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Chapter 4: Directed/Supervised Study Chapter 5: Motor Learning

Reporters Ma. Danessa T. Bulingit Erika Vien T. Odron Brien L. Naco Marlou S. Sanchez

It is another method of teaching for promoting optimum learning. generally at the close of the school day. supervised study extends over a period ranging from one day to a week or more. In this period. The main principle is the self effort of the child. The flexible supervised study. come to the library to study and use reference materials. the teacher gives guidance to achieve the results of their study. The assignment is a sort of an introductory phase supervised teaching which shows the objectives and outlines the mode of attack upon the unit or work. 2. The library study plan. except the bright students.CHAPTER IV Directed/Supervised Study Reported By: Ma. in fact. The rest of the time is used for student study. Different Plans of Supervised Study 1. they ask the teacher for the direction and assistance. when not called upon.Under this plan. student difficulties are located. methods.the students of all classes. Bulingit A Directed/Supervised Study is one whose purpose is to teach students how to study a given subject effectively. and goals and supervises the individual without interfering with the work of the rest. is set aside for supervised study particularly for those students who find their work difficult. Supervised study is. Supervised study directs the students in the use and mastery of the best techniques of efficient study. carried on independently in learning new things under the supervision and guidance of a teacher. continually on the alert for any wrong procedure that the pupils may follow. are required to attend the period. It is a process of teaching pupils how to study by studying with them and by giving individual help in a period set apart for study. one half of the time is devoted to the class activity used for student reaction and the other half of the period is used for the preparation of the advanced lesson under the immediate guidance of the teacher.this plan is used when large units are taken up. teaching the students how to study and guiding their study efforts in a part of the class period set aside for that purpose. In this one period. correct method of study are suggested and guidance is offered for completing assignment. Danessa T. when they meet the difficulty that they cannot overcome. The daily extra period plan. The student studies his lessons under the guidance of the teacher who gives definite directions as to steps. walks quietly up and down their work. The teacher supervises the reading and provides help when needed. The pupils are busy at work assigned to them. pupil studies and the teacher offers assistance when required. 3. All. The teacher. Attempts are made. 4. The double period plan. The chief aim of the method is to help the students acquire good study techniques and be efficient learners. . by turns.

This will enable the teacher to redirect the efforts. 7. to understand their own difficulties. diagrams. Under the teacher’s guidance of individual pupils. Teacher can take up some of the following activities:       Teach pupils to memorize Guide the pupils in finding material from books Guide the pupils in the use of books. pupils learn to share materials. Supervised study experience can be influential in establishing habits of critical thinking. He gets an opportunity for displaying sympathy and understanding. Guide the pupils in preparation of notes Teach pupils to read rapidly Teach pupils to prepare reports Advantages of Supervised Study 1. The teacher is able to understand the pupil and his difficulties and is in a position to spur him into greater effort. 3. The experience of finding new facts helps him to appreciate greater truths.teacher relationship develops. the individual pupil may discover interesting types of related knowledge which he may explore later. Democratic human relations are encouraged. In supervised study. The supervised study period encourages the pupils not . On the spot guidance can be given. He can guide the individual who proceeds slowly into effective learning experiences meaningful for him. accumulated from observation. The teacher detects pupil’s habits of study. 8. Certain skill essential to successful use and understanding of materials can be acquired only through practice under the teacher’s supervision. Better pupil. When pupils study the same phase of the class problem. Teacher becomes aware of the individual differences and these become a guide for a teacher. 2. sees their failings and difficulties. Thus he can be considerable for help. to await their turn. Knowledge of pupils is broadened. This develops sympathetic attitudes towards the difficulties of others. 4. the pupils will learn the specific types of information available in various reference materials. The teacher instead of being a hard taskmaster is a helper and guide. efficacy of the study skills and degree of progress. which saves time as the errors are noticed.Activities during the Supervised Study Reported By: Erika Vien T. As the teacher is constantly supervising. 5. if the teacher has worked out a good plan of action. Pupils benefit from individual attention by the teacher who bring to the situation his knowledge of each pupil. Odron Supervised Study can yield good results. maps. materials can be used more effectively. etc. The teacher observe the pupils at work. as the entire purpose of the supervised study procedure points towards the realization of good judgment and discrimination in evaluating ideas and an objective investigation of facts on the part of the pupils. He can also guide the individual who works more rapidly and requires greater challenge to use his ability. 6.

