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Záróvizsga tételek I. Összesen 12 tétel (6 irodalom és történelem, valamint 6 nyelvészet) a törzsanyagból Irodalom és történelem: As for topics 1, 2, 3, and !

, compare and contrast t"ree #orks of $o%r o#n c"oice #it" special reference to t"e literar$ and "istorical conte&t and t"e c%lt%ral 'ackgro%nd( 1( A Survey of Medieval and Early Modern Poetry Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, )"a%cer: t"ree tales from Canterbury Tales, *"akespeare+s sonnets, ,etap"$sical -oetr$ ./o"n 0onne: 12"e 3lea4, 5ol$ *onnet 6I7 89:atter m$ 5eart(((9;, <eorge 5er'ert: 9=aster >ings9, Andre# ,arvell: 92o "is )o$ ,istress9?@ ,ilton: Paradise Lost: Book I, II, III IX@ 0r$den: !"le!knoe@ -ope: #a$e of the Lo!k@ %ssay on Criti!is& or =pistle 1 from %ssay on an 2( Early Modern Drama %'ery&an, ,arlo#e: (r "austus, *"akespeare: )ight*s (rea&, +a&let, :en /onson: -ol$one idsu&&er

3( A Survey of 19th and 20th Century Poetry and Drama Ane poem '$ :lake, >ords#ort", )oleridge, *"elle$, Beats, 5ard$, Ceats, =liot, Darkin, 5eane$@ one pla$ '$ -inter, :eckett ( A Survey of 19th and 20th Century Novel =mil$ :rontE: .uthering +eights, )"arlotte :rontE: /ane %yre@ 0ickens: Great %0$e!tations@ one c"apter from /o$ce+s 1lysses@ 7irginia >oolf: rs (alloway@ Baz%o Is"ig%ro: The #e&ains of the (ay !( A Survey of American Literature : N. a!thorne" The !arlet "etter, =(A, -oe: 92"e :lack )at9, ,ark 2#ain: The 2d'entures of +u!kleberry "inn, 5enr$ /ames: The Turn of the S!rew, #. Scott #it$%erald" The #reat #atsby, =( 5eming#a$ In 3ur Ti&e, >( 3a%lkner: 4A Fose for =mil$4, 2oni ,orrison: Belo'ed@ &. 'illiam(" $ treet!ar %amed &esire, =( AGHeill: Long (ay5s /ourney Into )ight, A( ,iller: (eath of a Sales&an@ one poem '$: Anne :radstreet, -oe, >"itman, 0ickinson, Fo'ert 3rost, )arl *and'%rg, 2( *( =liot, =( -o%nd, D( 5%g"es, >( )( >illiams, =( =( )%mmings, >( *tevens, A( <ins'erg, *( -lat" I( )riti(h and American i(tory 2alk a'o%t and t"en 'riefl$ compare and contrast t"ese t#o: *%per po#er stat%s of :ritain .t"e road to s%per po#er stat%s 1!JJK, all t"e #a$ till t"e disesta'lis"ment of t"e :ritis" =mpire after >>II?@ s%per po#er stat%s of t"e L*A .t"e road to s%per po#er stat%s from >>I %ntil )linton+s presidenc$?(
a superpower is a state that has a leading position in the international system, capable of projecting significant military power anywhere in the world During World War II, due to the stresses of the war and numerous independence movements among its colonies, the British Empire fell from its place as a superpower, leaving only the United States and the Soviet Union !or the ne"t few decades, throughout the time #nown as the $old War, the rivalry between the remaining superpowers, the US and the USS%, set the tenor for world politics & war between these two countries could have #illed hundreds of millions of people and left hundreds of cities in ruin, but luc#ily this never happened

1917: World War I started in 1914, but the United States did not join the war until 1917. This war involved the Allies ( ussia, !ran"e, and the United #in$do%& and the 'entral (owers ()er%an* and Austria+,un$ar*&. This war bro-e out due to the .oli"ies o/ several 0uro.ean e%.ires. 1919: 2n 2"tober 14, 1919, a sto"- %ar-et "rash o""urred in the United States. This event was the be$innin$ o/ the )reat 3e.ression, whi"h lasted /or ten *ears. 1941: 2n 3e"e%ber 7, 1941, 4a.anese /or"es atta"-ed (earl ,arbor, a ,awaiian naval base. This atta"- was an atte%.t to -ee. the U.S. 5av* /ro% inter/erin$ with 4a.anese %ilitar* a"tions. 1944: 3+3a* o""urred on 4une 6, 1944. This was a %ajor vi"tor* /or Allied troo.s in World War II, but %ore than 9,777 soldiers were wounded or -illed. 1948: In 1948, s"ientists built the /irst ato%i" bo%b as a .art o/ the 9anhattan (roje"t. The total "ost o/ this .roje"t was %ore than :1 billion. 1987: The #orean War started in 1987 and lasted until 198;. It was a war between the 3e%o"rati" (eo.le<s e.ubli" o/ #orea and the e.ubli" o/ #orea. U.S. troo.s su..orted the e.ubli" o/ #orea in this war. 1988: The =ietna% War started in 1988 and lasted until 1978. The "on/li"t was between 5orth =ietna% and South =ietna%. The United States su..orted South =ietna% in this war. 1961: In 1961, a s.* .lane dis"overed that the Soviet Union was buildin$ nu"lear %issiles in 'uba. (resident #enned* .la"ed a naval blo"-a$e around the island to .revent the Soviet Union /ro% brin$in$ in %ore su..lies. A/ter thirteen da*s, the Soviet Union a$reed to ta-e down the wea.on sites i/ the United States would not invade 'uba. 1969: A.ollo 11 was the /irst %anned s.a"e"ra/t to land on the %oon. >u?? Aldrin and 5eil Ar%stron$ too- the /irst ste.s on the %oon on 4ul* 17, 1969. 1997: The (ersian )ul/ War be$an in 1997 and lasted until earl* 1991. This war o""urred as a res.onse to Ira@ invadin$ #uwait. 1777: In the 1777 ele"tion, )eor$e >ush won the .residen"* even thou$h Al )ore won %ore .o.ular votes. The ele"tion results were "hallen$ed, but >ush eventuall* too- o//i"e. ,e was ele"ted to a se"ond ter% in 1774.

ever to o""ur on A%eri"an soil. it sank t"e :ritis" cr%ise s"ip D%sitania #"ic" killed 11MJ passengers in #"ic" 12J #ere Americans( 2"is incident #as instr%mental in p%s"ing America to #ar( Attack on -earl 5ar'or: L* =nters >orld >ar II 2"e L* #as merel$ a spectator.lanes. t"e$ started targeting an$ vessel t"at #as "eading to#ards =ngland( In t"is #arfare. England. almost a 8uarter of the Earth3s total land area .& series of wars in the )5th and )+th . legal. t"e attack on -earl 5ar'or c"anged its stance( An 0ecem'er N. 1771.566. or rat"er a secret s%pporter of :ritain in >orld >ar II( 5o#ever.By )."ontrol o/ /our air. The /ourth . and the <etherlands. >orld >ar I 2"e L* "ad maintained a ne%tral stand in t"e #ar( It #as %nder t"e leaders"ip of -resident >oodro# >ilson. t"ere'$ leading to t"e 'om'ing of 5iros"ima and Hagasaki( 2"e >orld >ar II #as 'igger t"an an$ conflict t"at mankind "ad ever seen( It #as one of t"e most disastro%s 'attles and ca%sed more deat"s t"an >orld >ar I( It #as t"e first time t"at t"e L* #as an active mem'er and #as t"e onl$ co%ntr$ t"at %sed an atom 'om' in t"e #ar 2"e L* emerged a #inner and a s%per po#er after t"e end of t"is #ar( 'he British Empire comprised the dominions. for over a century. one2fifth of the world3s population at the time . 1M 1.666 #m / 7)4.s%'marines?( =vent%all$. began to establish colonies and trade networ#s of their own in the &mericas and &sia . because its e"panse across the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories During the &ge of Discovery in the )1th and )*th centuries.4-. colonies.e&ico #ar again ca%sed t"e former to declare #ar on <erman$( 5ence L* inadvertentl$ got involved in t"e <reat >ar( 2o #eaken t"e :ritis".).te%ber 11. mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United (ingdom It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late )*th and early )+th centuries &t its height.lane "rashed in Shan-sville.lanes into the World Trade 'enter in 5ew Aor. at least 3!3 /apanese #ar planes attacked -earl 5ar'or ca%sing grave damage and killing more t"an 2OOO L* officers( 2"is incident #as t"e last stra# and it entered t"e >orld >ar II as an active mem'er.666 s8 mi9.0. it was the largest empire in history and. This was the deadliest atta". !rance.// the British Empire held sway over about 01+ million people.6)/. <erman$Gs constant s%'marine #arfare on L* passenger s"ips and its attempt to trigger t"e L*K. (enns*lvania. .&s a result.'he empire covered more than 44.and one . #"o #as a peace lover and #anted to avoid t"e #ar( 5o#ever. and in the process established large overseas empires Envious of the great wealth these empires generated. protectorates. its political.lane into the (enta$on./. terrorists too.1771: 2n Se. the phrase :the empire on which the sun never sets: was often used to describe the British Empire. linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread &t the pea# of its power.1. <erman$ started targeting all t"e cargo s"ips coming to#ards =ngland #it" t"eir LK:oats .ortugal and Spain pioneered European e"ploration of the globe. was the foremost global power . The* "rashed two .

