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EXPERIMENT 1

TENSILE TESTING (UNIVERSAL TESTER)
MATERIALS LABORATORY
MEMB311
DATE PERFORMED: 23RD AUGUST, 2005
DATE DUE: 6TH SEPTEMBER, 2005
SEMESTER 1, 2005/2006
REPORT BY:
ZAHANA NAIDI
ME072962
SECTION 1
GROUP NUMBER 2
GROUP MEMBERS:
LEE TAI YEAN
FAIZURA MD JUSOH
BAKHTIAR SAFFUAN
MOHD HATTA MAHFULZ
LAB INSTRUCTOR:

ME071905
ME071902
ME072087
ME073468

SITI ZUBAIDAH OTHMAN
TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

SUMMARY/ABSTRACT

3

OBJECTIVE

3

THEORY

4

EQUIPEMENT/DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL

7

APPARATUS
PROCEDURE

11

DATA & OBESERVATIONS

12

ANALYSIS & RESULTS

14

DISCUSSIONS

20

CONCLUSIONS

22

REFERENCES

22

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The stress and strain values are then calculated using these values. The equipment used is WP 300 and the specimens are Aluminium and Brass. Several formulas for modulus of elasticity.  To understand the principles of tensile testing.2%). The experimental procedures are then followed. tensile and yield strength are obtained. elongation at fracture. engineering strain and elongation at fracture are introduced here. Graphs of load against elongation are drawn and also the stress-strain diagrams for both specimens. It is from these graphs that the mechanical properties such as E modulus. Readings of elongation and its corresponding force are taken and tabulated. This may be due to several errors as discussed further below. It is to verify the StressStrain relationship of materials hence to determine some mechanical properties of the materials. engineering stress. THEORY 3 . tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (offset at 0. Values obtained showed quite a large percentage errors from the theoretical values. The properties of the equipment are first learned and the specimens’ specifications are noted down. OBJECTIVE  To determine the stress-strain relationship for several materials and to obtain approximate values for the elongation at fracture.SUMMARY/ABSTRACT This experiment is known as Tensile Test (Universal Tester).

a mono-axial stress is generated in a material sample. In the tensile test itself.a) Fundamental Principles of the Tensile Test The tensile test is the best known test in material testing. There is then an even distribution of direct stress in the test cross-section of the sample. (Figure 1) In order to determine the strength of the material. Further more. It determines tensile strength. This stress is included via external loading of the sample in a longitudinal direction via a tensile force. The maximum test force occurring is a measurement of the strength of the material. one of the most important properties of material. A refers to the change in length of the sample compared with its original length. the cross-section of the sample is reduced – it is constricted and the actual stresses are considerably higher. The so-called tensile strength. A0 of the sample:RM = FB A0 The simplest way to of determining the maximum test force is via the maximum pointer on the force display. it is also possible to determine elongation at fracture as a toughness measurement of the material. In the tensile test. LU of the sample after fracture:- 4 . R M is calculated from the maximum test force. The elongation at fracture. FB and the initial cross-section area. L0 (Figure 2) and is calculated using the length. loading of the sample is slowly and continuously increased until it fails.

the material becomes continuously plastically deformed. interesting. it should not be loaded any further. In addition to tensile strength. Deformation remains when load is relieved. ε is proportional to stress. One particular important parameter from technical point of view is the yield point. After fracture. RE. this is particularly the material conforms to Hooke’s Law with the Modulus of Elasticity.A= LU − L0 × 100% L0 In order to measure the lengths. RP Beneath limit. From this point onwards. R M. two measuring marks are applied to the test bar. b) Fundamental Principles of Stress-Strain Diagram The stress-strain diagram (Figure 3) shows the different behaviour of the individual materials particularly clearly. 5 . two ends of the sample are placed together neatly at the fracture point and the distance between the two measuring marks is measured. σ:E= σ ε When this stress is exceeded. To safeguard the function of the component. E: Strain. the limit proportionality. Important material data can be read from the stressstrain diagram. deformation is no longer proportional to the load. Each material has a characteristic pattern of stress and strain.