usurp the study-period for recitation. 5. The following points should be remembered: 1. There should be a general summary at the end of the study period.only to compare facts but also to evaluate the sources of facts. page. The success of the directed/supervised study depends on a great deal upon the teacher who will train and guide the students on how to study. 3. etc. pupils learn to examine the materials critically. Students may be instructed to pause now and then at the end of a paragraph. The assignment should be made clear and the purpose of the study understood. the sooner will concentration come. 3. Making an outline can help. Some teachers feel that pupils become too dependent as a result of too much help. such as books. withholding opinion until enough evidence is available to justify a conclusion. This in itself is a valuable experience. maps. 2. paper. Need for Directed/Supervised Study Observation shows that there is a need for directed/supervised study lessons even in college because: . The effective supervision of study is based on the presumption that teachers are versed in the methods of efficient study and have the ability to teach others how to study. The teacher should instruct the class to skim and get a general idea of the lesson. There are many temptations to postpone work and waste precious time. 5. This furnishes the incentive. Sanchez 1. The enthusiastic teacher may very easily. or section and to summarize in their minds what they have read or done. The sooner the work is begun. 2. The class may begin with problems or questions in mind. Thus. Disadvantages of supervised study Reported By: Marlou S. without which the students may not work as hard. 4. Skillful questioning instead of direct help will guide students to self activity. The teacher should avoid giving too much assistance but should always be available when needed. Then the class should be told to note the important topics and separate these from the minor ones. with or without conscious interest. dictionary. 6. The physical setting should be conducive to study. Teachers who are not in sympathy may and usually do fail to make good use of the period. There is another type of teacher who likes to consider the study-period as a rest-period for her own personal use. All necessary tools and equipment for study should be available. Distractions should be removed. Teacher and class must begin right away. 4.

Types of Supervised Study Lessons Reported By: Brien L. Study with Printed Materials Examples: books. Science Laboratories Laboratory learning tasks are always supervised by the teacher. A student who is weak in Math may go to Math department and seek help there. Studying is always associated with book learning and printed educational materials. There are different types of supervised study lessons that are found to be effective. all learners from all classes study here and make use of reference materials. the primary purpose of supervised study is to teach the learners how to study their lesson effectively. manuals and other printed materials and people. the group is first supervised by the teacher on their learning tasks. When they have learned and developed the study habits. Question.    Many of the failures and dropouts in school are due to poor study habits. while the department study. Naco As already mentioned.a semi-library study-hall. Programmed Instruction This is a method of independent study where it makes use of programmed lessons. An example is SQ3R (Survey. noise. The Library-Study Plan This supervised study has two phases . Some students just memorize facts and information facts and information without understanding them. Recite. they can study at their own. the teacher should be alert and observant to identify the bright learners from the slow ones and provide some provisions. and too many distractions interfere with study. There are improved techniques of study that need to be taught to students. Read. Others waste time unnecessarily because of lack of concentration. Group Study At the outset. The teacher should always be on guard while the learners are busy working in the laboratory. textbooks and machines. . learners get assistance from the department concern. Many homes don not have proper study conditions. and Review) Weak students especially need supervised study. Study can also be derived with people instead of books as resource persons. Overcrowding. Under the group study. poor lighting.

The success of the supervised study depends to a large extent on the abilities of the teacher who will train and guide the learners on how to study effectively. All the necessary teaching aids and materials should be readily available. The teacher should be ready to give assistance at any time when needed. The time for supervised study should be used profitably. There are few guidelines that should be observed. The physical setting should be free from any form of distractions. a special study room.The Study Period This type of supervised study takes place in a regular classroom. The teacher should supervise the children while they are working. in the audio-visual room or in a small portion of the library under the supervision of the teacher. . The purpose of the learning activity should be clear and understood by the learners. The learners are kept busy doing their assigned learning activities.