as a result of the war.centuries with the <etherlands and !rance left England 7and then. and although the empire achieved its largest territorial e"tent immediately after the war. during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire 'he conflict placed enormous financial and population strain on Britain. Britain granted independence to most of the territories of the British Empire 'his process ended with the political transfer of ?ong (ong to $hina in ). as $ommonwealth realms &fter World War II Britain could no longer afford the e"pense of administering one 8uarter of the worlds population . many former British colonies joined the $ommonwealth of <ations. the current U( &lso.5 'he )0British @verseas 'erritories remain under British sovereignty &fter independence. and been nearly ban#rupted by.the right to be self governing dominions within the commonwealth Some of the $ountries literally drove the British out of their $ounties ?aving just fought. this damaged British prestige and accelerated the decline of the empire British India.th century =ermany and the United States had eroded Britain3s economic lead Subse8uent military and economic tensions between Britain and =ermany were major causes of the!irst World War. as part of a larger decolonisation movement. achieved independence two years after the end of the war &fter the end of the Second World War. Britain enjoyed a century of almost unchallenged dominance and e"panded its imperial holdings across the globe Increasing degrees of autonomy were granted to its white settler colonies. some of which were reclassified as dominions By the end of the ). it was no longer a peerless industrial or military power In the Second World War. it wanted to protect its own land which comprised )C*66 th area of World .British understood that the various peoples of the empire 7and the other European empires as well9 are capable and deserving of governing themselves 'hese empires could not be #ept 8uiet anymore by giving the e"cuse that : these countries are incapable of governing themselves: as they had started demanding either through armed rebellion or peaceful protest and politics . Aueen EliBabeth II. following union between England and Scotland in )565.. Britain3s colonies in South2East &sia were occupied by >apan Despite the eventual victory of Britain and its allies. =reat Britain9 the dominant colonial power in <orth &merica and India 'he independence of the 'hirteen $olonies in <orth &merica in )5+4 after the &merican %evolutionary War caused Britain to lose of some of its oldest and most populous colonies British attention soon turned towards &sia. &frica.acific !ollowing the defeat of <apoleonic !rance in )+)1. a free association of independent states Si"teen $ommonwealth nations share their head of state. the British could hardly deny them their right to administer their own land . and the . Britain3s most valuable and populous possession.

n%merical.from ver's: teac"er.Feading is %sef%l(? c( A%&iliaries a? 2emporal: "elp to form tense@ voice@ aspect T5e I* going to t"e s"op(T '? . s%perlative a( *$nt"etical .It is prett$ "ot in "ere(? adver's of manner QPKl$+ .2"is is a "o%se(? i( -ersonal prono%ns Tanap"oric I2? e( Articles: definite .er. compo%nd. freV%enc$ etc(? d( -rono%ns: attri'%tive . aspect.H$elvészet: 1( Mor*holo%y 1" a( 7er's a? Hotional 1( form interrogative and negative sentences #it" t"e "elp of Pdo+ 2( "ave got meanings of t"eir o#n '? a%&iliaries 1( "aven+t got an$ meanings 2( form int( and neg( sentences #it" inversion '( 3initeKHon 3inite 3orms a? 3inite forms can indicate person. classif$ing? T$ero . mood( Q conR%gationS '? HonKfinite forms are: participle .5e #as reported to live in Africa(? and ger%nd .)onversion: -rotestant. compo%nd . comparative. m%mps? '( AdRectives: simple.odal: give vario%s s"ades of meaning . *"e is prettil$ dressed(? i( 3%nctions: modification . participle i( )omparison: positive. m%tated.I am rat"er tired(? and semantic classif( . anap"oric Q refers 'ack.dominoes.I can see a 'o$ reading a 'ook(? infinitive . <erman? pl%rals: isolated.%niV%e t"ings. time. tense. %ninflected.some? Tanal$tical .co%nta'le no%ns in pl%ral: >omen like c"ildren(? 3( Syntactic cate%orie(" . adRectives: greatness ? . individ%alizing.2"is "o%se is 'ig(? T s%'stantive .nervo%s?.o#. adver's of place. Ken.le. deictic?Tindefinite . derivative .dis$lla'ic or more adR(? c( Adver's: adver's of degree K conversion . foreign -l%ralia tant%m Q al#a$s in pl%ral . derivative .sno#K#"ite?.H==0 to solve t"is pro'lem(? d( Hotional ver's e( )ategories of 2ime and 2ense( a? 2ime is p"ilosop"ical #"ile tense is grammatical( 2ense is a ver' form t"at indicates time relation( '? i(e(: present tense can indicate f%t%re time: 2"e train arrives at ! am( c? -rimar$ tenses: simple. contin%o%s d? *econdar$ tenses: perfectTrelative tenses 2( Mor*holo%y 2" a( Hominal str%ct%res : a( Ho%ns: simple. defining f%nction. n%m'er.Co% 5A7=.monos$lla'ic adR( U $.

anner: fricativesT affricatesT plosives Q can 'e voiced or voicedless '( *onorants: less o'stacles i( Hasal stopsT liV%idsT glides Qal#a$s voiced c( maRor p"onotactic constraints 5AH0AL2SSS +.id lo# 3ront i: i e Z )entral X . .iddle =nglis" *pelling 'ecame fi&ed .a( *imple: one cla%se .red%ced vo#el? 3: :ack %: % Y o: a: o '( monop"t"ongs and dip"t"ongs. 2 or more independent cla%ses . orT 2( comple& .odern =nglis" : 3rom t"e 'eginning of 1It" cent%r$ -ron%nciation c"anged t"e most 2ransition from .ei.%nintentional? ( Phonetic( and *honolo%y 1" a( 2"e =nglis" vo#el s$stem: al#a$s voiced.s%'Rect U predicate? #it" a coordinator T and . ai. t"eir distri'%tion( i( .onop"tongs: tong%e sta$s in same place ii( 0ipt"ongs: tong%e moves from one place to anot"er 1( closing d: fronting .ri%in( and develo*ment of the En%li(h lan%ua%e" 2"e main c"aracteristics of =arl$ . oi? 'acking: . printing? 2"e <reat 7o#el *"ift Q all vo#els c"anged . '%t. main cla%se U a s%'ordinated c(? '( )ompo%ndT)omple& c( =lliptic *entences d( HonKfinite )la%ses: to replace cla%ses@ active and passive forms and present and perfect forms a( <er%nd: I insist on doing it( '( Infinitive: )an occ%r #it" or #it"o%t Pto+( Tplain infinitiveT i( 5e came "ere to give some information(priorit$ ii( -resent inf: sim%lt( -erfect inf: c( -articiple: =ating a sand#ic" -eter entered t"e room( <er%nd .%ltiple *entences: 2 or more cla%ses  1( compo%nd . %nro%nded 5ig" .intentional? infinitive .a%.W gro%p of #ords t"at 'elong toget"er? and . X%? 2( centring d(: end in X !( Phonetic( and *honolo%y 2" a( 2"e =nglis" consonant s$stem: a( A'str%ents: man$ o'stacles i( . no o'str%ction a( V%alit$ and V%antit$ ro%nded.

soccer.• maRor differences 'et#een :ritis" =nglis" and Am=: S*ellin% : color vs( colo%r. or . t#o #eeks vs( a fortnig"t( Conce*t( : #"at is football an$#a$ [ American foot'all. 'e"avior vs( 'e"avio%r. t"eater vs( t"eatre( &erminolo%y : tr%ck vs( lorr$. cart vs( trolle$.for t"e tr%l$ 'rave? A%ssie r%les\ Slan% : do $o% call t"is sport 9footie9\ A--reviation( : do readers kno# t"at -AW-enns$lvania\ Hot if t"e$Gre o%tside t"e L(*( .

!( *peec" as action@ I( 2"eories of meaning interpretation . conte&t@ 2( De&ical relations .a" 1( Feference. protot$pe t"eor$?( . componential anal$sis. pres%pposition.semantic traits and stat%ses.s$non$m$.metap"or and meton$m$?@ 3( =ntailment.II( Tétele' a s(vos t(rgya'ból H$elvészet 1. anton$m$. "$peron$m$. inference. "omon$m$. S$emanti. "$pon$m$.a /( *ra%mati. le&ical fields? and semantic s"ifts . implicat%re@ ( Approac"es to t"e st%d$ of sentence meaning.

