immediately stri<in6 a(o#t t)e si> contri(#tions is t)e de6ree o8 consens#s a(o#t t)is and ot)er matters &ertainin6 to 8orei6n lan6#a6es in &rimary ed#cation. -n o#r concl#sions. t)e 8i=e 0or<s)o&s and (() t)e re8lections o8 t)e contri(#tors to t)is com&endi#m. 1. t)o#6) not &rescri&ti=e. +e aim to &ro=ide ans+ers +)ic) are less tentati=e. @ -nte6ration =s @ Lan6#a6e Learnin6 A+areness @ 7omm#nicati=e 7om&etence @ Systematic 7o#rse =s @ 2orm $eac)er =s @ Primary Ed#cation =s @ Part o8 t)e 7ore 7#rric#l#m Se&arate S#(9ect =s Lin6#istic and 7#lt#ral =s Sensitisation Occasional $eac)in6 S#(9ect $eac)er Pre@Secondary Ed#cation =s O&tional Acti=ity "an#el $OS$ PLA%E$ )as ta<en #& si> o8 t)ese dic)otomies in )is 8#ndamental c)a&ter o8 t)is com&endi#m and )as demonstrated )o+ #se8#l t)ey can (e as 6#idelines 8or de8inin6 t)e o(9ecti=es and content o8 teac)in6 &ro6rammes 8or yo#n6 learners o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e.CONC. as t)ey &resent in concise 8orm a series o8 se=en (inary )y&ot)eses 8or disc#ssion. Use8#l t)ey are indeed. areas o8 di=er6ence o8 o&inion. or s)o#ld (e. 0e +ill t)ere8ore #se t)ese dic)otomies to dra+ t)e t)reads o8 eac) o8 t)e si> c)a&ters to6et)er. c)ild@centred. t)e learnin6 styles and . +)ere t)ey arise. c#rric#l#m@&lanners and &olicy ma<ers are 8aced today and 8orm#lated t)ese in t)e 8orm o8 se=en dic)otomies. to )i6)li6)t areas o8 consens#s and. on t)e (asis o8 (a) t)e +or< done at. in order to &ro=ide ans+ers to t)e A#estions raised +it)in eac) o8 t)e dic)otomies.USIONS Peter DOYÉ and Alison HURRELL At 0or<s)o& 3A one o8 t)e se=en +or<in6 6ro#&s attem&ted a s#r=ey o8 a&&roac)es to 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools. $)is 6ro#& too< #& t)e se=en (asic A#estions +it) +)ic) all teac)ers. and (et+een. and identi8y t)e contro=ersies +)ic) still e>ist. in t)e sense t)at learnin6 o(9ecti=es and t)eir translation into c#rric#lar areas s)o#ld res&ond to t)e learnin6 needs. "an#el $ost Planet reminds #s t)at &rimary ed#cation is. -n 7)a&ter !.

Inter alia inte6ration allo+s c)ildren to relate t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e to conce&ts a(o#t t)e +orld t)at t)ey already &ossess or t)at t)ey are act#ally learnin6 at sc)ool. Lis(et) Y$RE*ERG o#tlines some o8 t)e &otential disad=anta6es o8 inte6ratin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e into t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. Anot)er concern m#st (e t)e (#ilt@in discontin#ity o8 a&&roac) (et+een t)e &rimary and t)e secondary sector. -t does not teac) a &re@ de8ined (ody o8 lan6#a6e containin6 its o+n (#ilt@in &ro6ression o8 =oca(#lary. its o+n distincti=e aims . +)ere t)e class teac)er is ma<in6 lin<s (et+een t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and mat)ematics one +ee<. t)e &#&ils (ecome 8r#strated. -t ena(les t)e class teac)er to )el& t)e c)ildren ma<e connections (et+een t)e lan6#a6e(s) t)ey already &ossess and t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e t)ey are learnin6. consolidation. )o+ )eMs)e ens#res recyclin6. &ro6ression and contin#ity. and s)o#ld ta<e 8#ll co6nisance o8 t)e intellect#al. Unless t)e secondary teac)er can ta& t)is reser=oir o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e com&etence and (#ild on &ositi=e attit#des to t)e acA#isition o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. -n 7)a&ter '. t)e em(eddin6 model is lin6#istically di88#se. $)is can &ose &artic#lar &ro(lems 8or lan6#a6e teac)ers at secondary sc)ools and indeed 8or t)e &#&ils as t)ey mo=e into t)e secondary sector +it) a considera(le (ody o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e at t)eir dis&osal. $)e o(=io#s &ro(lems remain @ )o+ t)e class teac)er <ee&s trac< o8 t)e =ario#s ne+ lan6#a6e items. as t)e s#(9ect model does. t)#s &romotin6 a )olistic a&&roac) to learnin6. t)ere(y identi8yin6 a &otential area 8or 8#t#re researc) and de=elo&ment. -s t)ere a s#staina(le ar6#ment 8or teac)in6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e as a se&arate s#(9ectK "any )a=e ar6#ed 8or a ret#rn to t)e traditional notion o8 t)e s#(9ect@model +it) a clearly &re@de8ined linear teac)in6 &ro6ramme. -n essence. a88ecti=e and social de=elo&ment o8 eac) c)ild. (et+een t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and en=ironmental st#dies t)e ne>t. Hanna /O"ORO0S/A stresses t)e o&erational and moti=ational ad=anta6es o8 inte6ratin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e into t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. +)ere in many co#ntries t)e model o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro=ision at secondary le=el remains one o8 discrete s#(9ect teac)in6.t)e interests o8 t)e yo#n6 c)ild. s)e states t)at almost (y de8inition. demoti=ated and disa88ected. +it) its o+n (ody o8 <no+led6e. -t )el&s c)ildren learn )o+ to learn (y s#&&ortin6 co6niti=e strate6ies. $)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e can (e coordinated +it) t)ese e>istin6 conce&ts. -t enco#ra6es t)e =ie+ t)at t)e &#r&ose o8 learnin6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e is not 9#st to learn t)e lan6#a6e (#t also to e>&erience or learn somet)in6 a(o#t li8e t)ro#6) t)e lan6#a6e. $)ere is a dan6er t)at t)is can lead to a rat)er 8ra6mented a&&roac).. -n 7)a&ter . 6rammar and 8#nction. and )o+ t)e lan6#a6e system is internalised (y t)e c)ildren in a co)erent and co)esi=e +ay.

can (e deli=ered in +ays +)ic) are nonet)eless consonant +it) t)e +ays in +)ic) c)ildren learn in ot)er areas o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m. Ho+e=er.and its o+n teac)in6 and learnin6 &rocesses t)at di88erentiate it 8rom ot)er s#(9ects. $)is. t)ey ar6#e. . t)e c#rric#l#m in most E#ro&ean &rimary sc)ools is or6anised )olistically on t)e (asis o8 (road areas o8 st#dy and an introd#cation o8 t)e s#(9ect model +o#ld (e in o&&osition to t)is )olistic or6anisation.