With some materials. the characteristic remain unaltered. In this case. the load extension diagram may be drawn directly for pre-determined sample dimensions. the material has a permanent elongation of 0. In the aluminium alloy. The tempered steel is far tougher but still has a high strength. the stress-strain curve rises less steeply in the elastic zone than the other steel materials because of the lower modulus of elasticity. In such a case. The hardened steel ruptures virtually without plastic deformation but has a very high tensile strength. The sample is elongated without the load being increased further. there is pronounced creeping in the transition to plastic behaviour. The soft annealed steel has a very high elongation but a low tensile strength. such as annealed soft steel. soft steel (3) and an aluminium alloy (4). pronounced creeping occurs from the yield onwards. but the time-consuming conversion of measurements into strain and stress is unnecessary. The diagram (Figure 4) shows the curves of hardened steel (1). The stress-strain diagram (Figure 5) is produced from the values for force and the elongation recorded during the tensile test.2 is specified. 6 . In materials without pronounced creeping.2% which remains after relief of the load. σ= F A0 and ε= LU − L0 L0 Alternatively. In such a case. tempered steel (2). the proof stress R p0.

Due to its clear. Elongation of the sample is recorded via a dial gauge. the unit does not require any external connections. EQUIPMENT/DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS Technical description of the Equipment The WP 300 material testing device is a robust unit designed specifically for technical instruction and is one of the classical materials testing device in materials science. The flexible design of the unit permits a wide range of different tests requiring tensile or compressive force.5 after the material begins to deform plastically. easily legible display instrument with a trailing pointer. The test force is generated via a manually actuated hydraulic system and displayed via a large.3 in the elastic region and about 0. This means that the test unit can be quickly refitted for various tests. The basic unit (Figure 6) is essentially consists of the following elements: 7 . simple layout. Basic In its basic form. the unit is ideally suited for both students’ experiments and for demonstrations. All accessories are screwed to the cross-members. Its compact dimensions and relatively low weight permit mobile use and erection on all common laboratory benches.Poisson’s Ration Poisson’s ration is defined as ν = − Where εx εz εx = the strain perpendicular to the tensile axis εz = the longitudinal strain In general υ increases during the run. starting about 0.

(Figure 8) 8 . (Figure 7) Support The posts (1) and cross-head (2) form fixed support of the test unit. The various fixed sample receptacles are fastened to the cross-head. The mobile load frame is also mounted on its lowfriction linear ball bearings.- Machine base (1) with handgrip (2) - Support with cross-head (2) - Load frame with upper (3) and lower cross-member (4) - Hydraulic system consisting of a main cylinder (5) and a master cylinder with hand wheel (6) - Force display (7) - Elongation display via a dial gauge (8) - Gripping heads (9) with sample (10) Machine Base The rigid machine base made of cast iron forms the foundation and ensures stability of the test unit in connection with 4 rubber feet. The machine base supports the hydraulics and the frame.

(Figure 9) Hydraulic System The test force is generated by hydraulic means. A piston in the master cylinder (2) actuated via the hand wheel (1) and the threaded spindle creates a hydrostatic pressure which induces the test force in the main cylinder (3). The load frame transmits the test force from the hydraulic main cylinder to the relevant sample. this would correspond to a manual force of 1 N per 1. Tensile samples are clamped between the upper cross-member and the cross-head. The large display with a diameter of 160 mm facilitates precise reading. The load frame is slide-mounted in the cross-head of the support. It measures the hydrostatic pressure in the hydraulic system.Load Frame The load frame consists of the upper (1) and lower cross-member (2) and the guide rod (3). The full stroke of the main cylinder of 45 mm requires 83 revolutions of the hand wheel. The hydraulic transmission ratio is 2.3 kN test force. Excluding friction losses. A maximum pointer stores the 9 .77:1. whilst the mechanical transmission ratio hand wheel/spindle is 503:1. (Figure 10) Force Display & Elongation Measurement The force measuring device operates according to the manometer principle. whilst compressive samples are clamped between the lower cross-member and the cross-head.