Another .eorot.. .resents %an* $olden treasures to >eowul/.roth$ar sa*s that >eowul/ will never la". and /inall* to >eowul/. %eanwhile. She .ildeburh ba".. "onsider >eowul/ as the $reatest hero in 3anish histor*. As he re"eives the "u. the 3anish @ueen Wealhtheow "o%es /orth. In the ni$ht. .ea.eorot. and in the s. in"ludin$ Si$e%und (who slew a dra$on& and .art* is held to "elebrate >eowul/Bs vi"tor*. the 3anesC he sails to the land o/ the 3anes with his best warriors.eorot as usual./or ri"hes. . !inall*.on their arrival.ildeburhC he %arried her to a -in$ o/ the !risians. . A/ter this stor* is told.roth$ar holds a lar$e /east. 0ventuall* the news o/ )rendelBs a$$ression on the 3anes rea"hes the )eats.le de"laration %oves Wealhtheow and the 3anes.nae/ and . In the %ornin$. hun$r* /or /lesh.roa"hes the hall.oe% be$ins with a brie/ $enealo$* o/ the 3anes.an* "elebrates his "oura$e.ildeburhBs brother. 5eDt she . and rin$s. and ever*one slee. This be$ins )rendelBs assault u. the 3anes atta"-ed the !risians.roth$ar while .ildeburhBs son in the . visited his sister.roth$ar re%e%bers when he hel. 2n"e the hall is /inished. desired ven$ean"e. the stor* o/ the !risian slau$hter. >eowul/ wat"hes "are/ull* as )rendel eats one o/ his %en.resents a ne"-la"e to . An an"ient 3anish -in$ had a dau$hter na%ed .rothul/ to hel.with . 3urin$ the hei$ht o/ the "elebration.ast.to his lair in the %oors and dies. S"*ld be"o%es the $reat+ $rand/ather o/ . $ladl*. ever*one retires.ed >eowul/Bs /ather 0"$theow settle a /eudC thus.nae/. .e and his thanes slee. leavin$ his ar% in >eowul/Bs $ras. and he wishes to "elebrate his rei$n b* buildin$ a $rand hall "alled . Twelve *ears .roth$arBs wishes. .leadin$ with her brother+in+law .ere%od (who ruled his -in$do% unwisel* and was . >eowul/ sa*s that he will leave )od to jud$e the out"o%e.en$est. When >eowul/ is su%%oned to the hall.s. then to the rest o/ the hall. . >eowul/ $rabs )rendelBs ar% and doesnBt let $o.resents it /irst to .se.roth$arBs thane Wul/$ar jud$es the )eats worth* enou$h to s. . -nown /or his abilit* to "on@uer ene%ies.ass. . The revelr* attra"ts the attentions o/ the %onster )rendel.re. "ausin$ the hall to nearl* "olla. the -in$ o/ the 3anes durin$ the events o/ >eowul/. . leavin$ enou$h ti%e /or )rendelBs %other to $rab one o/ .eorot.s . >eowul/. A )eat thane.roth$ar.e slin-s ba". )rendelBs %other a. the neDt leader o/ the 3anes.roth$arBs %instrel tells another stor* at the /east.durin$ the ni$ht.h*. Soon the /east ends.roth$ar . >eowul/ tells the stor* o/ his heroi" vi"tor* in the "ontest.in$ with . he /inds . de"ides to hel.eorot is /illed on"e a$ain /or a lar$e /east in honor o/ >eowul/. The horses and %en o/ the )eats are all ri"hl* adorned.to 3en%ar-. a thane na%ed Un/erth tries to $et into a boastin$ %at"h with >eowul/ b* a""usin$ hi% o/ losin$ a swi%%in$ "ontest. 0ventuall* )rendel arrives at . the !risians atta"-ed the 3anes. )rendelBs ar% is nailed to the wall as a tro. and the revelr* "ontinues.. When )rendel rea"hes /or >eowul/.Beowulf Summary The . 3urin$ the /east.s hi%.unished&. in -ee. .e thrashes about. bearin$ the %ead+"u. >eowul/ tells Wealhtheow that he will -ill )rendel or be -illed in .ain as >eowul/ $ri. her two *oun$ sons i/ the* should ever need it. . and the "o%. su"h as ne"-la"es. The 3anes. -illin$ . . . in the hall as the* wait /or )rendel.roth$arBs %instrel sin$s son$s o/ >eowul/ and other $reat "hara"ters o/ the .ea"e/ull*. who de"ides to atta".ro"ess.roth$ar.on the 3anes. This si%.rin$. While . Soon )rendel tears awa*. is a $ood -in$. .roth$ar and his thanes dis"over the bloodshed and %ourn the lost warriors. and >eowul/ $ra"iousl* than-s hi%.roth$ar. li-e his an"estors be/ore hi%. >e/ore he leaves. In . he wel"o%es >eowul/Bs hel. The warriors . S"*ld She/in$ was the /irst $reat -in$ o/ the 3anes. Wealhtheow . another tribe. "u.roth$arBs "ounselors and run awa*.ared /or battle.roth$ar. )rendel writhes about in . U.ro%ises to $ive >eowul/ ever*thin$ i/ he "an de/eat )rendel. -illin$ their leader and ta-in$ . wantin$ ven$ean"e /or her son..

but swears that he will sta* b* >eowul/Bs side. the )eats loo. he tells another stor* that had . .en to hi%.. and be$an his ra%.ro%ises aid /or . .ies a lar$e sword nearb*.on the 3anes /or all their .a$e u. and a sword (na%ed 5ae$lin$& that he won while servin$ . ta-es a sword /ro% Un/erth.*$d to the @ueen o/ the an"ient 2//a. A treasure trove was le/t b* an an"ient "ivili?ation.*$ela" is -illed in a battle soon a/ter.li$ht. Wi$la/ be"o%es an$r*.e /ro% this battle. >eowul/Bs -ins%an throu$h 0"$theow./orward to leavin$ 3en%ar-. . .roth$ar /inds hi%sel/ wishin$ >eowul/ would never leave. as an o//erin$ to his lord. >eowul/ learns that this dra$on has destro*ed his own $reat hall.oison /ro% the dra$on /lowin$ throu$h his bod* as a result. A/ter the last . Wi$la/ bathes his lordBs bod* as >eowul/ s. >eowul/ /inds the dead )rendel in the lair and "uts o// his head as a tro. The* bear the hero and his boot* ba".rote"ts hi% /ro% the dra$onBs /la%es. but dis"overs that it "annot "ut her. /inall* landin$ %ortal blows u. In an aside.eathobards in order to settle an old /eud. so >eowul/ be"o%es -in$ o/ the )eats and rules the -in$do% well. >e/ore the* leave.raises hi% and $ives hi% advi"e on bein$ a -in$. in whi"h .*$ela" will hel. a slave stu%bled u. >eowul/ .ros.erit*. hi% save the -in$do% on"e a$ain.roth$ar betrothed his dau$hter !reawaru to a . and dives into the la-e. A $rand /east /ollows. a /ire+breathin$ dra$on /ound the treasure and $uarded it /or three hundred *ears. When the* rea"h the ed$e o/ the %oors. As the* wait to atta".e re"alls a nu%ber o/ battles he has seen as he travels to the dra$onBs lair with eleven o/ his thanes.ast wron$s. The dra$on awa-ened to /ind so%ethin$ %issin$ /ro% his treasure. leavin$ onl* one %an behind.e /or >eowul/ be"ause he has been underwater /or su"h a lon$ ti%e.on the treasure and stole a "u. In the .eathobard . Still in a ra$e.ea-s on the treasure.on the )eats.ersonBs death. >eowul/ and the dra$on swin$ at ea"h other three ti%es. A/ter a lon$ ti%e. This %an is Wi$la/. >eowul/ sa*s he served .*$ela"Bs oldest brothers -illed ea"h other and le/t their /ather to die o/ a bro-en heart.. thou$ht.roth$ar . >eowul/ rea"hes the botto% o/ the la-e.e $rabs it b* the hilt and swin$sE-illin$ )rendelBs %other b* sli"in$ o// her head. .*$ela" and his @ueen . The )eats return with %u"h rejoi"in$ to their ho%eland. but his %en /lee in /ear. The dra$on is beheaded. to the%.to . >eowul/ leads the "har$e to the dra$onBs "ave.e"ulates that so%eone will $oad this . This atta"sends hi% into dee.eorot.*$ela"Bs death in battle and his own narrow es"a.e sa*s that Wi$la/ should inherit it as his -ins%anC then he dies. The servant who stole the "u.e re"alls . The neDt %ornin$. but >eowul/ is bitten and has a %ortal . the 3anes have $iven u. who is not ta%ed until 2//a "o%es to subju$ate her.ro%ises that their lands will have an allian"e /orever.ersuades . Soon he orders a shield to use /or battle.roth$ar in %ournin$ /or his /riend Aes"here. and >eowul/ is $iven %ore .rin"e o/ the .the dra$on.on ea"h other the last ti%e. The shield . The* rule the -in$do% to$ether in . >eowul/ "alls /or his ar%or.la"e. a %onster arises to terrori?e the )eats. >eowul/ re"ounts his battleC . where their -in$ . where )rendelBs %other is waitin$ to atta"-.roth$ar to ride with hi% to the %oors.raises >eowul/ and . >eowul/ s. 2ne da*. .roth$ar tells >eowul/ where the "reatures li-e )rendel liveEin a shadow*. where another "elebration ta-es . >eowul/ re"ounts the )eat ro*al /a%il*Bs . In the /i/tieth *ear o/ >eowul/Bs rei$n. >eowul/ swin$s his sword. The* then wrestle until >eowul/ s.roth$ar .*$d $reet the%.roth$ar /ro% the 3anes. but not without a heav* heart at what %a* ha. the narrator "o%. all ho.raises >eowul/ /or his braver* and $ives hi% hal/ the -in$do%.*$ela" .ri"eless treasures. >eowul/ tells his lord the events o/ his tri. /ear/ul land within the %oors.h*. As the* wait.rin"e to ta-e ven$ean"e u. . to 3en%ar-. As the )eats leave. >eowul/ . The* are sho"-ed when >eowul/ returns with )rendelBs head and the hilt o/ the sword (whi"h %elted with the heat o/ )rendelBs blood&.*$ela" well. 4ust then the dra$on rushes u.reviousl* been un%entioned. whi"h $uarded it jealousl* until onl* one %e%ber o/ the ra"e was le/t. so he tosses it awa*.ea"e and . . . .ro"ess. 2ne da*. . leads the% to the lair.ares .

