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In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004 was used in the preparation of The World Fa tboo!

"

This page was last updated on 10 February, 200#

Legend:

$efinition

Field %isting

&an! 'rder

Introduction
Background:

Armenia
Top of (age

Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, y!antine, Arab, "ersian, and #ttoman. $t was incorporated into Russia in %&'& and the ())R in %*'+. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with ,uslim A!erbai-an over .agorno/ 0araba1h, a primarily Armenian/populated region, assigned to )oviet A!erbai-an in the %*'+s by ,oscow. Armenia and A!erbai-an began fighting over the area in %*&&2 the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the )oviet (nion in %**%. y ,ay %**4, when a cease/fire too1 hold, Armenian forces held not only .agorno/ 0araba1h but also a significant portion of A!erbai-an proper. 3he economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to ma1e substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. 3ur1ey imposed an economic bloc1ade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian occupation of .agorno/0araba1h and surrounding areas. Geography
Location:

Armenia
Top of (age

)outhwestern Asia, east of 3ur1ey


Geographic coordinates:

4+ ++ ., 44 ++ 5
Map references:
)sia

Area:

total: '*,&++ s6 1m land: '&,4++ s6 1m water: %,4++ s6 1m


Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than ,aryland


Land boundaries:

total: %,'44 1m border countries: A!erbai-an/proper 477 1m, A!erbai-an/.a8civan e8clave ''% 1m, 9eorgia %74 1m, $ran :4 1m, 3ur1ey '7& 1m
Coastline:

+ 1m (landloc1ed)
Maritime claims:

none (landloc1ed)
Climate:

highland continental, hot summers, cold winters


errain:

Armenian ;ighland with mountains2 little forest land2 fast flowing rivers2 good soil in Aras River valley
!levation e"tremes:

lowest point: Debed River 4++ m highest point: Aragats <errnagagat= 4,+*+ m
#atural resources:

small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, !inc, alumina

Land use:

arable land: %>.44? permanent crops: '.:? other: &+.%4? ('++%)


Irrigated land:

',&>+ s6 1m (%**& est.)


#atural ha$ards:

occasionally severe earth6ua1es2 droughts


!nvironment - current issues:

soil pollution from to8ic chemicals such as DD32 the energy crisis of the %**+s led to deforestation when citi!ens scavenged for firewood2 pollution of ;ra!dan (Ra!dan) and Aras Rivers2 the draining of )evana <ich (<a1e )evan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drin1ing water supplies2 restart of ,etsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active !one party to: Air "ollution, iodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change/ 0yoto "rotocol, Desertification, ;a!ardous @astes, <aw of the )ea, #!one <ayer "rotection, @etlands signed, but not ratified: Air "ollution/"ersistent #rganic "ollutants landloc1ed in the <esser Caucasus ,ountains2 )evana <ich (<a1e )evan) is the largest la1e in this mountain range

!nvironment - international agreements:

Geography - note:

%eople
%opulation:

Armenia
Top of (age

',**%,:7+ note: Armenia=s first census since independence was conducted in #ctober '++% (Auly '++4 est.)
Age structure:

0-14 years: ''.>? (male :4>,+*42 female :':,:*7) 15-64 years: 77.>? (male *'*,>%*2 female %,+74,4+4) 65 years and over: %+.7? (male %'&,+'>2 female %&>,7%*) ('++4 est.)
Median age:

total: '*.> years male: '>.% years female: :'.4 years ('++4 est.)
%opulation gro&th rate:

/+.:'? ('++4 est.)


Birth rate:

%%.4: birthsB%,+++ population ('++4 est.)


'eath rate:

&.%' deathsB%,+++ population ('++4 est.)


#et migration rate:

/7.4> migrant(s)B%,+++ population ('++4 est.)


(e" ratio:

at birth: %.%& male(s)Bfemale under 15 years: %.% male(s)Bfemale 15-64 years: +.&> male(s)Bfemale 65 years and over: +.7& male(s)Bfemale total population: +.* male(s)Bfemale ('++4 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: '4.%7 deathsB%,+++ live births

male: '*.:' deathsB%,+++ live births female: %&.+7 deathsB%,+++ live births ('++4 est.)
Life e"pectancy at birth:

total population: >%.': years male: 7>.>: years female: >4.:7 years ('++4 est.)
otal fertility rate:

%.:% children bornBwoman ('++4 est.)