2or many yo#n6 c)ildren. (#t an . &rimary sc)ool teac)ers concentrated on ena(lin6 t)eir c)ildren to 6ain lin6#istic com&etence. $)ey aimed at a certain le=el o8 ac)ie=ement in t)e (asic s<ills s#c) as listenin6 com&re)ension and s&ea<in6 and at a later sta6e. On t)e ot)er )and. *anguage learning vs *inguistic and #ultural A$aress $)e second dic)otomy re&resents indeed one o8 t)e (asic A#estions o8 2LE in t)e &rimary sc)ool. may(e t)e (asic A#estion. !431). also (e said o8 2LE at t)e &rimary in &artic#lar. On t)e (asis o8 =an E<?s analyses (=an E<. $)e E#ro&ean e>&erts on &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation seem to a6ree t)at +)at is tr#e o8 2LE in 6eneral can. contact +it) mem(ers o8 ot)er c#lt#res is no lon6er an e=ent t)at mi6)t occ#r in t)e distant 8#t#re. and its &#r&ose cannot (e t)e acA#isition o8 lin6#istic com&etence (in t)e narro+ sense) alone. a &ra6matic. -t m#st try to contri(#te to t)e +ider tas< o8 de=elo&in6 an interc#lt#ral comm#nicati=e com&etence and )as t)ere8ore to incl#de lin6#istic and c#lt#ral a+areness. s#c) an a+areness +o#ld (e #seless +it)o#t t)e learnin6 o8 ot)er lan6#a6es. $)ey s&ea< o8 @ sa=oir@8aire @ sa=oir @ sa=oir@Xtre (s<ills) (<no+led6e) and (attit#des)F and t)ey )a=e s#66ested t)at any 8orei6n lan6#6a6e teac)in6 today s)o#ld com&rise t)ese t)ree dimensions. *#t a (etter #nderstandin6 o8 comm#nicati=e com&etence and t)e c)an6es in t)e &olitical reality o8 o#r modern +orld )a=e led to a di88erent conce&t o8 t)e &#r&ose o8 &rimary 2LE. t)is +as re6arded as satis8actory. Little or no attention +as &aid to t)e co6niti=e and attit#dinal dimension. On t)e one )and. *yram and Warate )a=e &resented a =ery l#cid descri&tion o8 interc#lt#ral comm#nicati=e com&etence and )a=e s)o+n t)at it )as at least t)ree dimensions. +it) 9#sti8ication. readin6 com&re)ension and +ritin6F and i8 t)e c)ildren +ere a(le to &rod#ce +ell@8ormed #tterances in t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e and to #nderstand s#c) #tterances. and t)e e>&erts assem(led at t)e 5 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s )a=e 6i=en a clear ans+er to it: 2LE )as to (e (ot) @ lan6#a6e learnin6 and t)e acA#isition o8 lin6#istic and c#lt#ral a+areness. 2LE can no lon6er (e restricted to lan6#a6e learnin6 &ro&er. a co6niti=e and an attit#dinal dimension. -n t)e early &ro9ects.2.

t)e ca&acity to ada&t to t)e conte>t#al demands o8 a sit#ation and to #se a stoc< o8 lan6#a6e to recei=e and send a&&ro&riate messa6es. Lis(et) Ytre(er6 6i=es #s e>am&les o8 met)odolo6ical 8eat#res +)ic) a&&ear as &art and &arcel o8 a comm#nicati=e a&&roac) to t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. $)at is. )i6)li6)tin6 t)e 6eneral nat#re o8 t)e aims and o(9ecti=es o8 t)is a&&roac): to sensitiHe c)ildren more 6enerally to t)e nat#re. An ass#m&tion #nderlyin6 t)is a&&roac) is t)at c)ildren?s #nderstandin6 o8 t)e conce&t o8 ?lan6#a6e? +ill (e stren6t)ened i8 t)e conce&t is a&&roac)ed t)ro#6) a n#m(er o8 lan6#a6es rat)er t)an one lan6#a6e alone. #ommunicative #ompetence vs %ensitisation -n 7)a&ter !. Since t)e late !4 5s it is sa8e to say t)at comm#nicati=e com&etence )as 6enerally (een ac<no+led6ed as t)e aim o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 &ro6rammes in (ot) sectors. -t also im&lies t)at a reso#rce o8 lan6#a6e )as to (e amassed. in t)e acA#isition o8 t)e reA#ired s<ills. -n )is (oo< )areness of Language0 an intro$uction (!43. +is)es and desires. -t is t)e d#ty o8 t)e sc)ool and o8 2LE in &artic#lar to )el& t)em in t)eir learnin6.immediate &ossi(ility in t)eir &resent@day li=es. -n ot)er +ords. &#r&oses and str#ct#re o8 lan6#a6e (lan6#a6e a+areness) or to as&ects o8 t)e c#lt#res in +)ic) &artic#lar lan6#a6es are s&o<en (c#lt#ral a+areness).e. Sensitisation can (e re6arded as ed#cationally desira(le in itsel8 or indeed can 6o )and@in@)and +it) 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6. -n 7)a&ter '. $)e term ?comm#nicati=e com&etence? descri(es t)e system o8 r#les and strate6ies t)at learners m#st (e a(le to e>&loit i8 . -t im&lies moreo=er t)at t)ey can co&e +it) t)e #n&redicta(leF 8irstly in #nderstandin6 +)at )as (een said or +ritten and secondly in selectin6 somet)in6 a&&ro&riate to say in res&onse. lan6#a6e learnin6 ?8or real? not merely ?8or &ractice?. i. 7omm#nication im&lies a 6en#ine e>c)an6e o8 in8ormation. "an#el $ost Planet &ro=ides #s +it) a +or<in6 de8inition o8 sensitisation. -t does not aim &rimarily to de=elo& comm#nicati=e com&etence in an additional lan6#a6e. 8rom +)ic) t)e c)ildren can select a&&ro&riately to e>&ress t)eir needs. <no+led6e and attit#des. $)ey act#ally meet &eo&le o8 a 8orei6n c#lt#re and t)ere8ore +it) a 8orei6n lan6#a6e and conseA#ently )a=e to learn to co&e +it) t)e sit#ations arisin6 o#t o8 s#c) enco#nters. &eo&le +ill +ant to comm#nicate +)en t)ey )a=e a &#r&ose in so doin6 or +)en t)ey &ercei=e t)e need to do so.) Eric Ha+<ins stresses t)e im&ortance o8 t)e c)ild?s o+n c#lt#re and 8irst lan6#a6e as t)e (asis 8or com&arison +it) t)ose else+)ere. .

coherent and progressi(e +)ole: @ @ @ @ o(9ecti=es and content met)ods reso#rces e=al#ation and assessment . *#t t)is 8irst ste& is not s#88icient in itsel8.ccasional !eaching Amon6st t)e =aria(les A#oted (y Peter EDELE%*OS in )is dia6ram on &a6e ' t+o are o8 &artic#lar im&ortance )ere: progra$$e t pe and ti$e for foreign language" *y systematic co#rse is meant a teac)in6 and learnin6 &ro6ramme in +)ic) t)e 8ollo+in6 )a=e (een de8ined. can (e a =al#a(le 8irst ste& in lan6#a6e acA#isition and is t)ere8ore desira(le also in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. Nan E< (!431) )as identi8ied si> com&onents o8 comm#nicati=e com&etence: @ @ @ @ @ @ lin6#istic com&etence sociolin6#istic com&etence disco#rse com&etence strate6ic com&etence socioc#lt#ral com&etence and social com&etence Alt)o#6) (#sy classrooms are not t)e (est conte>ts 8or a 8#ll realisation o8 t)ese com&onents. ". &rimary sc)ool teac)ers are at least in a 8a=o#ra(le &osition to lay t)e 8o#ndations 8or c)ildren?s com&etence in all t)ese areas. $)ere seems to (e 6eneral a6reement t)at sensitisation is not eno#6). (#t it m#st certainly 6o (eyond mere sensitisation. artic#lated and ela(orated in order to create a cohesi(e.t)ey are to #se a lan6#a6e 8or real comm#nication. o8 its str#ct#re and its 8#nctions in t)e li8e o8 )#man (ein6s. *#t it is de8initely com&etence +)ic) teac)ers )a=e to aim at. $)is 8o#ndation (8or restricti=e c#rric#lar reasons) +ill )a=e to (e limited in many &rimary sc)ool conte>ts. and Lis(et) Ytre(er6 )as s#mmarised t)e res&ecti=e &ro&osals o8 E#ro&ean e>&erts in 7)a&ter '. $)e dis&ositions and moti=ations o8 &rimary sc)ool c)ildren and t)e &resent socio@&olitical sit#ation in E#ro&e reA#ire more: t)e layin6 o8 a solid 8o#ndation o8 comm#nicati=e com&etence in a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. Ho+ t)e si> com&onents can (e inte6rated into an o=erall comm#nicati=e com&etence is a A#estion o8 met)od. $o ma<e c)ildren a+are o8 t)e nat#re o8 lan6#a6e. %ystematic #ourse vs .

