You are on page 1of 8

County Louth Archaeological and History Society

County Louth and the Jacobite War Author(s): J. G. Simms Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society, Vol. 14, No. 3 (1959), pp. 141-147 Published by: County Louth Archaeological and History Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 08/12/2011 10:13
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

County Louth Archaeological and History Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society.

but much less than they had hoped for. and most of the smaller owners failed to recover their lands.000 plantation acres . Smaller. Thomas Clinton substantial. such as Sir William who in place of a Tichborne. town?later to Lord Carlingford. At the Restoration Catholics had recovered about a third of their former holding. The Jacobite war brought things to a head. got Beauly 141 . Altogether were about twenty Catholic landowners. The Restoration Act of Settlement the centre of controversy. most Protestants title deeds. The first two had nearly 6. G. JOURNAL OF COUNTY LOUTH SOCIETY No. been one of the counties of the Pale. of Clintonstown and Nicholas Gernon of Milltown there among others. Simms Want one aspect the Jacobite war was the concluding phase in a century-long The Cromwellian confiscation struggle for the land between Catholic and Protestant. had dispossessed Catholics east of the Shannon. to Lord Louth of the Plunkett family.3 1959 ARCH^QLQGICAL Count? From Hovitfi anb tf)e gacobtte By J. and the rebellion included the confiscation of land. landowners new owners had come in. Protestants resented the fact that Catholics had made any recoveries at all. XIV. of course. who had remained Catholic. penalties for unsuccessful Louth had.000 plantation acres each. and Lord Louth had over 4. Virtually all Catholics were on the side of James II and virtually all Protestants on the side of William. shown in the record at the In the place of dispossessed end of the Restoration settlement.THE THE Vol. and most of the land was owned by colonists of Norman or English stock. Both that the complete suppression of their opponents sides had come to the conclusion was essential to their own security. great and small. Before Cromwell over two-thirds of the county was owned by the older strata of colonists. The Restoration settlement gave back the broadest acres in the county to Sir John Bellew of Castle Lord Bellew of Duleek. Each regarded the other as rebels. But it was to a few of the more influential families that most of the restitution was made. but quite estates were recovered by Patrick Bellew of Barmeath. head of the Taafe family. the figures would have to be nearly doubled to get the equivalent in statute acres. after the restoration of Charles II Catholics had recovered a fraction of their losses. became Catholics looked on the Act as the guarantee of their hoped for its repeal.

however. which attainted or outlawed to King James unless they acknowledged some thousands of Protestants allegiance a to would and do their be If failed lands confiscated date. following year by the arrival of Derry at That the and his William Boyne. who endowed in Townley Protestant schools . The Act Lords Bellew House for Drogheda. The list included the Earl of Drogheda. most of whom were in England preparing to help William of this Patriot Parliament were counting their chickens too But the members could be effective only in the soon. Thomas Bellingham to conquer Ireland. Hugh Gernon and John Babe sat for Ardee. When he reached Finglas. The first demand of Catholics north?was acknowledged. The Acts passed by the Patriot Parliament were a Catholic of event dashed. first by the successful victory. There were plenty of deserving supporters Irish land. William's . whose family name is commemorated Hall. later named Castlebellingham who got Gernonstown. was one whose titles went back long before Oliver Cromwell to the sixteenth century and the dissolu tion of the monasteries . available be ownership would at first thought the war was won. and all those who had lost land since 1641 could now hope to get it back. he issued a declaration Jacobites calling ally . Robert and for Dundalk. welcomed When James II came to Ireland in March. Dermot FitzGeorge sat in of and Louth the Lords. they by to Catholics. victory went to the heads ofWilliam's victory by and Protestant they confidently expected that all the land still in Catholic supporters now for distribution. not so much for his own sake as because he represented and religious and holding their lost lands and political they had of recovering Protestant cities of refuge in the Only in Derry and Enniskillen?the privileges. Henry Bellingham. 1689 and the Louth representa tion Act of Settlement.he was Henry Moore. Earl of Drogheda.he made no promises about their lands. for distribution available and about sixty others from County Louth. 1689 he was enthusiastically the chief hope by Catholics. hopes Jacobite in and the and of resistance Enniskillen. and it was natural for whom William wished to reward with confiscated of taking away the estates of Jacobites whose support of him to see the advantage to take the appalling risk of coming over to himself James had forced William Ireland at a time when Holland was threatened by Louis XIV's army and his position Protestant followers also in England was threatened by the French navy. and John Dowdall Dermot Christopher Fitzlgnatius Peppard Bryan and Christopher and Henry Dowdall for Carlingford.Erasmus Smith. The county was represented tives in the House of Commons were now all Catholics. William just north on to the uncondition surrender of Dublin. SirWilliam Titchburn. of who was Talbot Dundalk and William of Thomas Bellew Haggardstown. An Act of Attainder was also passed.142 COUNTY LOUTH ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL Plunkett and built himself the very fine house we can still admire . among others. certain so. by Lord TyrconneLTs nephew. James resisted and William " " was for a Parliament and a new law to drive a coach and six through the Restora The Parliament met in May. Henry Townley. The largest Protestant landowner. Peppard of Settlement was repealed. .

