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**_Photons, Power, Intensity, Photocurrent_
**

1 Number of photons emitted in 1 second total energy of photons emitted in 1 second = energy of each photon Pt = hc

λ

= 4 × 10 −3 (1) (6.63 × 10−34 )(3 × 108 ) / 632 × 10 −9 )

= 1.27 × 1016 [Note: number of photons has no unit so the answer has no unit, but if the question were to

–1

ask for number of photons per second, then the unit is s .]

2 (a)

[Note: “10 W lamp” means 10 W of electrical power is used up by the lamp, but not all electrical power is converted to light power, the percentage converted to light power is given by the efficiency of the lamp.] Given efficiency is 10%, light power produced by lamp = 10% of 10 W = 1.0 W Number of photons produced each second by the lamp total energy of photons emitted in 1 second = energy of each photon Pt = hc

λ

= (6.63 × 10

−34

1.0(1) )(3 × 108 ) / (590 × 10 −9 )

= 3.0 × 1018

(b)

[Note: From the value of the photoelectric current, we can deduce how many electrons are emitted per second.] Number of photoelectrons emitted per second current = charge of each electron

48 × 10−9 1.60 × 10 −19 = 3.0 × 1011 s−1 =

Fraction of photons that produces electrons number of electrons emitted per second = number of photons incident per second

3 × 1011 s−1 3 × 1018 s−1 = 1.0 × 10 −7 =

1

22 × 1015 = 9.8 × 10 −16 (6.] 4(a) Power of radiation incident on the silver surface = intensity × area –6 = (210) × (12 × 10 ) –3 = 2.3 × 10 −7 = (ii) 1.8 × 10 (ii) Number of photons entering per second energy of photons entering per second energy of photons entering per second = energy of each photon P = hc λ = 5.60 × 10 −19 = 3.3(i) Power entering an area = intensity × area –11 –3 2 = (1.0 × 109 s−1 = (c)(i) Photoelectric quantum yield number of electrons emitted per second = number of photons incident per second 3 × 109 3. an electron may collide with other particles and lose energy.8 × 10−10 1.5 × 10 –16 ) × π (3.5 × 10 ) W = 5.52 × 10−3 (6.22 × 1015 s−1 (b) Rate of emission of electrons current current = charge of each electron 4. After absorbing a photon.63 × 10 −34 )(3 × 108 ) / 254 × 10 −9 ) = 3.63 × 10 )(3 × 108 ) / 550 × 10−9 ) −34 = 1600 s−1 –1 [Note: the unit is s because it is “number of photons entering per second”. 2 .52 × 10 W Number of photons incident per second energy of incident photons per second = energy of each photon P = hc λ = 2.

Wrong to say that KEmax is doubled] 3 .6 × 108 × 400 × 10 −9 = 4. [Note: KEmax = photon energy – work function. number of photoelectrons ejected per second from the cathode 6. 5 electrons are produced at the end of the 9th target. Greater. This means that for each photoelectron ejected there are 3 photons.6 × 10 s Power of the light = total energy of photons incident per second = number of photons incident per second × energy of each photon = number of photons incident per second × energy of each photon hc = 9.] Unchanged. (i) Number of electrons emitted from the final target current = charge of each electron 0. the frequency is lower. After the 9th target. (d) At longer wavelength. 5 electrons are ejected. (b) (c) [Note: photon energy 2(2. 5 electrons are produced. When one electron hits the 1st target. So.2 × 108 s−1 (ii) One in three of the incident photons succeeds in ejecting a photoelectron. In order to escape. the photon energy is less than the work function and so the photon is unable to eject any electron from the metal.resulting in insufficient energy to escape from the metal.25 × 1014 = 59 = 3. number of photons incident per 8 8 –1 second = 3 × 3.10 × 10−3 1.25 × 1014 s−1 = 9 current Since 5 electrons are emitted from the final target for each photoelectron ejected from the cathode. when the frequency is lower than the threshold frequency. 25 or 5 electrons are produced. These 5 electrons go on and hit the 2nd target.60 × 10 −19 = 6.46 × 10 −19 ) ] 9.63 × 10 −34 )(3 × 108 ) = 9.6 × 108 × λ (6.11× 10−31 [Note: work function depends on the type of metal. some electrons require more energy than what the photons can provide.8 × 10 −10 W _Photoelectric Effect_ 6(a) Doubled.2 × 10 = 9. 9 9 2 5 So for each electron that is ejected from the cathode. 2.

