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EXPERIMENT 1

TENSILE TESTING (UNIVERSAL TESTER)


MATERIALS LABORATORY
MEMB311
DATE PERFORMED: 23RD AUGUST, 2005
DATE DUE: 6TH SEPTEMBER, 2005
SEMESTER 1, 2005/2006
REPORT BY:
ZAHANA NAIDI
ME072962
SECTION 1
GROUP NUMBER 2
GROUP MEMBERS:
LEE TAI YEAN
FAIZURA MD JUSOH
BAKHTIAR SAFFUAN
MOHD HATTA MAHFULZ
LAB INSTRUCTOR:

ME071905
ME071902
ME072087
ME073468

SITI ZUBAIDAH OTHMAN


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

SUMMARY/ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

THEORY

EQUIPEMENT/DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL

APPARATUS
PROCEDURE

11

DATA & OBESERVATIONS

12

ANALYSIS & RESULTS

14

DISCUSSIONS

20

CONCLUSIONS

22

REFERENCES

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SUMMARY/ABSTRACT
This experiment is known as Tensile Test (Universal Tester). It is to verify the StressStrain relationship of materials hence to determine some mechanical properties of the
materials.
The equipment used is WP 300 and the specimens are Aluminium and Brass. The
properties of the equipment are first learned and the specimens specifications are noted
down. Several formulas for modulus of elasticity, engineering stress, engineering strain
and elongation at fracture are introduced here.
The experimental procedures are then followed. Readings of elongation and its
corresponding force are taken and tabulated. The stress and strain values are then
calculated using these values. Graphs of load against elongation are drawn and also the
stress-strain diagrams for both specimens. It is from these graphs that the mechanical
properties such as E modulus, elongation at fracture, tensile and yield strength are
obtained.
Values obtained showed quite a large percentage errors from the theoretical values. This
may be due to several errors as discussed further below.

OBJECTIVE
To determine the stress-strain relationship for several materials and to obtain
approximate values for the elongation at fracture, tensile strength (UTS) and yield
strength (offset at 0.2%).
To understand the principles of tensile testing.

THEORY

a) Fundamental Principles of the Tensile Test


The tensile test is the best known test in material
testing. It determines tensile strength, one of the
most important properties of material. Further more,
it is also possible to determine elongation at fracture
as a toughness measurement of the material.
In the tensile test, a mono-axial stress is generated
in a material sample. This stress is included via
external loading of the sample in a longitudinal
direction via a tensile force. There is then an even
distribution of direct stress in the test cross-section
of the sample. (Figure 1)
In order to determine the strength of the material, loading of the sample is slowly and
continuously increased until it fails. The maximum test force occurring is a
measurement of the strength of the material. The so-called tensile strength, R M is
calculated from the maximum test force, FB and the initial cross-section area, A0 of
the sample:RM =

FB
A0

The simplest way to of determining the maximum test force is via the maximum
pointer on the force display. In the tensile test itself, the cross-section of the sample is
reduced it is constricted and the actual stresses are considerably higher.
The elongation at fracture, A refers to the change in length of the sample compared
with its original length, L0 (Figure 2) and is calculated using the length, LU of the
sample after fracture:-

A=

LU L0
100%
L0

In order to measure the lengths, two measuring marks are applied to the test bar. After
fracture, two ends of the sample are placed together neatly at the fracture point and
the distance between the two measuring marks is measured.
b) Fundamental Principles of Stress-Strain Diagram
The stress-strain diagram (Figure 3) shows the
different behaviour of the individual materials
particularly

clearly.

Each

material

has

characteristic pattern of stress and strain.


Important material data can be read from the stressstrain diagram. In addition to tensile strength, R M,
the

limit

proportionality,

RP

Beneath

limit,

interesting.

this

is

particularly
the

material

conforms to Hookes Law with the Modulus of


Elasticity, E: Strain, is proportional to stress, :E=

When this stress is exceeded, deformation is no longer proportional to the load.