and the ever+. the #ing steps forward to ta#e the challenge &s soon as &rthur grips the =reen (nightEs a"e. . Two di//erent s"ribes "o. the >eowul/ . The %essen$er envisions the jo* o/ the )eatsB ene%ies u. on the condition that the challenger find him in e"actly one year to receive a blow in return Stunned.eriod $iven.s in lar$e @uantities. with whole . su"h as the le$end o/Si$e%und and the a""ount o/ the war at !innesburh. %ost s"holars believe that the . 3es. and he %a-es the 'hristian world eDtre%el* visible. Sir =awain and the =reen (night During a <ew DearEs Eve feast at (ing &rthurEs court.A/ter his death.t. and the volu%e "ontainin$ >eowul/ be"a%e badl* "harred. the head reiterates the terms of the pact. %ost li-el* usin$ an eDistin$ "o. datin$ /ro% the .within an even %ore an"ient tradition.osed %u"h earlier than the 'otton %anus"ri. usin$ the older /or%s o/ the words.t still eDists.le. reminding the young =awain to see# him in a year and a day at the =reen $hapel &fter the =reen (night leaves. Throu$h the stud* o/ 2ld 0n$lish verse. the "owards return. referred to only as the =reen (night.ast o/ his .e sends a %essen$er to tell the .erha. between 687 and G77. the whole volu%e re%ained in a %onasti" librar* until Sir obert 'otton $ained .la"e the treasure inside a %ound with >eowul/Bs bod* and %ourn /or Fthe ablest o/ all world+-in$s.reserved in later teDts.oe% has su"h a derivative @ualit*. . In addition.i" di"tion. !irst and /ore%ost.e also sa*s that no %an shall ever have the treasure /or whi"h >eowul/ /ou$ht.e"iali?ed view o/ his "hara"tersB world. The sin$le eDistin$ "o.ts to des"ribe it in $reat detail throu$h rituals. It is evident that the >eowul/ .ied the .a$an world o/ the 3anes.*.on the . >eowul/ dire"tl* uses %an* an"ient stories that have been . The* . but =awain is uneasy .oet nonetheless %ana$es to add his own s. . cuts off the #nightEs head 'o the amaBement of the court.oe%Bs "o%.la"e his wor. A /ire "onsu%ed %u"h o/ his librar*.e alludes to 'ain and the !loodC he shows the 'hristian )odBs in/luen"e u.art o/ the eleventh "entur*. So%e words in >eowul/ do not adhere to the s"ansion o/ 2ld 0n$lish verseC however.oet wished to . Sir =awain leaps up and as#s to ta#e the challenge himself ?e ta#es hold of the a"e and.art ra.osition. Aet a""uratel* datin$ the . Toda* the %anus"ri.oe% is written with the traditional e. althou$h so%e s"holars believe it dates /ro% the /irst .oet++indeed.ast and atte%. It is /ound in a lar$e volu%e that /eatures stories involvin$ %*thi"al "reatures and . to be severel* "hastised b* Wi$la/. we do not even -now the date o/ the .le /or his .hrases ta-en /ro% the other bards who san$ the le$ends in"or.eo. >etween 1766 and the e/or%ation. a strange figure. Wi$la/ and >eowul/Bs thanes toss the dra$onBs bod* into the sea. We do not have an* de/inite -nowled$e about the .rise sin"e the .eo.ossession o/ it /or his own eDtensive librar*.ite his borrowin$ /ro% other sour"es.oe%.oe% is a di//i"ult enter. Aet he is obviousl* aware o/ his "ultureBs .le o/ their -in$Bs death. >eowul/Bs author is a 'hristian.le.on hearin$ o/ the death o/ >eowul/. &rthur hesitates to respond.oe% was "o%.eo.t dates /ro% the late tenth "entur*. al%ost with a nostal$i" /eelin$ /or the b*$one . in one deadly blow.resent belie/ in /ate. thou$h it is /allin$ a.i" written in the 0n$lish lan$ua$e.* o/ the %anus"ri.a$an . the . but when the =reen (night moc#s &rthurEs silence. pays the court an une"pected visit ?e challenges the groupEs leader or any other brave representative to a game 'he =reen (night says that he will allow whomever accepts the challenge to stri#e him with his own a"e.idl* due to the "harrin$ in the /ire.F Beowulf is the /irst survivin$ e. the company goes bac# to its festival. su"h as the elaborate )er%ani" sea+burials and the $rand /easts in the %ead+halls.oet tries to re"reate the . Thus >eowul/Bs . .a$an da*s.eo.orated. "auses the lines to s"an "orre"tl*. the now2headless =reen (night pic#s up his severed head Before riding away.

he prays to find a place to hear Fass. such as a ring or a glove =awain refuses to give her anything and refuses to ta#e anything from her. visible through the tall grasses ?e hears the whirring of a grindstone. but most scholars believe him to have been a university2trained cler# or the official of a provincial estate 7this Spar#<ote refers to him as the J. including the girdle. =awainEs aunt and (ing &rthurEs half sister She sent the =reen (night on his original errand and used her magic to change Bertila#Es appearance %elieved to be alive but e"tremely guilty about his sinful failure to tell the whole truth. then sets off with =ringolet to see# the =reen (night & guide accompanies him out of the estate grounds When they reach the border of the forest. traveling through the wilderness of northwest Britain =awain encounters all sorts of beasts. =awain shouts that their contract has been met. without e8ual in all the land When =awain 8uestions Bertila# further. and starts off toward <orth Wales. and this time she #isses =awain twice 'hat evening =awain gives the host the two #isses in e"change for the boarEs head 'he third day. suffers from hunger and cold. survives in a late2fourteenth2century manuscript with three other poemsH. that e"ists in a separate manuscript &ll the poems e"cept Sir Gawain and the . the guide promises not to tell anyone if =awain decides to give up the 8uest =awain refuses.atienceHby the same author Iery little is #nown about the author of these poems. Bertila# drew blood on his third blow <evertheless. the lord hunts a wild boar 'he lady again enters =awainEs chambers. but before she leaves she steals one #iss from him 'hat evening. since he has won one #iss from the lady 'he second day. he comes to a #ind of crevice in a roc#. but when it comes time to e"change his winnings with the host.earl. =awain gives the three #isses but does not mention the ladyEs green girdle 'he host gives =awain the fo" s#in he won that day. and when he returns in the evening. li#ely written in the mid to late fourteenth century. but weighed down with the fact that =awain must leave for the =reen $hapel the following morning to find the =reen (night <ew DearEs Day arrives.earl2poetK or the J=awain2poetK9 'hough it cannot be said with certainty that one person wrote all four poems. wearing girdles on their arms to show their support 'he alliterative poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Bertila#. and autumn arrives @n the Day of &ll Saints. the lordEs wife snea#s into =awainEs chambers and attempts to seduce him =awain puts her off. where all the #nights join =awain.'ime passes. mounts his horse. who proceeds to feign two blows @n the third feint. but the =reen (night merely laughs 'he =reen (night reveals his name.urity. determined to meet his fate head2on Eventually. called St Er#enwald. and the =reen (night emerges to greet him Intent on fulfilling the terms of the contract. the =reen (night nic#s =awainEs nec#. and . until the lady mentions her girdle 'he green sil# girdle she wears around her waist is no ordinary piece of cloth. . and =awain dons his armor. and they all go to bed happy. then loo#s up to see a castle shimmering in the distance 'he lord of the castle welcomes =awain warmly. =awain presents his nec# to the =reen (night. he will e"change his winnings for anything =awain has managed to ac8uire by staying behind at the castle =awain happily agrees to the pact. =awain prepares to leave $amelot and find the =reen (night ?e puts on his best armor. =awain #isses him. while =awain sleeps late in his bedchambers @n the morning of the first day. and e"plains that he is the lord of the castle where =awain recently stayed Because =awain did not honestly e"change all of his winnings on the third day. but possesses the magical ability to protect the person who wears it from death Intrigued. =awain has proven himself a worthy #night. when the host gives =awain the venison he has captured. confirming his suspicion that this strange cavern is in fact the =reen $hapel =awain calls out. the lady claims. some shared characteristics point toward common authorship and also suggest that the =awain2poet may have written another poem. Bertila# e"plains that the old woman at the castle is really Forgan le !aye. and grows more desperate as the days pass @n $hristmas Day. =ringolet. and the lady #isses =awain three times She also as#s him for a love to#en. introducing him to his lady and to the old woman who sits beside her !or sport. the lord hunts a fo". and goes to bed 'he first day. =awain accepts the cloth. barely drawing blood &ngered. the host 7whose name is later revealed to be Bertila#9 stri#es a deal with =awainG the host will go out hunting with his men every day. the lord hunts a herd of does. =awain wears the girdle on his arm as a reminder of his own failure ?e returns to &rthurEs court.

Green Knight deal with overtly $hristian subject matter. and chastity &s the story unfolds. medicine. by way of BritainEs 'rojan founder.K or parts. and literary formsHespecially &rthurian romanceHby relating them directly to classical anti8uity Plot Overview Doctor !austus. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight e"ists as a testament that the style continued well into the fourteenth century. older and more elevated than the tradition of courtly literature. called $amelot Forgan. the beheading game. political. loyalty. has pic#ed up some magical ability and uses it to press a clown named %obin into his service . and he begins his new career as a magician by summoning up Fephastophilis. usually associated with northern England $ontrary to what the name of the movement suggests. and religionHand decides that he wants to learn to practice magic ?is friends Ialdes and $ornelius instruct him in the blac# arts. and serve as transitions to the ne"t scene or idea 'old in four Jfitts. the alliterative meter of @ld English had not actually disappeared and therefore did not need reviving <evertheless. or repetition of consonants 'he poem also uses rhyme to structure its stanBas. if not in London. grows dissatisfied with the limits of traditional forms of #nowledgeHlogic. a well2respected =erman scholar. usually appears in legend as an enemy of the %ound 'able Indeed. an &rthurian romance. history. a devil Despite FephastophilisEs warnings about the horrors of hell. and each group of long alliterative lines concludes with a word or phrase containing two syllables and a 8uatrainH#nown together as the Jbob and wheel K 'he phrase Jbob and wheelK derives from a techni8ue used when spinning cloth Hthe bobs and wheels in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight help to spin the plot and narrative together in intricate ways 'hey provide commentaries on what has just happened. and lin# fourteenth2century England to %ome. and it remains unclear why Sir =awain. law. !austus tells the devil to return to his master. was included in an otherwise religious manuscript Sir Gawain and the Green Knightwas written in a dialect of Fiddle English that lin#s it with BritainEs <orthwest Fidlands. which was also founded by a 'rojan 7&eneas9 'hus. Brutus 'hese references root the &rthurian romance in the tradition of epic literature. probably the county of $heshire or Lancashire 'he English provinces of the late fourteenth century. where =eoffrey $haucer and William Langland were writing at the time In fact. create or fulfill moments of suspense. were not necessarily less culturally active than London. in this case9 to another 7medieval England9 'he =awain2poet at times adopts an ironic tone. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight presents us with a version of translatio imperiiHa Latin phrase referring to the transfer of culture from one civiliBation 7classical anti8uity. &rthurEs half sister and a powerful sorceress. !austusEs servant. and artistic centrality. the perfect world depicted in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 'he poemEs second frame is a historical one 'he poem begins and ends with references to the myth of BritainEs lineage from the ancient city of 'roy. we discover that the three apparently separate plotlines intersect in surprising ways & larger story that frames the narrative is that of Forgan le !ayeEs traditional hatred for &rthur and his court. the wor#s of the =awain2poet belong to a type of literature traditionally #nown as the &lliterative %evival. although they did not have LondonEs economic. with an offer of !austusEs soul in e"change for twenty2four years of service from Fephastophilis Feanwhile. appears in ancient fol#lore and may derive from pagan myths related to the agricultural cycles of planting and harvesting crops 'he second and third plots concern the e"change of winnings and the heroEs temptationM both of these plots derive from medieval romances and dramatiBe tests of the heroEs honesty. but he also displays a deep investment in elevating his countryEs legends. Lucifer. the poem weaves together at least three separate narrative strings commonly found in medieval fol#lore and romance 'he first plot. Wagner. then in the provinces Sir Gawain and the Green KnightEs adapted @ld English meter tends to connect the two halves of each poetic line through alliteration. medieval readers #new of ForganEs role in the destined fall of $amelot.