assizes held. but the son had remained at the in Dublin. he was to try to bring the Jacobites went on and Catholic intermediaries were used in campaign in 1691. but his second and third sons. Stickillin. Cal. For instance.P. and John. William's Dutch general. The father was with the Jacobite forces. the get government allay disposal authorities declared him an outlaw when he left for the suspicion the Williamite Irish quarters. the terms offered were some form of toleration religion and the restoration of. law courts were set up. Castletown. and there are lists of Catholic some surprising omissions. William and his services put acknowledged an a to To in effort of Williamite settlement. 22. Walter. there. John. Negotiations for the Catholic the bargaining. The war went on for more than a year longer and Ginkel. Hibernica. They found a Catholics desperate and they determined leader in Patrick Sarsfield. most of the lands owned by Catholics when the war began. The list for County Louth contained ninety-nine there were fifty for Drogheda. The list begins with the names of Richard. who was also with the Jacobite army.1 The negotiations he got a royal pardon from William. is not the eldest son. in April. supporters. who was doing cloak and dagger work for the Williamites. which he had to abandon in the late summer of 1690. and his second son. did not succeed. which was treated as a separate unit.COUNTY LOUTH AND THE JACOBITE WAR I43 saw no advantage in making any concession to Irish Catholics who had just repealed the Act of Settlement and passed the Act of Attainder. Ginkel's for unconditional instructions were to repair the damage done by the demand to terms in time to avoid an Irish surrender. though they do include his of brother Thomas. There is no mention Sir Patrick Bellew. at any rate. Lord Bellew of Duleek. 1691. p. the eldest son of Sir Patrick Bellew of Barmeath.. 2. No. and juries returned long Most of the supporters of King James who were to be outlawed. S. was left in charge of operations. is not included. This stratagem wTas not successful. 133. though they were readier to believe inWilliam wTere taking action against the Jacobites and their Meanwhile the Williamites were over by in of under William's control. as the Jacobite authorities arrested After the war John Bellew and kept him in prison till after the battle of Aughrim. William met with a serious reverse at Limerick. who became the eighth Lord Louth in 1689 after his father's death. Richard and Christopher. It made the Irish But the demand for unconditional surrender was a mistake. Analecta . they do not include Oliver. his eldest son. There are a i. shortly before military Louth outlawries seem to have been pronounced names and operations began again. who was in France for his education. were too vague and because Catholics were not convinced of the good faith ofWilliam's himself. are listed. partly because and partly because the terms offered Sarsfield took a tough line with the negotiators. One of the intermediaries was John Bellew. Richard. Estates taken Ireland the property parts special commissioners.2 The lists were compiled by Protestant juries in the absence of many of the Jacobites. Earl of Tyrconnell. to hold out for better terms. 1693. dorn.

Among those wounded soon the last hope of the Lord Bellew and his eldest son. Louth MSS. and that King William was much of carried without That the for their part treaty transport.144 COUNTY LOUTH ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL number of priests mentioned. Martin Handcock. spirit 1691. many of the Drogheda names were those of a brother of Lord Louth. if they had any. several priests. and another campaign became inevitable. won a decisive military affair than the Boyne. and taken prisoner were the Irish losses were very heavy. such When between the summer of 1691 set in nothing had come of the negotiations William fell and the Catholics. Patrick Mahan. and a very forlorn hope at that. Abbot of Mellifont. but they had comparatively were all there Not of in the list. interesting shopkeepers?John Drogheda and James Bellew.1 The list also has several Dermots of Kilcurry and a couple of Taafes of Drumleck. baker. treaty talks began.he wanted to Flanders. he was later allowed to come back to Ireland and spent his declining years at Louth Hall. They were allowed to go. in which Sarsfield was the moving on the Jacobite side. i. houses. were whose For those who wished to stay in Ireland. William was to move it most unwilling to keep his army for another winter in Ireland . NX. but were treated as outlaws so far as treason lists were later any property Foreign they had in Ireland was concerned. who The county list included Thomas Plunkett.I. Drogheda county of Armagh. Limerick was Irish. merchants. There including Andrew Matthews. Part of the treaty provided that those of the Irish army who wished to accompany should supply Sarsfield to France should be allowed to do so. from Louth?twenty in the few names drawn up. On with the French commanders 23rd September. they stood to lose any other or as leaseholds. and That was a far more bloodthirsty victory at Aughrim. including Dominick Maguire. pardon and restoration of their estates. Catholic Archbishop Irish address was given as Ardee . stock property they had. where his position was almost desperate. . On the other hand. through ships trouble. Athlone at the end of June. Walter. an row of is Owens. One of the hostages exchanged as a guarantee of good faith during the negotiations was Lord Louth. and these nineteen list soldiers. were but skinner. The Irish had not much to bargain with: one city with very little area to provide supplies or maintain cavalry. Ginkel was authorized to go a good way to meet the wishes of the Catholics. and those who went formed the nucleus of the celebrated Irish brigades in the service of France. bookseller. Ginkel. 1691. but he could not go so far as to offer them a complete indemnity or to promise official recognition for their church. Very few of these outlaws landowners. there was friction and much talk of a negotiated settlement. were offered to those who were still holding out at the end of the war. Their spirits were dejected. tailor. transferred from France to Austria and became a captain of cuirassiers in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor. Thomas Nugent. cooper. There was hard bargaining before the Treaty of Limerick was signed on 3rd October. and on July 12William's general.