7 KEmax = photon energy – work function ⇒ eVS = hf – Φ ⇒ VS = (h/e)f – Φ/e So for a graph of VS against f.63 × 10-34 = 2. (ii) The intensity of illumination does not affect the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. Those electrons with high enough kinetic energy are still able to reach the gauze despite negative V. With more photoelectrons reaching the gauze. the stopping potential (required to stop the most energetic electrons) is unchanged. With further increase in V and when all the stray electrons reach the collector. 12(a) Threshold frequency fmin = Φ/h = 1. A metal of greater work function means higher threshold frequency. and so more photoelectrons are emitted. the current cannot increase any more as it is limited by the rate of emission of electrons from the emitter. With the maximum kinetic energy unchanged. this is because the maximum kinetic energy depends on the frequency of the radiation which remains the same. The rate of emission of electrons can only be increased if the intensity of light is increased. When V is increased. the gradient is h/e. 9 Gradient is h/e which is a constant. Answer: D. (b)(i) When intensity is increased. the threshold frequency. 10 KEmax = photon energy – work function ⇒ eVS = hf – Φ KE does not depend on intensity] Answer: D.50 × 1014 Hz 4 .e. so both graphs should have the same gradient. which directly depends on the work function.66 × 10-19/6. so answer is either C or D. there are stray photoelectrons that don’t reach the collector. 8 KEmax = photon energy – work function ⇒ eVS = hf – Φ KEmax is dependent on f and Φ Answer: D. more photons are incident on the zinc plate. The f-intercept (horizontal intercept) gives fmin. some of these stray photoelectrons get attracted to the collector and thus the photoelectric current increases. so the “value of V necessary to prevent any photoelectric current” (i. 11(a)(i) When V is small. the maximum photoelectric current is increased. Answer: D. (ii) The electrons are emitted with different kinetic energies. the stopping potential) remains constant.

0 V KEmax = eVS = 1.20 × 10-19 J Φ = hf – KEmax 5 .11× 10−31 = 7.63 × 10−34 )(3 × 108 ) = − 6.46 × 10 −19 ) 9.54 eV [1 eV = 1.42 × 10−19 240 × 10 −9 = 1.42 × 10 −19 J (b) KEmax = photon energy – work function = hf – Φ (6.0 = 3.87 × 10−19 = 1.60 × 10-19 × 2. As retarding potential is increased.63 × 10 −34 )(3 × 108 ) 310 × 10 −9 = 6. No photoelectric emission if wavelength longer than threshold wavelength (corresponds to frequency smaller than the threshold frequency).(b) KEmax = hf – Φ = (6.22 × 1014) – (1.87 × 10 −19 J Stopping potential VS = KEmax/e 1.46 × 10 −19 VS = 1.6 × 10−19 = 1. (b) (c) True. 14(a) Φ = = hc λ (6.6 × 10 −19 = 1.6 × 10-19 J] 13(a) True.66 × 10-19) = 2.63 × 10-34)(6.54 eV (c) KEmax = ½ mvmax2 ⇒ vmax = 2(2. True.46 × 10-19 J Convert to eV: 2.17 V 15 (a) Stopping potential VS = 2.46 × 10-19 J = 1. more electrons get stopped.35 × 105 m s-1 (d) KEmax =eVS 2.

11× 10 −31 = 8.22) = h(0.75 × 1015) .(2) (1) – (2): 1.8 × 10-20 = h(3 × 108)/(579 × 10-9) .50 × 1015) .(1) ------.9 × 10-20 = h(3 × 108)/(492 × 10-9) .63 × 10 −34 )(3 × 108 ) − 3.Φ (1) – (2): ------.(6.(1) e(0.07 × 10-19 J 6 .66 × 10-34)(3 × 108)/(492 × 10-9) .03(1.(2) (a) (b) 6.59 × 10-34 J s (a) (b) Sub value of h into equation (2): Φ = (6.6 × 10-19)/(0.50 × 1015) .1 × 10-20 = h(3 × 108)(1/(492 × 10-9) – 1/(579 × 10-9)] h = 6.6 × 10−19 = 2.03 × 10 −19 J = 4.03 × 10−19 eV 1.e(0.59 × 10-34)(0.2 × 10−19 ) 9.4 × 105 m s-1 16 Note: intensity I ∝ photoelectric current i But intensity I ∝ (wave amplitude A)2 iP =4 iQ ∴ IP =4 IQ 2 AP =4 2 AQ AP =2 AQ 17 eVS = hf – Φ Substituting the 2 set of values into the equation: e(1.99 × 10-19 J _Wave Particle Duality_ 18 KEmax = hf – Φ & f = c/λ Substituting the 2 set of values into the equation: 9.54 eV = (b) KEmax = ½ mvmax2 ⇒ vmax = 2(3.Φ ------.03e = (0.Φ 3.25 × 1015)h h = 1.25 × 1015) h = 6.19) Φ = 2.19) = h(0.9 × 10-20 Φ = 3.Φ ------.66 × 10-34 J s Sub value of h into equation (1): Φ = (6.9.2 × 10 −19 275 × 10 −9 = 4.

