The Career Guidance Manual

A step by step guide to planning and implementing a strategy for taking your career forward

The content of this manual is entirely free to use. All we ask is that if you do find it of benefit to you you consider making a contribution, whatever you wish, to the Philippines isaster !und Appeal "e would also like you to forward it to anyone who you feel may benefit from it.

Thank you and good luck in your career

#ntroduction This manual is designed as a step by step guide to planning a clear and well thought through caree strategy. Why is this important? Simply because we know from our 20 years in the industry, that many people spend more time planning their holidays, than planning their career! !ob hunting" is only part of the process. #t is a tremendous temptation to think in terms of #f # lose my $ob, #%ll contact recruitment agencies, apply for ad&ertised $obs and do a bit of networking." This may well work in the short term, but it%s effecti&eness as a process declines as time goes on. 'ou probably know of people who find it harder and harder to get back into gainful employment as they get beyond a certain age. 'ou may well ha&e been affected yourself! So what is the answer? The answer is to treat the career &ery much as you would treat a pro$ect at work. #t re(uires amongst other things planning, research, re&iew and implementation. )bo&e all it is &ital to produce a robust strategy that matches your abililities and skills with the best possible opportunities. *nce this has been done, then you can go into the tactical phase of $ob finding" This does not mean of course that you should turn down $ob offers if there is an immediate need to find gainful employment. Such $obs should be looked upon as stop loss" situations, be they short term consultancy pro$ects, temporary $obs or other &ariations on the theme. +owe&er we emphasise the point again, strategy first and then tactics. The process of building a career based on firm foundations starts with career planning. The career planning begins when you start to write about episodes in your life where you feel you ha&e achie&ed outcomes that ha&e been successful and also accomplished them easily. These achie&ement stories should be documented as shown in Appendi$ % When these ha&e been completed, take time to work through the other asignments

)lthough at first sight it may appear to be a bit of a chore to write aout ,0 achie&ement stories, the stories themsel&es do not ha&e to be all work related. #ndeed, -0. should be about leisure or hobby interests. #t may not appear rele&ant at first, but building a garden patio is $ust as rele&ant as building a business in this conte/t. 'ou use the same intrinsic abilities, whate&er task you undertake. We make the point again that career planning is about finding out what it is that we do well what our uni(ue combination of abilities skills and e/perience are and where best to sell them in the marketplace. What pre&ents many people from achie&ing as much as they should in their careers is that they are not as aware of their key abililities as they should be and more importantly how to e/ploit them to their full e/tent. This syndrome is often caused by the simple fact that what we do well is instincti&e and therefore we may not realise their significance. To better illustrate this point, consider this story about 0eorge 1ernard Shaw. +e was once asked what he had dreamed of being as a young man. +is answer was ) great 2/plorer or )d&enturer" +is (uestioner then asked him if he had not thought about being a writer at that age. The great man replied The writing came naturally, why should # ha&e thought about it?" What are your intrinsic abilities that you take for granted, but which may well be the starting point for a new and better career?

Therefore as the diagram in figure ,, below shows, the first e/ercise is to find out what you do best by guiding you through a career and personal &uestionnaire that enables you to establish your uni(ueness or in marketing terms 3ni(ue Selling 4oints. 'ou then go on to complete a personality profile. This is important because your personality profile is a guide to so many aspects of your ideal career. )s an e/ample, people who are e/tra&ert, ideas orientated, logical thinkers and $udgemental or 25T! need to be in control of their work situations and are often found in senior management positions. 6ontrast this with e/tra&ert, ideas orientated, a logical thinker and percepti&e or 25T4. )lthough only apparently slightly different i.e. 47percepti&e8 as opposed to !7$udgemental8 in their profile, they are &ery different people and need &ery different types of role in their careers and life to be truly fulfilled. 25T4s are happiest working in a world of ideas, such as an ad&ertising agency, whilst 25T!s are hea&ily command and achie&ement orientated.

This is not to say that they cannot achie&e in other roles, but generally speaking, the clearer you are about your profile, the more easily you will find the type of work you en$oy most. This is particularly important where 7as so many feel0 they are a fish out of water" in their current roles. 'ou will see as you read further that we recommend a particular personality profile test which can easily be found on the internet. 'ou will also be able to access a detailed description of your personality profile by looking it up, again on the search engines.

!igure %

9ore about completing the achie&ement stories )s we ha&e said, go to Appendi$ % to start The first task is ob&iously to sit down and list the headings. #f you ha&e difficulty in thinking of ,0 episodes in your life that you would consider achie&ements, then ask someone who knows you well to prompt you. *nce again, although at first sight this may appear to be an onerous e/ercise, if you perse&ere and carry it through to its conclusion you will find it is one of the most liberating and fulfilling e/ercises you can undertake, particularly if you are not in work and ha&e suffered re$ection

from $ob applications. The format for writing the achie&ement stories, is to think of the situation you faced i.e. the problem you had to o&ercome or the opportunity you were presented with, how you went about tackling the situation, and what was the end result.

The key to getting as much out of this e/ercise as possible is to use all the action words that you can possibly think of. :o not be modest! )lso bear in mind that you should describe the actions you took in as much detail as possible. This will enable you to really dig deep and gain much clearer understanding of the type of work that you do best, and &ery importantly how you go about bringing things to a satisfactory conclusion. To help you in this task, you can go to the search engines and type in list of action &erbs" 'ou will find a number of sites where you can get ideas and in some cases download a full list of &erbs in alphabetical order. *nce you ha&e completed this task and are happy with it, it is time to use the results to gain that clearer understanding of your abilities. 'our ne/t assignments are listed in Appendi$ ' and should be followed step;by;step. Assignment ' commences by asking you to identify the key action words you use and their fre(uency 7< to =8 per story. The purpose of this e/ercise is to help you identify the type of role>$ob you en$oy and do well. Why is this so important? Simply because, unless we are doing the kind of career role we ha&e a natural inclination for, we find work &ery demanding and hard to do. The second assignment takes the process further and forms the basis for what is put in the 6areer ?esume. 9ore importantly it pro&es to you where you ha&e been successful and why. What you are in effect doing is using the data gathered from your achie&ement stories to &ery clearly understand $ust e/actly what it is you ha&e to offer the marketplace. *ne of the main byproducts, if you like, of this e/ercise is that you are gaining a great deal of confidence. 5e&er again will you doubt yourself if challenged by someone as to your competence. 'ou ha&e identified your key uni(ue abilities and more importantly pro&ed them. Psychometric Profile )lthough many people are dubious about the &alue of psychometric testing, in our e/perience it is useful to ha&e at least a basic understanding of your personality profile. )s we alluded to abo&e, your personality profile influences a number of things in your day;to;day work en&ironment, including the type of work you prefer to do, how you engage with other people, how you &iew your work en&ironment etc. 4sychometric testing has become &ery popular as a means of selecting candidates for career positions and because of this many people are concerned about taking such tests. There are a number of personality profile tests that you can do online, but the one we ha&e used most is the @eirsey test, which once again, can be found online.

When preparing a career plan it is ad&isable to ha&e as much information as possible. ?emember you are planning for the rest of your career and a more attention you pay to this e/ercise and the more information you ha&e the better. *nce again you can find a number of

sites on any of the search engines that will enable you to assess yourself and disco&er new possibilities. #f you 0oogle the words Career drivers, you will come across a number of these and they are well worth considering in terms of completing the $igsaw" as far as gaining a much clearer understanding of your career options.

"e must emphasise at this point that you may well feel that you have (ideas), but not concrete ob*ectives in terms of what you want to do. This is &uite normal. +emember that you are going outside your comfort ,one and this can be a stressful e$perience for anyone. +est assured that the first part of your marketing process is to T-.T these new ideas and possibilities in the real world. As you will see when we get to the marketing stage, you begin your marketing campaign by A./#0G people who are already in that type of career *ust what T1-2 see as your options. Always remember that this a step by step process that enables you to gradually obtain a clearer and clearer understanding of34 • • • "hat you are good at "here you can best use your abilities and skills 1ow to develop and progress your career, rather than stay (stuck in a *ob)

But before we start the marketing part of the campaign you need a document to put in front of people In other words – A C.V. or career resume

'our 6A is your sales prospectus" )s we ha&e said, always remember that 6A%s are not written in tablets of stone" and will often be modified as you test the market and update your ob$ecti&es. The C.5. The 6A needs to sell you and your strengths clearly and concisely. 5obody really likes writing them, but here is a guide to doing so and we ha&e also pro&ided e/amples. ?emember to use the work you ha&e already done to help you with your 6A or career resume preparation. 1y documenting your achie&ements in such detail, you will ha&e a much clearer idea of what to write. )lso remember that potential employers are interested in achie&ements rather than

responsibilities. They want to see if you can either .A5- or MA/- money for them. There are many e/cellent online templates you can use, but we list here some important things to bear in mind when preparing your document. #t is also very important to remember that software is now used e$tensively to find candidates both via the search engines and on C5 databases. A &uick tip 6 find several advertisements for the type of *ob you are looking for, copy and paste them into 7y doing this, you will find the words used most often 8specially by recruiters9 in those adverts. Put them in your C5 and covering letters to improve your rankings: The C5;career +esume ,. 4osition title and description. #n addition to your $ob title always pro&ide an e/planation of your duties. !ob titles can be &ague or not accurately con&ey the nature of the position, so it is important that you pro&ide a description of what you actually did. 2. Bist your achie&ements! :oes any employer want to hire an a&erage candidate"? :oes a recruiter want to present an a&erage candidate"? 9ake yourself stand out from the pile by including achie&ements you ha&e made in each pre&ious position 7or in 6ollege>School>3ni&ersity8. )chie&ements can include anything for which you were awarded a certificate or recogniCedD sa&ing the company moneyD making the company moneyD assisting someone who made>sa&ed the company money, impro&ed something within the company E such as a process, a product, a teamD performed well at a certain task7s8D carried out your duties effecti&ely. There are of course more types of achie&ements than we ha&e listed here, this section is designed to get you thinking about your achie&ements E weF&e all got some somewhere, use them to help you market yourself. G. 2/plicitness. Bet the reader know the nature and siCe and location of your past employers, and what their business is. )lso it helps the reader if you (uantify your achie&ements. So for e/ample, if you worked in a bank in customer ser&ice instead of writing :ealt with customers daily", a better alternati&e would be Sol&ed o&er H0 customer problems per day." I. :efinitions. 4eople ha&e a habit of using words and phrases that are specific to pre&ious employers without defining them on the 6A. When a recruiter sees something like this, he or she gets confused and is more likely to mo&e on to the ne/t 6A. So, think about the language youF&e used on your 6A and define any terms that need to be defined so that the reader can understand what you are saying. -. #mportance. What is the most important e/perience on your 6A? Typically itFs your most recent e/perience but this also depends on the type of position you are applying for. 3sually you would write more about your current position than a position you held ten years ago. )lso bear in mind the re(uirements of the positions that you are applying for. 'ou can use the re(uirements to help you decide which elements of your pre&ious e/perience>positions are most rele&ant. Jor e/ample, if you wish to be considered for a programming position, donFt write one paragraph describing your current programming $ob, followed by two paragraphs about your technical support $ob. <. Bength and rele&ancy. *nly your mother would be interested in reading your life story so keep your 6A to three pages ma/. ?emember that the point of a 6A is to get you an inter&iew, not a $ob, so it needs to be easy to read, precise, and also demonstrate that you are an achie&er with the skills, knowledge and abilities to perform successfully in the $ob you are applying for. K. 4roofreading and Jeedback. 6reate a 6A thatFs free from errors by using your 46s spelling and grammar checker. )lso, ask as many people as possible if they will read your 6A and to gi&e you their honest opinion. ) second set of eyes looking o&er your 6A will help highlight any errors or inconsistencies. #f someone says that your 6A is not good, ask him or her to be