)I*+AI'( - adult prevalence rate: )I*+AI'( - people living &ith )I*+AI'(: )I*+AI'( - deaths:

+.%? ('++: est.) ',7++ ('++: est.) less than '++ ('++: est.)

#ationality:

noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian


!thnic groups:

Armenian *:?, A!eri %?, Russian '?, other (mostly Ce!idi 0urds) 4? ('++') note: as of the end of %**:, virtually all A!eris had emigrated from Armenia
,eligions:

Armenian Apostolic *4?, other Christian 4?, Ce!idi (DoroastrianBanimist) '?


Languages:

Armenian *7?, Russian '?, other '?


Literacy:

definition: age %4 and over can read and write total population: *&.7? male: **.4? female: *&? ('++: est.) Government
Country name:

Armenia
Top of (age

conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local long form: ;ayastani ;anrapetut=yun local short form: ;ayastan former: Armenian )oviet )ocialist Republic2 Armenian Republic
Government type:

republic
Capital:

Cerevan
Administrative divisions:

%% provinces (mar!er, singular / mar!)2 Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, 9eghar1=uni1=, 0otay1=, <orri, )hira1, )yuni1=, 3avush, Eayots= D!or, Cerevan
Independence:

'% )eptember %**% (from )oviet (nion)


#ational holiday:

$ndependence Day, '% )eptember (%**%)

Constitution:

adopted by nationwide referendum 4 Auly %**4


Legal system:

based on civil law system


(uffrage:

%& years of age2 universal


!"ecutive branch:

chief of state: "resident Robert 0#C;AR$A. (since :+ ,arch %**&) head of government: "rime ,inister Andrani1 ,AR0ARCA. (since %' ,ay '+++) cabinet: Council of ,inisters appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five/year term2 election last held %* February and 4 ,arch '++: (ne8t to be held .A '++&)2 prime minister appointed by the president2 the prime minister and Council of ,inisters must resign if the .ational Assembly refuses to accept their program election results: Robert 0#C;AR$A. reelected president2 percent of vote / Robert 0#C;AR$A. 7>.4?, )tepan D5,$RC;CA. :'.4?
Legislative branch:

unicameral .ational Assembly ("arliament) or A!gayin Dhoghov (%:% seats2 members elected by popular vote to serve four/year terms2 >4 members elected by party list, 47 by direct vote) elections: last held '4 ,ay '++: (ne8t to be held in the spring of '++>) note: percent of vote by party / Republican "arty ':.4?, Austice loc %:.7?, Rule of <aw %'.:?, ARF (Dashna1) %%.4?, .ational (nity "arty &.&?, (nited <abor "arty 4.>?2 seats by party / Republican "arty ':, Austice loc %4, Rule of <aw %', ARF (Dashna1) %%, .ational (nity *, (nited <abor 72 note / seats by party change fre6uently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent
-udicial branch:

Constitutional Court2 Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)


%olitical parties and leaders:

Agro/$ndustrial "arty GEladimir ADA<$A.H2 Armenia "arty G,yasni1 ,A<0;A)CA.H2 Armenian .ational ,ovement or A., GAle8 ARD(,A.CA., chairmanH2 Armenian Ram1avar <iberal "arty or ;RA0 G;arutyun ,$RDA0;A.CA., chairmanH2 Armenian Revolutionary Federation (IDashna1I "arty) or ARF GEahan ;#E;A.$))$A.H2 Democratic "arty GAram )AR0$)CA.H2 Austice loc (comprised of the Democratic "arty, .ational Democratic "arty, .ational Democratic (nion, and the "eople=s "arty)2 .ational Democratic "arty G)havarsh 0#C;AR$A.H2 .ational Democratic (nion or .D( GEa!gen ,A.(0$A.H2 .ational (nity "arty GArtashes 959A,$A., chairmanH2 "eople=s "arty of Armenia G)tepan D5,$RC;CA.H2 Republic "arty GAlbert AD5CA. and Aram )AR0$)CA., chairmenH2 Republican "arty or R"A GAndrani1 ,AR0ARCA.H2 Rule of <aw "arty GArtur A9DA)AR$A., chairmanH2 (nion of Constitutional Rights G;rant 0;AC;A3(RCA.H2 (nited <abor "arty G9urgen AR)5.$A.H
%olitical pressure groups and leaders:

Cer1rapah (nion G,anvel 9R$9#R$A.H


International organi$ation participation:

