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– discuss][citation needed] 20th century, and hinted at in the centuries prior. The progression, from mechanical inventions and mathematical theories towards the modern concepts and machines, formed a major academic field [1] and the basis of a massive worldwide industry.

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**Early history[edit]
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The earliest known as tool for use in computation was the abacus, developed in period 2700–2300 BCE [citation needed] in Sumer . The Sumerians' abacus consisted of a table of successive columns which delimited the [2] successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal number system. Its original style of usage was by lines drawn [citation needed] [3] in sand with pebbles . Abaci of a more modern design are still used as calculation tools today. The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to c. 100 BCE. Technological artifacts of similar [5] complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared inEurope. Mechanical analog computing devices appeared a thousand years later in the medieval Islamic world. Examples of [6] devices from this period include the equatorium by Arzachel, the mechanical geared astrolabe by Abū Rayhān al[7] [8] Bīrūnī, and the torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah. Muslim engineers built a number of automata, including some musical automata that could be 'programmed' to play different musical patterns. These devices were developed by [9] [10] the Banū Mūsā brothers and Al-Jazari Muslim mathematicians also made important advances in cryptography, [11] such as the development of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis by Alkindus. When John Napier discovered logarithms for computational purposes in the early 17th century, there followed a period of considerable progress by inventors and scientists in making calculating tools. In 1623 Wilhelm Schickard designed a calculating machine, but abandoned the project, when the prototype he had started building [citation needed] was destroyed by a fire in 1624 . Around 1640, Blaise Pascal, a leading French mathematician, [12] constructed the first mechanical adding device based on a design described by Greek mathematician Hero of [13] [14] Alexandria. Then in 1672 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz invented the Stepped Reckoner which he completed in 1694. In 1837 Charles Babbage first described his Analytical Engine which is accepted as the first design for a modern computer. The analytical engine had expandable memory, an arithmetic unit, and logic processing capabilities able to interpret a programming language with loops and conditional branching. Although never built, the design has been studied extensively and is understood to beTuring complete. The analytical engine would have had a memory [citation needed] capacity of less than 1 kilobyte of memory and a clock speed of less than 10 Hertz . Considerable advancement in mathematics and electronics theory was required before the first modern computers [citation needed] could be designed .

[citation needed] [4]

**Binary logic[edit]
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In 1703, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz developed logic in a formal, mathematical sense with his writings on the binary numeral system. In his system, the ones and zeros also represent true andfalse values or on and off states. But it took more than a century before George Boole published his Boolean algebra in 1854 with a complete system that [citation needed] allowed computational processes to be mathematically modeled . By this time, the first mechanical devices driven by a binary pattern had been invented. The industrial revolution had driven forward the mechanization of many tasks, and this included weaving.Punched cards controlled Joseph Marie Jacquard's loom in 1801, where a hole punched in the card indicated a binary one and an unpunched spot indicated