specific and find out e/actly what it is. The more people you can ask the better. #f e&eryone you ask says the same thing about your 6A, or they ha&e similar comments, you know that thatFs how your 6A comes across. 1etter still ask recruiters, when possible what they think of your 6A. =. Skill and )chie&ement Summary. This section should ideally be near to the top of your 6A below the ob$ecti&e. This section lets the reader see instantly that youFre a success and what your key skills are. The rest of your 6A will be &iewed through this window of success and rele&ant skills. ?emember to keep the most rele&ant skills>successes at the top of this section. The most rele&ant skills>successes for your 6A are the ones that are most rele&ant to the needs>re(uirements of the types of positions that you are applying for. H. Bayouts and Jont. )&oid any font that is e&en slightly difficult to read. The use of colours other than black on your 6A is not recommended. To be on the safe side, choose a standard, con&entional font such as Times ?oman or )rial. 3se white space effecti&ely so that your 6A doesnFt look crowded and is easy to read. ?emember, if your 6A is too tough to read the recruiter will likely go on to the ne/t one.

The 7iggest Mistakes People Make "hen "riting a C5 Bearn to impro&e your 6A by looking at common mistakes and pitfalls. :isco&er the one thing that holds back H0. of 6As, and learn what can be done about it. Jind out what recruiters are looking for, and not looking for, in a 6A. With #nternet and email usage still growing in the 3@, corporations and recruitment agencies are literally being flooded with 6As. *n posting fi&e $ob openings to $ust one #nternet $ob board recruiters are likely to recei&e hundreds if not thousands of applications in a single week. *n top of inter&iewing candidates and meeting with employers who hire the staff, all of the 6As need to be screened, often by software which does it automatically. 0i&en the massi&e amount of 6As submitted that you will be competing with, how will you get yours noticed and followed up? Jortunately or unfortunately, as it were, there are many 6As that are far from perfect, some of these imperfections immediately eliminate the 6A. 'ou can greatly enhance your chances of getting inter&iews by a&oiding simple and all too common mistakes. The following are the typical errors made when writing a 6A and our recommendations to a&oid them. Mistake number % 4 Thinking that your C5 is about you. 9ost people fall for this one. When writing a 6A most people are focused on themsel&es and their history. *rganiCations, employers and recruiters are not interested in your background in

itselfD they are interested in how your background meets their needs. So think about the needs of the organiCations you are applying to and the re(uirements of the positions that you are applying for. ?ecruiters are essentially looking for a match between your background and the re(uirements of the $obD the nearer the match, the more likely you are to be inter&iewed. Mistake number ' 4 <sing a friend=s C5 There is often a temptation to use a friendFs 6A and $ust change a few things. This can work but be careful if you choose to follow this route. 'our 6A may turn out to be a little too much like your friendFs in terms of the content and the layout of the content. #f for e/ample you were looking at an #T 6A, you may end up with skill;sets where they shouldnFt be. #t would be appropriate for an #T candidate to supply a summary of their #T skills at the top of the first page of their 6A. +owe&er, it wouldnFt be appropriate for a person seeking a position in sales, marketing 7or many other areas8 to ha&e a summary of their computer skills at the top of their 6A. Mistake 0umber > 4 .pelling errors. Would you employ someone who couldnFt spell, or e&en worse, was too laCy to use a spell;checker before sending a document to a potential employer? When an employer looks at your 6A he or she will form &arious impressions of you based on the appearance and content of your 6A. 9ake sure that you do use a spell;checker on your 6A before sending it out anywhere. )s well, ha&e someone else read o&er it before sending it anywhere. #f a part of the 6A doesnFt make sense to a relati&e or friend it likely wonFt make sense to an employer. 'ou ne&er get a second chance to make a first impression, and your 6A is your first impression in the $ob hunting world. Mistake 0umber ? 4 .ending the same C5 for every *ob Jor e&ery position that you apply to, e&en if the $ob titles are the same, different employers will ha&e different needs and $ob re(uirements will be different. This gi&es you the opportunity to better target your 6A for certain positions. ThereFs no need to ha&e a different 6A for each position that you apply for, as this would take a lot of time, howe&er you should consider targeting your 6A indi&idually to $obs that you would really like by altering the ob$ecti&e. Mistake 0umber @40ot selling yourself. Too many people write 6As that $ust describe responsibilities in pre&ious roles. 5ot only is this not interesting to read it doesnFt do the $ob applicant $ustice. 2mployers also want to hear about how you were successful on the $ob and how you went abo&e and beyond your responsibilities. What did you achie&e? :id you sa&e the company money? :id you sa&e the company time>money? :id you help increase re&enues? Mistake 0umber A 4 Bver4selling yourself 'es, of course you should sell yourself and present yourself in a positi&e light. 1ut, donFt be tempted to e/aggerate on your 6A. 'ou could get caught out at the inter&iew stage, reference stage, or e&en worse, once you are in the $ob. So, present yourself in a positi&e light but donFt present details you cannot back up in an inter&iew. Mistake 0umber C 4 <sing too many bu,,4words and clichDs . )&oid general terms and buCCwords as much as possible. #nstead of sayingL dramatically grew re&enues for business company" it would be better to sayL #ncreased re&enues from MG00,000 to M2,000,000 in one year for 6?9 software company." 4eople reading your 6A are looking for information. 9aking them guess at what youF&e done increases your chances of ending up in the re$ect bin or in the recruiterFs deleted email folder.

Mistake 0umber E 4 0ot -nough #nformation #f you ha&e o&er two years of full;time work e/perience, a one;page 6A wonFt do. Take up to two pages and make sure you list your key responsibilities and ma$or successes on the $ob as they relate to the re(uirements of the position that youFre applying for. Mistake 0umber F 4 ifficult4to4read layout.

S(uashing lots of te/t together and using long paragraphs you will only make your 6A difficult to read. 1y using bullet points and short paragraphs you make your 6A easier to read which helps the potential employer notice key information. )s your 6A typically only gets a few seconds of attention, recruiters donFt want to be wading through lengthy paragraphs. Bb*ective and !ocus )t this point it is useful to step back and e/amine where you are. 'ou ha&e a much clearer idea of your key abilities and ac(uired skills. The results of your personality profiling will ha&e built on this and if you ha&e used the career dri&ers, you will ha&e an e&en more complete picture. +owe&er as we ha&e said before, you may not ha&e a completely clear and defined ob$ecti&e. This is nothing to worry about. To a great e/tent you may well feel that you are &enturing outside your comfort Cone and for many people this can be a little daunting. 'ou may well say This is all &ery well but # $ust want another $ob" and there is nothing wrong with that. The techni(ues that you will learn about in the ne/t section will certainly enable you to do that better. We do say though that they are designed to help you achie&e whate&er ob$ecti&e you are pursuing much more efficiently than you ha&e done in the past. Whiche&er path you take,be it to obtain the same type of $ob as you had before or to effect a complete career change, the process outlined enables you to e/amine alternati&e career options along the way and the importance of that cannot be o&eremphasised. #n the current economic climate it is as well to identify as many options as possible as to where you can best employ your talents. #n one thing we would ad&ise is to set up a process that enables you to keep accurate and clear records of your progress in the $ob market. There are a number of such packages on the #nternet. *ne that we ha&e seen used often is www.$ibber$

'our $ourney of e/ploration begins here!

Gaunching your self marketing campaign

MA+/-T#0G CAMPA#G0 P+BC-.. 9arket Structure 9arketing 6ampaign :e&elopment 9arketing Tools 5etworking into the 3nad&ertised !ob 9arket )d&ertisements ?ecruitment )gencies and +ead +unters 9oti&ating Betters #nter&iews Sensiti&e Nuestions 5egotiating

Market structure

Unadvertised Jobs

Advertised Jobs

Agency jobs




#n essence the first task in the marketplace is to talk to people in the new industry areas you ha&e decided you should e/plore and to assess the &iability of mo&ing into this new industry or sector. 1y talking to people in those new areas you will be able to find out from the horseFs mouth L ;

o #f there are long;term career de&elopment opportunities? o Which sectors of the industry are growing>declining? o What companies are e/panding or changing? o :oes the person you talk to see you as able to make the transition? )nd if so how? o Which recruitment agencies operate in that industry? o Where are the best $obs ad&ertised? o 13T most important of all ; :*2S #T 02T '*3 2O6#T2:? 1y talking to people in these newly identified career areas you can begin to make a comparison

choice and that is one of the most important decisions of all because it enables you to make the right ST?)T20#6 career decision. +owe&er to succeed the process must be structured and professional E$ust like any other marketing campaign! #0!B+MAT#B0, A 5#C-, BP#0#B0. Aiews based on e/perience, knowledge and wisdom that e/pand the range of options to be considered. This phase, as we ha&e said is all about e/ploring options. #n order to begin the process you need to contact people 7networking, to gi&e it its familiar name8 1ut # donFt want to go around asking for fa&ours or trying to o&ertly sell myself. 1esides # am not a sales person some people will say. :onFt worry. Try to think of this phase as similar to asking anyone about a holiday &enue you like the look of, but ha&e not yet tried. What is the first thing you do ? 2/actly, you go and talk to someone who has been there. The same thing applies if you need a plumber or electrician or to know which school to send your children to. 'ou see, we use networking all the time, we $ust donFt realiCe it. 1ut where are these people and why should they talk to me. 4eople lead busy li&es these days This is where we ha&e to become &ery professional. BetFs learn the ground rules. +uman nature is a funny thing. 'ou usually find that


People like to say yes People appreciate sincere respect and honest recognition People love to give advice People respond more favourably if approached gradually and in a businesslike manner People like to repay favours to a friend

1. Prepare a list of potential contacts. The following list will help to do this.


P+#MA+2 +-!-++AG. 4 P+B !B+MA

Jormer employers, 1usiness associates, )ccountants, 6ustomer>clients, Suppliers 1ankers>Jinance, Sales people, 9anagement consultants, Solicitors, 1usiness e/ecuti&es>owners, #nstitutions>Jellow members, Jriends, relati&es etc.