fly. WagnerEs clown. %obin. but Fephastophilis bestows rich gifts on him and gives him a boo# of spells to learn Later. a host of devils appears and carries his soul off to hell In the morning. a man named Dic# 7%afe in the & te"t9. $ambridge even wanted to withhold his degree. apparently suspecting him of having converted to $atholicism. $hristopher Farlowe was an actor. the same year as William Sha#espeare. along with %obin. where he became a playwright and led a turbulent. he pioneered the use of blan# verseHnonrhyming lines of iambic pentameterHwhich many of his contemporaries.rivy $ouncil intervened on his behalf.Fephastophilis returns to !austus with word that Lucifer has accepted !austusEs offer !austus e"periences some misgivings and wonders if he should repent and save his soulM in the end.C. the famous beauty from the ancient world. where he performs various feats 'he horse2courser shows up there. poet. who threatens to turn %obin and %afe into animals 7or perhaps even does transform themM the te"t isnEt clear9 to punish them for their foolishness !austus then goes on with his travels. where . and playwright during the reign of BritainEs Aueen EliBabeth I 7ruled )11+N)*649 Farlowe attended $orpus $hristi $ollege at $ambridge University and received degrees in )1+0 and )1+5 'raditionally. with his fame spreading as he goes Eventually. the words J?omo fuge. possibly by infiltrating $atholic communities in !rance &fter leaving $ambridge. and !austus chastises him by ma#ing antlers sprout from his head !urious. who as#s !austus to allow him to see &le"ander the =reat. to the amusement of the du#e and duchess &s the twenty2four years of his deal with Lucifer come to a close. he is invited to the court of the =erman emperor. has pic#ed up some magic on his own. the #night vows revenge Feanwhile. but !austus drives him away !austus summons ?elen again and e"claims rapturously about her beauty But time is growing short !austus tells the scholars about his pact. but Farlowe chose not to join the ministry !or a time. ma#es himself invisible. !austus is overcome by fear and remorse ?e begs for mercy. !austus begins to dread his impending death ?e has Fephastophilis call up ?elen of 'roy. Fephastophilis answers all of his 8uestions about the nature of the world. !austus is invited to the court of the Du#e of Ianholt. refusing to answer only when !austus as#s him who made the universe 'his refusal prompts yet another bout of misgivings in !austus. and Doctor Faustus In his writing. and $harles is suitably impressed & #night scoffs at !austusEs powers. the education that he received would have prepared him to become a clergyman. though. saying that Farlowe had Jdone her majesty good serviceK in Jmatters touching the benefit of the country K 'his odd se8uence of events has led some to theoriBe that Farlowe wor#ed as a spy for the crown. but it is too late &t midnight. including William . playing a tric# on a horse2courser along the way !austus sells him a horse that turns into a heap of straw when ridden into a river Eventually. %afe. !austus begins to travel ?e goes to the popeEs court in %ome. signing it with his blood &s soon as he does so. a forbidden faith in late2si"teenth2century England. Farlowe moved to London.rotestantism was the state2supported religion Aueen EliBabethEs . The Jew of Malta. and various others who have fallen victim to !austusEs tric#ery But !austus casts spells on them and sends them on their way. he manages to summon Fephastophilis. and with his fellow stablehand. and plays a series of tric#s ?e disrupts the popeEs ban8uet by stealing food and bo"ing the popeEs ears !ollowing this incident. he agrees to the deal. he travels through the courts of Europe. the scholars find !austusEs limbs and decide to hold a funeral for him Born in $anterbury in )1*0.K Latin for J@ man. and they are horror2stric#en and resolve to pray for him @n the final night before the e"piration of the twenty2four years. and uses her presence to impress a group of scholars &n old man urges !austus to repent. he undergoes a number of comic misadventures &t one point. $harles I 7the enemy of the pope9.K appear branded on his arm !austus again has second thoughts. all of which were immensely popular &mong the most well #nown of his plays are Tamburlaine. Facedonian #ing and con8ueror !austus conjures up an image of &le"ander. the famed fourth2centuryB. but Fephastophilis and Lucifer bring in personifications of the Seven Deadly Sins to prance about in front of !austus. and he is impressed enough to 8uiet his doubts &rmed with his new powers and attended by Fephastophilis. scandal2 plagued life ?e produced seven plays.

Sha#espeare. atheism. so that if $laudius is guilty. $laudius agrees to spy on ?amlet in conversation with the girl But though ?amlet certainly seems mad. and that he was murdered by none other than $laudius @rdering ?amlet to see# revenge on the man who usurped his throne and married his wife. to watch him When . a ghost wal#s the ramparts of Elsinore $astle in Denmar# Discovered first by a pair of watchmen. #illing . rumors were spread accusing him of treason. $laudiusEs plan for ?amlet includes more than banishment.rince ?amlet devotes himself to avenging his fatherEs death. later adopted In 1593.olonius. FarloweEs career was cut short &fter being accused of heresy 7maintaining beliefs contrary to those of an approved religion9. Doctor Faustus is the first famous version of the story Later versions include the long and famous poem !aust by the nineteenth2century %omantic writer >ohann Wolfgang von =oethe. he will surely react When the moment of the murder arrives in the theater. the pompous Lord $hamberlain. ?amlet believes the #ing is hiding there ?e draws his sword and stabs through the fabric. referring to any deal made for a short2 term gain with great costs in the long run 5amlet @n a dar# winter night. he was arrested and put on a sort of probation @n Fay 46. as well as operas by $harles =ounod and &rrigo Boito and a symphony by ?ector BerlioB Feanwhile. the ghost disappears with the dawn . however Doctor Faustus was probably written in )1. it spea#s to him. one that had become attached to the historical persona of >ohannes !austus. %osencrantB and =uildenstern.rince ?amlet. $laudius leaps up and leaves the room ?amlet and ?oratio agree that this proves his guilt ?amlet goes to #ill $laudius but finds him praying Since he believes that #illing $laudius while in prayer would send $laudiusEs soul to heaven. then by the scholar ?oratio. orders that ?amlet be sent to England at once ?amlet goes to confront his mother. he delays. ?amlet considers that it would be an inade8uate revenge and decides to wait $laudius. although the e"act date of its composition is uncertain. Farlowe became involved in a tavern brawl and was #illed when one of the combatants stabbed him in the head &fter his death. the son of =ertrude and the dead #ing.olonius !or this crime. and some people speculated that the tavern brawl might have been the wor# of government agents Little evidence to support these allegations has come to light. and from which Farlowe lifted the bul# of the plot for his drama &lthough there had been literary representations of !aust prior to FarloweEs play. however. he does not seem to love @pheliaG he orders her to enter a nunnery and declares that he wishes to ban marriages & group of traveling actors comes to Elsinore. now frightened of ?amletEs madness and fearing for his own safety. Aueen =ertrude When ?oratio and the watchmen bring . and ?amlet seiBes upon an idea to test his uncleEs guilt ?e will have the players perform a scene closely resembling the se8uence by which ?amlet imagines his uncle to have murdered his father. since it was not published until a decade later 'he idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for #nowledge is an old motif in $hristian fol#lore. suggests that ?amlet may be mad with love for his daughter. entering into a deep melancholy and even apparent madness $laudius and =ertrude worry about the princeEs erratic behavior and attempt to discover its cause 'hey employ a pair of ?amletEs friends. but. and homose"uality. @phelia. as he has given %osencrantB and =uildenstern sealed orders for the (ing of England demanding that ?amlet be put to death . because he is contemplative and thoughtful by nature. a disreputable astrologer who lived in =ermany sometime in the early )166s 'he immediate source of FarloweEs play seems to be the anonymous =erman wor# ?istoria von D Iohan !austen of 1587. to see the ghost. whose brother $laudius has inherited the throne and married the #ingEs widow. declaring ominously that it is indeed his fatherEs spirit. he is immediately dispatched to England with %osencrantB and =uildenstern ?owever. the ghost resembles the recently deceased (ing ?amlet./. the phrase J!austian bargainK has entered the English le"icon. shortly after being released. which was translated into English in 1592. )1. in whose bedchamber .4.olonius has hidden behind a tapestry ?earing a noise from behind the tapestry.

