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Slovin’s Formula - a practical statistical method used to determine the so called “ideal” sample size (n) ____N____ Where: N = 1 + N(e)2

Two Most Commonly Used e’s 1. 2.

n = sample size 1 = constant (whole) E = margin of error (The tolerable or acceptable amount of error within a given condition for its conclusion to be considered valid and reliable)

0.01 = medical health related fields 0.05 = allied fields

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 1. Systematic Random Sampling – a method which utilizes the Kth element wherein samples are determined from the multiples of K N 1000 K=n = 286 = 3.496 =3.50 = 4: multiples of 4 2. Stratified Random Sampling - uses strata as categories of data example: Year Level Ni Pi = Ni/N ni = n x Pi 1st 400 400/1000 =0.40 286x.40 =114 2nd 300 .30 286x.30 = 86 3rd 200 .20 286x.20 = 57 4th 100 .10 286 x.10 = 29 TOTAL 1000 1.00 286 Frequency (f) – the number of occurrences or appearance of any variable Types of Data According to Number of Samples: a. Ungrouped data (ud) : n <30 b. Grouped date (gd); n > 30 Cumulative frequency (cf) -- the continuous summation or accumulation of data respective of its order B. Types of Data According to cf a. Less than cf ( <cf): order is ascending b. Greater than cf (>cf): order is descending A.

Steps in Constructing Grouped Data Distribution: 1. Determine the Range of the data R= Highest Score – Lowest Score 2. Decide for a class size (cs) - the “ideal” class size is 5 to 15 3. Calculate for the interval (i); i= R/CS ( must be whole value) 4. Examine whether the LS is divisible by the i; if YES, then start the class distribution with the LS; if NO, then find for a value lower than the LS that is divisible by the i as the starting point or limit 5. Construct the class distribution Mean – considered as the most robust measure of location; it is used when the data are all interval (real values), randomly selected and approximately normal in distribution. Conventional Contemporary __ X = ∑x i M = ∑x n i=1 n Median (Mdn) – the middlemost value(s); even – avg of 2 mid values Mode (Mo) – the most frequently appearing value(s) For Grouped Data 1) M = am + (∑fd)i n Where; am = assumed mean; ∑fd = summation of the product of frequency and deviation n = total number of samples i = interval Mdn = ll + (n/2 – F) i f where; ll = lower limit of the median classes n/2 = half-sum F = estimated cumulative frequency f = real frequency i = interval Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. N/2 = 43/2 = 21.50 Define cumulative frequency F= < n/2 = 18 Find for the real f = F = 5 ll = get the median classes; the lower limit of class of F is the lower median class; the higher limit of the class of f is the upper median class. i= 5


Xn are independent random variables.1) Quartille = 4 divisions 1.“The Lesser the value of CV. 2. then 2 . then the data are homogenous.lmo + ( 1 ) i 1+ 2 Where. . the better is the performance” CV = SD ---. Kurtosis is more commonly defined as the fourth cumulant divided by the square of the second cumulant. higher t or z scores are better t = 10z + 50 Coefficient of Variation (CV) . then the data are heterogeneous. it is defined as the average of the square deviations z-score = the standard unit of measurement under the normal distribution of data. Then More generally..1) Skewed to the Right (*>SK or +SK) = indicates that most if not the majority of the data is greater than the average (mean. Ungrouped: Sdud = √Σ(x-M)2 // n-1 For grouped data: SDgd = i * √Σfd2/n-1 – (Σfd)2/n(n-1) Variance (SD2) = the maximum tolerable deviation form the centrality. It is the ratio between the Standard deviation and the mean expressed in percent (%) . that is the modal frequency Range (R) = R = HS – LS Standard Deviation (SD) . Another reason can be seen by looking at the formula for the kurtosis of the sum of random variables. Suppose that Y is the sum of n identically distributed independent random variables all with the same distribution as X. not necessarily identically distributed. which is also known as excess kurtosis. If SD > 1/3n. The "minus 3" at the end of this formula is often explained as a correction to make the kurtosis of the normal distribution equal to zero. Qk=kn/4 Dk =kn/10 Pk =kn/100 1) Skewness (SK) = describes the extent of symmetry of the data distribution. mode) and thus the data hovers towards the right-tail compare two or more independent comparies respective of defects or deviations.If SD < 1/3n.. which is equal to the fourth moment around the mean divided by the square of the variance of the probability distribution minus 3.x 100% M MEASURES OF RELATIVE POSITION Quantiles = are extensions of the median measure 1. lmo = lower limit of the modal class 1 = difference between the modal frequency (mf) and the frequency one-step higher of it in an ascending order of classes.Mode . if X1.3) Percentile = 100 divisions Recall: Mdn = n/2 So that. but all having the same variance.2) Skewed to the Left (<SK or – SK) 2) Kurtosis (Ku) = describes the extent of peakness or flatness of the data distribution.2) Decile = 10 divisions 1. 2 = difference between the mf and the f one-step lower of it in an ascending order of classes Whatever is the higher frequency. median. this is used to compare 2 or more data or sets of samples drawn from the same/similar population z = x-M/SD t-score = this is employed when the value of z is negative to avoid misleading interpretatiotns over negative values. 2.