Point to note 'ou may well be asking why we ha&e not mentioned using social media at this stage.6ertainly we recommend using social media sites, especially Ginked #n to &astly increase your contact network. +owe&er it is far better to start this e/ercise by speaking to people you already know or ha&e some relationship with. The main reasons for this is that it will gi&e you &aluable practice in talking to others about yourself, your ideas, your ambitions etc. as you progress you will become more and more efficient at holding these referral meetings". 'ou will then be that much more accomplished when you communicate with people &ia social media sites. This manual is not designed to co&er areas such as social media, primarily because there are so many good books out there. 1ut two such books that we would recommend for Binked #n are 1ow to +-AGG2 use Ginkedin) by Jan Vermeiren and Bert Verdonck or Linkedin

marketing – an hour a day” by Viveka von !osen"

#0!B+MAT#B0,A 5#C- A0

BP#0#B0. ...CB0T

"rite a letter;send an email to the contact .ee Appendi$ 4 Getter to primary referral #t is important to understand what this does. #t acknowledges their e/pertise. 72&eryone likes to talk about what they do8. #t takes the pressure away. The disclaimer # am not asking you forPPP. 79any people would like to help but are more embarrassed about discussing the situation, say of ?edundancy, with you than you are with them8. #t gi&es them a chance to help. 7That makes people feel good8. #t gi&es you a chance to practice talking about your abilities and skills E useful for inter&iews! Make the telephone call


)gree date > time > place of meeting 2nd the con&ersation

) little general ad&ice. We ha&e all been taught to smile when talking to someone on the phone, stand up while speaking etc. 1ut the key to this e/ercise is to practice and record both what you want to say 7ha&e a written script by the side of the phone8 and ha&e a prepared list of who you are going to contact as below. 5ame of person > company > telephone number > contact Eyes>no > call back time > action. 'ou will find this of enormous benefit in recording your acti&ity and seeing yourself make progress. )nother point. )lways ha&e some sort of answer facility on your contact numbers. #tFs amaCing how many people forget that when they start their campaign, other people will want to ring them back and there is nothing more frustrating for a potential employerFs point of &iew than not being able to lea&e a message.

#mportant point to note here T1-+- #. 0B .<7.T#T<T- !B+ !AC- TB !AC- M--T#0G. "#T1 P-BPG-. T-G-P1B0CB05-+.AT#B0., .BC#AG M- #A -HC1A0G-. -TC A+- !#0- !B+ -HPA0 #0G 2B<+ CB0TACT 0-T"B+/, 7<T M--T#0G P-BPG- !AC- TB !AC- #. "1AT G-T. +-.<GT. FIJ B! T1- T#M-:

Plan the meeting

o 6larify the topics you wish to e/plore o :ecide on (uestions to be raised o 4repare an agenda
1old the meeting

o 2stablish initial rapport and refer to contact link. o ?epeat disclaimerD e/plain why you ha&e come to see him in particular. Take

o Summarise your career by means of the H0;second 4resentation of 2/cellence,
highlighting your )ttributes and )chie&ements.

o *btain information regarding the contact%s own career de&elopment and their &iews
of the industries with which they are familiar ; seek )d&ice and *pinions regarding realistic career options and directions to be e/plored further by you.

o )sk for other contacts who, like himself, can gi&e further #nformation > )d&ice >
*pinions ; particularly regarding areas you ha&e $ust talked about.

o Bisten for opportunities to pro&ide help and information to your contact o )lways aim to be remembered fa&ourably. o *ffer to keep in touch
0o prepared. Take your agenda "+#TT-0 B"0. 4eople will see that you are serious and you wont forget any (uestions. Take a spare copy of your resume, 7#f youFre seeing someone at their place of work you may suddenly find that they bring a colleague into the meeting and they start talking to you about a $ob!8.

+-!-++AG #0T-+5#-" K<-.T#B0. This is a general outline. 'ou should de&elop specific (uestions for each indi&idual you see. )sk (uestions that are answerable by the inter&ieweeD keep them within the same sphere of reference. #t would be helpful to take a deducti&e approachD i.e. ask (uestions that generate a broader response and follow them with more specific ones to key in on ideas of particular interest. ?emember, you will be conducting inter&iews with indi&iduals who possess information crucial to your successful market campaign. #t is incumbent upon you to draw it to the surface. 6onsiderL

#" $" %" &" '" ("

:o you think my ob$ecti&e is realistic, achie&able and clearly stated and supported? 1ased on my background, which industries or types of companies or organisations would seem most appropriate for me to e/plore? )re you aware of companies or industries that are in a growth or transitional position? )re there any current trends or de&elopments of which # should be aware? What obstacles might # encounter? +ow can # o&ercome them? Where would you see someone like myself fitting into a company such as yours? 7)sk only where appropriate. Jor instance, you wouldnFt ask this of a lawyer if you wanted to be in banking8.

'ou can ask the inter&ieweeFs thoughts on these specific areasL

A" B" )" *" +" ," -" ." /" 0" 1"

?esponsibilities Nualifications 4roblems dealt with )d&ancement Training Tra&el @inds of people who succeed > fail Salary range > start and long range potential

)re there any professional organiCations # should $oin or publications # might want to read? #f you were me, how would you go about finding a new position? Who are some people you would recommend # contact? +-M-M7-+ /0B"G- G- #. PB"-+



!BC<. B0 +-AG#.T#C BPT#B0. i.e. select en&ironments offering the greatest potential for using your attributes, skills and personality. This is one of the most important phases of the process. The decisions made here will radically affect the rest of your career.



# -0T#!#CAT#B0 ; C+-AT#B0 B! CA+--+ BPPB+T<0#T#-. This phase comprises $ob meetings or inter&iews to discuss actual or potential opportunities. This third phase of the process is when you are targeting organiCations in your newly chosen area and are out to get a $ob by L;

o Writing directly to companies o 6ontacting recruiters who deal in that industry o ?eplying to $ob ad&ertisements in that sector and most important of all o 52TW*?@#50
BetFs re&iew your )rmoury in the $ob hunt

2B<+ MA+/-T#0G TBBG.

#" $"

C.5.;Career +DsumD 0inety .econd Presentation of -$cellence. This is a summary of what is on your +esume. "ritten down and practiced until it become second nature "ritten Presentation .poken Presentation The Telephone +eferees 8#t sounds obvious but only use good ones:9

%" &" '" ("

Get=s *ust take a moment to recap on the market sectors and how they really work

<0A 5-+T#.T1- M2T1



implies that with the right code word, handshake or introduction you gain admittance to an e/clusi&e $ob club.

T1- +-AG#T2

5o 6ompany beha&es in this way ; it would not sur&i&e for long, nor would it deser&e to. +owe&er, to find and recruit a Senior 2/ecuti&e is time consuming and e/pensi&e. #f therefore you know somebody who closely meets your re(uirements, you will probably offer that person the $ob. 6onse(uently, the more widely you are known to potential employers the more likely it is you will be in&ited to talk about a position that has not been ad&ertised. This is best achie&ed through Creating "indows of Bpportunity by organising +eferral Meetings with Senior 2/ecuti&es or other decision makers > influencers at which you ha&e a purposeful discussion about your career but are not being inter&iewed for a specific $ob.

*b&ious isnFt it, particularly when you look at the statisticsL ; There are =million white;collar $obs in the 3@ 4eople 7 on a&erage 8 change $obs - times in their career ) career span is I0 years 7 20 E <0 8 Therefore one million $obs a year change hands in this sector 13T 'ou will not find more than -k new $obs ad&ertised per week Q 2-0k p.a. The recruitment industry do not handle more than Q 200k p.a. Q I0 m. $ob changes Q I0 years

So where do the rest go? #n any referral meeting do not try to hide the fact that you are acti&ely seeking a position. :onFt do what one client did after meeting a 6hief 2/ecuti&e, who introduced him to the senior e/ecs, ga&e him a tour of the factory and immediately afterwards treated to lunch in the boardroom. *n being asked by the 6hief 2/ecuti&e. What he was looking for (uoted the disclaimer &erbatim Well #Fm not looking for you to pro&ide me with a $ob +-M-M7-+ ?eferral 9eetings pro&ide further &aluable benefits in that they enable you toL ; evelop an information network ; ; ; -stablish a positive presence in the marketplace Meet decision4makers Get into the unadvertised *ob market

; ; ;

Cultivate new career opportunities #dentify possible target companies <pdate previous contacts

They also fre(uently pro&ide an opportunity for you to repay the fa&our by gi&ing the ?eferral helpful information or ad&ice you ha&e gained during your 9arket 6ampaign e/cluding, of course, any confidential information you may ha&e been gi&en by a pre&ious referral contact. There is a further ma$or benefit to be gained from attending a series of ?eferral 9eetings. They impro&e your presentation and inter&iew techni(ues i.e. they gi&e you practice at attending inter&iews and selling yourself and your abilities. There is no doubt that when you ha&e a number of ?eferral 9eetings you will find them increasingly producti&e, both in the (uality of information gained and in enabling you to meet people you ne&er e/pected to contact. )lways start the process of de&eloping and e/tending your contact network by ha&ing your first ?eferral 9eetings with people you already know becauseL o o o There should be no difficulty in arranging to see them ?apport is already established #t is better to try out a new techni(ue in a familiar setting.