which had the ability to compute Bernoulli‘s numbers. the expression computing machine referred to any machine that performed the work of a human computer. They used machinery that [citation represented continuous numeric quantities. The phrase computing machine gradually gave away. This means that one operation would be carried out before another in such a way that the machine would produce an answer and not fail. was able to do anything that could be described "purely mechanical. See also: Philosophy of physics. Philosophy of mathematics. Lovelace‘s work with Babbage resulted in her prediction of future computers to not only perform mathematical calculations. Babbage had devised a plan to develop a machine that could use punched cards to perform arithmetical operations. but it did illustrate that machines could be driven by [citation needed] binary systems . a result of the mathematically heavy tutoring regimen her mother assigned to her as a young girl. is a hypothetical device theorized in order to study the properties [citation needed] of such hardware . after the late 1940s. in contrast to analog. and they were known to have a degree in calculus. created by Alan Turing. Philosophy of language. By the 1830s. The thesis states that a mathematical method is effective if it could be set out as a list of instructions able to be followed by a human clerk [citation needed] with paper and pencil. They were usually under the lead of a physicist. While she was never able to see the results of her work. Philosophy of biology. Babbage designed a calculator to compute numbers up to 8 decimal points long. Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada Byron) is credited as the pioneer of computer programming and is regarded as a mathematical genius. Lovelace began working with Charles Babbage as an assistant while Babbage was working on his ―Analytical Engine‖. based on digital equipment. as the ―Analytical Engine‖ [16] was not created in her lifetime. During her work with Babbage. Babbage worked to develop a machine that could compute numbers with up to 20 decimal places. especially those in accordance with effective methods of the Church-Turing thesis. Since the values stored by digital machines were not bound to physical properties like analog devices. a logical computer. to just computer as the onset of electronic digital machinery became common. mathematical or not. Putting this into reality. her efforts in later years. Birth of computer[edit] Before the 1920s. Moreover. [citation needed] Some performed astronomical calculations for calendars . Digital machinery. Ada Lovelace became the designer of the first computer algorithm. After the 1920s. government. like the angle of a shaft rotation or difference in electrical potential needed] . but also manipulate symbols. Most of these computers were women.a binary zero. Babbage had a vision of mechanically computing numbers and tables. Many thousands of computers were employed in commerce. beginning in the 1940s. the first mechanical computer. [citation needed] Digital machinery used difference engines or relays before the invention of faster memory devices . which was the first true representation of what is the modern computer. Machines that computed with continuous values became known as the analog kind. Jacquard's loom was far from being a computer. for as long as necessary. Continuing with the success of this idea. Beginning in the 1810s. and research establishments. These computers were able to perform the calculations that were performed by [citation needed] the previous human clerks ." The theoretical Turing Machine. This machine was [15] to be known as the ―Analytical Engine‖. . and without ingenuity or insight . The machine would store numbers in memory units. and there would be a form of sequential control. computers (sometimes computors) were human clerks that performed computations. and Philosophy of mind Emergence of a discipline[edit] Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace[edit] Charles Babbage is often regarded as one of the first pioneers of computing. were able to render a state of a numeric value and store each individual digit. did not go unnoticed.

he showed that there were limits to what could be proved and disproved within a formal system. a hypothesis about the nature of mechanical calculation devices. state B. to determine the outcome of the algorithm. Plankalkül. the computation would produce TRUE if the number were even and FALSE if the number were odd.Alan Turing and the Turing Machine[edit] The mathematical foundations of modern computer science began to be laid by Kurt Gödel with his incompleteness theorem (1931). functions can be computable when determining TRUE or FALSE for any given parameters. such as "AND. such as electronic computers. In 1937. Turing concluded that as long as a Turing machine exists that could compute a precise approximation of the number. with limits on what can be computed. Turing machines are state machines. but mathematical ones. [17] and IF-THEN-ELSE" to determine if a function is computable. "We are trying to build a machine to do [citation needed] all kinds of different things simply by programming rather than by the addition of extra apparatus" . mathematically. He founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941. that contain logic similar to: if the machine is in state A and a 0 is read in. NOT. The thesis claims that any calculation that is possible can be performed by an algorithm running on a computer. provided that sufficient time and storage space are [citation needed] available . In 1946. Turing machines are not physical objects. Zuse suggested the [citation needed] concept of a computation-based universe in his book Rechnender Raum (Calculating Space) . The rules that the machines must follow are considered the program. Using these specifications. Memory in modern computers is represented by the infinite tape. usually in the form of tables. 1936 was a key year for computer science. As the read/write head of the machine scans in the subsequent value in the cell. This does include constants such as pi. In 1941. Each cell contains a binary digit. considered the first process-controlled computer. At a symposium on large-scale digital machinery in Cambridge. These topics are covered by what is now called the Church–Turing thesis. he designed the first high-levelprogramming language. XOR. it uses this value to determine what state to transition to next. that value was computable. Alan Turing and Alonzo Church independently. say. Furthermore. Zuse was also noted for the S2 computing machine. Turing focused heavily on designing a machine that could determine what can be computed. and also together. . Turing machines can determine if a function is computable and terminate if said function is computable. which became the world's first commercial [18] computer. One example of this would be a function ―IsEven‖. introduced the formalization of an algorithm. If this function were passed a number. and the bus [17] of the machine is represented by the read/write head. 1 or 0. the machine is going to go to the next state. They show if and how any given algorithm can be computed. a theoretical onedimensional tape is said to be divided into an infinite number of cells. producing the Z4. State machines use various states. To accomplish this. or graph positions. OR. Furthermore. including [citation needed] concepts such as mu-recursive functions andlambda-definable functions . These Turing machines were designed to formally determine. described what became known as the Universal Turing machine. where a state represents a position in a graph. taking into account [17] limitations on computing ability. and continued to design computers [citation needed] and software through the 1940s until his untimely death in 1954 . Turing said. the Z3. and. He contributed greatly to British code-breaking successes in the Second World War. anticipating the modern stored program computer. This led to work by Gödel and others to define and describe these formal systems. the machine follows an input of rules. In 1969. Turing machines can interpret logic operators. If a Turing machine can complete the task. what can be computed. and a "purely mechanical" model [citation needed] for computing . To accomplish this. In this theorem. These Turing machines helped define the logic behind modern computer science. Turing is so important to computer science that his name is also featured on the Turing Award and the Turing test. Konrad Zuse developed the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer. it is considered Turing computable. Alan Turing introduced his idea of what are now referred to as Turing Machines.

