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21 (a) Define gravitational field strength. Gravitational field strength at a point is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass experienced by a mass placed at that point. (b) A spherical star of mass 2.0 × 1030 kg undergoes gravitational collapse to an extremely dense neutron star of radius 10 km as shown in Fig. 21.1.

X

Neutron star

10 km

Z

Y

Fig. 21.1 (i) Calculate the weight of a 60-kg man at the surface of the neutron star.

g=

( 6.67 × 10 )( 2.0 × 10 ) (10 × 10 )

-11 30 3 2

= 1.334 × 1012 N kg-1 W = mg = ( 60 ) 1.334 × 1012 = 8.0 × 10 N Comments: Some students did not convert the radius to metres when substituting the value into the equation. Some did not square the radius. (ii) If the star spins about a vertical axis XY through its centre, the man feels lighter at point Z as compared to point X. Explain. At point Z, the man is undergoing circular motion due to the spin of the star but not at point X. At X, the reaction force on the man is equal to his weight. At Z, this reaction force is less than his weight as there is a resultant force/centripetal force directed towards the centre of the star. Hence he will feel lighter at Z as compared to X. Comments: Some students fail to realize that the gravitational force (weight) acting on the man at both X and Z are the same. The different feeling is due to the difference in reaction force/contact force acting on the man at X and Z.

13

(

)

Fnet = mg − 2kv = 0 ⇒k= mg 2v 2kv mg (b) Since oil drop is moving at constant speed.67 × 10 )( 2. qE1 = mg + 2kv mg qE1 = mg + 2v × = 2mg 2v 2mg q= E1 qE1 mg 2kv (c) For case 3. the negative sign is not required but the interpretation is important. The particles are just moving in uniform circular motion. GMm mv 2 = r2 r v= ( 6. mg 1 If E2 is assumed to be downward.0 × 10 ) ( 910 × 10 ) −11 30 3 = 1. the electric force must be upwards due to an electric field that is upwards as well 1 qE 2 = mg − kv = mg 2 1 E 2 = E1 4 qE2 kv The direction of E2 is upwards.21× 107 m s-1 Comments: Some students used energy equations in this question but they are irrelevant as there are no energy changes here. Drag force is kv = ½ mg Since oil drop is moving at constant speed. . 22 (a) Since oil drop is moving at constant speed. Calculate the speed of the particles. qE2 + mg = kv ⇒ E 2 = − E1 4 The negative here does not mean that E2 is in a direction opposite to E1 but it means that the assumed direction is wrong and should be upwards instead! Since the question asks for the magnitude.2 (c) A ring of particles is formed 900 km from the surface of the star.

it losses electric potential energy but gains gravitational potential energy.5) = 5.0 − 0.50 + 7. Abbreviations such as GPE.75(0.5 Ω Current in circuit. change the material of wire XY to one with higher resistance RXY. This will help students ensure that they give the final answers to the correct number of significant figures and units. (from (1)) OR 2. change the driver cell to one with higher e.m.Ir = 6. 23 (a) Equivalent resistance of 4 lamps in parallel. I = E 6.0 × 9.5 Total power dissipated in the 4 lamps. (from (2)) 3.5) = 4. (from (1)) NOTE: If students state (1) or (2) and (3) or (4).21875 = 4.000) = 0.0 = 7.22 W (b) VT = E . This question asks for energy change and hence must be answered accordingly. Req = 30 / 4 = 7.0 = = 0. Comments General: Students should show proper and neat substitution and working by using the values exactly as stated in the questions e.752 (7.VXY R E RXY + R L L RXY = ρ XY = ρ XY A πr 2 For larger values of potential difference across the wire XY 1. decrease the radius / diameter of the wire (to increase RXY). EPE and KE should be written in full. Units of quantities found in intermediate steps should also be stated clearly.f.625 (1. (from (1)) 7.g. . the kinetic energy of the oil-drop will be constant.625 V OR VT = IReq = 0.75(7. P=I 2 Req = 0.625 V VXY = 5. It is also losing energy to the surrounding air as it moves through the air.75 A Rtotal 0.4 LXP VXP = LXY VXY LXP = (c) VT 5.800 m × LXY = VXY 7. When the loss in electrical potential energy is equal to the gain in gravitational potential energy and the loss due to drag. change the material of wire XY to one with higher resistivity (to increase RXY).03125 (1) (2) VXY R VXY RXY = XY or = E .0 + 1.03125 V 5. increase length of wire XY (to increase RXY). 6.3 (d) As the oil-drop rises. (1) or (2) has to be specifically to change the material of the wire and (3) or (4) to change the dimensions of the wire of the same material.50) = 5. (from (2)) 6.0 V and not 6 V. decrease the cross-sectional area of the wire (to increase RXY). decrease the resistance R. (from (2)) 5. (from (2)) OR 4.