#t is important howe&er to approach people who will see you from different perspecti&es to a&oid a stereotyped response to you in response to your re(uest for ad&ice etc. Jinally E send a thank you letter i.e. be remembered positi&ely.


+ecord /eeping

'ou will be ha&ing a number of con&ersations with people during the course of your networking campaign. 5aturally, recei&ing a lot of information it is &ital that you keep accurate records. 5ot only of the people you ha&e seen, but also of the content of the con&ersations you ha&e with them. The referral meeting report form 8see appendi$ A9 is an e/tremely useful way ofL ; o o ?ecording the information 5oting your progress 7this is important as you begin to see yourself becoming better at the networking process and hence become aware that you are being proacti&e and taking control of e&ents8.

And remember www.*ibber*

The 0etwork Tree Nuite a lot of us like a &isual representation of things. The network tree is an e/tremely useful way of assessing your situation at a glance.

>. A 5-+T#.-


)s a conse(uence competition for ad&ertised posts is &ery intenseD howe&er they also ha&e a &alue beyond indicating a current $ob opportunity.


They pro&ide up to date information on the latest trends in the particular market sector, which firms are e/panding and what e/perience > (ualification is being demanded. They also pro&ide up to date information on recruitment agencies and their industry > functional specialisation.

?egular and detailed study of ad&ertisements will pro&ide benefits far beyond identifying a particular $ob for which you wish to apply. 2&en if an ad&ertised position is not (uite right for you, the 6ompany or )gency may well be worth approaching either &ia your ?eferral 9eeting contacts or through a Target letter approach. Therefore, one of the first actions in 4hase , of your 9arketing 6ampaign is to build up a list of publications rele&ant to your own search to read on a regular basis ; these can normally be accessed through the internet, or failing that your local library. The timing of your reply to an ad&ertisement is important ; if possible reply within one day of the ad&ertisement appearing, before the floodgates open. This does not mean that you should not reply if you cannot do so immediately, particularly if you are a &ery close match with the company%s re(uirements, but a late response does lessen the chances of your application being seen by the recruiting manager before it gets into the administrati&e sie&ing procedure. Point to note To &uickly find *ob advertisements in one place, use the *ob aggregation sites such as workcircle, simplyhired or indeed. A0AG2.#. B! T1- LB7 A 5-+T#.-M-0T 6reating a good application is neither easy nor (uickD it can take 2;G hours to analyse the ad&ertisement, satisfy yourself that you meet the re(uirements and prepare an attention catching response. #dentify the three aspects of the *obL


Person +e&uirements ; i.e. all those stated regarding the person 2.g. )bilities, 2/perience, Nualifications, 4ersonality 7pay particular attention to words such as %will ha&e%, %essential%, %necessary%. Lob +e&uirements ; i.e. the ?oles or )cti&ities to be undertaken by the applicant. Assumed +e&uirements ; eductions ; this in&ol&es carefully reading through the ad&ertisement regarding what the company says about itself and the $ob opportunity, and reading between the lines to identify what other things are likely to be in&ol&ed. 3se your imagination and decide whether you ha&e additional> complementary skills and abilities that would be of benefit to the organisation e.g. language skills, knowledge of 1S-K-0 implementation, and e/perience with Trades 3nions etc.


#f the ad&ertisement contains an in&itation to telephone for further information or to ha&e an informal discussion, always ensure that you ha&e fully completed the analysis before making the call as it is probable that the informal discussion will actually be a preliminary inter&iew which begins with the (uestion %Why do you think you are particularly suited > (ualified > e/perienced for the role?% .T+<CT<+- B! T1- G-TT-+ B! APPG#CAT#B0 The purpose of the email application is to secure an in&itation to an inter&iew. ?emember that the recipient will probably de&ote only ,-;20 seconds to reading it. 'ou must ensure, therefore, that it is clear, makes it easy to identify your suitability for the ad&ertised role, is sharply focused and mirrors the style of the ad&ertisement.


Bpening paragraph ; identify the role, publication, reference no. and contact name. )pply for the position and enclose your rRsumR. .pecific +e&uirements ; 9atch your (ualities > (ualifications to their stated person and $ob re(uirements ; follow the order they appear in the ad&ertisement and use their terminology. 3se achie&ements to illustrate your possession of particular (ualities etc. Assumed +e&uirements ; State the additional benefits you would bring to the role. 2/press this in terms of how you would deal with the I 9s E 9oney, 9arketing, 9aterials, 9anpower -$press enthusiasm for the *ob and the organisation . -nd on a positive note and look forward to discussing your application further .



#MPB+TA0T +-M#0 -+.3


3nless e/pressly re(uired, ne&er disclose pre&ious salaries or future e/pectations.


)lways attach a copy of your rRsumR. Telephone to confirm receipt of your application if an acknowledgement has not been recei&ed within two weeks.

The Appendi$ contains se&eral e/amples

I. MBT#5AT#0G G-TT-+..

This is one area where a letter rather than an email should be sent.They are sent to the 9 : or 6hief 2/ecuti&e of organisations with the sole ob$ecti&e of moti&ating the recipient to see you or ask one of his heads of department to see you. The organisation to which they are sent may be di&ided into two broad categories. Target Brganisations ; carefully selected following information > research which pro&ided confirmation of the rele&ance of your (ualification, abilities, e/perience etc. to their needs. The identification of Targets most fre(uently arises from network contacts who know of a &acancy but do not wish to be identified as the information source, newspaper articles > ad&ertisements or as an organisation of specific interest to you into which you ha&e been unable to get a direct referral. 0on 4 Targeted Brganisations ; the criteria for their selection is much less specific and is fre(uently based on their location, siCe, products > ser&ices pro&ided etc. With such organisations the rele&ance of your past e/perience is not so ob&ious and the content of your approach letter will necessarily be less sharply focused to their needs. )lways discuss with your consultant before commencing a Target or 5on;Targeted 7speculati&e8 letter campaign and remember that they are not an alternati&e to 5etworking.

.ee Appendi$ for 2/amples of 9oti&ating Betters


There are hundreds of recruitment agencies and consultants catering for different $obs and professions. There are specialist agencies for finance staff, nurses, facilities, personnel, contract labour, human resource staff and teachers, and many others. 0et to know which cater for your profession, sector and geographic preferences. A list of Head-hunters and Agencies relevant to you and your job search can be obtained from Search Engines )gencies get paid by employers trying to fill &acancies. 6ompanies use agencies because they ha&e specialist knowledge of the market concerned and where good candidates might be found. 'ou are therefore a saleable product to them. #f they can place you (uickly, you win, your new employer wins and of course the agency wins! +owe&er, if the agency cannot place you (uickly, your &alue to them will diminish. #t is therefore not only important that you ha&e the best 6A you can produce but also you must culti&ate a good relationship with the agencies you deal with. 0et to know one of their people by name and keep in regular touch to find out what they can do for you. #f you donFt, you may fade from their &iew after a while and your 6A will be filed, if not scrapped. 1ut remember that if they do Skeep your details on fileF, the chances are that they will be entered on a database that is searchable electronically and may therefore be easily retrie&ed if the right $ob turns up. #deally, good agencies should offer to meet with you to discuss what you are looking for, but many donFt ha&e time for speculati&e applicant meetings. 1ead4hunters +ead;hunters often operate at board le&el only and tend to target named people for &ery senior posts, including 62*, salaries M,00@ plus. They do not ad&ertise but employ researchers to approach known people. +ead;hunters are retained by companies for assignments on a split fee basis, typically G0. of &alue of first yearFs remuneration 7including benefits8. -$ecutive .earch 2/ecuti&e Search companies look for senior e/ecuti&es, typically M<0@ plus. They also use researchers who will target selected people for $obs, and many also ad&ertise for good people. Search consultants are also retained by employers to work on specific assignments. Agencies )gencies normally target people who are looking for $obs earning below M<0@ pa. They tend to specialise by sector 7finance, interim, sales etc8 and maintain databases of candidates. )t this le&el agencies are not retained by client companies but get paid on a commission basis.

Agencies normally target people who are looking for jobs earning below 2(34 pa" 5hey tend to specialise by sector 6finance7 interim7 sales etc8 and maintain databases of candidates" At this level agencies are not retained by client companies but get paid on a commission basis"

A. LB7 .#T-. A0



Statistics ahow that you have less than a 'J chance of finding a $ob by registering your 6A on a database!

0ow for the sub*ects of *ob #nterviews and negotiations. "e=ve put a lot into this because we believe that people get too concerned about interviews and also undersell themselves. "e have tried to cover (all the angles) so that people feel sufficiently prepared. C. T1- LB7 #0T-+5#-" #n the $ob seeking process, there are two kinds of inter&iewsL ?eferral meetings, which we ha&e co&ered abo&e and !ob #nter&iews. When you are building your contact network and are seeking ad&ice and information about approaches to the right market for your capabilities, you are on a ?eferral meeting. When you are clearly being inter&iewed for a specific position, you are on a !ob #nter&iew. Sometimes a ?eferral meeting turns into a !ob #nter&iew. #nter&iewers can become interested in your background and may try to create $ob possibilities for you in their organisations. When that happens, you will listen carefully for signals E green lights"; indicating that opportunities may be immediately ahead for you. 4reparation for the !ob #nter&iew is essential, $ust as it is for the ?eferral meeting. 1efore you go on any inter&iew, find out as much current information about the organisation as you can. This is an integral part of the research programme you began while preparing for your market campaign. #n addition to information from annual reports, marketing>promotional brochures and pamphlets, trade $ournal, industry directories, chamber of commerce publications, and newspapers, you can find that your contact network, the people whom you ha&e seen on ?eferral #nter&iews, can be &ery helpful. 3tilise your contact network as a continuing source of information! #n short, the more information you can find out about a potential employer in terms of mission, products > ser&ices, customers and en&ironment, the more successfully you can prepare for an inter&iew. )s you study the answers you recei&e, prepare intelligent (uestions you can ask in the !ob #nter&iew to show that you are interested in the organisation and eager to learn more about the responsibilities of the position as well as the inter&iewerFs long;range goals and specific plans for reaching them. 1rainstorm ideas, trying to identify areas of connection between your skills, achie&ements and e/perience and the needs of the employer. 9ake sure you arri&e ,- minutes early for the #nter&iew. 'ou may find the organisation has publications describing its own products or ser&ices that you can study while waiting for the inter&iew. Take the time to rela/ and organiCe your thoughts. When the inter&iew begins, your confidence should be at its peak. #n the traditional !ob #nter&iew, the applicantFs purpose usually is to get the $ob, while the potential employerFs purpose is to find a solution to specific organiCational problems. Sometimes those two purposes are on a collision course and block communications. *ften applicants are so focused on their own needs they fail to percei&e the #nter&iewerFs. 7?emember, in a !ob #nter&iew E as opposed to a ?eferral meeting E you are the interviewee.8 #n other cases $ob seekers sit back and let the inter&iewer control the inter&iew. The result is an unproducti&e inter&iew. 'ou cannot make a strong and useful presentation of your capabilities if you ignore the needs of the inter&iewer, and no inter&iewer can be fully aware of your goals and purposes. 'ou and your inter&iewer must clearly understand each otherFs goals to assure establishment of positi&e rapport. #f you are focused solely on your own problems, such as the need to become employed and to produce an income, you can ne&er feel or show a real interest in your inter&iewer.

