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Workshop on Energy conservation in Buildings

on 16th Sept 2009

Impact of Harmonic on Modern Buildings


Energy Scene of India
on 31st March 2009
• • • • • • • Target Target achieved Upto 1969 Net Capacity Aux. Power Consumption Plant load factor 2008-09 Net Capacity available 231069 MW 140366 MW 11990 MW 128376 MW 6% 77.19% 93148 MW

• T&D losses • Net power available to Consumer
• Source: All India Electricity Ststistics, Central Electricity Authorities

30% 65203 MW

.Energy Efficiency • Steps – Decrease the load keeping output same – Increase the efficiency without affecting the output Result Increase in the usage of non linear loads which generate harmonics.

It is a pollution Heat generating element It reduces efficiency Unwelcome guest .What is harmonics? • • • • • It is a ‘virus’.

Electronic ballast • An electronics ballast consumes 0.53 amperes fundamental current while it generates 0.46 amperes third order zero sequence current (87% of fundamental) • Magnetic Ballast (Normal) =9 watts • Magnetic Ballast (Low loss) =5. They are also available with 10% THD as per European stsndards.5 watts • Electronic Ballast are available with 30% THD (as per IS). Total consumption with 36 watt tubelight is 36 watt as the tubelight consumes 33 watts and balance 3 watt is consumed by ballast. .

Non linear load • The presence of equipment generating harmonics is evident from the following data from US: • Content of non linear loads in 1960 • Content of non linear loads in 1990 • Content of non linear loads in 2000 = 5% of total load = 30% of total load = 60% of total load .

Harmonic Generation Vthd1 Z1 Vthd Source Vthd2 Z2 Vthd3 Z3 Vthd4 Z4 Vthd5 Z5 Vthd6 Z6 Ih Z source Vthd Load Vh = Ih x Zh Where: V h Ih Z h (Ohm’s Law) Hhth harmonic voltage Hhth harmonic current Hsystem impedance for h Hth harmonic .

Power Factor • With the harmonics in picture. the overall power factor of the installation dips. – Problem no 1: power factor – Problem no 2: harmonics .

Reasons • • • • Electronic Switching Power Supplies Arcing Devices Ferromagnetic Devices Appliances .

PLC etc Lighting Ballast.Electronic Switching Power Supplies • • • • • • • Personal computers Laptop UPS Solid State Rectifier Electronic Process Control Equipment. Dimmers Reduced Voltage Motor Controller .

CFL.Arcing Devices • Discharge Lighting – fluorescent. • Arc Furnaces • Welding Equipment • Traction Equipment . mercury. sodium.

Ferromagnetic Devices • • • • • Transformer operating near saturation level Magnetic Ballast ( Saturated Iron Core) Induction Heating Equipment Chokes Motors .

.Appliances • • • • • • TV Fax machine Photo copy machine Printer Microwave Oven Air Conditioner.

. Negative sequence harmonics.Classification • • • Zero sequence harmonics. Positive sequence harmonics.

it does not rotate the motor. 9th. (5th.) • Negative sequence harmonics . These are called triplen harmonics ( 3rd.) . 17th…. 15th…) • Positive sequence harmonics – it rotate the motor rotate the motor backwards. 13th. 19th….Effect on motor • Zero sequence harmonics . 11th. It only heats the motor.(7th .

Problems with harmonics: • • • • • • • • Malfunction of sensitive equipments Random tripping of Circuit Breakers Flickering lights High neutral current Over heated phase conductor. Transformer and distribution equipment cannot carry full rated load) » contd . panels and transformer Premature failure of transformer and UPS Reduced power factor Reduced system capacity (because harmonics create additional heat.

Problems with harmonics: • • • • • • • • • High neutral – ground voltage High peak phase current High average phase current High total harmonic distortion of the current High total harmonic distortion of the voltage High transformer losses High system losses Telephone interference factor Increases apparatus vibration .

less than 35 1.4% . less than 11 7% More than 1000 Odd no. less than 11 4% 20 to 50 Odd no.Limits of current harmonics Ratio of Short circuit current/Full load current Less than 20 Harmonic Range Limit of % of fundamental Odd no.

Limits of voltage harmonics Bus Voltage Voltage harmonic limit as % of fundamental Less than 69 KV Individual harmonics = 3% THD = 5% 161 KV and above Individual harmonics = 1% THD = 1% .

Transformer capacity • K-Factor transformers are designed to be operated fully loaded with any harmonic load having a K-Factor equal to or less than its KRating • Additional thermal capacity to tolerate the heating effects of the harmonic currents .

• K1 rated transformer is not designed for this amount of dissipation of heat . 4000 watts in addition to no load loss. K1 rated • Copper losses for a transformer = 2000 watts • A normal transformer will dissipate no load losses + copper losses + stray losses which will be much less than 100 watts • • • • • Second case K 20 rated transformer Copper losses for a transformer = 2000 watts Stray Losses = 100 watts Total losses shall be no load loss+copper loss+stray loss of 100 wattsX20 i.Example First case • Normal transformer i.e.e.

• ACB / MCCB to be selected having oversizes neutral • Ask equipment suppliers to design equipment with lower content of harmonics. • Use of Active and Passive Filters • Isolate the harmonic pollution device on a separate circuit / feeder • Neutral to be at least twice the size of phase conductor.Solutions • Phase shifting is one of the technique to eliminate the harmonics. .

This is where Kfactor comes in • K varies from 1 to 50. .K factor of the transformer • There are different amounts of harmonic currents produced. • The higher the K-factor. The term for the total amount of harmonic current present is called THD. Since this value has a wide range. there needs to be an appropriate way to size the K-rated transformer to the load. the more heat from harmonic currents the transformer is able to handle.

Recommended ratings of K • Non-Linear Load • • • • • Incidental electronic equipment representing <5% Harmonic producing equipment representing <35% Harmonic producing equipment representing <50% Harmonic producing equipment representing <75% Harmonic producing equipment representing <100% K-rating K-1 K-4 K-7 K-13 K-20 .

6 Top oil temperature (deg) With non linear load Normal transformer K rated transformer Top oil temperature (deg) 54 47 .Example of heat run test on transformer With normal load Normal transformer 38 K rated transformer 37.

Thank you • Questions?? .