+)ic) stress coo&erati=e learnin6 de&endent on di88erentiated material . $eac)er (e)a=io#r 5.*. $ime on tas< -8 +e consider t)ese 8i=e c)aracteristics in t)e (roader conte>t o8 e88ecti=e 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6. G$ime 8or learnin6 is t)e <ey 8actor 8or ed#cational e88ecti=eness. t)e 5 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s dedicated to 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 in &rimary ed#cation. classroom@(ased de=elo&ment in a =ariety o8 local and national conte>ts. $)e A#ality o8 instr#ction in t)e c#rric#l#m. $)e dia6nostic im&ortance o8 e=al#ation and assessment is also stressed. Gro#&in6 &roced#res. t)e str#ct#re and clarity o8 content. $ime 8or learnin6 +)ic) seems to (e t)e most relia(le &redicti=e classroom@related 8actor 8or e>&lainin6 di88erences in &#&ils? &er8ormance in 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 . 7reemers (!44.) stated t)at. A#oted in 7)a&ter 5. +o#ld indicate t)at yo#n6 learners o8 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e (+it) e>istin6 com&etence in .P.. -n )er c)a&ter on "et)ods. )a=e m#c) to tell #s. L#ality o8 instr#ction also contri(#tes to t)e e88ecti=eness o8 ed#cationG. recent researc) in H#n6ary. to &arents and ot)er interested &arties. and indeed. and 8reA#ent #se o8 e=al#ation tec)niA#es. (? The Effecti#e -lassroo!? as A#oted in 1Researching Languages at Pri!ar& /chool /o!e European Perspecti#es1 edited (y Peter Edelen(os and Ric)ard Eo)nstone). Ho+e=er. $)e teac)er?s main concern +ill (e to identi8y a ran6e o8 lan6#a6e +)ic) contains sim&li8ied synta> and a =oca(#lary +)ic) is accessi(le +it)o#t (ein6 #nnat#ral.". '. Lis(et) Ytre(er6 states t)at t)ere is no &lace 8or t)e e>&licit teac)in6 o8 6rammar in &rimary 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 &ro6rammes. +)ic) incl#ded t)e e>&licitness and orderin6 o8 6oals and content.. and in8ormation on t)e c)ildren?s &ro6ress to teac)ers in (ot) sectors. recent researc). He identi8ied t)e 8ollo+in6 inter alia as c)aracteristics o8 e88ecti=e teac)in6: !. re8lectin6 t)e <inds o8 acti=ity t)at re6#larly occ#r in class and +it) +)ic) t)e c)ildren are 8amiliar. a dia6nosis +)ic) +ill &ro=ide timely and e88ecti=e 8eed(ac< to &#&ils and teac)ers. and 5 stress t)e need 8or re6#lar and systematic assessment as an inte6ral &art o8 t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 &rocess. A systematic co#rse +ill ens#re t)is c)aracteristic o8 e88ecti=e teac)in6 and learnin6. 7)a&ter ! deals e>tensi=ely +it) aims and content and 7)a&ters .

t)is is not to deny t)e im&ortance o8 t)e nat#ral a&&roac) on +)ic) most 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 &ro6rammes in &rimary ed#cation are &redicated 0)ate=er concl#sions are reac)ed at local and national le=els a(o#t t)e introd#ction (or not) o8 8ormal learnin6. Peter Edelen(os A#otes recent researc) in H#n6ary +)ere t)e )i6)est correlation (et+een &#&il &er8ormance and time 8actors +as to (e 8o#nd in t)e act#al n#m(er o8 classroom )o#rs s&ent learnin6 t)e lan6#a6e. $)e c)aracteristic 8eat#re o8 time 8or learnin6 can (e loo<ed at 8rom t+o &ers&ecti=es @t)at o8 +)en to start teac)in6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. $)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e is acA#ired t)ro#6) a gradual de(elop$ental process t)at 8oc#ses (ot) on $eaningful co$$unicati(e acti(ities com(ined +it) a+areness)raising and a focus on the language s ste$ itself. t)eir ent)#siasm and ca&acity 8or en9oyment. +)ere t)e c)ildren )a=e t)e o&&ort#nity to re8lect on t)eir <no+led6e o8 t)e lan6#a6e. to &romote acc#racy in addition to 8l#ency and )ere +e consider t)e role o8 <no+led6e a(o#t lan6#a6e to &romote more acc#rate com&re)ension. t)eir lo+ ?a88ecti=e 8ilter?. $)ese 8indin6s a6ain +ere (ased on systematic teac)in6 &ro6rammes and not on occasional teac)in6. 0it)o#t a systematic and str#ct#red introd#ction to t)e =ario#s com&onents o8 comm#nicati=e com&etence o#tlined (y =an E<. 0e may +is) to consider a role 8or e>&licit <no+led6e a(o#t lan6#a6e. +)ere Hanna /omoro+s<a dra+s o#r attention to t)e increasin6 need at &rimary . -n 7)a&ter 5. Gro#&in6 &roced#res are eA#ally dealt +it) in 7)a&ter . ena(lin6 t)e c)ildren to re8ine t)eir #nderstandin6 o8 t)e r#les o8 t)e lan6#a6e. $)e len6t) o8 time de=oted to t)e teac)in6 and learnin6 o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e is o8 co#rse cr#cial )ere to o#r #nderstandin6 o8 t)e iss#es s#rro#ndin6 t)e ?8ormal? teac)in6 o8 <no+led6e a(o#t lan6#a6e. and t)e 8reA#ency o8 t)e c)ildren?s e>&os#re to t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e. certainly (e8ore readin6 and +ritin6 +ere introd#ced. $)e 8reA#ency o8 t)e lessons also &layed an im&ortant role. +e may r#n t)e ris< o8 ne=er e>&loitin6 t)e c)ildren?s <no+led6e o8 t)eir 8irst lan6#a6e and ne=er de=elo&in6 t)eir a(ility to internalise t)e system o8 r#les and strate6ies +)ic) 6o=ern comm#nicati=e com&etence.t)eir 8irst lan6#a6e) are ca&a(le o8 analysis and synt)esis and t)at lon6@term de=elo&mental strate6ies can (e &lanned (y t)e class teac)er. and t)eir +illin6ness to ta<e ris<s and ma<e errors +or< 8or t)em. incl#din6 6rammar. t)ey +ill (e (ased on e=idence 8rom researc) and t)e 6ro+in6 (ody o8 in8ormation +e )a=e a(o#t t)e +ays in +)ic) yo#n6 c)ildren acA#ire a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. $)ere is considera(le consens#s no+ a(o#t t)e desira(ility o8 an early start (5M1 @ !5M!!) (ased on t)e seemin6ly intrinsic ca&acity o8 t)e yo#n6 learner to acA#ire t)e so#nd system o8 t)e lan6#a6e. Ho+e=er.

