Slovin’s Formula - a practical statistical method used to determine the so called “ideal” sample size (n) ____N____ Where: N = 1 + N(e)2

Two Most Commonly Used e’s 1. 2.

n = sample size 1 = constant (whole) E = margin of error (The tolerable or acceptable amount of error within a given condition for its conclusion to be considered valid and reliable)

0.01 = medical health related fields 0.05 = allied fields

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 1. Systematic Random Sampling – a method which utilizes the Kth element wherein samples are determined from the multiples of K N 1000 K=n = 286 = 3.496 =3.50 = 4: multiples of 4 2. Stratified Random Sampling - uses strata as categories of data example: Year Level Ni Pi = Ni/N ni = n x Pi 1st 400 400/1000 =0.40 286x.40 =114 2nd 300 .30 286x.30 = 86 3rd 200 .20 286x.20 = 57 4th 100 .10 286 x.10 = 29 TOTAL 1000 1.00 286 Frequency (f) – the number of occurrences or appearance of any variable Types of Data According to Number of Samples: a. Ungrouped data (ud) : n <30 b. Grouped date (gd); n > 30 Cumulative frequency (cf) -- the continuous summation or accumulation of data respective of its order B. Types of Data According to cf a. Less than cf ( <cf): order is ascending b. Greater than cf (>cf): order is descending A.

Steps in Constructing Grouped Data Distribution: 1. Determine the Range of the data R= Highest Score – Lowest Score 2. Decide for a class size (cs) - the “ideal” class size is 5 to 15 3. Calculate for the interval (i); i= R/CS ( must be whole value) 4. Examine whether the LS is divisible by the i; if YES, then start the class distribution with the LS; if NO, then find for a value lower than the LS that is divisible by the i as the starting point or limit 5. Construct the class distribution Mean – considered as the most robust measure of location; it is used when the data are all interval (real values), randomly selected and approximately normal in distribution. Conventional Contemporary __ X = ∑x i M = ∑x n i=1 n Median (Mdn) – the middlemost value(s); even – avg of 2 mid values Mode (Mo) – the most frequently appearing value(s) For Grouped Data 1) M = am + (∑fd)i n Where; am = assumed mean; ∑fd = summation of the product of frequency and deviation n = total number of samples i = interval Mdn = ll + (n/2 – F) i f where; ll = lower limit of the median classes n/2 = half-sum F = estimated cumulative frequency f = real frequency i = interval Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. N/2 = 43/2 = 21.50 Define cumulative frequency F= < n/2 = 18 Find for the real f = F = 5 ll = get the median classes; the lower limit of class of F is the lower median class; the higher limit of the class of f is the upper median class. i= 5

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to compare two or more independent comparies respective of defects or deviations.3) Percentile = 100 divisions Recall: Mdn = n/2 So that. lmo = lower limit of the modal class 1 = difference between the modal frequency (mf) and the frequency one-step higher of it in an ascending order of classes. this is used to compare 2 or more data or sets of samples drawn from the same/similar population z = x-M/SD t-score = this is employed when the value of z is negative to avoid misleading interpretatiotns over negative values. 2. which is also known as excess kurtosis. higher t or z scores are better t = 10z + 50 Coefficient of Variation (CV) . it is defined as the average of the square deviations z-score = the standard unit of measurement under the normal distribution of data. Another reason can be seen by looking at the formula for the kurtosis of the sum of random variables. Qk=kn/4 Dk =kn/10 Pk =kn/100 1) Skewness (SK) = describes the extent of symmetry of the data distribution.. but all having the same variance. then the data are homogenous.2) Skewed to the Left (<SK or – SK) 2) Kurtosis (Ku) = describes the extent of peakness or flatness of the data distribution. not necessarily identically distributed.“The Lesser the value of CV.lmo + ( 1 ) i 1+ 2 Where.1) Quartille = 4 divisions 1. which is equal to the fourth moment around the mean divided by the square of the variance of the probability distribution minus 3. Xn are independent random variables. 2. then 2 .. It is the ratio between the Standard deviation and the mean expressed in percent (%) . mode) and thus the data hovers towards the right-tail direction.2) Decile = 10 divisions 1. 2 = difference between the mf and the f one-step lower of it in an ascending order of classes Whatever is the higher frequency. Suppose that Y is the sum of n identically distributed independent random variables all with the same distribution as X.x 100% M MEASURES OF RELATIVE POSITION Quantiles = are extensions of the median measure 1. that is the modal frequency Range (R) = R = HS – LS Standard Deviation (SD) . if X1.1) Skewed to the Right (*>SK or +SK) = indicates that most if not the majority of the data is greater than the average (mean. If SD > 1/3n. Kurtosis is more commonly defined as the fourth cumulant divided by the square of the second cumulant.Mode . . then the data are heterogeneous. the better is the performance” CV = SD ---.If SD < 1/3n. The "minus 3" at the end of this formula is often explained as a correction to make the kurtosis of the normal distribution equal to zero. median. Ungrouped: Sdud = √Σ(x-M)2 // n-1 For grouped data: SDgd = i * √Σfd2/n-1 – (Σfd)2/n(n-1) Variance (SD2) = the maximum tolerable deviation form the centrality.. Then More generally.

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