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1 Number of photons emitted in 1 second total energy of photons emitted in 1 second = energy of each photon Pt = hc

= 1.27 1016 [Note: number of photons has no unit so the answer has no unit, but if the question were to

1

2 (a)

[Note: 10 W lamp means 10 W of electrical power is used up by the lamp, but not all electrical power is converted to light power, the percentage converted to light power is given by the efficiency of the lamp.] Given efficiency is 10%, light power produced by lamp = 10% of 10 W = 1.0 W Number of photons produced each second by the lamp total energy of photons emitted in 1 second = energy of each photon Pt = hc

= (6.63 10

34

= 3.0 1018

(b)

[Note: From the value of the photoelectric current, we can deduce how many electrons are emitted per second.] Number of photoelectrons emitted per second current = charge of each electron

48 109 1.60 10 19 = 3.0 1011 s1 =

Fraction of photons that produces electrons number of electrons emitted per second = number of photons incident per second

3 1011 s1 3 1018 s1 = 1.0 10 7 =

3(i)

11 3 2

= (1.5 10

16

) (3.5 10 ) W

= 5.8 10 (ii)

Number of photons entering per second energy of photons entering per second energy of photons entering per second = energy of each photon P = hc

34

= 1600 s1

1

6

= (210) (12 10 )

3

= 2.52 10 W Number of photons incident per second energy of incident photons per second = energy of each photon P = hc

= 3.22 1015 s1

(b)

4.8 1010 1.60 10 19 = 3.0 109 s1 =

(c)(i) Photoelectric quantum yield number of electrons emitted per second = number of photons incident per second

3 109 3.22 1015 = 9.3 10 7 =

(ii)

1. After absorbing a photon, an electron may collide with other particles and lose energy, 2

resulting in insufficient energy to escape from the metal. 2. In order to escape, some electrons require more energy than what the photons can provide. (d) At longer wavelength, the frequency is lower, when the frequency is lower than the threshold frequency, the photon energy is less than the work function and so the photon is unable to eject any electron from the metal. When one electron hits the 1st target, 5 electrons are ejected. These 5 electrons go on and hit the 2nd target, 25 or 5 electrons are produced. After the 9th target, 5 electrons are produced.

9 9 2

So for each electron that is ejected from the cathode, 5 electrons are produced at the end of the 9th target. (i) Number of electrons emitted from the final target current = charge of each electron

0.10 103 1.60 10 19 = 6.25 1014 s1 =

9

current

Since 5 electrons are emitted from the final target for each photoelectron ejected from the cathode, number of photoelectrons ejected per second from the cathode 6.25 1014 = 59 = 3.2 108 s1 (ii) One in three of the incident photons succeeds in ejecting a photoelectron. This means that for each photoelectron ejected there are 3 photons. So, number of photons incident per

8 8 1

second = 3 3.2 10 = 9.6 10 s Power of the light = total energy of photons incident per second = number of photons incident per second energy of each photon = number of photons incident per second energy of each photon hc = 9.6 108

_Photoelectric Effect_

6(a) Doubled. (b) (c) [Note: photon energy

2(2.46 10 19 ) ] 9.11 1031 [Note: work function depends on the type of metal.]

Unchanged.

Greater. [Note: KEmax = photon energy work function. Wrong to say that KEmax is doubled] 3

KEmax = photon energy work function eVS = hf VS = (h/e)f /e So for a graph of VS against f, the gradient is h/e. Answer: D.

KEmax = photon energy work function eVS = hf KEmax is dependent on f and Answer: D.

Gradient is h/e which is a constant, so both graphs should have the same gradient, so answer is either C or D. The f-intercept (horizontal intercept) gives fmin, the threshold frequency, which directly depends on the work function. A metal of greater work function means higher threshold frequency. Answer: D.

10

KEmax = photon energy work function eVS = hf KE does not depend on intensity] Answer: D.

11(a)(i) When V is small, there are stray photoelectrons that dont reach the collector. When V is increased, some of these stray photoelectrons get attracted to the collector and thus the photoelectric current increases. With further increase in V and when all the stray electrons reach the collector, the current cannot increase any more as it is limited by the rate of emission of electrons from the emitter.

The rate of emission of electrons can only be increased if the intensity of light is increased.

(ii) The electrons are emitted with different kinetic energies. Those electrons with high enough kinetic energy are still able to reach the gauze despite negative V.

(b)(i) When intensity is increased, more photons are incident on the zinc plate, and so more photoelectrons are emitted. With more photoelectrons reaching the gauze, the maximum photoelectric current is increased. (ii) The intensity of illumination does not affect the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons, this is because the maximum kinetic energy depends on the frequency of the radiation which remains the same. With the maximum kinetic energy unchanged, the stopping potential (required to stop the most energetic electrons) is unchanged, so the value of V necessary to prevent any photoelectric current (i.e. the stopping potential) remains constant.

(b)

KEmax = hf = (6.63 10-34)(6.22 1014) (1.66 10-19) = 2.46 10-19 J Convert to eV: 2.46 10-19 J = 1.54 eV

(c)

2(2.46 10 19 ) 9.11 1031 = 7.35 105 m s-1

(d)

[1 eV = 1.6 10-19 J]

13(a) True. No photoelectric emission if wavelength longer than threshold wavelength (corresponds to frequency smaller than the threshold frequency). (b) (c) True. As retarding potential is increased, more electrons get stopped. True.