flat compression pads can easily be inserted in the cross-head and cross-member and are held by nut. The theoretical Modulus of Elasticity for Aluminium is 70 GPa and Brass is 105 GPa. In addition. The elongation is measured via an adjustable mounted dial gauge. (Figure 11) Gripping Heads The gripping heads are designed for tensile samples with an M10 threaded head. (Figure 12) Specimens used are Aluminium and Brass.maximum force. 10 . The dial gauge indicates the relative displacement between the upper cross-member and the cross-head.

the force will no longer increase. 11 .2 mm. • Read the force from the display every 0. Particularly with some material. • Set the maximum pointer on the force display to zero. • Set the rotating scale on the dial gauge to zero. • Remove the sample from the gripping heads. • It is important to avoid sudden. • Repeat the same procedures with the other specimen. • Application of the force should spread over a time interval of 5-10 minutes. • Twist back the hand wheel on the master cylinder as far as it will go and move the load frame down. • ATTENTION: Do not be startled. jerky force application. • Monitor the sample and note when constriction begins. From now on.PROCEDURE Adjust the dial gauge • Push the dial gauge upwards on the support bar until the tracer pin is touching the drive. • Read the maximum test force from the maximum pointer and make note of it. • Observe the dial gauge and the sample. fracture will occur with a loud bang. Experimental steps • Slowly and constantly loaded by rotating the hand wheel.1 mm and make note of it with the corresponding extension. From 1 mm extension the reading interval can be extended to 0. but instead will tend to decrease.

15 5.4 0.4 4.5 0.6 1.DATA & OBSERVATIONS Aluminium Diameter = 6.4 3.0 2.70 5.50 5.90 5.0 mm Elongation.55 4.40 12 .65 4. ΔL=LU-LO (mm) 0.0 mm LU = 38.2 0.4 2.25 4.8 3.70 5.10 5.6 3.50 5.8 0.2 1.8 4.85 5.9 1.1 0.80 2.50 mm L0 = 32.70 5.80 5.4 1.85 5.6 2.2 4.0 3.25 0.25 5.80 1.3 0.0 1.2 3.8 Force (kN) 0.6 0.0 4.80 5.80 5.7 0.70 4.70 5.6 4.2 2.8 2.65 5.60 5.00 5.85 5.40 5.75 3.

3 0.95 4.20 14. the rupture occurs without any noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation.25 9.0 1.0 mm LU = 33.4 5. aluminium shows more necking than Brass before it eventually fractured.1 0.3 mm Elongation.70 4.6 0.4 Force (kN) 1.10 15.2 5.9 1.25 3.4 0.50 mm LO = 32.50 Fractured Table 2: Elongations and corresponding forces for Brass During the experiment.90 6.5 0.10 4.8 0.40 Fractured Table 1: Elongations and corresponding forces for Aluminium Brass Diameter = 6.80 15. ANALYSIS & RESULTS 13 .20 2.6 5.7 0.8 5.2 0.2 1. whereas for Brass the necking was not so obvious and fractured suddenly after the maximum load is reached. ΔL=LU-LO (mm) 0.20 11.20 13. For brittle material such as Brass.5.0 5.20 14.

8 0.7 4 1 4.4 4. 9 0. 5 0.75 2 1. 1 Load (kN) 6 . 6 3. 8 2.Aluminium Load vs Elongation (Aluminium) 7 1. 2 2.1 5. 3 0 5.95 4.6 5.4 4.9 1.7 5. 8 4. 7 0. 2 4.8 Elongation (mm) Graph 1 14 5. 2 5 0.4 2. 4 2 0. 6 3 5.8 5.25 0. 6 5. 4 4 3.25 3.85 5.