One particular important parameter from technical point of view is the yield point, RE.
From this point onwards, the material becomes continuously plastically deformed.
Deformation remains when load is relieved. To safeguard the function of the
component, it should not be loaded any further.

With some materials, such as annealed soft steel, pronounced creeping occurs from
the yield onwards. The sample is elongated without the load being increased further.
In materials without pronounced creeping, the proof stress R p0.2 is specified. In such a
case, the material has a permanent elongation of 0.2% which remains after relief of
the load.

The diagram (Figure 4) shows the curves of hardened steel (1), tempered steel (2),
soft steel (3) and an aluminium alloy (4).
The hardened steel ruptures virtually without plastic
deformation but has a very high tensile strength.
The tempered steel is far tougher but still has a high
strength. The soft annealed steel has a very high
elongation but a low tensile strength. In this case,
there is pronounced creeping in the transition to
plastic behaviour. In the aluminium alloy, the
stress-strain curve rises less steeply in the elastic
zone than the other steel materials because of the
lower modulus of elasticity.
The stress-strain diagram (Figure 5) is produced from the values for force and the
elongation recorded during the tensile test.
=

F
A0

and

LU L0
L0

Alternatively, the load extension diagram may be


drawn

directly

for

pre-determined

sample

dimensions. In such a case, the characteristic remain


unaltered, but the time-consuming conversion of
measurements into strain and stress is unnecessary.

Poissons Ration
Poissons ration is defined as =
Where

x
z

x = the strain perpendicular to the tensile axis


z = the longitudinal strain

In general increases during the run, starting about 0.3 in the elastic region and about
0.5 after the material begins to deform plastically.

EQUIPMENT/DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS


Technical description of the Equipment
The WP 300 material testing device is a robust unit designed specifically for technical
instruction and is one of the classical materials testing device in materials science. The
flexible design of the unit permits a wide range of different tests requiring tensile or
compressive force. Due to its clear, simple layout, the unit is ideally suited for both
students experiments and for demonstrations. Its compact dimensions and relatively low
weight permit mobile use and erection on all common laboratory benches.
Basic
In its basic form, the unit does not require any
external connections. The test force is generated via
a manually actuated hydraulic system and displayed
via a large, easily legible display instrument with a
trailing pointer. Elongation of the sample is
recorded via a dial gauge. All accessories are
screwed to the cross-members. This means that the
test unit can be quickly refitted for various tests.
The basic unit (Figure 6) is essentially consists of
the following elements:

Machine base (1) with handgrip (2)

Support with cross-head (2)

Load frame with upper (3) and lower cross-member (4)

Hydraulic system consisting of a main cylinder (5) and a master cylinder with hand
wheel (6)

Force display (7)

Elongation display via a dial gauge (8)

Gripping heads (9) with sample (10)

Machine Base
The rigid machine base made of cast iron forms the
foundation and ensures stability of the test unit in
connection with 4 rubber feet. The machine base
supports the hydraulics and the frame. (Figure 7)

Support
The posts (1) and cross-head (2) form fixed support
of the test unit. The various fixed sample
receptacles are fastened to the cross-head. The
mobile load frame is also mounted on its lowfriction linear ball bearings. (Figure 8)

Load Frame
The load frame consists of the upper (1) and lower
cross-member (2) and the guide rod (3). The load
frame transmits the test force from the hydraulic
main cylinder to the relevant sample. The load
frame is slide-mounted in the cross-head of the
support. Tensile samples are clamped between the
upper cross-member and the cross-head, whilst
compressive samples are clamped between the
lower cross-member and the cross-head. (Figure 9)
Hydraulic System
The test force is generated by hydraulic means. A
piston in the master cylinder (2) actuated via the
hand wheel (1) and the threaded spindle creates a
hydrostatic pressure which induces the test force in
the main cylinder (3). The hydraulic transmission
ratio is 2.77:1, whilst the mechanical transmission
ratio hand wheel/spindle is 503:1. Excluding
friction losses, this would correspond to a manual
force of 1 N per 1.3 kN test force. The full stroke of
the main cylinder of 45 mm requires 83 revolutions
of the hand wheel. (Figure 10)
Force Display & Elongation Measurement
The force measuring device operates according to
the

manometer

principle.