d.07 × 10-19)/( 6.10 nm Using p = h/λ. change in momentum in each collision is h/λ and the force nh/λ 7 .momentum change = 2h/λ .15 × 10-9) p = 4.Recall photon momentum = h/λ (de Broglie’s) .] [me = 9.63 × 10 −34 = 2 (9.66 × 10-34) fmin = 4.6 × 10-19 C] 20 Electrons have same pattern as X-rays. = 67 V [gain in KE = loss of E. Vp. n photons hit the surface .Each second.d.(c) hfmin = Φ fmin = Φ/h fmin = (3.∴ Force = 2nh/λ (b) .11 × 10-31 kg.E. it rebounds with equal momentum but in opposite direction .. momentum of electron must be = h/(0.d..63 × 10-34/(0.If photons are absorbed. from Q19.d.P.1 × 10-9) Using p2/2me = eVp. e = 1.So total momentum change per second = 2nh/λ . .d. = 151 V 21(a) de Broglie wavelength of a particle λ = h/p KE E = mv2/2 = p2/2m ∴p= 2mE ∴ λ = h/ 2mE = h/ 2mE 6. [Which makes possible the observation of electron diffraction pattern when a beam of electron is directed at a crystal] Answer: C 22 23(a) .When photon hits the surface. p2/2me = eVp.11× 10 −31 ) (1× 10 −18 ) = 5 × 10-10 m (b) λ (c) This value is very close to the typical diameter of an atom. so their de Broglie wavelength must = 0.61× 1014 Hz 19(a) de Broglie’s wavelength of electron λ = h/p p = h/λ = 6. Vp.4 × 10-24 kg m s-1 (b) (c) KE E = mev2/2 = p2/2me ½ mev2 = eVp.

The end of the spectrum with emission lines more closely packed corresponds to the higher frequency lines._Line Spectra_ 24(a) False as photon has no mass (just need to memorise as a piece of fact. If photons are used to raised energy level. Simple way to bring about collision is to heat up the gas.496 × 10 J -3. . reason beyond syllabus) (b) False. Same reason as (a) 25 26 27 Answer: B Answer: A E1 = E2 + E3 ⇒ hc/λ1 = hc/λ2 + hc/λ3 ⇒ 1/λ1 = 1/λ2 + 1/λ3 Answer: D 28 high frequency Energy f3 f2 f4 f5 f1 bring down for easier comparison with other 3 transitions f1 f5 f4 low frequency f2 f3 29 30 Answer: D See lecture notes.136 × 10 -19 31 32 33(i) C J D -14. the photon energies must match the energy gaps between the energy levels of the hydrogen atoms . There are 2 ways – gain energy through collision with other particles or absorb a photon.72 × 10 -19 J 8 .Hence X must be the lowest frequency emission of a series Answer: D A B 0 -19 -0.

1 eV. λAC ≈ 5λAD.3 eV.4 eV [1] (to ionize means to remove the bound electron to infinity. and later re-emitted in all directions. [1] For 1 to 3. only photons of certain wavelength are absorbed. there is less light falling on the screen.00 × 108)/[0 .e.e.136 ×10-19)] = 6.(-3. i. The re-emitted photons will be randomly emitted in all directions. certain allowed energy states) However. As a result. resulting in a line absorption spectra. which corresponds to 0 energy) 9 . Photons emitted by the sodium lamp are mostly absorbed by the sodium in the sodium chloride vapour. Atoms will therefore absorb only specific amounts of energy to go from the ground level to higher levels. or 1 to 3. λAD about 120 nm) The above figure shows discrete energy levels.(ii) hc/λ = EA – EC λ = hc/(EA – EC) = (6. So when white light is passed through the atoms. hence very few of the re-emitted photons will go towards the screen thereby causing relatively dark lines. [1] No energy transition is exactly 7 eV. leading to dark shadow. (i.34 × 10-7 m (634 nm) (iii) (iv) (b) Level B to Level C UV (∆EAD about 5 times of ∆EAC ∴ using E = hc/λ. KE left is 2. energy levels are much further apart resulting in emission of high energy photons in gamma region = 4. [1] 10. The fact that the emission spectrum of a nucleus is also a line spectrum suggests that a nucleus too has discrete energy levels. KE left is 0. [1] [1] (b)(i) (ii) (c) (d) Transition from Level 1 to 2.84 x 10-19 J 34 35 36 37(a)(i) Energy change [1] (ii) Wavelength = hc/∆E = 254 nm This is in the UV region.9 eV = 7. For 1 to 2. [1] No transitions.63 × 10-34)(3.

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