STAGES OF MOTOR LEARNING COGNITIVE STAGE This stage begins when the learner is first introduced to the motor task. and gives the impression that motor learning is a specific form of learning. The performer concentrates more on the task (getting better) The performer seems less rushed. Bulingit “Motor learning” is a term widely used in relation of learning of new skills. Such definitions imply that human behavior may be divided in sensory and motor parts the latter one being the object of motor learning. DAnessa T. The important stimuli have been identified and their meaning is known. Odron Initial Stage: Develop a movement coordination pattern for successful performance. we may ask what really is trained in motor learning situations.CHAPTER V Motor Learning Reported By: Ma. AUTONOMOUS STAGE This stage is characterized by a nearly automatic kind of performance. In fact. but rather the accomplishment of certain behaviors of acts. The performer must determine the objective of the skill as well as the relational and environmental cues that control and regulate the movement. An example is when walking occurs automatically without conscious thought. The performer is more concerned with what to do than how to do it. learn to discriminate regulatory and non-regulatory conditions . Conscious decisions about what to do become more automatic. GENTILE’S MODEL Reported By: Erika Vien T. ASSOCIATIVE STAGE The learner is now concerned with performing and refining the skills. This may be seen in usual definitions of motor learning such as “Motor learning is the process of improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements” or “A motor skill is a skill that regards the ability of an organism to utilize skeletal muscles effectively”. However. the object in the training a motor skill is not the ability to perform specific contractions of the muscles with associated movements of the limbs.

same as observational learning • Beneficial when the skill being learned requires the acquisition of a new pattern of coordination • Demonstrator needs to perform skill correctly How frequently should you demonstrate a skill? • • • Should be demonstrated before beginner attempts skill During early part of learning. learner should not need demonstration as frequently Verbal Cues • • • • Short concise phrases Direct attention to information relevant to performing skills Prompt key movement-pattern elements of performing skills Cues are effective in facilitating learning new skills as well as performing welllearned skills When to give verbal instruction • Verbal cues can be given at the same time as a demonstration .Later Stages: Adapt movement patterns to specific demands of any performance situation Perform skill with economy of effort Closed skills require fixation and open skills require diversification Individual Characteristics that Affect Motor Learning • Abilities • Attitudes • Motivational level • Previous social experiences • Prior movement experiences Performance Characteristics of Skill Learning • Improvement • Consistency • Stability • Persistence • Adaptability Presenting a Skill Demonstration: • Very little research • Modeling: Use of demo to convey information about how to perform a skill. skill should be demonstrated as often as necessary As skill progresses.

Principle of Distributed Practice • in general short periods of intense practice will result in more learning than longer.• • Can be given to help learners focus on critical parts of skills Learners can also use verbal cues themselves when performing a skill PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING MOTOR SKILLS Reported By: Marlou S. • the complexity of the skill to be learned and the leaner's ability determine whether it is more efficient to teach the whole skill or break the skill into component parts. 6. 4. 8. 9. 2. Principle of Skill Specificity • a student's ability to perform one motor skill effectively is independent of his/he r ability to perform other motor skills. Principle of Skill Improvement • the development of motor skills progresses along a continuum from least mature to most mature. Principle of Variable Practice. • block practice aids in performance while variable practice aids in learning. Principle of Feedback • internal and external sources of information about motor performance is essential for learning to take place. PRINCIPLE OF INTEREST • a student's attitude toward learning a skill determines for the most part the amount and kind of learning that takes place. Principle of Practice • practicing the motor skill correctly is essential for learning to take place. Practice conditions should match the conditions in which the motor skill is going to be used. . 7. 3. Principle of Whole-Part Learning. massed practice sessions. 5. Variable practice causes an increase in attention. Sanchez 1. Principle of Transfer • the more identical two tasks are the greater the possibility that positive transfer will occur. The rate of progression and the amount of progress within an individual depends upon the interaction of nature and nurture.

Build an environment that permeates rewards and is void of negative experiences Subjects consistently make corrections in the proper direction only when error information is provided. Provide slow-mo. we move with less precision. and three quarter speed practice opportunities. half speed. K P Knowledge of performance — information received about the actual performance and execution of the movement. bad job or right/wrong may be sufficient to act as a reward or provide motivation but it is not sufficient to promote learning. If we slow down we gain accuracy. THORNDIKE’S LAW OF EFFECT Organisms tend to repeat responses that are rewarded and avoid responses that are not rewarded or are punished. correct. “Was the movement performed correctly?” . Simply saying “good job. Naco SPEED /ACCURACY TRADE OFF As we move faster. right” or what behavior was “bad or wrong” along with exactly what corrections should be implemented. K R Knowledge of results — information received concerning the extent to which the response accomplished the movement goal. The teacher/coach must communicate what behavior was “good.MOTOR LEARNING CONCEPTS Reported By: Brien L.