and not to fight. to estates. But the King was very reluctant to give him a pardon .200 altogether were heard and nearly all allowed.. Actually. The estates of Lord Bellew and Lord Carlingford were saved in After the first i^ord Bellew this way.000 back profits from the estate and he had to promise to let Sydney keep the money before his pardon went through. Add.COUNTY LOUTH AND THE JACOBITE WAR 145 at an Those who had been killed or captured or had surrendered unconditionally and so were those who went to earlier stage were to have their estates confiscated. of which over 1. Arch S. taken to England and his eldest son had been wounded they and so could the second son. . prisoners and died there. long legal proceedings with William property and tried to intimidate Bellew into giving him a had got hold of it in the meantime the Bellews seem to have persisted. However. 37. V. Richard.M. France. Roger Bellew of Thomastown was in involved he Barton.1 still had rights in the property in 1736 when they conveyed In addition to the pardons that automatically went with a successful claim to the articles of Limerick. all of whom seem to have recovered their property without had more difficulty in getting his much trouble. and his footman to travel to Holland where he met General Ginkel who promised to intercede for him.61. B. were as at Aughrim. while Richard Bellew which had. who back. Louth 2. f. was at Limerick. 3. ological dorn. either stay in Ireland and be pardoned or go to France with Sarsfield and be treated as an outlaw. and John Babe of Darver. take the benefit of the articles of the treaty and get back their estates. it to Thomas Tenison. against the Popery Bill on Early in Anne's reign he was to the fore in protesting behalf of himself and other Catholics. a number of special royal pardons were granted by King William at his discretion. Capt. Cal. To make assurance doubly sure. Capt. It appears that he succeeded in doing all this while he was still a Catholic. Journal. landed proprietors were and others who were leaseholders Among Lord Louth. and they long lease of it at a low rent. The Bellew case was particularly complicated. P. and that General Ginkel had told him that it would be all right.. MS. it seemed that Lord Sydney was afraid of his claiming ?3. or merchants. Tribunals were set up to hear their claims. Thomas Cashell of Cashellstown Sir Patrick Bellew of Barmeath. claims Twenty-one twenty-one separate from Louth The were names admitted. So he got a pass for himself himself was liable to the penalties of being an outlaw. 1697. After his father and brother had died he claimed to be heir to the estate been given to Lord Sydney. 673. he got his father's outlawry reversed by special warrant and ended up just before the lists by getting his own claim to the articles of Limerick recognized closed. included These several did not from the correspond same family. in the meantime.2 His protest failed. formed to the Established i. 196. He also enlisted the powerful help of the Duke of Shrewsbury. he went to France but claimed that he did so for the sake of his health. and by 1707 he had con Church and had taken his seat in the Irish House of Lords. Most of the Irish at Limerick who had landed estates decided to stay in Ireland.P.