It

measures

the

hydrostatic pressure in the hydraulic system. The


large display with a diameter of 160 mm facilitates
precise reading. A maximum pointer stores the

maximum force. The elongation is measured via an


adjustable mounted dial gauge. The dial gauge
indicates the relative displacement between the
upper cross-member and the cross-head. (Figure
11)
Gripping Heads
The gripping heads are designed for tensile samples
with an M10 threaded head. In addition, flat
compression pads can easily be inserted in the
cross-head and cross-member and are held by nut.
(Figure 12)

Specimens used are Aluminium and Brass. The theoretical Modulus of Elasticity for
Aluminium is 70 GPa and Brass is 105 GPa.

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PROCEDURE
Adjust the dial gauge

Push the dial gauge upwards on the support bar until the tracer pin is touching the
drive.

Set the rotating scale on the dial gauge to zero.

Set the maximum pointer on the force display to zero.

Experimental steps

Slowly and constantly loaded by rotating the hand wheel.

Application of the force should spread over a time interval of 5-10 minutes.

It is important to avoid sudden, jerky force application.

Observe the dial gauge and the sample.

Read the force from the display every 0.1 mm and make note of it with the
corresponding extension. From 1 mm extension the reading interval can be extended
to 0.2 mm.

Monitor the sample and note when constriction begins. From now on, the force will
no longer increase, but instead will tend to decrease.

ATTENTION: Do not be startled. Particularly with some material, fracture will occur
with a loud bang.

Read the maximum test force from the maximum pointer and make note of it.

Remove the sample from the gripping heads.

Twist back the hand wheel on the master cylinder as far as it will go and move the
load frame down.

Repeat the same procedures with the other specimen.

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DATA & OBSERVATIONS


Aluminium
Diameter

= 6.50 mm

L0

= 32.0 mm

LU

= 38.0 mm
Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8

Force (kN)
0.25
0.80
1.80
2.75
3.70
4.25
4.55
4.65
4.90
5.00
5.10
5.15
5.25
5.40
5.50
5.60
5.65
5.70
5.70
5.70
5.80
5.80
5.80
5.85
5.85
5.85
5.70
5.50
5.40

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5.0
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8

5.10
4.95
4.70
4.40
Fractured

Table 1: Elongations and corresponding forces for Aluminium


Brass
Diameter

= 6.50 mm

LO

= 32.0 mm

LU

= 33.3 mm
Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4

Force (kN)
1.20
2.25
3.90
6.25
9.20
11.20
13.20
14.20
14.80
15.10
15.50
Fractured

Table 2: Elongations and corresponding forces for Brass


During the experiment, aluminium shows more necking than Brass before it eventually
fractured, whereas for Brass the necking was not so obvious and fractured suddenly after
the maximum load is reached. For brittle material such as Brass, the rupture occurs
without any noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation.

ANALYSIS & RESULTS

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Aluminium
Load vs Elongation (Aluminium)
7

1.
6

5.6

5.7

5.85

5.8

5.4
4.95
4.4

2.75

1.8

Elongation (mm)

Graph 1

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5.
6

5.
2

4.
8

4.
4

3.
6

3.
2

2.
8

2.
4

0.
9

0.
7

0.
5

0.8
0.25
0.
3

5.1

5.4

4.25
3.7

4.9

1.
2

0.
1

Load (kN)

Brass

Load vs Elongation (Brass)


18

Load (kN)

16
14

13.2

12

15.5

15.1

14.8

14.2

11.2

10

9.2

8
6.25

6
4

3.9

2.25

1.2

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Elongation (mm)

