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ABSTRACT :
Buildings are significant users of energy and building energy efficiency is priority in many countries. Efficient use of energy is important since global energy resources is finite and power generating fossil fuels has adverse environment effect and the potential for energy saving in the building sector is large. Energy efficient building is location dependent and local climate must be considered when selecting appropriate design strategies. Climate has also major effect on building performance and energy consumption. When we faced unfavorable climatic conditions, optimal sitting and site design may solve all or part of problems. The use of thermal mass and thermal insulation is important for controlling heat flow. Remember the envelope component will respond "dynamically" to changing ambient condition. Due to passive cooling and sun control the internal conditions are modified as a result of behavior of building form and fabric. Delighting can be used to augment or replace electric lighting. The building design should being with understanding of the physiological needs of human comfort and take advantage of local climate elements to optimize these requirement naturally and efficiently. Building energy design challenges, building designers to thing about climate, orientation, daylighting and the qualities of environment as a part of initial design conception. Architects and engineers who incorporate energy design concepts and method into their design projects can play a significant role in reducing energy consumption and achieving sustainable energy structure for our society.

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 A cooling-dominated climate (like Hong Kong) is assumed here. INTRODUCTION 2. However.2 Assumption  Energy efficient building design is location-dependent. 2. The local climate must be considered when selecting appropriate design strategies.  The potential for energy savings in the building sector is large.  Efficient use of energy is important since global energy resources is finite and power generation using fossil fuels (such as coal and oil) has adverse environmental effects. 2|Page . some of the general principles are also applicable to other climate types.2.1 Importance of Building Energy Efficiency  Buildings are significant users of energy and building energy efficiency is a high priority in many countries.

Built forms . acquifiers. Water . To gain the maximum benefits from the local climate.slopes. hills and their surface conditions. building design must "fit" its particular climate. valleys. o  Response of the building systems (such as HVAC and lighting systems).plant types.cooling effects. Vegetation .  Buildings will respond to the natural climatic environment in two ways: o Thermal response of the building structure (heat transfer and thermal storage). BASIC PRINCIPLES 3.1 Climate and Site  Climate has a major effect on building performance and energy consumption.  The six important aspects of architectural planning which will affect thermal and energy performance of buildings are o o o o o o Site selection Layout Shape Spacing Orientation Mutual relationship 3|Page . Site elements to be considered include: o o o o Topography . texture.surrounding buildings and structures. mass. Energy-conscious design requires an understanding of the climate. optimal siting and site design may solve all or part of the problems.  When faced with unfavourable climatic conditions. ground water.3.

should provide wind breaks in cold winter and access to cooling breezes in summer. If possible.2 Building Envelope  Elements of the building envelope (= "protective skin"): o o o o Walls (exterior) Windows Roof Underground slab and foundation  Three factors determining the heat flow across the building envelope: o o o Temperature differential Area of the building exposed Heat transmission value of the exposed area  The use of suitable thermal mass and thermal insulation is important for controlling the heat flow.  Some people also consider the "embodied energy" (include energy for producing and transporting) of building materials when making the selection. Remember. 4|Page . the envelope components will respond "dynamically" to changing ambient conditions. Architectural and landscape designs should be closely integrated. Wind control in site analysis 3.

 While being energy efficient. ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are installed to provide for occupant comfort. designers should evaluate: o o o o Thermal comfort criteria Load calculation methods System characteristics Equipment and plant operation (part-load) 5|Page . daylighting and organic horticulture 3. health and safety. HVAC systems should have a degree of flexibility to allow for future extensions and change.  To achieve optimum energy efficiency.Building envelope design that combines passive solar.3 Building Systems  Heating. They are usually the key energy users and their design is affected by architecture features and occupant needs.

 General design strategies for lighting design: o o o o Combination of general and task lighting.  Other building services systems consuming energy include:     Electrical installations Lifts and escalators Water supply systems Town gas supply system 6|Page . Use light-coloured room surfaces. Switching is provided to turn off unnecessary light. The use of energy efficient lamps and luminaires. Electric lighting integrated with daylight. Illumination is provided in an efficient manner. Lighting systems is another key energy user and additional cooling energy will be required to remove the heat generated by luminaires.  Energy efficient lighting should ensure that: o o o Illumination is not excessive.

internal conditions are modified as a result of the behaviour of the building form and fabric. External systems integral with the window frame or attached to the building face. Provision for ventilation (natural).minimise solar gain and maximise heat removal. such as curtains and blinds. extensive shading without affecting ventilation is usually required all year round.  For hot and humid climate like Hong Kong. TECHNOLOGIES 4. Shading of the east and west facades is more important. Hot summers .1 Passive Cooling and Sun Control  Passive systems . o Specially treated window glass.4 . such as heat absorbing and reflecting glass. o Internal treatments either opaque or semi-opaque.  General strategies for passive heating and cooling: o o o o o Cold winters . such as lourves and screens. 7|Page .  Strategies for shading and sun control: o o External projection (overhangs and side fins).maximise solar gain and reduce heat loss. Appropriate amounts of thermal mass and insulation. Correct orientation and use of windows.