*nce a good rapport has been established, your role is to listen acti&ely. #f you free yourself from the pressure of ha&ing to Smake the saleF on this first inter&iew, you will find it much easier to concentrate o making an impression that will assure a second inter&iew. 9ore that one inter&iew is needed to get a good offer, so it is unrealistic to e/pect one on the first inter&iew. #nstead, the goals of the initial !ob #nter&iew is to get a second interview. ?apport is established by Sacti&e listeningF, responding with interest to what the inter&iewer is saying and asking appropriate (uestions. When you gi&e the inter&iewer information, make sure it is rele&ant to particular problems or needs. ?emember, you will ne&er con&ince a future employer of your potential &alue unless you are able to relate your abilities and e/periences to the organisations needs. #n short, you want to be the solution to the organisations problems. )ppropriate (uestions co&er a range of possibilities 7see Nuestions 'ou Should 2/plore :uring the !ob #nter&iew 4rocess8, but include finding outL What responsibilities are in&ol&ed? Where the position fits into the organiCational structure +ow the inter&iewer e/pects the position to contribute to plans for growth and e/pansion, and What specific problem areas the position will address 2ach inter&iew is different of course. 'ou can think through all the (uestions you could be asked before you go on a !ob #nter&iew 7refer to the list supplied8. Such (uestions will help the inter&iewer gi&e you the information you need to make an effecti&e presentation of your potential contributions. ?emember that inter&iewers themsel&es may often ha&e a limited understanding of their own needs or ha&e difficulty &erbaliCing them. 1y asking intelligent (uestions, you will enable the inter&iewer to define specific needs and purposes more clearly. Some inter&iewers may start by saying Tell me about yourself". #n answer to this fre(uent (uestion, you use your FI second presentation. This will help bridge the gap between the inter&iewers understanding of what you ha&e to offer and what the organisation needs. #f you are making a career change in either function or industry, this is particularly imperati&e. Without such a connection your position and that of the organisation will seem permanently at odds. Second, cite specific, if possible, tasks or areas of application. These would include such things as new product de&elopment, group facilitation, and market analysis and pro$ect management. Third, emphasise particular achie&ements. These should anchor the skills and applications and enhance your credibility as an employee who will make a difference.

@eep in mind this rule of thumb, if you do not say it, it ne&er happened". ?egardless of the breadth of your achie&ements or the dynamism of your resume you cannot assume anything. 1e prepared to articulate all rele&ant areas of you e/pertise and e/perience. Where possible substantiate your (ualifications with brief e/amples, such as the accomplishments listed on your resume. #f you are well prepared, you can describe your work history entirely in terms of accomplishments, results, and successes. Such a description will assure keeping your inter&iewerFs interest. #n a !ob #nter&iew, the inter&iewer is primarily interested in assessing two points about youL your competence and your compatibility. +iring decisions are based not only on the inter&iewerFs rational analysis of your abilities, accomplishments and potential, but also upon the chemistry between the two of you. #t is simply a fact of life that the inter&iewerFs emotions will play a &ery strong role in the hiring decision. +ence, your attitude is an e/tremely important factor. 2(ually important is the manner in which you demonstrate your approach to problems. *ne way in which an inter&iewer may try to determine your attitude and problem;sol&ing style is by asking (uestions of a sensiti&e or difficult nature. #n most cases, such (uestions are asked not to make you feel uncomfortable but to get information and to assess your compatibility. 2&ery hiring decision in&ol&es risk. The inter&iewerFs aim is to reduce this risk as much as possible. #nformation contained in your answers is not, by itself, ade(uate for answering such (uestions asL Will you fit into the organisation? 6an you pro&ide leadership? 'our first consideration in answering these and all other (uestions is to demonstrate a positi&e attitude and to reassure your inter&iewer of the positi&e nature of the match. 1e sure you ha&e heard the (uestions, and take time to think through your answer before responding. When an inter&iewer (uestions you about specific problems, resist the temptation to offer immediate solutions off the top off your head. #t is easy to offend someone by producing answers, right or wrong, in fi&e minutes. +owe&er, it is appropriate to suggest to the inter&iewer that your e/perience makes you a likely person to help sol&e such problems when you are on the $ob. 'ou might say something like thisL # donFt know enough about your company to recommend any immediate solutions, but #Fd like to tell you about the approaches #F&e used in the past to sol&e similar problems." There is a list of (uestions most often asked our clients below. )lthough they are most likely to occur in a screening inter&iew 7generally conducted by a +uman ?esource Specialist8, some, particularly those of a situational or problem sol&ing nature, may occur in later inter&iews as well. #f you can answer each of the (uestions on the list positi&ely, you will be able to answer &irtually all (uestions of a sensiti&e nature to your inter&iewerFs satisfaction.

)fter you ha&e had your first inter&iew, send an email or write a thank you letter telling your inter&iewer that you ha&e been listening carefully and are prepared to help sol&e the organisations problems. When possible, remind the inter&iewer of particular areas discussed where you can make a significant contribution. 9ake this letter as enthusiastic as is compatible with your personal style. #t may be appropriate at this time to follow up with a focus piece E.1B" TB CGB.- A LB7 #0T-+5#-"

The first thing you need to recogniCe is when the inter&iew is about to end. The inter&iewer will determine the agenda and conse(uently, when the inter&iew is about to close. The way you can be alert to this is typically by the kinds of (uestions asked or the statements mad. Jor e/ample, you may be asked, Jred, do you ha&e any (uestion of me?" or Jred, is there anything more you would like to tell me?" #n each case you should answer enthusiastically and positi&ely. This will allow you to gain some control o&er the inter&iew as it winds to a close. #f you would be told something like, Well Jred, that is all we need for today. #f we need anything further, we will be # touch with you." :onFt panic. #t is not the time to allow yourself to be crestfallen. Try to turn to a more positi&e agenda. )sk if it is alright to ask a few (uestions. #f you can mo&e to a (uestioning mode, you will be able to lay the groundwork for closing the inter&iew and establishing follow;up stages. 9ore specifically that in&ol&esL A. A./#0G #0T-GG#G-0T K<-.T#B0. The types of (uestions you ask should not be too probing or sensiti&e, but they should indicate that you are $ust as interested in understanding the responsibilities of the position and the culture of the organisation as the organisation is in e/ploring the appropriateness of the match. #n general, (uestions should reflect interest in the bigger picture, outside the direct focus of your particular $ob. 'ou might, for e/ample, ask, 6ould you tell me why the position is &acant at this time?" Jollow;up (uestions might includeL Where did that person go?" Why?" #f you feel uncomfortable with the nature of the answer, you might ask about the history of the position. What has the history of this position been o&er the last se&en years?" +ow many people ha&e held the position?" Nuestions need not be limited to the specific position. 2/pand the range of the (uestions to establish conte/t. Try to place the position in relation to the staff, the department, to the organisation as a whole and its mission. 'ou might askL What do you consider to be the greatest accomplishment of this department > company > organisation, o&er the last two years?" )sk future orientated (uestions to get a clearer perspecti&e of the organisationFs direction, for e/ample, What do you consider to be the greatest challenge facing this organisation in the ne/t three years?" or, :o you ha&e established growth plans for the ne/t fi&e E ten years?" #f you are talking to the person who might be your direct report, you might askL Where do you see yourself in the ne/t three to fi&e years?" )ny other (uestions that seem appropriate to ask about the big picture 7again as long as they are not too probing or too sensiti&e for the inter&iewer8 are appropriate to ask as this point. 1e sure to respect the time element! *nce you feel you ha&e established that you are &ery much interested in the organisation as well as your own indi&idual function in it, begin a positi&e summation.