14(a) =

=

hc

(b)

KEmax = photon energy work function = hf (6.63 1034 )(3 108 ) = 6.42 1019 240 10 9 = 1.87 10 19 J Stopping potential VS = KEmax/e 1.87 1019 = 1.6 10 19 = 1.17 V

15 (a)

Stopping potential VS = 2.0 V KEmax = eVS = 1.60 10-19 2.0 = 3.20 10-19 J = hf KEmax

(6.63 10 34 )(3 108 ) 3.2 10 19 275 10 9 = 4.03 10 19 J = 4.03 1019 eV 1.6 1019 = 2.54 eV =

(b)

2(3.2 1019 ) 9.11 10 31 = 8.4 105 m s-1

16

IP =4 IQ

2 AP =4 2 AQ

AP =2 AQ

17

eVS = hf Substituting the 2 set of values into the equation: e(1.22) = h(0.75 1015) - ------- (1) e(0.19) = h(0.50 1015) - ------- (2) (1) (2): 1.03e = (0.25 1015)h h = 1.03(1.6 10-19)/(0.25 1015) h = 6.59 10-34 J s

(a)

(b)

Sub value of h into equation (2): = (6.59 10-34)(0.50 1015) - e(0.19) = 2.99 10-19 J

18 KEmax = hf & f = c/ Substituting the 2 set of values into the equation: 9.9 10-20 = h(3 108)/(492 10-9) - 3.8 10-20 = h(3 108)/(579 10-9) - (1) (2):

(a) (b)

Sub value of h into equation (1): = (6.66 10-34)(3 108)/(492 10-9) - 9.9 10-20 = 3.07 10-19 J 6

(c)

hfmin = fmin = /h fmin = (3.07 10-19)/( 6.66 10-34) fmin = 4.61 1014 Hz

19(a) de Broglies wavelength of electron = h/p p = h/ = 6.63 10-34/(0.15 10-9) p = 4.4 10-24 kg m s-1 (b) (c) KE E = mev2/2 = p2/2me mev2 = eVp.d. p2/2me = eVp.d. ... Vp.d. = 67 V [gain in KE = loss of E.P.E.] [me = 9.11 10-31 kg, e = 1.6 10-19 C]

20

Electrons have same pattern as X-rays, so their de Broglie wavelength must = 0.10 nm Using p = h/, momentum of electron must be = h/(0.1 10-9) Using p2/2me = eVp.d. from Q19, Vp.d. = 151 V

2mE = h/ 2mE

= h/ 2mE 6.63 10 34 = 2 (9.11 10 31 ) (1 10 18 ) = 5 10-10 m

(b)

(c)

This value is very close to the typical diameter of an atom. [Which makes possible the observation of electron diffraction pattern when a beam of electron is directed at a crystal] Answer: C

22

23(a) - Recall photon momentum = h/ (de Broglies) - When photon hits the surface, it rebounds with equal momentum but in opposite direction - momentum change = 2h/ - Each second, n photons hit the surface - So total momentum change per second = 2nh/ - Force = 2nh/ (b) - If photons are absorbed, change in momentum in each collision is h/ and the force nh/

_Line Spectra_

24(a) False as photon has no mass (just need to memorise as a piece of fact, reason beyond syllabus) (b) False. Same reason as (a) 25 26 27 Answer: B Answer: A

Answer: D

f4

f5

f1 f5 f4 low frequency

f2

f3

29 30

Answer: D See lecture notes. There are 2 ways gain energy through collision with other particles or absorb a photon. Simple way to bring about collision is to heat up the gas. If photons are used to raised energy level, the photon energies must match the energy gaps between the energy levels of the hydrogen atoms - The end of the spectrum with emission lines more closely packed corresponds to the higher frequency lines. - Hence X must be the lowest frequency emission of a series Answer: D

A B 0 -19 -0.496 10 J -3.136 10

-19

31

32 33(i)

-14.72 10

-19

(ii)

hc/ = EA EC

= hc/(EA EC) = (6.63 10-34)(3.00 108)/[0 - (-3.136 10-19)] = 6.34 10-7 m (634 nm)

Level B to Level C UV (EAD about 5 times of EAC using E = hc/, AC 5AD. i.e. AD about 120 nm)

The above figure shows discrete energy levels. Atoms will therefore absorb only specific amounts of energy to go from the ground level to higher levels. So when white light is passed through the atoms, only photons of certain wavelength are absorbed, resulting in a line absorption spectra. The re-emitted photons will be randomly emitted in all directions, hence very few of the re-emitted photons will go towards the screen thereby causing relatively dark lines. Photons emitted by the sodium lamp are mostly absorbed by the sodium in the sodium chloride vapour, and later re-emitted in all directions. As a result, there is less light falling on the screen, leading to dark shadow. The fact that the emission spectrum of a nucleus is also a line spectrum suggests that a nucleus too has discrete energy levels. (i.e. certain allowed energy states) However, energy levels are much further apart resulting in emission of high energy photons in gamma region = 4.9 eV = 7.84 x 10-19 J

34

35

36

[1]

(ii)

[1] [1]

Transition from Level 1 to 2, or 1 to 3. For 1 to 2, KE left is 2.1 eV. [1] For 1 to 3, KE left is 0.3 eV. [1] No transitions. [1] No energy transition is exactly 7 eV. [1] 10.4 eV [1] (to ionize means to remove the bound electron to infinity, which corresponds to 0 energy)

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