In von Neumann machine design. Wiener also compared computation. conditional branches (these are more commonly seen now as ―if‖ statements or ―while‖ loops. electrical engineers were able to build electronic circuits to solve mathematical and logic problems. A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits. Shannon and information theory[edit] Up to and during the 1930s. John von Neumann and the von Neumann Architecture[edit] In 1946. and memory. computing machinery. had been [citation needed] built . The von Neumann Architecture was considered innovative as it introduced an idea of allowing machine instructions and data to share memory space. a future rear admiral in the U. Shannon went on to found the field of information theory with his 1948 paper titled A Mathematical Theory of Communication. 1947 when operators filed this 'incident' — along with [citation needed] the insect and the notation "First actual case of bug being found" (see software bug for details) . the IPU passes addresses to memory. in turn. a move from the accumulator to memory or vice versa. This concept. The first actual computer bug was a moth. most other accounts conflict at least with these details. Britain's National Physical Laboratory completed Pilot ACE. is the basic concept that underlies all electronic digital computers. multiplication and division).S. memory devices. Von Neumann architecture accepts fractions and instructions as data types.. and logical moves between the different components of the machine. and [citation needed] other cognitive similarities with his analysis of brain waves ." He published "Cybernetics" in 1948. This work is one of the theoretical foundations for many areas of study. who supposedly logged the "bug" on September 9. a model for computer architecture was introduced and became known as von Neumann Architecture. Shannon had been exposed to Boole's work. With von Neumann architecture.[1] While the invention of the term 'bug' is often but erroneously attributed to Grace Hopper. Von Neumann‘s machine design uses a RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) architecture. Operations can be carried out as simple arithmetic (these are performed by the ALU and include addition. its register management is also simple. i.e. The . a small scale programmable computer. Norbert Wiener coined the term cybernetics from the Greek word for "steersman. but most did so in an ad hoc manner. lacking any theoretical rigor. main memory along with the accumulator (the [20] register that holds the result of logical operations) are the two memories that are addressed.In 1948. (This is in contrast to CISC. the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). is routed either back to the IPU if an instruction is being fetched or to the ALU if data is being [19] fetched. The von Neumann model is composed of 3 major parts. subtraction. It was stuck in between the relays on the Harvard Mark II. and his thesis became the foundation of practical digital circuit design when it became widely [citation needed] known among the electrical engineering community during and after World War II . Since 1950. instruction sets which have more instructions from which to choose. and recognized that it could be used to arrange electromechanical relays (then used in telephone routing switches) to solve logic problems. Wiener and Cybernetics[edit] From experiments with anti-aircraft systems that interpreted radar images to detect enemy planes. as the von Neumann architecture is a simple one. the von Neumann model provided uniformity in subsequent computer designs. The branches serve as ‗go to‘ statements). including data [citation needed] compression and cryptography . This changed with Claude Elwood Shannon's publication of his 1937 master's thesis. In 1950. and the instruction processing unit (IPU). the first practical computer that could run stored programs. complex instruction set computing. 1945. which means the instruction set uses a total of 21 instructions to perform all tasks. According to these accounts. which influenced artificial intelligence. Finally. While taking an undergraduate philosophy class. which applied probability theory to the problem of how to best encode the information a sender wants to transmit. of utilizing the properties of electrical switches to do logic. based on the Turing machine model. the actual date was September 9. Navy.the Manchester Baby . the memory. operations and data types comprise this instruction set. based [citation needed] on Turing's philosophy .) Addresses.