Graph 2
Sample calculation for Aluminium:To calculate the engineering stress, :=

F
,
A0

Therefore,

4F
d 2

At

L= 1.0 mm, F=5.0 kN

where A0 =

d 2
4

4F
45
=
= 150679.56kPa
2
d
0.0652

15

0.8

0.9

1.2

To calculate the engineering strain, :-

LU LO L
1mm
=
=
= 0.03125
LO
LO 32mm

Stress, (kPa)
7 533.98
24 108.73
54 244.64
82 873.76
111 502.88
128 077.63
137 118.40
140 132.00
147 665.97
150 679.56
153 693.16
155 199.95
158 213.54
162 733.93
165 747.52
168 761.11
170 267.91
171 774.70
174 788.29
176 295.09
171 774.70
165 747.52
162 733.93
153 693.16
149 172.77
141 638.79
132 598.02

Strain, (m/m)
0.003125
0.003250
0.009375
0.012500
0.015625
0.018750
0.021875
0.025000
0.028125
0.031250
0.03750
0.043750
0.05000
0.05625
0.06250
0.06875
0.07500
0.08125
0.10000
0.11875
0.13750
0.14375
0.15000
0.15625
0.16250
0.16875
0.17500

Table 3: Table of stress and strain for Aluminium

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Graph of Stress against Strain (Aluminium)


200000
180000

168761.11
158213.54
150679.56
140132
128077.63

Stress (kPa)

160000
140000
120000

174788.29 176295.09
165747.52
153693.16
132598.02

111502.88

100000

82873.76

80000
60000

54244.64

40000

0.
1
0.
11
25
0.
12
5
0.
13
75
0.
15
0.
16
25
0.
17
5

7533.98

0.
00
31
25
0.
00
93
7
0.
01 5
56
2
0.
02 5
18
75
0.
02
81
25
0.
03
75

24108.73

0.
05
0.
06
25
0.
07
5
0.
08
75

20000

Strain (m/m)
Graph 3
Sample calculation for Brass:To calculate the engineering stress, :=

F
,
A0

Therefore,

4F
d 2

At

L= 1.0 mm, F=15.10 kN

where A0 =

d 2
4

4F
4 15.10
=
= 455051.29kPa
2
d
0.00652

To calculate the engineering strain, :-

LU LO L
1mm
=
=
= 0.03125
LO
LO 32mm

Stress, (kPa)
36 163.09

Strain, (m/m)
0.003125
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67 805.80
117 530.06
188 349.46
277 250.40
337 522.22
397 794.05
427 929.96
446 011.51
455 051.29
467 106.65

0.003250
0.009375
0.012500
0.015625
0.018750
0.021875
0.025000
0.028125
0.031250
0.03750

Table 4: Table of Stress and Strain values for Brass

Graph of Stress against Strain (Brass)


500000.00
450000.00

446011.51
427929.96
397794.05

Stress (kPa)

400000.00
350000.00

467106.65

337522.22

300000.00

277250.40

250000.00
200000.00

188349.46

150000.00

117530.06

100000.00

67805.80
36163.09

50000.00
0.00

0.0031 0.0063 0.0094 0.0125 0.0156 0.0188 0.0219 0.025 0.0281 0.0313 0.0375

Strain (m/m)
Graph 4
Aluminium:Modulus of Elasticity, taking slopes at point 0.4 and 0.5 mm elongation:-

E=

111502.88 82873.76
= 9161318.4 KPa = 9.16GPa
0.015625 .0.0125

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Therefore,

%error =

70 9.16
100 = 86.9%
70

Elongation at Fracture:A=

LU L0
38.0 32.0
100 =
100 = 18.75%
L0
32.0

From stress-strain diagram (Graph 3):-

Tensile strength

= 176.3 MPa

Yield strength

= 111.5 MPa

Brass:Modulus of Elasticity, taking slopes at point 0.4 and 0.5 mm elongation:-

E=

Therefore,

277250.4 188349.46
= 28448300.8 KPa = 28.45GPa
0.015625 .0.0125

%error =

105 28.45
100 = 72.9%
105

Elongation at Fracture:A=

LU L0
33.3 32.0
100 =
100 = 4.0625%
L0
32.0

From stress-strain diagram (Graph 4):-

Tensile strength

= 467.11 MPa

Yield strength

= Undefined

DISCUSSIONS
The purpose of the experiment is to verify the stress-strain relationship for materials,
hence to obtain approximately the values for the Elongation at fracture, Tensile strength
(UTS) and Yield strength (offset at 0.2%).