literary luminaries such as Ben >onson hailed his wor#s as timeless Sha#espeareEs wor#s were collected and printed in various editions in the century following his death. and ?amlet dies immediately after achieving his revenge &t this moment. returns to Denmar# in a rage $laudius convinces him that ?amlet is to blame for his fatherEs and sisterEs deaths When ?oratio and the #ing receive letters from ?amlet indicating that the prince has returned to Denmar# after pirates attac#ed his ship en route to England. becoming so influential as to profoundly affect the course of Western literature and culture ever after . tells him ?amletEs tragic story !ortinbras orders that ?amlet be carried away in a manner befitting a fallen soldier 'he most influential writer in all of English literature. after revealing to ?amlet that $laudius is responsible for the 8ueenEs death. Laertes is cut by his own swordEs blade.ublic and critical success 8uic#ly followed. who report that %osencrantB and =uildenstern are dead !ortinbras is stunned by the gruesome sight of the entire royal family lying sprawled on the floor dead ?e moves to ta#e power of the #ingdom ?oratio. =ertrude ta#es a drin# from it and is swiftly #illed by the poison Laertes succeeds in wounding ?amlet. a <orwegian prince named !ortinbras. Sha#espeare retired to Stratford and died in )*)* at the age of fifty2two &t the time of Sha#espeareEs death. William Sha#espeare was born in )1*0 to a successful middle2class glove2ma#er in Stratford2upon2&von. &nne ?athaway. and he was a favorite of both monarchs Indeed. @phelia goes mad with grief and drowns in the river . Laertes. but $laudius will poison LaertesE blade so that if he draws blood. and Sha#espeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part2owner of the =lobe 'heater ?is career bridged the reigns of EliBabeth I 7ruled )11+N)*649 and >ames I 7ruled )*64N)*/19. and by the early eighteenth century his reputation as the greatest poet ever to write in English was well established 'he unprecedented admiration garnered by his wor#s led to a fierce curiosity about Sha#espeareEs life. and. he dies from the bladeEs poison ?amlet then stabs $laudius through with the poisoned sword and forces him to drin# down the rest of the poisoned wine $laudius dies. who has led an army to Denmar# and attac#ed . but the dearth of biographical information has left many details of Sha#espeareEs personal history shrouded in mystery Some people have concluded from this fact that Sha#espeareEs plays were really written by someone elseH!rancis Bacon and the Earl of @"ford are the two most popular candidatesHbut the support for this claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial. but his formal education proceeded no further In )1+/ he married an older woman. who has been staying in !rance. >ames granted Sha#espeareEs company the greatest possible compliment by bestowing upon its members the title of (ingEs Fen Wealthy and renowned.6 he left his family behind and traveled to London to wor# as an actor and playwright . but declines to drin# from the #ingEs proffered goblet Instead. England Sha#espeare attended grammar school. ?amlet will die &s a bac#up plan. which he will give ?amlet to drin# should ?amlet score the first or second hits of the match ?amlet returns to the vicinity of Elsinore just as @pheliaEs funeral is ta#ing place Stric#en with grief. the #ing decides to poison a goblet. enters with ambassadors from England. Sha#espeare must be viewed as the author of the thirty2 seven plays and )10 sonnets that bear his name 'he legacy of this body of wor# is immense & number of Sha#espeareEs plays seem to have transcended even the category of brilliance. fulfilling ?amletEs last re8uest. and the theory is not ta#en seriously by many scholars In the absence of credible evidence to the contrary. he attac#s Laertes and declares that he had in fact always loved @phelia Bac# at the castle.oloniusEs son. $laudius concocts a plan to use LaertesE desire for revenge to secure ?amletEs death Laertes will fence with ?amlet in innocent sport. since death can come at any moment & foolish courtier named @sric arrives on $laudiusEs orders to arrange the fencing match between ?amlet and Laertes 'he sword2fighting begins ?amlet scores the first hit. he tells ?oratio that he believes one must be prepared to die.oland earlier in the play. and had three children with her &round )1. though ?amlet does not die of the poison immediately !irst.In the aftermath of her fatherEs death.

their relative states of sanity or insanity 'he world of other people is a world of appearances.59 is directly based upon one of the major te"ts of the Italian humanists. . marries his mother. =ertrude. fundamentally. ma#ing his ?amlet a philosophically minded prince who delays ta#ing action because his #nowledge of his uncleEs crime is so uncertain Sha#espeare went far beyond ma#ing uncertainty a personal 8uir# of ?amletEs. whether ?amlet would be morally justified in ta#ing revenge on his uncle Sha#espeare ma#es it clear that the sta#es riding on some of these 8uestions are enormousHthe actions of these characters bring disaster upon an entire #ingdom &t the playEs end it is not even clear whether justice has been achieved By modifying his source materials in this way. a play about the difficulty of living in that world . in action how li#e an angel.4N/. Fichel de Fontaigne. in apprehension how li#e a godHthe beauty of the world. and their fondest hope was that the coordination of action and understanding would lead to great benefits for society as a whole &s the %enaissance spread to other countries in the si"teenth and seventeenth centuries. 'he raw material that Sha#espeare appropriated in writing ?amlet is the story of a Danish prince whose uncle murders the princeEs father.ico della FirandolaEs ration on the Dignit! of Man. as this movement is now called. including a twelfth2century Latin history of Denmar# compiled by Sa"o =rammaticus and a prose wor# by the !rench writer !ranOois de Belleforest. and also an enormous optimism about the potential scope of human understanding ?amletEs famous speech in &ct II. however. the purpose of cultivating reason was to lead to a better understanding of how to act. andHamlet is. or see#s to deceive and tempt ?amletM and. Sha#espeare borrowed for his plays ideas and stories from earlier literary wor#s ?e could have ta#en the story of ?amlet from several possible sources. perhaps most importantly. was no less interested in studying human e"periences than the earlier humanists were. stressing the limitations of human understanding !or e"ample. Hamlet was probably first performed in >uly )*6/ It was first published in printed form in )*64 and appeared in an enlarged edition in )*60 &s was common practice during the si"teenth and seventeenth centuries. the paragon of animalsPK 7II ii /. but he maintained that the world of e"perience was a world of appearances. then manages to #ill his uncle in revenge Sha#espeare changed the emphasis of this story entirely. in &ct IIIM whether @pheliaEs death is suicide or accidentM whether the ghost offers reliable #nowledge.Written during the first part of the seventeenth century 7probably in )*66 or )*6)9. JWhat a piece of wor# is a manP ?ow noble in reason. the play as a whole chiefly demonstrates the difficulty of #nowing the truth about other peopleHtheir guilt or innocence. and claims the throne 'he prince pretends to be feeble2minded to throw his uncle off guard. shares in $laudiusEs guiltM whether ?amlet continues to love @phelia even as he spurns her. their motivations. and that human beings could never hope to see past those appearances into the JrealitiesK that lie behind them 'his is the world in which Sha#espeare places his characters ?amlet is faced with the difficult tas# of correcting an injustice that he can never have sufficient #nowledge ofHa dilemma that is by no means uni8ue. a more s#eptical strain of humanism developed. their feelings. generated a new interest in human e"perience. !or the humanists. introducing a number of important ambiguities into the play that even the audience cannot resolve with certainty !or instance. how infinite in faculty. or even uncommon &nd while ?amlet is fond of pointing out 8uestions that cannot be answered because they concern supernatural and metaphysical matters. entitled Histoires Tragiques. the si"teenth2century !rench humanist. in form and moving how e"press and admirable. Sha#espeare was able to ta#e an unremar#able revenge story and ma#e it resonate with the most fundamental themes and problems of the %enaissance 'he %enaissance is a vast cultural phenomenon that began in fifteenth2century Italy with the recovery of classical =ree# and Latin te"ts that had been lost to the Fiddle &ges 'he scholars who enthusiastically rediscovered these classical te"ts were motivated by an educational and political ideal called 7in Latin9 humanitasHthe idea that all of the capabilities and virtues peculiar to human beings should be studied and developed to their furthest e"tent %enaissance humanism. whether ?amletEs mother.