.-0 #0G A T1A0/ 2B< -MA#G;G-TT-+ )t this point you want to lea&e the inter&iew 7and as in any inter&iew8, go home and immediately send a thank you email. Jor e/ample, Thank you &ery much for the opportunity to discuss the position of Widget 9anager with you this morning > afternoon." The second paragraph should help focus the matchL # appreciate &ery much the opportunity to discuss your needs > challenges > problems, 7whate&er8 in the areas ofP." +ere specify three or four things that you know are &ery important to the organisation. 'ou could balance the paragraph by stating, # am &ery confident that # can meet your needs in these areas becauseP." )nd &ery briefly state your e/perience or achie&ements that corroborate your statements. The third paragraph should pro&ide reasons for continuing the dialogue. Jor e/ample, you might write )dditionally, # would like to opportunity to learn more about your plans to do 7something8 as my e/perience doing 7similar things8 might be beneficial to you" or, )dditionally, # would like to tell you more about my e/perience doing 7something8 because # can see how that might assist you in your plans to do 7whate&er8." ?emember this is a crucial link in the process. The final paragraph should e/press the ne/t stepL # look forward to discussing these and other mutually beneficial area with you and will call on Thursday, 9ay 2, to arrange another meeting at your con&enience." 4ick the date that you think is the most reasonable time in the decision making process. This has to be after all the candidates ha&e been inter&iewed, but before the decision has been made. That is why you try to determine the window of decision" before you lea&e the inter&iew -.!BGGB" <P "#T1 A P1B0- CAGG #n e&ery situation, no matter whether you are in the last inter&iew or there are more inter&iews to come, you want to make a follow;up phone call if at all possible. The purpose of the phone call is to get the ne/t inter&iew. )gain, e&en if this follows the final inter&iew, you want the negotiations and closing to be done face;to;face. 'our follow;up phone call could go something like thisL +ello 9r. !ones. This is Jred White. 'ou indicated in our meeting on the twentieth that you would be making a decision about now. # was $ust calling to see when we could set up the ne/t inter&iew." #f the person tells you, Jine" and gi&es you an idea of when you can come in, than go ahead and set the inter&iew date. #f you are told you didnFt make it, you could still benefit from disco&ering where the discrepancies e/ist between the organisations e/pectations and your skills. 'ou might, for e/ample, say, #Fm &ery disappointed to hear that, but perhaps you could tell me, 9r. Smith, where you felt the match wasnFt right." This information could pro&ide you with some e/cellent feedback 7not to mention peace of mind8 as you continue to perfect your approach and presentation. )dditionally, you may be able to e/pand your search E especially if the inter&iews were &ery positi&e E by creating a networking link asking for referrals. :o not be too concerned, howe&er, if the inter&iewer refuses to discuss why you were not offered the position. 9any organisations, particularly large ones, will not enter into such a discussion as a matter of policy due to concern o&er potential liability.

#f the inter&iewer does e/plain where the fit was deemed inappropriate and you feel your (ualifications were missed or misunderstood, you may ha&e a brief window of opportunity to

clarify your position. )t this time, if you choose to continue this path, it is important that you e/ercise the utmost tact and diplomacy. #f you can o&ercome the ob$ections or if you feel you ha&e gi&en a good e/planation, then ask for that ne/t inter&iew. 'ou could say, # still think it would be mutually beneficial for us to get together again. # would hate to see either of us make a decision that is not in the best interests of the organisation in the long run. # really feel that # ha&e what you are looking for. Will you gi&e me one more opportunity to con&ince you? When can we set that up?" Thank the inter&iewer for the phone discussion. @eep the tone upbeat and positi&eD try to keep the door open and try to show yourself as a &ery professional person. 9ake sure you always let the inter&iewer know that if the other people donFt work out, you want to be considered. 1e remembered as acti&e and asserti&e about finding a position. #t will make a good impression. The put the personFs name into your calendar, and make certain to follow up at regular inter&als. #n summary, you want to close a $ob inter&iew with as much control as possible by showing a genuine interest in the big picture and by offering a positi&e summation reflecting your understanding of and interest in the organisationFs problems. ?eiterate that you heard all the things that are most important to them, and you are &ery confident you can do the $ob that needs to be done. Then refine your (uestioning to find out what the ne/t step is and determine when the decision will be made in regard to mo&ing to the ne/t step. Always, always, always, write an immediate thank you summariCing your insight, your confidence, and your interest. Jollow up with an action close where you try to get that person back on the line before the final decision is made. )sk for the ne/t inter&iew! Final Footnote – emember!

You have nothing to lose going into any interview situation, because you don’t have the job when you go in the door. There is always something to be gained from every interview. You can create the next step and gain something from it. Go into every interview situation positively and leave in the same manner. Take and maintain control of your career choices!

/#0 . B! K<-.T#B0.

T1-2 A./3

2B< A0."-+3 0i&e a positi&e answer identifying how your skills can sol&e their problem with as e/ample as proof

) 4ositi&e

) 5egati&e

Think firstD reflect 7thoughtful pause8. *ptionsL ?efer to a work >professional situation 0o to support areas. 0o to a percei&ed area. 0o to strengths. 0o to the future. 7# canFt think of anything right now.8 ?efer to a non; work situation. 2/press fle/ibility. 7#f it is a real concern, clarify during negotiations E you can always turn down the $ob.8


Jor Jle/ibility


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4ersonal #nformation

9ake certain that this is carefully thought through ahead of time. #f positi&e and supporti&e tell themD if not, ask if that issue has a bearing on the position. 79ake them defend the personal (uestion.8

6losing Nuestions

0i&e a positi&e summation and determine the ne/t step.

.-0.#T#5- K<-.T#B0.   1e positi&e Jocus on your skills and how they pro&ide solutions to an organisations problems 70i&e e/amples8

T1- #0T-+5#-"3 .-0.#T#5- K<-.T#B0., .-0.#T#5- #..<-. *ne of the purposes e&ery inter&iewer has in mind is to e&aluate the applicantFs attitudes, personality, and beha&iour. The following are (uestions and statements fre(uently presented during inter&iews. There are no standard responses for any of these. 'our answers must be worked out carefully and intelligently. 2ssentially, you should try to answer (uestions as honestly, as directly, as positi&ely, and as succinctly as possible. To help create the best impression and minimiCe the difficulties resulting from careless answers, remember these general principlesL ). 1. 6. Bisten to the (uestion or statement.. 3nderstand e/actly what is asked. #f you are unsure, ask for clarification. Take time to think through all facts that would be applicable to your response. 3se 4*S#T#A2 #5J*?9)T#*5 to answer directly and to the point. :iscuss only the facts rele&ant to the issue under discussion so that you do not open areas of difficulty. 1e truthful, but it is not necessary to offer unsolicited information that could detract from the image you are creating. Seek to focus and re;focus attention on your @ey Strengths and their related accomplishments. Stress their future use in the position being discussed. ?emember that the basic (uestion on the inter&iewers mind isL What can this person do for us?" 6onsider this response model 7applicable for any inter&iew situation8L skill, application, and achie&ement. #f you apply this model, you will bridge the gap between the (uestions and your talents, reinforce the &alidity of your e/perience and enhance your le&el of credibility. ,. 2. G. I. Tell me about yourself? Why do you want to work here? +ow do you feel you can help or company > organisation? #f you were choosing someone for this position, what kind of person would you select? -. Why do want to go into the TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTfield? <. #f you feel you ha&e any weakness with regard to this position, what would it be? K. What are some of your weaknesses? =. What do you e/pect in this position that you were not getting in your past positions? H. +ow do you feel about working e/tra hours? ,0. Where do you see yourself in G years? #n fi&e years? ,,. +ow would you handle this problem? 7)fter the inter&iewer describes a comple/ problem8 ,2. )re your considering other positions at this time? +ow does this one compare with them? ,G. Why did you lea&e your last position? ,I. +ow long ha&e you been out of work? ,-. What ha&e you been doing since you left your last position? ,<. +ow did you like working at TTTTTTTTTTTTTTcompany? Why? ,K. What are your short > long range goals? +ow do you e/pect to meet them? ,=. What does success mean to you? ,H. What moti&ates you? +ow do you moti&ate others? 2specially those with performance problems? 20. :o you plan to get further education, degrees? 2,. What ha&e you done to impro&e yourself during the last year? 22. +ow do you spend your spare time? 2G. Tell me about your health? 2I. #f you could reli&e your last ,- years, what changes would you make? 2-. Tell me about your greatest achie&ement > disappointment in life 2<. What did you like best > lest in your last position? 2K. :o you prefer working alone or as part of a team? 2=. What are some of the more difficult problems you encountered in your past



positions? +ow did you sol&e them? 2H. When was the last time you felt enthusiastic about helping a colleague or staff member succeed? 2/plain. G0. :id you e&er make suggestions to management? What happened? G,. What do you think management could do to make you function more effecti&ely? G2. What has kept you from progressing as fast as you would like? GG. Tell me about the best > worst boss you e&er had? GI. What do people criticise you about? G-. What are your pet pee&es? G<. What is your leadership style? GK. )re you geographically mobile, either now, or in the future? G=. What else do you think # should know about you? GH. What is your philosophy of life? *f work? *f your field? I0. 6an we check your references, and what would they say about you? I,. What kinds of people do you find difficult to work with? I2. What can you offer us that someone else canFt? IG. 6an you work well under stress? II. :escribe the biggest crisis in your life? I-. +a&e you e&er been fired? I<. Tell me about the last incident that made you angry? +ow did you handle it? IK. What do you really want to do in life? I=. :oes your employer know that you are planning to lea&e? IH. +ow would your subordinates describe you? 'our peers? -0. What is the biggest mistake you e&er made? -,. #F&e inter&iewed some well;(ualified candidates, why should # hire you? -2. #snFt this a career switch? -G. :o you think your education (ualifies you for this position? 7When applicant does not ha&e a degree or a related degree8 -I. 'ou donFt ha&e e/perience for this position. +ow could you handle it? --. +a&e you e&er been discriminated against? -<. 2/plain your most challenging human relationship dilemma and how you handled it. -K. 'ou are o&er (ualified for this position, arenFt you? -=. Salary (uestions early in the inter&iewL What are your financial needs? What is the minimum salary you would accept? -H. )re there any (uestions you would like to ask about the position > company? <0. We ha&e all the information we need. We will be in touch with you. <,. We donFt feel you ha&e what we are looking for. <2. 6ite some recent e/amples where you e/pressed your creati&ity. <G. ?ankL wealth, power, and fame. 2/plain your rationale. <I. What is the most difficult decision you ha&e e&er had to make? <-. 6ite an e/ample where you got your staff in&ol&ed in the decision making process.

When you ha&e learned to gi&e brief, positi&e, and reasonable answers to all the abo&e, you will be in control of your inter&iews and satisfy the inter&iewerFs need to determine.

1. &. '. (. ).

Whether there is a consistent interest in a specific &ocational area or career ob$ecti&e. Whether your employment history, education, and other de&elopment show consistent application of your energies. Whether, lacking the specific background desired, your e/perience includes some of the same acti&ities for which you are being considered. Whether in your discussion of past employers and your reasons for lea&ing you re&eal maturity and a realistic attitude. Whether your responses to (uestions show stability, maturity, and responsibility as well as progress and achie&ement.