56kPa 2 πd π × 0.2 10 9.5 0.25 6 4 3.0 mm. σ = 4F πd 2 At ΔL= 1. σ:σ= F .7 Elongation (mm) Graph 2 Sample calculation for Aluminium:To calculate the engineering stress. A0 Therefore.2 0.4 0.2 11. F=5.5 15.Brass Load vs Elongation (Brass) 18 Load (kN) 16 14 13.8 0.2 0 0.9 1 1.2 .3 0.0 kN σ = where A0 = πd 2 4 4F 4×5 = = 150679.1 14.0652 15 0.9 2 2.1 0.6 0.8 14.25 1.2 12 15.2 8 6.

97 150 679.88 128 077.17500 Table 3: Table of stress and strain for Aluminium 16 .10000 0.043750 0.06875 0.70 174 788.16 155 199.00 147 665.11875 0.52 168 761. σ (kPa) 7 533.15625 0.93 153 693.98 24 108.15000 0.028125 0.16 149 172.03125 LO LO 32mm Stress.64 82 873.93 165 747.031250 0.07500 0.018750 0.009375 0.95 158 213.16875 0.06250 0.003250 0.025000 0.56 153 693.021875 0.54 162 733.08125 0.13750 0.40 140 132.79 132 598.70 165 747.015625 0.77 141 638.29 176 295. ε (m/m) 0.91 171 774.09 171 774.03750 0.02 Strain.16250 0.05000 0.73 54 244.76 111 502.003125 0.11 170 267.To calculate the engineering strain.14375 0.012500 0.52 162 733. ε:- ε= LU − LO ∆L 1mm = = = 0.05625 0.63 137 118.

11 25 0.Graph of Stress against Strain (Aluminium) 200000 180000 168761. 06 25 0. F=15.56 140132 128077.88 100000 82873. 03 75 0 24108. 12 5 0.11 158213. σ:σ= F .10 kN σ = where A0 = πd 2 4 4F 4 × 15.00652 To calculate the engineering strain. 1 0.54 150679. 17 5 7533. 01 5 56 2 0.76 80000 60000 54244. 02 81 25 0. 15 0.52 153693. 07 5 0. 00 31 25 0. σ (kPa) 36 163.29kPa 2 πd π × 0.10 = = 455051.03125 LO LO 32mm Stress. 02 5 18 75 0.16 132598.64 40000 0. σ = 4F πd 2 At ΔL= 1.0 mm.63 Stress (kPa) 160000 140000 120000 174788.98 0.73 0. 00 93 7 0. 08 75 20000 Strain (m/m) Graph 3 Sample calculation for Brass:To calculate the engineering stress. 05 0. A0 Therefore. 16 25 0.003125 17 .09 165747.09 Strain. ε:- ε= LU − LO ∆L 1mm = = = 0.02 111502. ε (m/m) 0. 13 75 0.29 176295.

40 337 522.00 188349.00 446011.22 397 794.80 117 530.00 467106.40 250000. taking slopes at point 0.00 277250.028125 0.46 150000.015625 − .00 200000.0031 0.76 = 9161318.88 − 82873.05 Stress (kPa) 400000.0313 0.018750 0.015625 0.025 0.16GPa 0.003250 0.4 and 0.012500 0.0375 Strain (m/m) Graph 4 Aluminium:Modulus of Elasticity.09 50000.51 455 051.00 350000.031250 0.00 117530.67 805.0219 0.46 277 250.009375 0.65 0.5 mm elongation:- E= 111502.0125 0.021875 0.65 337522.00 0.29 467 106.4 KPa = 9.0125 18 .0281 0.51 427929.0156 0.80 36163.025000 0.96 397794.06 188 349.00 450000.06 100000.00 67805.96 446 011.0063 0.03750 Table 4: Table of Stress and Strain values for Brass Graph of Stress against Strain (Brass) 500000.22 300000.0094 0.0.0188 0.00 0.05 427 929.