. Jump up^ History of Computing Science: The First Mechanical Calculator 14. USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tomash Publishers. 6. The Code Book. 2006).architecture uses a set of seven registers to manipulate and interpret fetched data and instructions. Germany: Pappenheim. (1992). Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering".20.. Mechanism and Machine Theory (Elsevier) 36 (5): 589–603. Retrieved 2013-06-25. Jump up^ Short history of the computer 13. Die Rechenmaschinen und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Jump up^ Koetsier. pp. "Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Jump up^ "Islam. University of Sheffield 11. Jump up^ Hassan. Teun (2001).38-42. Retrieved 2008-01-22.1600-0498. Retrieved 2007-07-01 5. Ahmad Y. doi:10. P. Jump up^ A 13th Century Programmable Robot.1038/444534a PMID 17136067. the origins of computer science words Computer Museum Notes[edit] 1. The Calculating Machines: Their history and development. R. Jump up^ Simon Singh. Jump up^ In search of lost time.1976. Nature 444. 534– 538. Ernst (1925). p.1111/j.. Jump up^ History of Computer Science Jump up^ Ifrah 2001:11 Jump up^ Bellos. 10." The architecture also uses a program counter (PC) to keep [19] track of where in the program the machine is. 4. Peggy Aldritch. University of Southern California. (1976). and MDR (memory data register). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata. "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum".. Alex. 9. Michael R. looms. Jump up^ Kidwell. Jump up^ The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. See also[edit] History of computing History of computing hardware History of software Timeline of algorithms List of prominent pioneers in computer science List of computer term etymologies. "Abacus adds up to number joy in Japan". 2. translated and edited from Martin.. IBR (instruction buffer register). Williams. #7119 (November 30. MQ (multiplier quotient register).tb00214. calculators". 14-20 12. and Science". Retrieved 2008-01-22 7. Jump up^ Lorch.x. Centaurus 20 (1): 11–34. 8. Bibcode:1976Cent. .1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2. 3. Knowledge.. These registers include the "IR (instruction register). doi:10. pp. MAR (memory [19] address register).11L. Jo Marchant. doi:10.

^ Jump up to:a b c Cragon. Jump up^ "Charles Babbage".huffingtonpost. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.edu/archives/win2012/entries/turing-machine/>. and 1980s Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. 1960s. (2000). Retrieved 2013-02-20. http://www.com/2012/12/10/google-doodle-ada-lovelace_n_2270668. "Ada Lovelace. and archive historical computer software and manuals from minicomputers and mainframes of the 1950s. 1970s. Sources[edit] Ifrah. [<http://plato. World's First Computer Programmer. ISBN 0-471-39671-0 Further reading[edit] Alan Turing A Very Brief History of Computer Science Computer History Museum Computers: From the Past to the Present The First "Computer Bug" at the Online Library of the Naval Historical Center. 17. Encyclopedia Britannica In. retrieved February 28. ISBN 0521651689. Betsy. "History of Computer Science . an effort to capture. Retrieved 2013-02-20. Jump up^ Talk given by Horst Zuse to the Computer Conservation Society at the Science Museum (London) on 18 November 2010 19. Harvey G.15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. 16. Georges (2001). pp. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer . David. Jump up^ Isaacson. "Turing Machines"]. ^ Jump up to:a b c Barker-Plummer. 20. 1–13. Computer Architecture and Implementation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 2013-02-20.stanford. Oxford Dictionaries. 18. Celebrated With Google Doodle". Jump up^ "Accumlator" Def. salvage. Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. 2006 Bitsavers. The Huffington Post.html.

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