&er)a&s occasionally e>tractin6 a small 6ro#& +it) +)ic) to +or< more e>tensi=ely. settin6 clear 6oals and s)arin6 t)e criteria 8or s#ccess8#l mastery o8 t)e learnin6 o#tcomes. systematic a&&roac) to t)eir learnin6.) )as indicated t)at one o8 t)e most e88ecti=e means o8 di88erentiation is t)ro#6) dialo6#e +it) t)e &#&ils t)emsel=es.)i6)li6)ts t)e #se8#lness o8 s#&&lementary materials 8or t)e (#sy classroom teac)er intent on &ro=idin6 di88erentiated s#&&ort to )isM)er &#&ils. Recent researc) in Scotland (G2hat's the Difference3 /tu$& of Differentiation in /cottish /econ$ar& /chools G ". +)o res&onded ra&idly to t)e c)ildren?s reA#ests 8or assistance and +)o &ro=ided re6#lar and e88ecti=e 8eed(ac<. Primary ed#cation is c)ild@centred ed#cation in t)e sense t)at &eda6o6ical aims and teac)in6 content are constr#cted aro#nd t)e interests and needs o8 t)e c)ild and ta<e into acco#nt )isM)er intellect#al. And all o8 t)is +it)in t)e 8rame+or< o8 a systematic teac)in6 &ro6ramme. $)is +o#ld seem to im&ly t)at teac)er inter=ention ma<es a di88erence. is one o8 t)e <ey 8i6#res in t)e learner?s de=elo&mental &rocess. Ure !44. emotional and social de=elo&ment. Gt)e one +)o tr#ly )as t)is #niA#e o&&ort#nity . to res&ond to remediation and e>tension needs o8 &#&ils.and at secondary le=el 8or &air +or< and team +or< to ta<e acco#nt o8 t)e di88erentiated needs o8 t)e &#&ils as t)ey de=elo& t)eir 8orei6n lan6#a6e com&etence. As 2ranH Sc)ime< said at 0or<s)o& 3A t)e class teac)er is. Sim&son and E. t)e reso#ndin6 concl#sion +as t)at t)e most im&ortant mediator o8 t)e c)ildren?s s#ccess +as t)e teac)er: t)e teac)er +)o ac<no+led6ed and si6nalled s#ccess and areas o8 +ea<ness. 0)en t)e &#&ils? &ers&ecti=e a(o#t e88ecti=e teac)in6 +as can=assed. ). $)ro#6)o#t t)e deli(erations o8 t)e 5 +or<s)o&s and t)e researc) and de=elo&ment +or< #nderta<en in t)e interim. 4orm !eacher vs %ubject !eacher -8 it is 6enerally acce&ted t)at inte6ratin6 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e into as&ects o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m is a $esi$eratu!. e=al#ation and assessment. $)e <ey to e88ecti=e di88erentiation +as 8o#nd to (e t)e A#ality o8 interaction amon6 &artici&ants. s)arin6 strate6ies 8or e88ecti=e learnin6.. Rita *AL*. t)ere +o#ld seem to (e an almost #ni=ersal consens#s t)at c)ildren s)o#ld acA#ire comm#nicati=e com&etence t)ro#6) a str#ct#red. it t)en 8ollo+s t)at t)e &erson (est &laced to do t)is is t)e class teac)er. $)is may +ell ta<e t)e 8orm o8 di88erentiated materials and in 7)a&ter . t)e class teac)er. in terms o8 aims and content. a&&ro&riate met)odolo6ies. $)e &rimary sc)ool teac)er. rat)er t)an to reco#rse to =aryin6 materials. maintainin6 )i6) e>&ectations o8 eac) &#&il. ma&&in6 o#t ?ne>t ste&s?. and more s&eci8ically.

t)en it &res#&&oses a com&etent s&ea<er o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e +it) <no+led6e and #nderstandin6 o8 a&&ro&riate met)odolo6ies. G-n d#e co#rse all &ros&ecti=e teac)ers s)o#ld recei=e initial trainin6 in t)e 8ield o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. $)at t)ey are (asic and t)at t)eir &romotion )as to (e contin#ed at t)e secondary le=el o8 sc)oolin6 is o(=io#sF (#t t)ey )a=e a =al#e in t)emsel=es. "oreo=er. it may sim&ly not (e &ossi(le 8or t)e teac)in6 &ro6rammes to (e deli=ered (y t)e class teac)er.. Ho+e=er. -n t)ese instances a trained collea6#e may )a=e to inter=ene on a dro&@ in (asis. is seen as a &ra6matic sol#tion to an iss#e +)ic) contin#es to ta> t)e minds and (#d6ets o8 decision@ma<ers in mem(er co#ntries. As "aria 2el(er(a#er states.G -. 8oc#ssin6 on 8orei6n lan6#a6e s<ills and met)odolo6ical s<ills. (#t also t)e de6ree o8 interc#lt#ral <no+led6e reA#ired. . $)is ?<no+led6e? s#(s#mes an interc#lt#ral dis&osition. -t re&resents a 8irst &)ase o8 sc)oolin6 and a =ery im&ortant one. to a=oid stereoty&es and to &ractise em&at)y. $)ey )a=e to (e oriented to t)e c)ild?s needs and m#st (e #se8#l and meanin68#l. -n &rimary ed#cation t)e 8o#ndations are laid 8or a 6reat many 8ields o8 learnin6 and 8or (asic s<ills and strate6ies. +)ere t)ere is not an adeA#ate s#&&ly. s#c) a&&roac)es +ill only (e &ossi(le +)ere t)ere is an adeA#ate s#&&ly o8 a&&ro&riately trained and A#ali8ied teac)ers. Ho+e=er. -n@ser=ice trainin6. i8 a class teac)er is im&lementin6 t)e idea o8 inte6ration and em(eddin6. -n 7)a&ter 1 o8 t)is com&endi#m ($eac)er Ed#cation) "aria 2EL*ER*AUER &re8aces )er de8inition o8 +or<in6 &rinci&les and &ractices (y )i6)li6)tin6. not only t)e le=el o8 lin6#istic and met)odolo6ical com&etence reA#ired (y t)e &rimary class teac)er.to initiate t)at im&ortant 8irst contact (et+een t)e &#&ils and t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6eG. $)e consens#s can (e descri(ed as 8ollo+s: $)e &rimary sc)ool is an instit#tion in its o+n ri6)t. in@ ser=ice trainin6 cannot (e t)e de8initi=e sol#tion to t)e &ro(lem. as Hanna /omoro+s<a &oints o#t in 7)a&ter . -n t)e s)ort@term. $)e cr#> o8 t)e matter seems to lie in t)e statement ?an adeA#ate s#&&ly o8 a&&ro&riately trained class teac)ers?. t)e &artici&ants o8 t)e 8i=e E#ro&ean +or<s)o&s )a=e reac)ed considera(le a6reement. colla(oratin6 +)ere=er &ossi(le +it) t)e class teac)er to ens#re t)at lin<s are made +it) t)e rest o8 t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m an t)e on6oin6 +or< o8 t)e c)ildren. a +illin6ness and ca&acity on t)e &art o8 t)e teac)er to res&ect and tolerate c#lt#ral di=ersity. Primary Education vs Pre/%econdary Education 0it) res&ect to t)is dic)otomy.

ptional Activity O#r se=ent) dic)otomy is t)e least contro=ersial o8 all. . 43). -n none o8 t)e 5 re&orts is 2LE seen or ad=ocated as an o&tional acti=ity. 2or t)e reasons o#tlined in o#r introd#ction it m#st (ecome a 8ield o8 learnin6 in its o+n ri6)t @an inte6ral &art o8 &rimary ed#cation and not a &re@secondary sc)ool s#(9ect. Part of the #ore #urriculum vs . 2. Ho+e=er stron6 a &osition t)e &rota6onists o8 2LE at t)e &rimay le=el mi6)t +is) to 6i=e it. $)e learnin6 o8 t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e +ill )a=e to (e (asic. $)ese are )i6)ly rele=ant A#estions and s)o#ld al+ays (e considered in t)e &lannin6 o8 2LE.. $o concl#de. one &artic#lar +arnin6 mi6)t not (e amiss. -8 it o88ers one o8 t)e essential ed#cation e>&eriences o8 &rimary sc)ool c)ildren. -t m#st ena(le t)e c)ild to (ene8it 8rom t)e teac)in6 at secondary le=el and ens#re t)at t)is teac)in6 )as a 6reater im&act and is more e88ecti=e. t)en it )as to (e incl#ded in t)e o(li6atory co#rse o8 st#dies o8 all &#&ils. $)e common ar6#ment is t)is: -8 2LE is o8 s#c) 6reat im&ortance as descri(ed a(o=e. $)e statement o8 t)e contin#ity 6ro#& at 0or<s)o& . -n ot)er +ords: $)e main &art o8 2LE +ill al+ays ta<e &lace in t)e secondary sc)ool. Ho+e=er t)is does not mean t)at &rimary 2LE )as to deri=e its 9#sti8ication 8rom t)e desira(ility o8 im&ro=in6 secondary 2LE. t)en it m#st (ecome &art o8 t)e core c#rric#l#m. *#t t)is m#st not lead to t)e 8allacio#s concl#sion t)at t)e &rimary sta6e is o8 minor im&ortance and only a &re&aration 8or t)e GrealG t)in6 t)at comes later. (#t not 9#st &re&aratory 8or somet)in6 t)at comes later.* is 9#sti8ied.$)is 8#ndamental &rinci&le also a&&lies to 2LE. &. Ana Ni=et )as &aid s&ecial attention to t)is as&ect and reminded #s o8 t)e necessity o8 remainin6 a+are o8 t)e rele=ance o8 2LE to t)e yo#n6 c)ildren t)emsel=es : G0)at does it mean to c)ildren o8 or !5 years o8 a6e to disco=er anot)er lan6#a6eK 0)at do c)ildren 8eel +)en t)ey disco=er not only anot)er +ay o8 s&ea<in6 and comm#nicatin6 (#t also anot)er c#lt#re +it) ot)er =al#es and sym(olsK 7an +e say t)at t)e learnin6 o8 lan6#a6es is &ositi=e 8or t)eir de=elo&mentKG (Ni=et !445). G$eac)in6 a 8orei6n lan6#a6e in &rimary sc)ools is not an end in itsel8. t)is &osition +ill al+ays (e less stron6 t)an t)at o8 2LE at t)e secondary le=el @ 8or o(=io#s c#rric#lar reasons.G (!44. i8 it is introd#ced into t)e &rimary sc)ool.