to as# the audience for its forgiveness and approval and to urge it to remember the play as though it had all been a dream 'he most influential writer in all of English literature. who has recently returned from India to bless the marriage of 'heseus and ?ippolyta 'he second is a band of &thenian craftsmen rehearsing a play that they hope to perform for the du#e and his bride @beron and 'itania are at odds over a young Indian prince given to 'itania by the princeEs motherM the boy is so beautiful that @beron wishes to ma#e him a #night. with a four2day festival of pomp and entertainment ?e commissions his Faster of the %evels. is preparing for his marriage to ?ippolyta. but 'itania refuses See#ing revenge. and Lysander now loves ?ermia &fter the group wedding. but ?ermia is in love with Lysander and refuses to comply Egeus as#s for the full penalty of law to fall on ?ermiaEs head if she flouts her fatherEs will 'heseus gives ?ermia until his wedding to consider her options. ?ermia and Lysander plan to escape &thens the following night and marry in the house of LysanderEs aunt. . .Plot Overview 'heseus.uc# encounters Lysander and ?ermiaM thin#ing that Lysander is the &thenian of whom @beron spo#e. whose head .yramus and 'hisbe When the play is completed. abandoning ?ermia &s the night progresses and . an &thenian nobleman. who was once engaged to Demetrius and still loves him even though he jilted her after meeting ?ermia ?oping to regain his love. England Sha#espeare attended grammar school. including @beron. some seven leagues distant from the city 'hey ma#e their intentions #nown to ?ermiaEs friend ?elena.uc#.uc# remains. 8ueen of the &maBons.uc# obtains the flower. the fairy #ing. the most ridiculous of the &thenian craftsmen.uc# afflicts him with the love potion Lysander happens to see ?elena upon awa#ing and falls deeply in love with her. . a fumbling. and @beron tells him of his plan to spread its juice on the sleeping 'itaniaEs eyelids ?aving seen Demetrius act cruelly toward ?elena. and had three children with her &round )1. warning her that disobeying her fatherEs wishes could result in her being sent to a convent or even e"ecuted <onetheless. the lovers go to bedM the fairies briefly emerge to bless the sleeping couples with a protective charm and then disappear @nly . William Sha#espeare was born in )1*0 to a successful middle2class glove2ma#er in Stratford2upon2&von. who believes that they are moc#ing her ?ermia becomes so jealous that she tries to challenge ?elena to a fight Demetrius and Lysander nearly do fight over ?elenaEs love.ublic and critical success 8uic#ly followed. du#e of &thens. and Sha#espeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part2owner of the =lobe 'heater ?is career bridged the reigns of EliBabeth I 7ruled )11+N)*649 and >ames I 7ruled )*64N)*/19. and he was a favorite of both monarchs Indeed. the first creature she sees is Bottom. >ames granted Sha#espeareEs company the greatest possible compliment by bestowing upon its members the title of (ingEs Fen .hilostrate. and two young men. Demetrius and Lysander Egeus wishes ?ermia to marry Demetrius 7who loves ?ermia9.uc# has moc#ingly transformed into that of an ass 'itania passes a ludicrous interlude doting on the ass2 headed weaver Eventually. &nne ?athaway. his 8ueen. but . to ac8uire a magical flower. Demetrius stal#s into the woods after his intended bride and her loverM ?elena follows behind him In these same woods are two very different groups of characters 'he first is a band of fairies. to find suitable amusements for the occasion Egeus. leading them apart until they are lost separately in the forest When 'itania wa#es. the lovers watch Bottom and his fellow craftsmen perform their play.uc# spreads the love potion on LysanderEs eyelids. he orders . ?elena tells Demetrius of the elopement that ?ermia and Lysander have planned &t the appointed time.uc# attempts to undo his mista#e. @beron sends his merry servant. and 'itania. both Lysander and Demetrius end up in love with ?elena. but his formal education proceeded no further In )1+/ he married an older woman. the juice of which can be spread over a sleeping personEs eyelids to ma#e that person fall in love with the first thing he or she sees upon wa#ing . marches into 'heseusEs court with his daughter. and by morning all is well 'heseus and ?ippolyta discover the sleeping lovers in the forest and ta#e them bac# to &thens to be marriedHDemetrius now loves ?elena. . @beron obtains the Indian boy. hilarious version of the story of .uc# to spread some of the juice on the eyelids of the young &thenian man . ?ermia.6 he left his family behind and traveled to London to wor# as an actor and playwright .uc# confuses them by mimic#ing their voices.

ares "orn/la-es and /ried bread /or Stanle*<s brea-/ast. .ea-s the truth.here "han$es. many of the characters are drawn from diverse te"tsG 'itania comes from @vidEs Metamor&hoses. and it mar#s a departure from his earlier wor#s and from others of the English %enaissance 'he play demonstrates both the e"tent of Sha#espeareEs learning and the e"pansiveness of his imagination 'he range of references in the play is among its most e"traordinary attributesG Sha#espeare draws on sources as various as =ree# mythology 7'heseus. a bes. and his wi/e 9e$. and the theory is not ta#en seriously by many scholars In the absence of credible evidence to the contrary. probably shortly before Sha#espeare turned to"omeo and Juliet. . A/ter (ete* leaves /or wor-. literary luminaries such as Ben >onson hailed his wor#s as timeless Sha#espeareEs wor#s were collected and printed in various editions in the century following his death. un-e%. is loosely based on the =ree# hero of the same name.eated @uestions "on"ernin$ his /ood.ers (ete* with re. his job.e.i"s while 9e$ .uc#. and the play is peppered with references to =ree# gods and goddesses9M English country fairy lore 7the character of . for instance. Stanle*. their boarder who is aslee. surl* %an in his thirties.. 9e$ then in/or%s hi% that two $entle%en are "o%in$. 9e$ /lirts with Stanle*. (ete* and Stanle* s. (ete* in/or%s his wi/e that two $entle%en will soon arrive to sta* at the boardin$houseC he %et the% the ni$ht be/ore.e"ta"led. 9e$ is an in@uisitive "hara"ter who . When he doesn<t answer. she $oes u. he rudel* . the at%os. (ete*.ushes her awa* and insults her. Sha#espeare retired to Stratford and died in )*)* at the age of fifty2two &t the time of Sha#espeareEs death. She then "alls out to Stanle* Webber.e a""uses 9e$ o/ l*in$. Sha#espeare must be viewed as the author of the thirty2 seven plays and )10 sonnets that bear his name 'he legacy of this body of wor# is immense & number of Sha#espeareEs plays seem to have transcended even the category of brilliance. translated by Lord Berners in the mid2)146s Unli#e the plots of many of Sha#espeareEs plays. soon /ollows. # Midsummer $ight%s Dream is one of his strangest and most delightful creations. but she insists that she s.ro%ise she will have a roo% read* /or the%. who has been the onl* boarder /or *ears. and then returns a bit disheveled but a%used.la* be$ins in the livin$ roo% o/ a seaside boardin$house in 1987s 0n$land.t. 9e$ is /lustered b* the news at /irst. but @ui"-l* re"overs to . the story in # Midsummer $ight%s Dream seems not to have been drawn from any particular source but rather to be the original product of the playwrightEs imagination The Birthday Party Summary Act I The .Wealthy and renowned.id "onversation while eatin$ brea-/ast. sit at the livin$ roo% table and en$a$e in te.stairs to /et"h hi%. et".re.ea. both in their siDties.stairs. such as men playing the roles of women9 !urther.6s. and @beron may have been ta#en from the medieval romance Huan of 'ordeau(. who jo-in$l* "alls her Hsu""ulentI while "riti"i?in$ her housewor-. When 9e$ be"o%es a//e"tionate. and by the early eighteenth century his reputation as the greatest poet ever to write in English was well established 'he unprecedented admiration garnered by his wor#s led to a fierce curiosity about Sha#espeareEs life. was a popular figure in si"teenth2century stories9M and the theatrical practices of Sha#espeareEs London 7the craftsmenEs play refers to and parodies many conventions of English %enaissance theater. u.o/ %undane to. however. or %obin =oodfellow. The news unsettles Stanle*. but the dearth of biographical information has left many details of Sha#espeareEs personal history shrouded in mystery Some people have concluded from this fact that Sha#espeareEs plays were really written by someone elseH!rancis Bacon and the Earl of @"ford are the two most popular candidatesHbut the support for this claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial. becoming so influential as to profoundly affect the course of Western literature and culture ever after Written in the mid2)1. the boardin$house owner.

9"'ann sits at the livin$ roo% table shreddin$ a news..ea-s o/ his love /or Ireland. and the tense at%os. Stanle* answers at /irst.a"-a$e /ro% Stanle*. . )oldber$ and 9"'ann interro$ate hi% about his . It be"o%es i%%ediatel* a. 9e$ su$$ests he o. and %ore.s.ut the $ro"eries awa*.set when 9"'ann denies the "onne"tion. The situation in the roo% $rows tense.ro$ressivel* %ore ridi"ulous and nonsensi"al.. and Stanle* is visibl* u. In the %eanti%e. Stanle* arrives..arent that )oldber$ and 9"'ann have "o%e under %*sterious "ir"u%stan"es to H/inish a job. Julu "alls hi% a Hwash outI and then @ui"-l* eDits. as )oldber$ *a%%ers on about his .e as-s 9"'ann to a""o%.s. )oldber$ ra%bles on about his un"le until 9e$ arrives.ea-s o/ his . "on$ratulates Stanle* on his birthda*. Julu arrives. Stanle* sits at the table and tou"hes one o/ the news. but are "ooed ba". She tells hi% about the two $entle%en. . )oldber$ as-s a/ter Stanle*.resent.into "ivilit* when 9e$ arrives. She is dressed /or his birthda* . The* are the two $entle%en who had re@uested roo%s /or the evenin$. A/ter Stanle* sub%its. Stanle* re%ains on ed$e and re/uses to sit down when 9"'ann as-s hi% to. even thou$h Stanle* insists that it is not his birthda*. Stanle* insists that he has %et 9"'ann be/ore. Stanle* hits )oldber$ in the sto%a"h. Stanle* wants to -now wh* he and )oldber$ are at the boardin$house.set to learn )oldber$<s na%e. and introdu"tions are %ade.ast. It is not 9"'annBs threats that "onvin"e hi% to sit.erate. 9"'ann..otli$ht. but is soon stru"du%b b* the sheer nu%ber o/ @uestions bein$ thrown at hi%. arrives with a . and 9e$ tells hi% that Stanle* was on"e a su""ess/ul . .here @ui"-l* dissi. and the two %en aw-wardl* $reet one another.ted when (ete* and )oldber$ enter the roo%. Act II Jater that sa%e evenin$. (ete* introdu"es Stanle* to )oldber$.ast.art*. Julu and Stanle* "hat /or a little while.I o/ -illin$ his wi/e. . the . 3es.lies that he wants to s. Stanle* $rabs 9"'ann<s ar%. its sunsets. To "heer hi% u. Jater.ossessivel* and loo%s over 9e$ with a "ra?ed eD. he o.le. Julu. and then leaves b* the -it"hen door.>e/ore 9e$ leaves to sho.oli"e. and su$$ests he has never been one to "ause trouble.art*. beatin$ Stanle*<s to* dru%. )oldber$ and9"'ann enter the livin$ roo%.er stri. o/ leavin$ his bride at the altar. Stanle* "al%s hi%sel/ and s. and then she leaves. but 9"'ann will not let hi%.li%ents her. %ostl* about Stanle*<s la".a"e.and .a"-a$e and /inds a to* dru% with dru%sti"-s. Thrilled with the idea.e beats the dru% . 9e$ shows the $entle%en to their roo%. and its .ens the . )oldber$<s sweet te%. 9"'ann and Stanle* threaten ea"h other with "hairs. )oldber$ reassures 9"'ann that the* are at the ri$ht house. and then leaves. and )oldber$ $ives a se"ond toast whi"h in"ludes %ore re%inis"in$. and sa*s it is an honor to be invited to his .o/ enthusias% and his a. Sho"-ed into sub%ission. Stanle* washes his /a"e in the -it"hen. in a "al% tone o/ voi"e. Stanle* s. )oldber$ "o%. Stanle* re.ub.ression on his /a"e. 3es. but is interru. thou$h details are s"ar"e.an* hi% to a nearb* . o/ bein$ a waste o/ s.ite )oldber$<s soothin$ words.art*.ates as 9e$ %a-es a %ovin$ tribute to Stanle* in a toast while 9"'ann /lashes a tor"h in Stanle*<s /a"e li-e a s.I The job in @uestion see%s to be Stanle*.ast + the* a""use hi% o/ betra*in$ their Hor$ani?ation. and $rows /ranti" when 9"'ann "lai%s the* are there on a short holida*. who violentl* hits hi% o//.a.earan"e. and )oldber$ su$$ests the* have a . and that this job will "ause no %ore stress than their jobs usuall* "ause the%. 9e$ instru"ts Julu to -ee.e han$s the dru% around his ne".era%ent and suave de%eanor soon set 9e$ at ease. 9e$ also reveals that it is Stanle*<s birthda*. To hu%or 9e$. The @uestions $row . and $rows u.. Stanle* returns to the livin$ roo% as 9e$ arrives to .a.eo.end the evenin$ alone and tries to leave.a"-a$e. /or its .sets 9"'ann.ianist but had to $ive it u.er into /ive e@ual stri. !inall*.arades around the table beatin$ the dru% %erril* until his rh*th% be"o%es errati" and "haoti". but rather )oldber$Bs @uiet insisten"e.en his birthda* . whi"h u. a *oun$ $irl in her twenties.