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Successful listening" in $ob inter&iews leads to offers. #n order to e&aluate such offers and to negotiate intelligently for ade(uate compensation, you should ha&e certain basic information, which the inter&iewer may not offer &oluntarily. ) final decision to accept or re$ect a position maybe E or should be E influenced by the answers to some of the following (uestionsL *f course, each client should select only those (uestions which pertain to his > her own situation. Some of the information should be obtained through careful research prior to the inter&iew. 9uch will become e&ident during the inter&iew. The remainder may re(uire &ery discreet tactful, and carefully timed (uestioning for the inter&iewer. ?e&iew all (uestions with your 6areer )d&isor.




What are the specifications for this position? What are the specific duties and responsibilities? What is the e/tent of authority? 6an the position description be altered? 3pgraded? +ow long has the position been in e/istence? *pen? Who had the position until now? Why is he > she being replaced? +ow long was he > she in the it? :id he > she succeed? What led to his > her success > failure? +ow many predecessors were there? What happened to them? Why? +ow would you describe the ideal candidate for the position? Who are the people with whom # will work? Who is my immediate super&isor? 9y staff? 9y associates in related departments? What is the title, history in the company, pre&ious background, education, age, personality, and reputation of each? :oes the company ha&e any long range plans for this department? 0rowth or consolidation? :oes the department ha&e its own budget? Who controls it? +as the department been successful? What is its reputation in the company? 7#n the opinion of the inter&iewer8, is there sufficient staff to handle the workload? +ow is the morale of the staff? #s there anyone on the staff who e/pected to be promoted to this position but was by;passed?

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Where does this position fit into the companyFs organiCational plan? )re the reporting channels clear? #s there more than one boss"? :oes the company ha&e an induction programme for new employees? +ow do # become familiar with company policies, practices and eti(uette?" :oes

B+#-0TAT#B0 T+A#0#0G 8#0 <CT#B09


the company ha&e an 2/ecuti&e :e&elopment 4rogramme? *ther training programmes? What are its facilities? What resource does it utilise? :oes the company sponsor courses at uni&ersities? )t management associations or industry conferences? )re suggestions welcome? T1- CBMPA02 K. +ow long has the company been in e/istence? What is its corporate culture? #ts mission? :oes it ha&e a strategic plan? Who owns it? #s it family dominated? +ow long has its present management been in control? What has been its gross sales and profit 7or loss8 pattern during the last ten years? Ji&e years? Two years? 5ow? :oes the company ha&e a growth plan? 7See annual report8 What do the companyFs annual report and the :U1 report show about its credit rating and financial history? #f the company is SpublicF, what do recent stockbrokersF reports say about its management and its prospectsV? +ow does the company and its products rate in its industry? What is the economic trend of the industry?

T1- CBMM<0#T2


Where can # get information on housing, cost of li&ing, religious and social organisations, shopping, schools, libraries, educational and recreational facilities? :oes the company encourage employees to participate in community acti&ities? :oes the company dominate the community? 7While negotiating SbasicF salary or compensation8L :oes the company offer stock options or deferred payment plans? 1onus arrangements? What is the Se/ecuti&e package at top le&els? :oes the company ha&e an 2mployee 1enefits 4lan 7medical insurance, retirement8? :oes the company reimburse mo&ing e/penses? Bosses incurred in selling oneFs house? Bi&ing and tra&el e/penses while the employee is commuting and finding permanent housing for his > her family? :oes the company arrange employment contracts? What is the companyFs policy regarding &acations and sick lea&e? When and how is salary usually paid? What is the companyFs policy regarding employment agencyFs fees? :oes the company ha&e a periodic employee appraisal or performance re&iew? What are the prospects for salary increases? 4romotion? Will there be opportunities for greater responsibility and broader e/perience? What is e/pected to be accomplished during the first rating period? +ow is the position e&aluated? )t what fre(uency? +ow are performance and raises tied to performance criteria? What is the current salary range for the position?

CBMP-0.AT#B0 A 5A0C-M-0T




9any of these (uestions are of a sensiti&e nature. )n improper attitude or approach could antagoniCe your inter&iewers and make them think you are o&erly suspicious, too careful, or prying. The following suggestions will help you minimiCe the risk of offending your inter&iewers. )&oid self;ser&ing (uestions that would tend to screen you outPbe company;orientated in your thinking. 1e positi&e in your approach. ?emember you are not an Sin(uisitorF. 4lan the wording of the (uestions you want to ask. 9aintain a friendly, open attitude.

0ow for the ( 0itty4Gritty) of 0egotiating. 0egotiation is needs to be learned and practiced :

like any skill in that it

E. 0-GBT#AT#B0. 7AC/G+B<0 The negotiation process marks a critical $uncture in the career de&elopment path. +ere, many of the skills you ha&e de&eloped should come into sharp focus with your career goals and pro&ide, in some instances, the full tangible results. )s such, it is a time for heightened thinking and clearer articulation. #t should also be a time for greater e/citement and en$oymentD howe&er, for many that sadly is not the case. Jor them, the negotiation process signals an/iety and passi&ity rather than moti&ation and action. #f you belie&e you would be &ery uncomfortable in a negotiating posture, try to e/amine why you would feel that way. The likely reason is simply because you are in a culture that places emphasis on indi&iduality and self;reliance and de&alues negotiations. We accept platitudes like Swork hard and you will get aheadF without (uestion, though personal e/perience often teaches differently. #n addition, there is a sense that negotiating price or money in general is $ust not proper and runs counter to accepted decorum. 76onsider, for e/ample, the many demeaning ethnic slurs that ha&e become attached to the process.8 5egotiations, howe&er, are almost certainly something you ha&e engaged in before, especially if you ha&e e&er purchased a car or a home. #magine pulling in your dri&eway with a new Be/us and encountering a neighbour. Jabulous car," he might say, how much did you pay for it?" 1asking in the recognition, you smileD puff up your chest, and respond, Jorecourt 4rice!" 6onsider how much different your neighbours response would be if you could retort, # negotiated the cost down by 20.."

#f you are like most buyers, you would be loathe to acknowledge you paid the asking price. So it is with compensation negotiations. #n the &ast ma$ority of cases there will be items you will want to negotiate, yet if you do not initiate or e/tend the process, you will not get what you desire. There is &alue in negotiating, and it is reflected in, among other things, hard numbers. Jor e/ample, letFs assume you were offered a salary of MI-k that could ha&e been negotiated to M--k. )ssuming annual salary increases of I. 7and disregarding the time &alue of money or more astute in&esting practices8, the original M-k discrepancy escalates o&er time asL 2ear 0 ,0 ,20 Accepted Bffer MI-k M-Ik M<<.<k M=,k MH=.<k 0egotiated Bffer M-k <0.=k MKIk MH0k M,0H.-k ifference M-k M<.0=k MK.Ik MHk M,0.Hk

6learly it is in your best financial interests to negotiateD for if you do not, you not only lose money at the outset, but you lose it e&ery year thereafter. To increase your success in the negotiation process, you may need to separate your past from your present, your needs from your wants. While it is true that no action occurs in an historical &acuum, recent or e&en more remo&ed work e&ents could affect your sense of self. 6onse(uently, your percei&ed or sub$ecti&e market &alue may appear to be contrary to your real or ob$ecti&e market &alue. Jor e/ample, you may ha&e been laid off from your former position and feel that your &alue has been negati&ely affected. This is $ust not trueD in fact, it should be a moot point. 'our &alue is $ust the same whether you are currently working or not. 2ither way you would be applying the same skills performing the same functions, achie&ing the same le&el of success. The only things that may be ad&ersely altered are your sense of self or your sense of urgency. 1e careful not to let these affect your state of mind, or you will undercut your negotiating stance. @eep a clear perspecti&e on how the negotiating process fits into both your short term and long;term career ob$ecti&es. #f you are still struggling in one of these areas, it is an ideal time to re;e/amine them to make sure your career and negotiation goals are in sync. #n e/amining your ne/t position, for e/ample, do you &iew it as a stopgap measure? 6ould it be a bridge to cross;functional, industrial, or managerial lines? *r do you see it as a springboard to allow you to make a (uantum leap in your career? ?egardless of how you percei&e it, howe&er, it will ha&e an impact on how you will position yourself in the negotiation process, since it could affect both market &alue 7the number and impact of what you bring to the table could be ad$usted positi&ely or negati&ely8 and strategy 7how you might integrate incenti&e performance e&aluations, and salary actions, for e/ample8. #n all cases you will want to optimise the results of your negotiations, though you may le&erage different aspects pending a short term or long term emphasis.

P+-PA+AT#B0 The first step in your preparation should be to determine your market &alue. There are a number of things to be considered hereD the one o&er which you ha&e most control is what you can do for an employer. This, as discussed earlier, should ha&e been your central focus throughout the inter&iewing stage. 1y the time you ha&e become immersed in the negotiations, there should be no doubt about your (ualifications and your &alue should reflect this.

3nfortunately, there are many areas o&er which you can e/ert little or no control, and these ha&e a powerful cumulati&e effect. ?anging from the general health of the economy to particular functional industries, and locations, these will help define the parameters of your market &alue. 2conomic issues such as inflation affect the real &alue of your income as the general ebb and flow of the workplace dri&es the demand for specific functions 7salespersons, engineers, and so on8 and industries 7home, electronics, health care, and the like8. The greater the demand, the greater the &alue in the marketplace. Succinctly, make certain that you can place your current specific situation, in conte/t with the large, general one in order to get the best estimate of your market &alue. Junctions, companies, industries, and geography also help to define your market &alue in more direct ways. ) particular position, +uman ?esource 9anager for e/ample, will ha&e a different market &alue relati&e to how it is percei&ed in each of these categories. )sk yourself the following (uestionsL

• • •

+ow is the function &iewed 7i.e. prestige8 in each category? What is the siCe and strength of the organisation? +ow does the organisation rate its compensation programme? 7#n de&eloping a total, integrated programme a 6ompensation 9anager may place salary range for particular positions within the framework of the categories here, then define that as the top third or (uadrant, middle third or (uadrants, or upper third or (uadrant of the a&erage.8 #s the industry in a state of growth, static, or decline? What is the cost of li&ing in the area? 7There are many good sur&eys here, including those published by local and national representati&es of the 6hamber of 6ommerce.8