* and 3A +e consider t)at it is no+ 8easi(le and desira(le 8or one or more modern lan6#a6es to (e introd#ced into t)e &rimary sc)ool c#rric#l#m 8or all c)ildren. "ore ar6#ments o8 t)is <ind can (e 8o#nd in t)e #tterances o8 ot)er ed#cationists t)ro#6) t)e 8ollo+in6 decades. A&&lied to t)e c#rric#l#m it means t)ose ty&es o8 e>&erience t)at are t)o#6)t to (e at t)e )eart o8 all c)ildren?s learnin6 in order to )el& t)em de=elo& t)e com&etences reA#ired in t)eir society.5 co#ntries and t)e 8indin6s o8 0or<s)o& . t)ese c)ildren do not 6et t)e c)ance to &artici&ate. $)is ar6#ment deser=es res&ect.G -s t)ere any s#(stantial ar6#ment 8or ma<in6 2LE an o&tional acti=ityK $)e only s#staina(le ar6#ment is t)at a#t)orities o8 any democratic co#ntry s)o#ld lea=e as many ed#cational decisions to t)e discretion o8 t)e &arents as &ossi(le. -t is in)erent in t)e +or<s o8 t)e &rota6onists o8 early 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 8rom t)e (e6innin6. $)e c)ildren )a=e to ta<e &art. . meanin6 G)eartG. $)is lo6ic is not ne+. $)ere is t)e dan6er t)at &arents +)o #nderestimate t)e &otential o8 t)eir c)ildren s)y a+ay 8rom any o&tional 8ield o8 learnin6. (#t can also A#ite easily (e contradicted.$)e En6lis) +ord GcoreG is deri=ed 8rom t)e Latin +ord cor.H.A. $)ere8ore t)is ed#cation )as to (ecome &art o8 t)e core c#rric#l#m. Stern?s statement +)ic) +e A#oted in o#r introd#ction is a ty&ical e>am&le. -8 yo# ma<e 2LE &art o8 t)e core c#rric#l#m. $)ey +ant t)eir c)ildren to concentrate on t)e Greally im&ortant s#(9ectsG and i8 2LE does not (elon6 to t)em. H. $)e lo6ic is clear: -nterc#lt#ral comm#nicati=e com&etence is needed 8or e88ecti=e li=in6 in o#r modern society. -t can (e acA#ired t)ro#6) 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation. $)e latest statement o8 t)is order is t)e 8irst recommendation o8 0or<s)o& 3*: G-n t)e li6)t o8 t)e e>&erience o8 t)e +or<s)o& &artici&ants re&orted to #s 8rom more t)an . yo# @ as a r#le @ also ma<e it com&#lsory. $)ere8ore t)e ed#cation . $)en t)ere is no 8reedom o8 c)oice le8t 8or t)e &arents.

2LE in &rimary sc)ools s)o#ld aim at layin6 a solid 8o#ndation 8or t)is com&etence (c8. 7)a&ter !). o#r introd#ction). . in t)e ins&ectorate and indeed at 6o=ernment le=el in t)e mem(er states @ +ill lar6ely determine 8#t#re action in t)e 8ield o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools. Disc#ssion o8 t)e se=en dic)otomies as o#tlined a(o=e re=eals t)e n#m(er and nat#re o8 t)e di88erent 8actors t)at &otentially in8l#ence t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 e>&erience o8 c)ildren. $)e &ict#re is constantly c)an6in6 in =ie+ o8 t)e moment#m t)at 2LE at t)e &rimary le=el )as ac)ie=ed. across E#ro&e. i8 it is inte6rated into t)e &rimary c#rric#l#m and i8 it is cond#cted (y +ell@trained classteac)ers. @ @ @ i8 it starts (e8ore t)e a6e o8 nine. -n order to 8#l8il t)eir &rimordial 8#nction. +e can 8inally 8orm#late eight reco$$endations +)ic) can (e seen as t)e corner@stones o8 t)e s#ccess8#l introd#ction o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in t)e &rimary sector (a6e 5M1 to !5M!!). (#t it remains nonet)eless tr#e t)at t)ere m#st (e a sta(ility o8 &#r&ose @ t)at o8 ena(lin6 yo#n6 8orei6n lan6#a6e learners to enric) and (roaden t)eir ed#cation d#rin6 a =ital 8ormati=e &eriod o8 t)eir sc)oolin6. &syc)omotor and ima6inati=e ca&acities.2orei6n Lan6#a6e Ed#cation s)o#ld (ecome an inte6ral &art o8 &rimary ed#cation in E#ro&e.As t)e o=erall &#r&ose o8 2LE is considered to (e interc#lt#ral comm#nicati=e com&etence. On t)e (asis o8 t)e +or< done at t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s and t)e re8lections &resented in t)is (oo<. to en)ance t)eir co6niti=e.a#t)orities o8 E#ro&ean co#ntries +)o (elie=e in t)e im&ortance o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools +ill )a=e to ma<e t)is ed#cation &art o8 t)e core c#rric#l#m o8 t)ese sc)ools.. '. E#ro&ean &rimary sc)ools )a=e to incl#de 8orei6n lan6#a6es and c#lt#res in t)eir c#rric#la (c8. a88ecti=e. and t)e 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 e>&erience o8 teac)ers. (#t e>&erience )as s)o+n t)at it is &artic#larly s#ccess8#l. . in c#rric#l#m centres. and t)is +it)in a str#ct#red 8rame+or<. 7onsideration o8 t)ese 8actors at all le=els @ in t)e classroom. !. namely )el&in6 c)ildren to acA#ire t)e (asic com&etences needed 8or a 8#ll and acti=e &artici&ation in society. #nder&inned and &ermeated (y a so#nd &)iloso&)ical and &eda6o6ical rationale. in t)e teac)er trainin6 esta(lis)ment.$)e or6anisation o8 s#c) 2LE +ill necessarily =ary 8rom co#ntry to co#ntry.

. i. $)ey s)o#ld 6ain t)eir A#ali8ication t)ro#6) initial st#dies at colle6es andMor #ni=ersities and t)ro#6) in@ser=ice trainin6 (c8.A condition o8 6reatest im&ortance 8or t)e s#ccess8#l introd#ction o8 2LE into t)e &rimary sc)ools is t)e s#&&ly o8 s#ita(ly A#ali8ied teac)ers.).. 7)a&ter 5). materials and media @ )as to (e e>&loited in order to s#&&ort t)e learnin6 &rocesses and to ma<e 2LE s#ccess8#l (c8. 7)a&ter .Pro6rammes and c#rric#la )a=e to (e e=al#ated care8#lly and t)eir res#lts )a=e to (e assessed systematically. 5. 1. Re6#lar e=al#ation and assessment s)o#ld (ecome an inte6ral &art o8 2LE in &rimary sc)ools in order to identi8y de8iciencies and to ma<e modi8ications and ada&tations to meet ne+ ed#cational needs (c8.e. 7)a&ter .S&eci8ic met)ods )a=e to (e #sed in &rimary 2LE. 3. . A(o=e all.). 7)a&ter 1).Secondary sc)ools )a=e to (#ild t)eir 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)in6 on t)e 8o#ndations laid in &rimary sc)ools.$)e e>istin6 =ariety o8 s#ita(le reso#rces @ realia. 7)a&ter '). contin#ity 8rom t)e &rimary to t)e secondary le=el m#st (e ens#red (c8. t)ey m#st (e c)ild@centred. a&&ro&riate to t)e a6e o8 t)e learners and in accordance +it) t)e &rinci&les o8 &rimary ed#cation as a +)ole (c8. . $)ese teac)ers )a=e to (e e>&erts (ot) in &rimary ed#cation and in 8orei6n lan6#a6e &eda6o6y.