is 2V (c)(ii) Many thought the curved path was parabolic or circular A few thought there was only one magnetic force acting . Fm sin 40o = ma ⇒ a = 0. Students should refer to the electromotive force (e.2 or 8. thus leading to incorrect equations in (ii) For (i).1 as stated in the question. only the first two were considered. ‘larger’.. 23. and not just state ‘use a variable resistor’. the magnetic force on electron on path Y is greater than the electric force on it which is independent of speed. Many state as.6403 N cos 40o Applying N2L horizontally. Hence. Suggested ways should be specific and should include words like ‘increase’. Potential difference across length XP is the terminal p.f of the cell.050 (c) (i) Fm = FE ⇒ Bev=Ee= ∴ v= 2V Bd (V-(-V)) e d (ii) Electron travelling path Y has greater speed on entry than electron on path X. The upward resultant force causes the electron to curve upwards (towards –V plate).m.f) of a cell and not its voltage as a cell is a source of energy. The potential drop across the internal resistance has to be accounted for. (b) Incorrect angle of Fm wrt to horizontal (many labelled it 60 or 40 degree) though Fm marked perpendicular to wire.. Fm cos 40o = mg ⇒ Fm = 0. many did not label Fm is perpendicular to wire Incorrect resolution of Fm (even though the angle was labelled correctly) (c) (i) A few thought that q and e are different : qE = Bev Many did not realise the p. 23.1 and not the e.6403 × sin 40o = 8. (i) Fm W (ii) Vertically. per unit charge. ‘smaller’ etc.050 × 9..81 = 0..d. Students who wrote more than 2 ways. of the cell in Fig.d. (c) Suggested ways should involve only the potentiometer and not the circuit in Fig. ‘decrease’.23ms−2 0. Comments: (a) Some students thought the equation for magnetic flux is the defining equation for B. 24 (a) (b) Force per unit length on a straight conductor carrying unit current placed perpendicularly to the field.4 (b) Students should give their answers to 2 or 3 significant figures and not 1.m.

81)(5. Mg = Magnetic force acting on rod.m.f. .020)(9.50)2 (1. v of the rod.0 Ω ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ X ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ Weight ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ ⊙Magnetic field out of the paper B D (c) At terminal velocity.73 m s-1 (d) Gravitational potential energy is converted to electrical energy as a induced current flows in the rod. According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Comments: Faraday’s Law incorrectly stated. resultant force on the rod = 0. Electrical energy is then converted to heat energy as the current gives rise to a heating effect.f. BIL I= I= C Magnetic Force Induced current Y ⊙ ⊙ ⊙ Mg BL BLv R Mg BLv = BL R Terminal velocity v = MgR B 2 L2 = (0.0) (0.m. E = induced in the rod. the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage in a circuit is proportional to the e. Hence there will be an e. Weight of rod.2) 2 = 2. dΦ dt (b) A 5. induced in the circuit. Forces not labelled.5 25 (a) There is an increase in magnetic flux linkage (Φ = NBA) through loop ACYX as the rod slides downward due to a increase in area A of loop ACYX.

Np [2] Ns Vs = N p Vp Ns 10000 250 = = = 83.s current in terms of I0 [3] I/A I0 I0/2 0 2 4 6 8 t/s (b) The secondary voltage of a transformer in a furnace is 10.9 )( 5 )(120 ) = (10000Is ) Is = 0.9 ( I pVp ) = IsVs ( 0. Power loss due to eddy current. The primary coil operates at an r.9Pp = ( Ps ) 0.m.3 Np 120 3 (ii) What is the current in the secondary coil? [3] Vp = RI p 120 = ( 24 ) I p I p = 5.0 Ω.m. [2] Resistance of the wire is not equal to zero. (i) Calculate the turn ratio ( Ns ) of the transformer. .0 kV.054 A (iii) Suggest two reasons why the transformer is not 100 % efficient.00 A Ps = 0.0% efficient.9 Pp 0.s voltage of 120 V and has a resistance of 24.6 26 (a) Find the r. The transformer is 90. Magnetic flux linkage is not linked completely to the secondary coil.

(f) (i) Gradient = h/e ⇒ h = e x gradient = (1.000-(-0. Students also tend to ignore axis labels.60x10-19) [(1.56x10-34 J s NB: If prefix 1014 missing.7 27 (a) KEmax = q Vs = (1. (d) (e) Plotted both points correctly: (7. Comments: Carelessness with sf is rampant.60x10-19) (1.00)x1014] (a range of answers will be accepted) = 6. Did not read questions carefully and hence provide irrelevant answers that gain no marks. especially (f).00. it is better to leave final numerical answers to 3 sf (unless questions state otherwise). deduct [1] M2 A1 Φ = h x (f-intercept) = (6. leaving answers wrong by a factor of 1014.63x10-34)(3. If unsure. Straight-line graph joining both points.000) & (6.00x108) / (380x10-9) = 5.23x10-19 J (3 sf) M1 A1 (b) M1 A1 B1 B1 (c) hc 1 Φ The graph (Vs = − ) is a curve or non-linear. B1 which is the minimum frequency of electromagnetic radiation that is required to remove a free electron from the metal surface (or to cause photoelectric effect). 1. e λ e and two points are not sufficient to plot the graph accurately to determine λo. B2 NB: Will not accept definition of ionisation energy because it is not stated in question.89-6.00) = 1.225))/(7. B1 NB: Allow answers which state that photoelectric effect is (not) possible (below) above fo . Careless in reading and plotting graphs. Many go through long procedures when simple steps suffice.61x10-19 J (allow ecf) (or use y = mx + c to find Φ) NB: Must use h from (f)(i). NB: If mentioned that graph does not cut horizontal-axis ⇒ [0]. 0. B2 B1 It is the threshold frequency of the metal.50x1014) = 3. A1 The work function energy of lithium is the minimum amount of energy required to remove a free (or delocalised) electron from the surface of the metal (which is different from an isolated atom). Poor mathematical manipulations skills are seen in many parts.89.60x10-19 J (3 sf) E = hc/λ = (6.56x10-34) (5.225). deduct [2]. M2 A1 (g) (h) Parallel and higher fo compared to graph drawn in part (d). . Unit not stated. else deduct [1].

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