9"'ann shines his /lashli$ht on the table to dis"over Stanle* standin$ over Julu as thou$h about to seDuall* assault her.er.e $i$$les %ani"all* as the %en slowl* a.la* blind %an<s bu//. In a re.it* on Stanle*.er %e%or* is ha?* /ro% the ni$ht be/ore.ro%ises to bu* hi% new $lasses. As he has eD. (ete* returns to the livin$ roo% table and . who has s"rea%ed and /ainted. but he i$nores her. the* as. but (ete* arrives and tells the% to sto. but )oldber$ i$nores hi%.(ete* i/ he wants to a""o%. When (ete* su$$ests a wa* to /iD the $lasses and o//ers to /et"h a do"tor. In the dar-ness. eD.rin"i. 9"'ann does so without @uestion.ublished wor-s.lained in %an* . (ete* allows the two %en to ta-e Stanle* awa*. he wrote %ore /ro% intuition than /ro% intelle"t.arold (inter was wor-in$ as an a"tor in 0n$land when he sta*ed brie/l* at a dila. while 9e$ /rets about havin$ no brea-/ast /ood le/t. Startled b* this bi?arre turn o/ events.a"i/ies )oldber$. insistin$ he be told when Stanle* wa-es. 9"'ann . Julu a""uses )oldber$ o/ havin$ ta-en seDual advanta$e o/ her the ni$ht be/ore. the* .edite the job. About The Birthday Party . (ete* "al%s her down.er. don<t let the% tell *ou what to doKI A/terward. and /inall* %a-es a stran$e re@uest b* as-in$ 9"'ann to blow into his %outh twi"e.ea. (ete* sits at the livin$ roo% table readin$ a news.art* be$ins in earnest. 9ena"in$l*. and $rows /ri$htened. Act III The neDt %ornin$.e tells 9"'ann about his /ather and about his own . )oldber$ as-s Stanle* i/ he wants to leave with the%. and )oldber$ sits slu%. des. .les on /a%il*. She /inall* leaves.idated boardin$house that would serve as his ins. who enters "leanl* shaven and ni"el* dressed. 9"'ann then leaves to /et"h Stanle*. but then the li$hts suddenl* $o out. and tells )oldber$ that Stanle* is tr*in$ to /it his bro-en $lasses into his e*es... . and she /or$ets that (ete* was not there as she tries to re%e%ber what ha.lains that Stanle* su//ered a nervous brea-down.ite )oldber$Bs insisten"e that he should si%. (ete* as-s )oldber$ about Stanle*.ed over the table. Julu /lees.i"-s u. . 9e$ as-s hi% about the "ar. 9"'ann sha-es )oldber$Bs "hair and "alls hi% FSi%e*.. The* ar$ue over bla%e until 9"'ann reenters and tells Julu to "on/ess her sins.arts to tend to his .a. (ete* lies and tells her Stanle* is still slee. Julu and )oldber$ /lirt. and )oldber$ eD. but be/ore the* leave. who then ad%its he /eels . he is blind/olded b* 9"'ann.iration /or both The Birthday Party and The Room. )oldber$ and 9"'ann . 9e$ arrives and as-s i/ Stanle* has "o%e down to brea-/ast *et.oorl* and is "on/used b* the /eelin$. and )oldber$ is "al%ed. he be$ins to stran$le her.er Stanle* with $entler @uestions and "o%%ents.lorin$ his "hara"ters without . and this . When Stanle* rea"hes 9e$.ull hi% o//. The two %en see% to ta-e .uts the to* dru% in his . )oldber$ enters the roo% and sits at the table.ares to leave a$ain.F whi"h "auses the latter to atta".. Julu enters. )oldber$ dis%isses hi%.The . (ete* wants to see Stanle* when he wa-es.roa"h hi% and the "urtain "loses. who brea-s his $lasses and .eas. 9"'ann de%ands the* eD.a. she sees )oldber$Bs "ar in the drivewa*. The* be$in to eDit with Stanle*.an* the%. but Stanle* "an onl* %uster $ur$lin$ sounds. and needs to be ta-en to a do"tor who% )oldber$ -nows. he "ries out HStan.re+de"ided narratives in %ind. and 9"'ann leaves the% alone.ened. his news..hi%.o/ Ireland.e. the two $entle%en "annot /ind Julu. Stanle* sits alone at the table until 9e$ su$$ests the* all . As 9e$ . 3urin$ Stanle*<s turn.rise o/ the interro$ation /ro% A"t II. An$r*.in$. and )oldber$ .ath so that Stanle*<s /oot s%ashes throu$h it. while 9e$ and 9"'ann s. When she leaves to sho. 9"'ann enters with two suit"ases.l* leave /or wor-. (ete* de.re.

a/ter his one a"t .la"e.re+ Jondon sta$e.la*wri$ht were e%.ie"es. to "riti"al su""ess. it was a resoundin$ /ailure durin$ its run at the J*ri" 2.ril 1G..la* The Roomattra"ted the attention o/ 9i"hael 'odron. Thou$h the . as i/ the .ouse in . .era . 198G.eo. These juDta.eared in subse@uent . HWhat I write has no obli$ation to an*thin$ other than to itsel/.la* hit the .rodu"er who saw %u"h .la"e as dire"tor on"e the . (inter dire"ted this rendition o/ the show and later wrote.a%%ers%ith. The avant+$arde writin$ and the "on/usin$ subteDt sat . (inter on"e said.ired b* other un"onventional . The Birthday Party is (inter<s /irst /ull len$th . F'o%ed* o/ %ena"e. de"eit. Ins.la*wri$hts su"h as Sa%uel >e"-ett.i"ture while "reatin$ a subteDt o/ intri$ue and "on/usion.rodu"ed .oorl* with "riti"s and audien"es ali-e. with Willou$hb* )ra* as (ete* and i"hard (earson as Stanle*.la*s "onsidered his H"o%ed* o/ %ena"eI .la*. but be"ause o/ a "ertain vis"eral /eelin$ it $ave hi%.ro%ise in the @uir-* .I whi"h both belies the desi$nation Wardle $ave his . The Birthday Party has sin"e . It was revived b* the o*al Sha-es. dire"ted.le he %et there.ouse "elebrated the . (inter wrote The Birthday Party in 1987.roven to be one (inter<s %ost re.ired su"h a desi$nation in the /irst .aints a realisti" . and a"-nowled$es the ori$inalit* that ins. des"ribes a .rodu"tions hi%sel/. The other two are The Caretakerand The Homecoming. and the /irst o/ three .his . just %onths be/ore (inter<s death.lored b* 9artin 0sslin in his se%inal stud* Theatre of the Absurd.rodu"tions.era .an* at the Aldw*"h Theater in Jondon in 1964.eare 'o%. and a.la* was re"eived well in 'a%brid$e. in"ludin$ the 196G /il% version whi"h starred obert Shaw as Stanle*.one en"ounter was ins.la*wri$ht. and "haos.re%iered in 'a%brid$eBs Arts Theater on A. (inter dire"ted the initial . The J*ri" 2.la*<s 87th anniversar* in 9a* 177G.la*s.la*s.ite its initial "o%%er"ial /ailure. The Birthday Party . (inter trans"ended traditional theater b* sta$in$ a /a%iliar settin$ (the 0n$lish ho%e& and then throwin$ it into a state o/ "on/usion with lies.irational not be"ause o/ . 3es.lo*in$ a slei$ht+o/+hand tri"-. a .la* whi"h .F a ter% "oined b* "riti" Irvin$ Wardle. but (eter Wood too.ositions would be /urther eD.