)5C, C5, C$), 5A"C, 5 RD, FA#, $A5A, $ RD, $CA#, $CCt (signatory), $CR,, $DA, $FAD, $FC, $FRC), $<#, $,F, $nterpol, $#C, $#,, $)#, $3(, ,$9A, .A, (observer), #A) (observer), #"C@, #)C5, "F", (., (.C3AD, (.5)C#, (.$D#, ("(, @C#, @F3(, @;#, @$"#, @,#, @3o#, @3#
'iplomatic representation in the .(:

chief of mission: Ambassador Arman 0$RA0#))$A. chancery: '''4 R )treet .@, @ashington, DC '+++& telephone: G%H ('+') :%*/%*>7 !": G%H ('+') :%*/'*&' consulate#s$ general: <os Angeles
'iplomatic representation from the .(:

chief of mission: Ambassador Aohn ,. 5EA.) embassy: %& aghramyan Ave., Cerevan :>4+%* mailing address: American 5mbassy Cerevan, Department of )tate, >+'+ Cerevan "lace, @ashington, DC '+4'%/>+'+ telephone: G:>4H(%) 4'%/7%%, 4'+/>*%, 44'/%%>, 44'/%:', 4'4/77%, 4'>/ ++%, 4'4/&4+ !": G:>4H(%) 4'+/&++
/lag description:

three e6ual hori!ontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange !conomy
!conomy - overvie&:

Armenia
Top of (age

(nder the old )oviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, te8tiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in e8change for raw materials and energy. )ince the implosion of the ())R in December %**%, Armenia has switched to small/scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial comple8es of the )oviet era. 3he agricultural sector has long/term needs for more investment and updated technology. 3he privati!ation of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bau8ite) are small. 3he ongoing conflict with A!erbai-an over the ethnic Armenian/dominated region of .agorno/0araba1h and the brea1up of the centrally directed economic system of the former )oviet (nion contributed to a severe economic decline in the early %**+s. y %**4, however, the Armenian 9overnment had launched an ambitious $,F/sponsored economic liberali!ation program that resulted in positive growth rates in %**4/ '++:. Armenia -oined the @3r# in Aanuary '++:. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabili!e the local currency (the dram), and privati!e most small/ and medium/si!ed enterprises. 3he chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid/%**+s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at ,etsamor. Armenia is now a net energy e8porter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace ,etsamor, which is under international pressure to close. 3he electricity distribution system was privati!ed in '++'. Armenia=s severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid and foreign direct investment. 5conomic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
G'%:

purchasing power parity / J%%.>* billion ('++: est.)


G'% - real gro&th rate:

*.*? ('++: est.)


G'% - per capita:

purchasing power parity / J:,4++ ('++: est.)


G'% - composition by sector:

agriculture: ':.4? industry: :4.%? services: 4%.4? ('++: est.)


Investment 0gross fi"ed1:

%*.&? of 9D" ('++:)


%opulation belo& poverty line:

4+? ('++' est.)


)ousehold income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: '.:? highest 10%: 47.'? (%***) 44.4 (%**7)

'istribution of family income - Gini inde": Inflation rate 0consumer prices1:

4.&? ('++: est.)


Labor force:

%.4 million ('++%)


Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture 44?, industry '4?, services :+? ('++' est.)


.nemployment rate:

'+? ('++% est.)


Budget:

revenues: J4'4.* million e&penditures: J47+.: million, including capital e8penditures of J.A ('++:)
Agriculture - products:

fruit (especially grapes), vegetables2 livestoc1


Industries:

diamond/processing, metal/cutting machine tools, forging/pressing machines, electric motors, tires, 1nitted wear, hosiery, shoes, sil1 fabric, chemicals, truc1s, instruments, microelectronics, -ewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Industrial production gro&th rate:

%4? ('++' est.)


!lectricity - production:

7.4>* billion 1@h ('++%)


!lectricity - consumption:

4.>&4 billion 1@h ('++%)


!lectricity - e"ports:

>+4 million 1@h2 note / e8ports an un1nown 6uantity to 9eorgia2 includes e8ports to .agorno/0araba1h region in A!erbai-an ('++%)

!lectricity - imports:

47: million 1@h2 note / imports an un1nown 6uantity from $ran ('++%)
2il - production:

+ bblBday ('++% est.)


2il - consumption:

4,>++ bblBday ('++% est.)


2il - e"ports:

.A ('++%)
2il - imports:

.A ('++%)
#atural gas - production:

+ cu m ('++% est.)
#atural gas - consumption:

%.4 billion cu m ('++% est.)