7om&iled and edited (y Peter DoyC and 7)risto&) Edel)o88. San LorenHo del Escorial. of reference for Language Learning an$ Teaching. @Report on Workshop "#. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. Learnin6 and teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools. *al<e. %e+ Yor<: Prentice Hall. Germany.ra!e)or. St#tt6art: /lett. ". P. $)e c)allen6e o8 in@ser=ice trainin6 8or 8orei6n lan6#a6e teac)ers in &rimary sc)ools. ' @ E#ne !44!.es $)e statements and re8lections in t)is com&endi#m are mainly (ased on t)e re&orts on t)e 8i=e +or<s)o&s o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e mentioned in t)e introd#ction: @Report on Workshop 4A. /tarting English . !5 @ !1 Se&tem(er !445. Ar6ondiHHo. Nelm. Learnin6 and teac)in6 modern lan6#a6es in &rimary sc)ools. iblio-raph# Ae(li. 2orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools. -hil$ren in ction .. (!433). 7. GYte(or6s Uni=ersitet: -nstit#tionen 8Yr &eda6o6i<. H. . 4ega"ung un$ Lernen . (!4 . @ !. 7om&iled and edited (y EosC PerCH -r#ela and 7ristina del "oral. *a#tH. G. B Nic<ery.Re+eren. -o!!on European . Ra&allo: 7ide&. 2orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in &rimary sc)ools. "ay !445. %/S@2orla6et. @Report on Workshop ! . Edin(#r6). @Report on Workshop 4 . Rei8#n6. (!441). 7om&iled and edited (y Anne@"arie /#&er(er6. %Uen6els<a . *al(i. *al(i.urs 80 Resultat fran insa!lingen ino! $en nationella ut#aer$eringen a# grun$s. Um+elt #nd ErHie)#n6s(edin6#n6en.).olan. H. SS=res. @Report on Workshop !A. Locc#m.. *. 2rance. Engels. 7om&iled and edited (y "aria 2el(er(a#er and Da6mar Heindler. !5!@!4!. (ed. (!445). 7om&iled and edited (y Ant)ony Gio=anaHHi.a i rs. 5ser6s 7ui$e for Trainers of Teachers in the Pri!ar& /chool /ector. !' @ ! Decem(er !44. -n Rot).). (!445). R. S&ain. United /in6dom. ! @ '' "ay !44'. (!44'). A#stria. Die 6eisti6e Ent+ic<l#n6 als 2ol6e =on Anla6e. Join in.

*l#da#; ". (!44,). Der 8rZ)(e6innende 2remds&rac)en#nterric)t in den L[ndern der *#ndesre&#(li< De#tsc)land. 9eusprachliche Mitteilungen, :;('); .@35. *Y)ler; D. (!44!). S&rac)en #nd S&rac)enlernen. H#m(oldtsc)e Pers&e<ti=en 8Zr S&rac)&ra6mati<. -n *r#sc); 0. and /a)l; P. (eds.). Europa - Die sprachliche 'erausfor$erung. *erlin: 7ornelsen; !,1@!55. *re+ster; E.; G. Ellis and D. Girard. (!44'). The Pri!ar& English Teacher6s 7ui$e . Harmonds+ort): Pen6#in. *r#m8it; 7.; "oon; E. and R. $on6#e (eds.). Teaching English to chil$ren. .ro! practice to Principle . 7ollins EL$. *yram; ". and Warate; G. (!44.). Definitions, ("jecti#es an$ ssess!ent of /ocio-cultural -o!petence. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. 7am&(ell; 7. and H. /rysHe+s<a. (!44'). Learner-"ase$ teaching . O>8ord: O>8ord Uni=ersity Press. 7arroll; E.*. (!434). $)e 7arroll "odel; a '5@year retros&ecti=e and &ros&ecti=e =ie+. E$ucational Researcher, <=, '1@,!. 7o)en; R. (!44!). A&&rendre le &l#s 9e#ne &ossi(le. -n: Gara(Cdian; ". (Cd.) 7reemers; *.P.". (!44.). The effecti#e classroo!. London: 7assell. 7#llin68ord; 7. (!434). The Pri!ar& Teacher. London: 7assell. 7#rtain; H. B Pesola; 7. (!44,) Languages an$ chil$ren - !a,ing the !atch. Readin6; "ass.: Addison@0esley. DoyC; P. (!44,). .re!$sprachenerziehung in $er 7run$schule . Weitsc)ri8t 8Zr 2remds&rac)en8orsc)#n6; .(!); .3@45. DoyC; P. (!445). Teacher E$ucation . -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*; !,,@ !5'. DoyC; P. (!445a). La $i!ension interculturelle $e l>apprentissage $es langues ?trang@res - un ?le!ent $e la for!ation $es enseignants $e l>?cole pri!aire. Re&ort on 0or<s)o& ! . Edelen(os; P. (!44,). De aansluiting tussen Engels in het "asison$er)ijs en Engels in het #oortgezet on$er)ijs. (Eindra&&ort SNO@&ro9ect nr. 55!5). Gronin6en: R-O%. Edelen(os; P.; B Eo)nstone; R.". (Eds). (!441). Researching Languages at Pri!ar& /chools0 so!e European perspecti#es . London: 7-L$. Edelen(os; P.; B /oster; 7.E. (!44.). Nreemde talen in de %ederlandse (asissc)ool: de stand =an Ha<en in een E#ro&ese conte>t. Tij$schrift #oor (n$er)ijs)etenschappen, A:(!); !.@'5. =an E<; E. (!431). ("jecti#es for foreign Language Learning . Nol#me -: Sco&e. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. =an E<; E. (!445). The Threshol$ Le#el. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e. E<strand; L.H. (!4 4). Earl& "ilingualis!0 Theories an$ .acts. L#nd: Uni=ersity Press.

Ellis; R. (!43.). 5n$erstan$ing /econ$ Language c*uisition. O>8ord: OUP. 2a+; $. and G.S. *el<in. (!435). -hil$ Ps&cholog& . %e+ Yor<: "cGra+@ Hill. 2ec)ner; -. (!44'). -urriculu! . -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3a; 5 @53. 2el(er(a#er; ". (!44!). Der Englischunterricht an $er 7run$schule0 Ein 4eitrag zu! inter,ulturellen Lernen . Der 8remds&rac)lic)e Unterric)t; '5 (!); !5@!.. 2el(er(a#er; ". (!44,). English in ustrian Pri!ar& /chools . -n Da=ies Sam+ay; /. and "c /eon; D. (eds.). 7ommon $)reads o8 Practice $ESOL. Ale>andria; Na.; USA; 31@45. 2reddi; G. (!44.). La lingua straniera alle ele!entari0 !ateriali $e speri!entazione. London: Lon6man. Gara(Cdian; ". (!44!). Enseigne!entB pprentissage pr?coce $es langues. Le 2rancais dans le "onde: Rec)erc)es et A&&lications. %#mCro s&Ccial. Paris. Gern6ross; G. (!445). -ontent an$ Metho$olog& . -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*; 3!@3 . Gesell; A. (!451). De=elo&mental trends in lan6#a6e (e)a=io#r. .L 4ulletin, :C; 1@4. Gritsc); A. (!445). -ontinuit& in Different E$ucational /ettings . -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*; !5!@!!.. Halli+ell; S. (!44'). Teaching English in the Pri!ar& -lassroo! . London: Lon6man. Hardy; ". et al. (!445). /tu$&ing -hil$ Ps&cholog& . London: 0eyden8eld and %icolson. Ha+<ins; E. (!43.). )areness of Language0 n Intro$uction -5P. Holec; H. and -. H#tt#nen. (!445). spects of Learner utono!& . -n *iddle; ".; P. "alm(er6 (eds.). Learnin6 to Learn. -n=esti6atin6 Learner Strate6ies and Learner A#tonomy. Primary and Secondary Ed#cation and Ad#lt Ed#cation. Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 'A; U&&sala; Decem(er !445. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e; !1@'5. Holt; E. (!43.). 'o) -hil$ren .ail. London: Pen6#in. Holt; E. (!43.(). 'o) -hil$ren Learn. London: Pen6#in. =on H#m(oldt; 0. (!45 ). D"er $ie %erschie$enheit $es !enschlichen /prach"aues un$ ihren EinfluE auf $ie geistige Ent)ic,lung $es Menschengeschlechts . *d. N-- der Gesammelten Sc)ri8ten. *erlin: /Yni6lic)@&re#\isc)e A<ademie der 0issensc)a8ten. H#rrell; A. (!445). The Increasing I!portance of .oreign Language Learning in the Pri!ar& -urriculu!. -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*; 14@ 35. H#rrell; A. (!445a). In-ser#ice teacher training at pri!ar& school le#el0 ai!s, contents, approaches an$ strategies . -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& ! .

H#rrell; A. B Satc)+ell; P. (!441). Reflections on Mo$ern Languages in Pri!ar& E$ucation. /i+ -ase /tu$ies. 7-L$. H#tt#nen; -.; B /#<<onen; L. (!445). Englannin ,ielen oppi!istulo,sia perus,oulun ;. Iuo,an #alta,unnallisessa ,o,eessa <CC:. (Re&ort ''). Helsin<i: %ational *oard o8 Ed#cation. -l6; 2.L. (!451). 7)ild)ood and second lan6#a6e learnin6. .L 4ulletin, :C; !@.. Eo)nstone; R. (!44.). Teaching !o$ern languages at pri!ar& school0 pproaches an$ i!plications. (S7RE P#(lication !'!. Practioner "iniPa&er !.). Edin(#r6): $)e Scottis) 7o#ncil 8or Researc) in Ed#cation. /elemen; E.; B Radnai; W . (!44,). Rea$ )ith Ro"&0 Rea$er an$ )or,"oo, for F-C. *#da&est: Holna& //$@O$$N. /ennedy; 7. and E. Ear=is (eds.). (!44!). I$eas an$ Issues in Pri!ar& ELT. 0alton@on@$)ames. /omoro+s<a; H. (!44.). -urriculu! $e#elop!ent for in-ser#ice teacher e$ucation in Polan$. St#dia An6lica ]]N---; &. !!,@!''. /omoro+s<a; H. (!445). Mo$els an$ Metaphors in .L Teacher E$ucation. To choose or not to choose. $)e Polis) $eac)er $rainer; no. 5. &. ,5@,.. /ras)en; S. (!433). The 9atural pproach . %e+ Yor<: Prentice Hall. /#(ane<@German; A. (!441). Researc) into &rimary 8orei6n@lan6#a6e learnin6 in Germany: a trend to+ards A#alitati=e st#dies. -n P. Edelen(os B R.". Eo)nstone (Eds); Researching Languages at Pri!ar& /chools0 so!e European perspecti#es (&&. ,@!5). London: 7-L$. /#&er(er6; A.". (!44'). -ontinuit?. -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3A; 1 @ ,. Larsen@2reeman; D. and Lon6; ".H. (!445). n intro$uction to secon$ language ac*uisition research. London and %e+ Yor<: Lon6man. Little+ood; 0.$. (!43,). 7ontrasti=e Pra6matics and t)e 8orei6n Lan6#a6e LearnerOs &ersonality. -n *r#m8it; 7. (ed.). Learning an$ teaching languages for -o!!unication . London. Lo+; L.; *ro+n; S.; Eo)nstone; R.; B Pirrie; A. (!445). .oreign languages in /cottish pri!ar& schools - E#aluation of the /cottish Pilot Projects. (2inal Re&ort). Stirlin6: Scottis) 7-L$. Lo+; L.; D#88ield; E.; *ro+n; S.; B Eo)nstone; R. (!44,). E#aluating foreign languages in /cottish pri!ar& schools. Stirlin6: Scottis) 7-L$. "ada#s; G.; B /ella6)an; $. (!44'). 7#rric#l#m e=al#ation and assessment. -n P.0. Eac<son (Ed.); 'an$"oo, of research on curriculu! (&&. !!4@!5.). "ac"illan: %e+ Yor<. "eyer; E.; B /odron; 7. (!44,). Gin$er lernen europHische /prachen e.%.0 Jahr"uch CI. St#tt6art: Ernst /lett Nerla6. OO%eil; 7). (!44,). Les enfants et l>enseigne!ent $es langues ?trang@res. 7RÉD-2@HatierMDidier; coll. LAL.

H. $rim. . Teaching English to -hil$ren .". London: Lon6man. Pie&)o.). Dechert (&&. (!441). London: O>8ord Uni=ersity Press. Ytre(er6.@. Le language et la pens?e chez l>enfant. Essa&s in honor of 'ans 2. !. Pia6et. " B Ure. -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. En6lis) in &rimary sc)ools in H#n6ary. E.4. *. (!434). . (!445).).. W. /taff Relationships in the Pri!ar& /chool . (ed. Ean#s Pannoni#s Uni=ersity. Stras(o#r6: 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e.!.1@. Stern.. /peech an$ "rain !echanis!s . Pen8ield.%ias. Un&#(lis)ed dissertation. London: 7assell. A(erdeen: %ort)ern 7olle6e. Edelen(os B R. $e#elop!ental ps&cholinguistic approach to secon$ language teaching. (!445). (!445). E. Princeton: Uni=ersity Press. -n G. W. E.'. Pollard. O>8ord: O>8ord Uni=ersity Press.). -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3*. Reflecti#e Teaching in the Pri!ar& /chool . S. =an (!4 1).). The 2or. (!445). Radnai. H. !1@'1).. Scott.5@!. (!44. Languages an$ the &oung school chil$ . (!44. $aesc)ner. (!445). 5@3. (!454). %e#c)^tel. and Ro(erts. *artelt (Ed. So#t)+ort) and R. (!44'). Sc)ime<. Radnai. Yeomans.). E.). W. L. . /ur#e& of pproaches . International Journal of Ps&cholinguistics. Mo$ern Language TeachingBLearning in /econ$ar& /chools in Englan$ an$ 2ales . /econ$ Language Teacher E$ucation . *ilin6#al ed#cation and t)e de=elo&ment o8 metalin6#istic a(ilities: a researc) &ro9ect. $itone. Eo)nstone (Eds. (!413). (!414). Radnai.). 0. (!44. P)illi&s. -n P. London: 7-L$.E.). %e+ Eersey: A(le>.. The $&na!ics of language processes. E. A.). London: 7assell. Researching Languages at Pri!ar& /chools0 so!e European perspecti#es (&&. %#nan. R.). H. (!44. . Sim&son. Pa6e. Pecs. 5@!. E.3@5. (!445). 7.7. -RAL !.oreign Languages at Pri!ar& Le#el . . Parreren. 2hat6s the Difference3 /tu$& of Differentiation in /cottish /econ$ar& /chools. <K(' ). 2.. Ric)ards. S)eils. and D. G. 7am(rid6e: 7am(rid6e Uni=ersity Press. (!44. -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& 3A. $. $Z(in6en: G#nter %arr Nerla6. The ps&chological aspects of the earl& teaching of !o$ern languages. and Sara) $ann. and L. The ac*uisition of English as a foreign language "& 'ungarian chil$ren of : to <A &ears of age. -o!!unication in the Mo$ern Language -lassroo! . Prod#ctions re8lectin6 &rocesses in H#n6arian c)ildren?s E2L =oca(#lary acA#isition.shop in the conte+t of the Mo$ern Languages project of the -ouncil of Europe0 Mo$ern Languages for European -itizenship . (!445). 0. Joung Learners. (!44.

7am(rid6e Uni=ersity Press. (!43!). ". (!445). Pro+iles o+ the )ontributors Rita *AL*-. E. O>8ord: O>8ord Uni=ersity Press. London: Pen6#in. 0ood+ard. (!44.P. Uni=ersity o8 Gronin6en. 7am(rid6e: 7am(rid6e Uni=ersity Press. London: 7assell. 7etting "eginners to tal. S)e )as (een an animator on 8o#r 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e +or<s)o&s and )as +or<ed as cons#ltant 8or t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e on =ario#s occasions. )as (een +or<in6 at -RRSAE Li6#ria (-stit#to Re6ionale Ricerca S&erimentaHione A66iornamento Ed#cati=e) since !43.E. A. $. -hil$ren un$er /tress. 7am(rid6e: 7am(rid6e Uni=ersity Press 0ilson. (!44!). Germany. Arn)em: 7-$O. -n t)at &osition s)e )as (een res&onsi(le 8or t)e in@ser=ice trainin6 o8 teac)ers o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in Li6#ria and )as desi6ned and de=elo&ed t)e trainin6 &ro9ect 8or &rimary sc)ool teac)ers. (!445). 0ri6)t. /tor&telling )ith -hil$ren .oreign Language Teachers . S. A. S)e is t)e a#t)or o8 8o#r (oo<s and a n#m(er o8 articles concernin6 t)e teac)in6 o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es. -n Re&ort on 0or<s)o& ! . 7o+ell. (!434). 0ri6)t. Mo$els an$ Metophors in Language Teacher Training . %e+ Yor<: Prentice Hall. He is t)e a#t)or o8 1 (oo<s and n#mero#s articles on =ario#s as&ects o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation and co@editor o8 t)e GWeitsc)ri8t 8Zr 2remds&rac)en8orsc)#n6G. (!44!). A8ter )is career in teac)in6 (&rimary and secondary ed#cation) )e s&ecialised in researc) on 8orei6n lan6#a6e . (!445). /ens et rLle $es langues $ans le $?#eloppe!ent $es enfants. and *. E. 0allace. ". Pictures for language learning . a 8ormer teac)er o8 En6lis) in secondary sc)ools..). He +as one o8 t)e Directors o8 St#dies at 0or<s)o& 3A. $ec)nisc)e Uni=ersit[t *ra#nsc)+ei6. A.). Peter EDELE%*OS +or<s as a Senior Researc)er 8or t)e G-O%. -n t)e !4 5Js )e cond#cted an e>tensi=e researc) &ro9ect on Primary En6lis) in German Sc)ools. -hil$ren an$ Discipline . Ni=et. 4alans #an het Engels in $e "asisschool. Peter DOYÉ is Pro8essor o8 En6lis) at t)e Sc)ool o8 Ed#cation. Training . 0ol88. 0in6ate..Nin9C. (!44.

Since !44. )e )as (een +or<in6 in t)e 8ield o8 initial and in@ser=ice trainin6. )el&in6 &rimary and secondary teac)ers de=elo& a&&ro&riate &rimary learnin6 conte>ts and met)odolo6ies 8or t)e c)ildren. 2rom !434 @ !44' s)e +as intimately in=ol=ed as De=elo&ment O88icer in t)e %ational Pilot 8or "odern Lan6#a6es in t)e Primary Sc)ool. &ro8essor o8 a&&lied lin6#istics at t)e -nsti#te o8 En6lis) and t)e $eac)er $rainin6 7olle6e o8 En6lis) in 0arsa+. Alison HURRELL is c#rrently a lect#rer in "odern Lan6#a6es in %ort)ern 7olle6e o8 Ed#cation. )ead o8 t)e national committee 8or lan6#a6e teac)in6 and teac)er ed#cation re8orm in Poland in !434.teac)in6 in &rimary sc)ools. S)e )as co@a#t)ored secondary co#rse (oo<s and a Readin6 Sc)eme 8or early learners o8 2renc). s)e )as (een +or<in6 as co@a#t)or o8 t)e %ational -n@Ser=ice $rainin6 Pro6ramme 8or &rimary teac)ers in 2renc) and is at &resent de=elo&in6 a mod#lar &at)+ay 8or *Ed &rimary st#dents at %ort)ern 7olle6e. S)e is Honorary Pro8essor o8 $)ames Nalley Uni=ersity in London. Scotland. secondary and s&ecial sc)ool c)ildren and is &resently t)e co@ ordinator o8 t)e DLolli&o&D &ro6ramme +)ic) starts 1@year olds on a 8orei6n lan6#a6e. A(erdeen. S)e +as in=ol=ed in de=elo&in6 8orei6n lan6#a6e &ro6rammes 8or &rimary. )er main interests (ein6 sylla(#s desi6n and teac)er ed#cation. "an#el $OS$ PLA%E$ is &ro8essor at t)e De&artment o8 2renc) and Romance P)ilolo6y at t)e Uni=ersitat A#t_noma o8 *arcelona. S)e is t)e a#t)or o8 se=eral (oo<s and n#mero#s articles. S)e &artici&ated in se=eral G%e+ @ StyleG 0or<s)o&s on 8orei6n lan6#a6e learnin6 in &rimary sc)ools and +as Director o8 St#dies in 0or<s)o& 3*. He lect#res in 2renc) literat#re and lin6#istics. and Nice@President o8 0arsa+ Uni=ersity. Prior to t)at s)e +as a secondary "odern Lan6#a6es teac)er 8or '' years. as +ell as translation. )as (een Polis) dele6ate 8or t)e "odern Lan6#a6es Pro9ect Gro#& in Stras(o#r6 since !445. At t)e moment )e is en6a6ed in researc) into t)e e88ects o8 teac)er trainin6 and t)e e88ects o8 international e>c)an6e &ro6rammes on &#&ils and teac)ers. "aria 2EL*ER*AUER +or<ed as a teac)er in &rimary and secondary sc)ools (e8ore s)e (ecame a teac)er trainer in t)e De&artment o8 En6lis) at t)e 7at)olic $eac)er $rainin6 7olle6e in Nienna. ta<in6 &art in t)e acti=ities o8 t)e -nstit#te o8 t)e Science o8 . S)e )as &#(lis)ed n#mero#s articles in international lan6#a6e teac)in6 9o#rnals and is co@a#t)or o8 &#(lications on met)odolo6y and teac)er trainin6. Hanna /O"ORO0S/A. 2or many years.

in +)ic) trainin6 and teac)in6 centres 8rom S&ain. %or+ay. S)e is t)e a#t)or o8 En6els< i Gr#nns<olen ($ano) and co@a#t)or o8 $eac)in6 En6lis) to c)ildren (Lon6man). as ad=isor to t)e %or+e6ian "inistry o8 Ed#cation. Lis(et) HALSE Y$RE*ERG is senior lect#rer o8 En6lis) and Elected Rector o8 $romsY 7olle6e. a &ro6ramme o8 E#ro&ean coo&eration s&onsored (y t)e L-%GUA *#rea# in *r#ssels. Researc) and 7)#rc) A88airs. or6anises s&ecial con8erences on t)e teac)in6 o8 2renc). . in t)is conte>t. comin6 8rom all o=er S&ain as +ell as 8rom ot)er E#ro&ean co#ntries.Ed#cation +it)in t)e same #ni=ersity. 2inally )e coordinates t)e ADELE Pro9ect. 2rance. Greece and Port#6al coo&erate 8or t)e &rod#ction o8 teac)in6 materials. on =ario#s (oards and committees. He is in c)ar6e o8 t)e "odern Lan6#a6es section and. S)e )as +or<ed as teac)er. colle6e lect#rer. $)ese con8erences )a=e no+ (een )eld 8or !4 years and attract e=ery year a(o#t 555 teac)ers o8 all le=els o8 ed#cation. and. teac)er trainer.

.. c#rric#l#m de=elo&ers and &olicy ma<ers. $)e com&endi#m is meant to ser=e as a reso#rce (oo< 8or teac)ers. 1.*ac< co=er s#mmary $)is com&endi#m analyses t)e res#lts o8 t)e 7o#ncil o8 E#ro&e?s 8i=e international +or<s)o&s dedicated to Primary 2orei6n Lan6#a6e Ed#cation (!44!@!445) and o8 t)e related researc) and de=elo&ment &ro6rammes. '. teac)er ed#cators. . . -t contains a rationale o8 8orei6n lan6#a6e ed#cation in t)e &rimary sc)ool and si> c)a&ters on its most im&ortant as&ects: !. 5.. O(9ecti=es and 7ontents "et)ods Reso#rces Or6anisation E=al#ation and Assessment $eac)er Ed#cation -n t)eir s#mmary t)e editors identi8y t)e &rinci&al trends and &ractices in E#ro&ean &rimary sc)ools and 8orm#late ei6)t recommendations 8or a 6eneral introd#ction o8 8orei6n lan6#a6es in t)e &rimary sector.