Tensile strength (UTS) and Yield strength (offset at 0.5 mm elongation:- E= Therefore.3 − 32.5 MPa Brass:Modulus of Elasticity.9% 105 Elongation at Fracture:A= LU − L0 33.0 − 32.0125 %error = 105 − 28.11 MPa Yield strength = Undefined DISCUSSIONS The purpose of the experiment is to verify the stress-strain relationship for materials.4 −188349.0.0625% L0 32.45GPa 0.2%).015625 − .0 From stress-strain diagram (Graph 3):- Tensile strength = 176.0 × 100 = × 100 = 4.3 MPa Yield strength = 111.45 ×100 = 72. taking slopes at point 0.9% 70 Elongation at Fracture:A= LU − L0 38.46 = 28448300.0 × 100 = × 100 = 18.Therefore. hence to obtain approximately the values for the Elongation at fracture.16 ×100 = 86. 19 .4 and 0.0 From stress-strain diagram (Graph 4):- Tensile strength = 467. 277250.8 KPa = 28.75% L0 32. %error = 70 − 9.

From the graph the slope is obtained which is the Modulus of Elasticity. It can be said that it takes more force for Brass before it eventually breaks compared to Aluminium.45 GPa. The E modulus for Brass is calculated to be 28. As such the A L0 value for Aluminium is found to be 18. In Aluminium and Brass.11 MPa.75% and Brass to be 4. the material will start to deform permanently and is referred as plastic deformation.9% from its theoretical value of 105 GPa. From the experiment the results are tabulated and graphs are drawn using the values obtained. The Elongation of fracture is obtained by the formula A = LU − L0 × 100% . Beyond this region or the non-linear portion.The sample materials used in the experiments are Aluminium and Brass. a percentage error of 86. However this slope is taken at its elastic region where there is an initial straight line portion. the engineering stress is calculated using the formula σ = while the engineering strain is obtained by the formula ε = F . Hence from the graphs the tensile strength for Aluminium is 176. From the stress-strain diagram the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) can also be determined. Brass fractures at shorter elongation than Aluminium. This region is called the elastic region in where load is proportional to elongation. 20 . the Stress-Strain L0 graph for each specimen is then drawn. As load continues to increase until a maximum value where the material will fracture or rupture.9% from the theoretical value of 70 GPa. A0 LU − L0 .16 GPa. thus a deviation of 72.3 MPa and Brass is 467. the E modulus for Aluminium is found to be 9. From the values it is clear that Aluminium is more ductile than Brass or in other words Brass is more brittle than Aluminium.0625%. From the slope of the two graphs (refer to graph 3 and 4). It is the maximum test force before a material fractures.

causing inaccuracy. insertion is not uniform.The yield strength is determined by the 0. This improper screwing may have affected the results as the force applied would not spread uniformly throughout the specimen and concentrate only at the specimen’s thread instead. - Human error when reading the force value on the force measurement device and also readings from the dial gauge. There was no apparent point of where the material actually started to creep. - The specimen may not be screwed tightly into the gripping heads i. Hence the Modulus of Elasticity. However the yield strength for Brass cannot be defined due to indistinctive nature of the slope of its stress-strain diagram. E of Aluminium and Brass is obtained to be 21 . The large errors in E modulus may be caused by:- Manufacturing error. Therefore the values obtained did not agree well with the actual theoretical values. After analysis the yield strength for Aluminium is 111.5 MPa.2% offset on the stress-strain diagrams as well. CONCLUSIONS The Principles of Tensile Testing is clearly understood from this experiment.e. Graphs of Load against Elongation and Stress-Strain diagrams are drawn using the experimental results. the specimens used may not be of homogeneous material.

75% and Brass is 4. • Semester 1 2005/2006.Beer.0625%.16 GPa and 28. pp 1-7.11 MPa.9. Finally the yield strength for Aluminium is determined to be 111. Mechanics Of Materials. 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill. Tensile strength for Aluminium is obtained from the stress-strain diagram. Jr. 2004. Uniten. Elongation of fracture for Aluminium is 18. to be 176. John T. COE. MEMB311 Materials Laboratory Manual. 22 . showing that Aluminium is more ductile that Brass.3 MPa and for Brass 467.45 GPa respectively.DeWolf.Russell Johnston. E. 746. REFERENCES • Ferdinand P. pp 50-60..5 MPa while for Brass is unable to be defined.

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