#atural gas - e"ports:

+ cu m ('++% est.)
#atural gas - imports:

%.4 billion cu m ('++% est.)


Current account balance:

J/'%+ million ('++:)


!"ports:

J>:4 million f.o.b. ('++: est.)


!"ports - commodities:

diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy


!"ports - partners:

elgium %&.'?, (0 %7.&?, $srael %4.>?, Russia %'.%?, $ran >.*?, () 7.:?, 9ermany 4? ('++:)
Imports:

J%.%& billion f.o.b. ('++: est.)


Imports - commodities:

natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds


Imports - partners:

elgium %%.7?, Russia %%.7?, $srael %%.:?, () *.4?, $ran &.&?, 9ermany 7.>?, (A5 4.4?, $taly 4.>?, (1raine 4.7? ('++:)
,eserves of foreign e"change 3 gold:

J4+*.4 million ('++:)


'ebt - e"ternal:

J*+4 million (Aune '++%)


!conomic aid - recipient:

#DA J%>+ million ('+++)


Currency:

dram (A,D)
Currency code:

A,D
!"change rates:

drams per () dollar / 4>&.>7: ('++'), 444.+>& ('++%), 4:*.4'7 ('+++), 4:4.+7' (%***)
/iscal year:

calendar year Communications Armenia


Top of (age

elephones - main lines in use:

47',7++ ('++:)
elephones - mobile cellular:

%%4,4++ ('++:)
elephone system:

general assessment: system inade6uate2 now *+? privately owned and undergoing moderni!ation and e8pansion domestic: the ma-ority of subscribers and the most modern e6uipment are in Cerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: country code / :>42 Cerevan is connected to the 3rans/ Asia/5urope fiber/optic cable through $ran2 additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of $ndependent )tates and through the ,oscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world2 satellite earth stations / % $ntelsat ('+++)
,adio broadcast stations:

A, *, F, 7, shortwave % (%**&)
elevision broadcast stations:

: (plus an un1nown number of repeaters)2 (%**&)


Internet country code:

.am
Internet hosts:

','+7 ('++4)
Internet users:

%4+,+++ ('++:) ransportation


,ail&ays:

Armenia
Top of (age

total: &44 1m broad gauge: &44 1m %.4'+/m gauge (&'& 1m electrified) note: some lines are out of service ('++:)
)igh&ays:

total: %4,*%& 1m paved: %4,:'* 1m (includes >,4'> 1m of e8pressways) unpaved: 4&* 1m ('+++)
%ipelines:

gas %,&>% 1m ('++4)


%orts and harbors:

none
Airports:

%> ('++: est.)


Airports - &ith paved run&ays:

total: %% over ',04( m: '

),4'* to ',04(: % 1,5)4 to ),4'( m: 4 +14 to 1,5)' m: : ('++: est.)


Airports - &ith unpaved run&ays:

total: 7 over ',04( m: % 1,5)4 to ),4'( m: ' +14 to 1,5)' m: ' under +14 m: % ('++: est.) Armenia
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Military
Military branches:

Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force


Military manpo&er military age and obligation:

%&/'> years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation / %' months2 %& years of age for voluntary military service (,ay '++4) males age 15-4+: &%',%4+ ('++4 est.)

Military manpo&er availability: Military manpo&er - fit for military service: Military manpo&er reaching military age annually: Military e"penditures dollar figure: Military e"penditures percent of G'%:

males age 15-4+: 74*,47& ('++4 est.) males: :%,*'7 ('++4 est.) J%:4 million (FC+%) 7.4? (FC+%) Armenia
Top of (age

ransnational Issues
'isputes - international:

Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in .agorno/0araba1h and militarily occupies %7? of A!erbai-an / #rgani!ation for )ecurity and Cooperation in 5urope (#)C5) continues to mediate dispute2 border with 3ur1ey remains closed over .agorno/0araba1h dispute2 traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in 3ur1ey have subsided2 ethnic Armenian groups in Aava1heti region of 9eorgia see1 greater autonomy from the new 9eorgian 9overnment
,efugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees #country of origin$: ':7,:+7 (A!erbai-an) ,-.s: 4+,+++ (conflict with A!erbai-an over .agorno/0araba1h) ('++4) illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption2 used as a transit point for illicit drugs / mostly opium and hashish / moving from )outhwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser e8tent the rest of 5urope
This page was last updated on 10 February, 200#

Illicit drugs: