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# Seismic hazard refers to the study of expected earthquake ground motions at the earth's surface, and its likely

effects on existing natural conditions and man-made structures for public safetyconsiderations; the results of such studies are published as seismic hazard maps, which identify the relative motion of different areas on a local, regional or national basis.[1] With hazards thus determined,their risks are assessed and included in such areas as building codes for standard buildings, designing larger buildings and infrastructure projects, land use planning and determining insurance rates. The seismic hazard studies also may generate two standard measures of anticipated ground motion, both confusingly abbreviated MCE; the simpler probabilistic Maximum Considered Earthquake (or Event[2] ), used in standard building codes, and the more detailed and deterministic Maximum Credible Earthquake incorporated in the design of larger buildings and civil infrastructure like dams or bridges. It is important to clarify which MCE is being discussed.[3]

Seismic risk refers to the risk of damage from earthquake to a building, system, or other entity. Seismic risk has been defined, for most management purposes, as the potential economic, social and environmental consequences of hazardous events that may occur in a specified period of time. [1] A building located in a region of high seismic hazard is at lower risk if it is built to sound seismic engineering principles.

Seismicity indicates the frequency and force of earthquakes and represents a physical characteristic of an area. If we know the frequency and the energy of the earthquakes that characterise a certain area and we attribute a value to the probability of a seismic event of a given magnitude occurring in a certain interval of time, we can calculate the seismic hazard. The greater the seismic hazard, the more probability there is of an earthquake occurring of great magnitude in the same interval of time.

The consequences of an earthquake also depend on the resistance of buildings to the effects of a seismic tremor. A building’s potential for damage is called vulnerability. The more vulnerable a building is (due to its type, inadequate design, poor quality materials and construction methods, lack of maintenance), the greater the consequences will be. Finally, the number of assets exposed to risk, the possibility in other words of damage in economic terms, to cultural heritage or the loss of human lives, is called exposure.

Seismic risk, determined by the combination of hazard, vulnerability and exposure, is the measurement of the damage expected in a given interval of time, based on the type of seismicity, the resistance of buildings and anthropisation (nature, quality and quantity of assets exposed).

The energy with which an earthquake affects a location depends on the running distance. The attenuation in the signal of ground motion intensity plays an important role in the assessment of possible strong groundshaking. A seismic wave loses energy as it propagates through the earth

There are two types of dissipated energy: geometric dispersion caused by distribution of the seismic energy to greater volumes dispersion as heat . This phenomenon is tied in to the dispersion of the seismic energy with the distance.(attenuation).