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The sample materials used in the experiments are Aluminium and Brass. From the
experiment the results are tabulated and graphs are drawn using the values obtained. In
Aluminium and Brass, the engineering stress is calculated using the formula =

while the engineering strain is obtained by the formula =

F
,
A0

LU L0
, the Stress-Strain
L0

graph for each specimen is then drawn. From the graph the slope is obtained which is the
Modulus of Elasticity. However this slope is taken at its elastic region where there is an
initial straight line portion. This region is called the elastic region in where load is
proportional to elongation. Beyond this region or the non-linear portion, the material will
start to deform permanently and is referred as plastic deformation. As load continues to
increase until a maximum value where the material will fracture or rupture.
From the slope of the two graphs (refer to graph 3 and 4), the E modulus for Aluminium
is found to be 9.16 GPa, a percentage error of 86.9% from the theoretical value of 70
GPa. The E modulus for Brass is calculated to be 28.45 GPa, thus a deviation of 72.9%
from its theoretical value of 105 GPa.

The Elongation of fracture is obtained by the formula A =

LU L0
100% . As such the A
L0

value for Aluminium is found to be 18.75% and Brass to be 4.0625%. From the values it
is clear that Aluminium is more ductile than Brass or in other words Brass is more brittle
than Aluminium. Brass fractures at shorter elongation than Aluminium.

From the stress-strain diagram the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) can also be
determined. It is the maximum test force before a material fractures. Hence from the
graphs the tensile strength for Aluminium is 176.3 MPa and Brass is 467.11 MPa. It can
be said that it takes more force for Brass before it eventually breaks compared to
Aluminium.
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The yield strength is determined by the 0.2% offset on the stress-strain diagrams as well.
After analysis the yield strength for Aluminium is 111.5 MPa. However the yield strength
for Brass cannot be defined due to indistinctive nature of the slope of its stress-strain
diagram. There was no apparent point of where the material actually started to creep.
The large errors in E modulus may be caused by:-

Manufacturing error, the specimens used may not be of homogeneous material.


Therefore the values obtained did not agree well with the actual theoretical values.

Human error when reading the force value on the force measurement device and also
readings from the dial gauge, causing inaccuracy.

The specimen may not be screwed tightly into the gripping heads i.e. insertion is not
uniform. This improper screwing may have affected the results as the force applied
would not spread uniformly throughout the specimen and concentrate only at the
specimens thread instead.

CONCLUSIONS
The Principles of Tensile Testing is clearly understood from this experiment. Graphs of
Load against Elongation and Stress-Strain diagrams are drawn using the experimental
results. Hence the Modulus of Elasticity, E of Aluminium and Brass is obtained to be

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9.16 GPa and 28.45 GPa respectively. Elongation of fracture for Aluminium is 18.75%
and Brass is 4.0625%, showing that Aluminium is more ductile that Brass. Tensile
strength for Aluminium is obtained from the stress-strain diagram, to be 176.3 MPa and
for Brass 467.11 MPa. Finally the yield strength for Aluminium is determined to be 111.5
MPa while for Brass is unable to be defined.

REFERENCES

Ferdinand P.Beer, E.Russell Johnston, Jr., John T.DeWolf. 2004. Mechanics Of


Materials. 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill. pp 50-60, 746.

Semester 1 2005/2006. MEMB311 Materials Laboratory Manual. COE, Uniten.


pp 1-7.

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