Daylighting design in an atrium  Advanced window technologies have been developed to change/switch the optical properties of window glass so as to control the amount of daylight. electric lights and HVAC should be studied carefully in order to achieve a desirable solution.2 Daylighting  Daylight can be used to augment or replace electric lighting. There are also innovative daylighting technologies now being investigated: 8|Page . Efficient daylighting design should consider: o o o o o o Sky conditions Site environment Building space and form Glazing systems Artificial lighting systems Air-conditioning systems  The complex interaction between daylight.4.

3 HVAC Systems  Energy efficiency of many HVAC sub-systems and equipment has been improved gradually over the years. central cooling and heating plants. Heat pump and heat recovery systems Building energy management and control systems. Outside air control by temperature/enthalpy level. such as in air systems. water systems.  Energy efficient HVAC design now being used or studied include: o o o o o Variable air volume (VAV) systems to reduce fan energy use. Natural ventilation and natural cooling strategies. 9|Page .o o o o o Light pipe systems Light shelves Mirror systems Prismatic glazing Holographic diffracting systems 4.

This technology is mature and can be applied to hot water.4 Active Solar and Photovoltaics  Solar thermal systems (active solar) provide useful heat at a low temperature. 4. 10 | P a g e . minimising visual intrusion.  The system consists of solar collectors. o o Their modularity and static character. High reliability and long lifetime. The main advantages of PV systems include: o o Reasonable conversion efficiencies (6-18%). they are useful for demand-side management. space heating. Although in principle they will not increase energy efficiency. PV modules can be efficiently integrated in buildings.Waste heat recovery in a double-bundle chiller plant  Thermal storage systems (such as ice thermal storage) are also being studied to achieve energy cost saving. a heat storage tank and water distribution mains. An integrated collector storage system has also been developed recently to eliminate the need for a separate storage tank. Schematic of a typical solar hot water system Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight into electricity using a semi-conductor device. swimming pool heating and space absorption cooling.

was first proposed in mide-1950s by Victor and Aladar Olgyay.1 Bioclimatic Design  The integration of design. In practice. Although the cost of PV is still high at present.o  Low maintenance cost. EVALUATION METHODS 5. hybrid type or grid-connected type. it may become cost-effective in the hear future. climate and human comfort -. 11 | P a g e . The systems can be of the standalone type. PV technology can be used for central generation or buildingintegrated systems (BIPV).  Building design itself is conceived as a natural energy systems that restores environmental quality to its site. Grid-connected solar photovoltaic system 5.  Their intention was to highlight the belief that architectural design should begin with understanding of the physiological needs of human comfort and take advantage of local climatic elements to optimise these requirements naturally and efficiently.the bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism -.

fundamentally for the purposes of reducing and minimising energy usage". Computer-based building energy simulation will provide this power and allow greater flexibility in design evaluation.3 Building Energy Audits  Building energy auditing can be defined as "measuring and recording actual energy consumption.  The cost effectiveness of any energy conservation measures will be a compromise between initial. at site. 5. understanding how the building consumes energy. maintenance and energy costs. Simulation techniques can provide the tools for assessing different design options based on their energy performance and life cycle costs. building energy design often require the analytical power to study complicated design scenerio. not monetary value). how the system elements interrelate and how the external environment affects the building. The purpose is to study and determine the energy characteristics of buildings and their building systems.  The simulation method is based upon load and energy calculations in HVAC design. 5. 12 | P a g e .  Energy audits identify areas where energy is being used efficiently or is being wasted. of a completed and occupied building (expressed in units of energy. and spotlight areas with the largest potential for energy saving. The aim is to creat a supportive and productive environment that ultimately can contribute to sustaining the regional and global environment. They are useful for establishing consumption patterns.2 Building Thermal and Energy Simulation  Nowadays.

13 | P a g e .An audit of historical data Stage 2 . Establishment of an operational overview. but the following stages are often adopted: o o o Stage 1 .Survey Stage 3 . Estimating of energy costs. Energy audits can be employed to assist in areas such as: o o o o Establishment of data bank and consumption records. Determining of consumption patterns and utility rates.Detailed investigation and analysis  A proper energy audit is useful for more than energy conservation goals. There are different approaches to conducting a full building energy audit.

6. CONCLUSIONS  Building energy design challenges building designers to think about climate. daylighting. orientation.  It also requires the architectural and engineering disciplines to work as a team early in the design phase and to conceptualise the building as a system. Architects and engineers who incorporate energy design concepts and methods into their design projects can play a significant role in reducing energy consumption and achieving sustainable energy structure for our society. and the qualities of environment as part of the initial design conception. 14 | P a g e .

1988 Control of thermal runaway-some mathematical insights. J. T. Washington. REFERENCE : Books:1) Watson. Batsford. The Energy Design Handbook. Building Energy Manual. NSW Public Works.7 .. 1993. Goulding. R. Energy in Architecture: The European Passive Solar Handbook. 1992.Environmentalhouse. Geer . 2) Manuals :1) 2) State Projects. J. 1993.Fillo. Lewis. B.Energyefficientbuilding. C. London.International Journal of Heat & mass Transfer 41:2979-90 Website :1) 2 WWW. and Steemers. (Edited by). O. D. (Ed.).. T. J. Australia. J.org WWW. DC. The American Institute of Architects Press.com 15 | P a g e .