estates. At first William number of royal grants were made..000 to Bentinck. was given the estate of and other lands. and the Louth portion was relatively small. In some parts of Ireland these were on a fantastic scale?100. were were loud called about what There Dutchman. including Stickiliin. Nicholas Gernon?Militown of the few Englishmen but when that seemed to agree to an inquiry into the forced William In 1699 the English Commons In the following in had allotted. whose father had been Governor of Derry during the siege. The ten years after the war were filled with disputes about confiscated were openly hostile to the Treaty of Limerick. that no attempt instructions or to interfere with the Taafe estate. the Countess of Orkney. General Ginkel was given Lord Slane's estate. the Irish Parliament?Protestant with without though it was. but most of it was in Meath. ioi. was killed at the Boyne . plantation Earl of about as much to his young Dutch favourite.000 acres in all.1 Francis died in 1704 and the estate went to his nephew. John belonged Tyrconnell. been lands Ireland the in which confiscated way an all his grants to Act of which cancelled him to forced agree year they Resumption one of which was John Baker's.but his brother and heir. lands. which was not confirmed Protestants and his form. land was vested in a body of trustees to be sold towards the expenses of the war.146 COUNTY LOUTH ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL Nicholas Taafe.000 lady friend. was a humiliating demonstration of the power of the English The Act of Resumption treatment of an Irish question It was also a humiliating Commons over the Crown. 3. was first given Lord Bellew's was some to the heir he other be recovered by given likely to which had Lord Baker. William till 1697 and then in a truncated by the Irish Parliament to about of the confiscated lands Parliament dispose right quarrelled bitterly English them to be sold to help to pay for the in Ireland. any consultation their pockets were also affected. 40. William wanted to give them out as rewards seemed to be getting his way. liked. and a to his friends and supporters. XX. Francis. who sold his share to the Fitzmaurices. William a lieutenant-general. Lord Sydney. the exorbitant grants modest. The rest of the confiscated with a few exceptions. when the nephew died in 1738 without children the earldom died out and to the to a Protestant relative and one-third two-thirds the lands were divided. Annesley MSS. 150. was Sydney and some others had sold out when they saw how the political wind at what had their seemed and Irish Protestants very cheap grants bought blowing. Keppel. The English Parliament wanted war and relieve the harassed tax-payer. Francis was already a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and soon after he became a field marshal. Catholic Viscount. acres . another Portland. gave special should be made to outlaw the dead brother Nicholas. complaints " " In County Louth the royal grants were more of the King. one to William's whom William estate. as That offended the pride of Irish Protestants. the second Earl of Carlingford. William's chief ally. was high in the favour of the Holy Roman Emperor.

disastrously the complicated auction of 1703 concluded series of Chichester House In County Louth confiscation. Two of the Louth claims were successful :Patrick Gernon was able to save the otherwise have been forfeited because of the of Killincoole. eighteenth i. A number of them changed their faith under the pressure. Christopher and Sir William Thomas Robinson. Clinton's. bought for Thomas KeigMley. than a quarter when The Williamite seems to have been held by a Catholic. even more The The proportion of lands held by Catholics. Bidding at the auction was not keen. junior. Talbot's into South Sea finance and burst in the famous bubble. the shadow of part of the price paid by Catholics over of most the that defeat spread century. Hugh. those of Lords Bellew. A large number of estates remained unsold at the an omnibus bid for them was offered by an English finance end of the auction. The Act made some provision for the Protestant purchasers. War had just broken out again with France and there was talk of a Jacobite restoration. An pp. were protected by the articles or by special in these ways or by the admission Several other estates were also protected pardons. Slane's." but they were out of pocket as the result of the resumption proceedings.000 plantation Sword a Hollow The and Blades company then plunged Tisdall. William Barton and Anthony Lord Commissioners. was still about a fifth when the auction But the finished. the site of the present Bank of Ireland. and life was to be very hard for landowning Catholics. lawyer politician. confiscation of land was only in for the defeat their Jacobite war . Bidding was limited to Protestants. which would same in of the his father. period of the Penal Laws was to follow. and Nicholas D'Arcy's. of the claim Thomas Clinton. 348-96. Christopher. who had bought Tyr connell's estate of Stickillin. still to be considerably One of those affected in this way was Sir Richard Levinge. which had been granted to Sydney. bought by John Asgill Bellingham. bought by John Newton. However. with the company making Corporation peculiar The D'Arcy estate of Stonetown was one of the estates knocked down to the Corpora tion. Only five estates in County Louth were auctioned: estate William one of the Revenue at Haggardstown.COUNTY LOUTH AND THE " JACOBITE WAR 147 rates. which had been less the Jacobite war began. from 1700 to 1703. Stonetown?over 1. Bury. At the end of the penal period only one substantial estate in the county?Barmeath? of legal settlements. it did not known as the Williamite transactions amount to very much?far less than in some other counties. abstract of the conveyances is given in Irish Records Commissioners' Reports. at Thomas Cheevers's Carnantown. its Irish land speculation was not a success and a few years later it acres?was sold for ?360 to Richard sold out. 1821-5 . way Nicholas Taafe saved the Stephenstown outlawry But the trustees estate which had been held by his outlawed father. rejected were complete and allowance had been made for all the exemptions?under the articles balance was put up to auction of Limerick special pardons and successful claims?the at Chichester House on College Green. to When all the inquiries Clintonstown. Most of their time was taken up with hearing claims based on settlements made before the war began. bought by John Graham. Carlingford and Louth. when everything would be in the melting-pot again. name for of the Hollow Sword Blades.1 The trustees took three years over their work. The big estates.