• •

#f the +uman ?esource 9anager position were percei&ed as critical to the organisation, in a function recogniCed for its contributions, and at a pi&otal moment in the organisations historyD then its market &alue would be at a premium. 4ut the same position in an area with a high cost of li&ing and the market &alue increases accordingly. The in&erse is also true, howe&er if the +uman ?esource 9anager position were percei&ed as a SperfunctoryF one necessary to fend off lawsuits but an obstacle along the path to profitability E especially in a struggling organisation E then the market &alue would be correspondingly low. 4lace the position in a low pay area of the country and the &alue would decrease e&en lower. ?esearch salary sur&eys, and other compensation barometers to fine;tune your understanding of the market. :onFt o&erlook any information, but be careful to e&aluate the credibility and conte/t of the source. Jor e/ample, there are a number of printed salary sur&eysL some more general, some more specific, some more current. 9ake sure you are aware of factors that might skew the &alidity of the data. 6heck to make certain the work is current, possesses a large enough sampling, and is as ob$ecti&e as possible. There are hundreds of salary sur&eys a&ailable, ranging from more sweeping studies, such as those published by the :J22D to more industry specific ones, the annual salary sur&ey presented by the representati&e industry bodies for e/ampleD to ones particular to a gi&en function., the annual sur&eys published by #ndustry )ssociations for instanceD to those linked to a specific geographic area, such as those published by a local chamber of commerce. #t would be helpful to look at two or three studies, at least, to arri&e at a more complete appreciation of your market &alue. #f you are unable to get the (uality of compensation information you re(uire or if you would like to test your data in a more immediate application, turn to the #nternet and your network. There is an abundance of information a&ailable in both places, and you can direct it more

toward your specific interests. Jor e/ample a client was e/pecting an offer for a position of @nowledge Specialist. Since this was a new position in the emerging information consulting industry, it had yet to appear in any of the published sur&eys. The client, a 4h: from one of the top ten schools in the nation, had an e/cellent research and product de&elopment background, but was not sure if he could carry his current salary in making such a career change. +e went back to his network to ask a few indi&iduals what they thought the position should be worth. 5ot only did he recei&e some e/cellent input directly, but one indi&idual referred him to a @nowledge Specialist who had conducted a sur&ey of his colleagues across the #nternet. )rmed with this point of reference the client was able to negotiate a package that not only met his current salary le&el but included a future bonus package as well. The last ma$or step before the negotiations proper is to de&elop a strategy. 9ake sure whate&er approaches you take is one that you will be comfortable with and one that is compatible with your personal style. ?e;e/amine your o&erall goals for both your career and the negotiations process to make certain all priorities are in sync. #f you are going to use the position as a bridge to change functions, for e/ample, you will probably want to structure your negotiations # such a way that skills and responsibilities you feel are essential to the ne/t step are brought to the fore. 'ou may accomplish this in a &ariety of waysL by e/panding or emphasiCing particular areas of the $ob description, by constructing bonuses or incenti&es tied to these areas, by laying the ground work for future mo&ement, or by linking fre(uent performance re&iews and salary actions to critical skills and responsibilities. Timing is critical. 1oth parties will want to choose the optimum time to negotiate. 'ou will, of course wish to negotiate when you ha&e the most momentumL when the future employer is most desirous of purchasing your ser&ices. *n the other hand, the potential employer will want to negotiate when you are in the weakest position and a &ariety of potential employees are still in the running for the position. That is why you want to negotiate at the moment the position is offered, while the employer wants to address salary issues at the beginning of the first inter&iew 7or before, as in a re(uest in an ad&ertisement to state salary re(uirements, salary history8. #n the early stages of the first inter&iew, the inter&iewer has little or no commitment to you and holds the dominant position. Jurthermore, it is often a screening inter&iew with the purpose of sorting out candidates who seem not to fit the company profile, or the company salary structure. 6onse(uently, you can e/pect a series of (uestions that will try to pinpoint your compensation e/pectations. 'our most effecti&e strategy at this point re&ol&es around deferring all salary discussions until a position has been tendered, while assuring the inter&iewer that compensation would not be a problemD moreo&er, you would like to demonstrate what you can do for the organisationD and you would like to e/plore the possibilities of a match in greater detail. When you are asked such (uestion, make certain your responses are consistent in terms of tone, le&el of sophistication, and point of reference, with your personality and o&erall deli&ery. Some possible (uestions you may encounter, as well as potential responses, would include the followingL K. "hat kind of salary are you looking forM 1ow much do you want to makeM "hat income do you e$pectM A. Well, 9r )ndrews, at this point, #Fm &ery fle/ible. #f we determine thereFs a good fit here, #Fm sure weFll be able to work out a &ery reasonable agreement. #Fd appreciate it if we could $ust postpone those discussions for nowD and once we agree a fit, #Fm sure weFll be able to work out the rest. 6an you tell me more about the position? What are you looking for in the ideal candidate? K. "hat did you make in your last 8present9 positionM A. #Fm not at liberty to discuss that. #F&e make an agreement not to discuss salary, benefits, or

any internal policies of that position. 73se this, of course, only if you ha&e made such an agreement.8 #Fm sure you can respect my loyalty in that regard. 1ut anyway, #Fm fle/ible, and #Fm sure we can sort out something out after we determine if there is a good fit here. 6an you tell me what a typical day would be like. K. 2ou=ll need to give me some idea what you e$pect, so we can see if we=re in the ballpark with this. "hat=s the minimum you would acceptM A. Well, 9r. )ndrews, #Fm trying to remain &ery open minded and fle/ible on that issue, but # can understand how important it is to you to determine a ballpark figure. 74ause8 9ay # suggest you ha&e a better idea of the o&erall &alue this position has for the company than # do, and #Fm sure thereFs a range established that weFll both ha&e to li&e with. #f you would gi&e me some idea of what that range is #Fll be glad to tell you if #Fm interested in discussing this position any further. K. 8"hatever they say..9 A. 6ertainly #Fm interested in continuing discussions on that basis. Tell me more about the position. K. "hat would it take to bring you on boardM A. #s that an offer? K 2es A. Well, what range did you ha&e in mind? The o&erall success of your negotiations is also dependent upon creating the optimum en&ironment. 'ou need to be confident and articulate yet rela/ed. 4ut the inter&iewer at ease. ?emember, the negotiating area knows few e/perts, and the inter&iewer may be a no&ice in the field. The greater the le&el of comfort you can establish here, the greater the possibility of reward later. ?ecognise the inter&iewer, not only in terms of success but in relation to position and function. @now what is their Sgi&enF. Jor e/ample the range of reference points and, of course, (uestions and approaches, may differ widely depending upon the inter&iewerFs function and position in the company. )s a rule of thumb the higher the position and the closer to your function, the greater the possibility of you achie&ing your negotiation ob$ecti&es, because the inter&iewer will ha&e a better understanding of what you bring to the table as well as a greater control o&er budgetary impact. #n the first inter&iew scenario discussed abo&e, the dynamics would probably be (uite different if a +uman ?esources 9anager or Sales 9anager posed the (uestions. #n the former instance, the +? 9anager is probably referring to a barometer to determine if you could fit into the appropriate category such as position, years of e/perience, and salary. #f you apparently did not fit, you would be screened out of the process. Jurther, unless you were applying for a +uman ?esources position, you could probably assume that the inter&iewer was not an e/pert in your field and your strongest arguments for the position would be greatly diminished. *n the other hand, if the inter&iewer were the hiring manager in a specific function you might anticipate greater fle/ibility in salary issues and a clearer understanding of what you bring to the table. )s a result you could marshal your most compelling arguments 7and to a more sympathetic ear8 to ad&ance to the ne/t round of inter&iews, to defer further discussion of compensation, and to enhance your negotiating position. ?egardless of the inter&iewerFs position, howe&er, you should always try to create a win > win atmosphere. )pproach negotiations as a collaborati&e effort. :onFt forget you are negotiating with an indi&idual>s with whom you will be working, often with the person who will be your direct manager. #t is not the time to play hardball, but it is the time to lay the foundation for

open communication and long;term growth. 'ou ha&e the opportunity to set yourself up for failure by being confrontational or for success by working as a team and creating the type of harmony the !apanese refer to as wa Try to bridge gaps and foster a sense of mutual purpose. 3se SweD for e/ample, rather that the S#F > S'ouF split that emphasises your positions on opposite sides of the negotiating table. 'ou will find this much more beneficial in the long term. Jor e/ample, letFs assume that the negotiation dialogue had followed all the positi&e, collaborati&e criteria we ha&e discuss so far, yet you still had come to an impasse on salary and remained fi&e thousand pounds apart. )t this point you certainly do not want negotiations to break down. 4resenting a &iable option or compromise would probably allow the process to continue, but it would be up to you to take the ne/t step. 'ou might suggest, What if we looked at the some other options", and direct the negotiations to other compensation areas such as incenti&es, bonuses or per(uisites.


The image you present has ne&er been more important, and first impressions last. #tFs easy to see why. *utward appearance is the only way in which we can make an instant impression when meeting people for the first time. We often ha&e to create the right image within a few minutes. #n these situations, people siCe each other up &ery (uickly indeed. )nd as an indi&idualFs skills, talents and personalities take much longer to become apparent, your image is the only SweaponF you ha&e. *ur society is more image conscious than e&er and the pressure to look right has ne&er been greater. ) recruiter or +ead;hunter will sum you up in the first <0 seconds and that determines &ery much how the inter&iew will go. !irst impressions are made by3 The way you stand, sit and walk. What you are wearing. +ow you speak. The way you stand, sit and walk +a&e you noticed how most celebrities in politics and public life mo&e on TA? They sit and stand straight and walk purposefully at a steady pace. They rarely touch their clothing i.e., straighten their ties, pull at their trousers or skirts, fiddle with their cuffs, etc. They ha&e been trained not to! 'ou should do all this before appearing at any meeting or inter&iew. )dmittedly celebrities ha&e image consultants and others constantly ad&ising them. 1ut if impro&ement is needed, dramatic results can be achie&ed with a little study and $udicious practice. There are many books a&ailable on the sub$ect.

"hat you are wearing The cut and colour of your clothes, your hairstyle, and e&en your briefcase, handbag or make; up 7in the case of women8 are &aluable tools in communicating your professionalism, talent and dynamism. 0enerally speaking professional men and women applying for a senior position should wear dark plain suits. Jor men, s(ueaky clean, well;cut shirts should accompany these with cuffs showing. 6olour of suit, shirt, tie and breast pocket handkerchief and socks should harmoniCe. *ne can be (uite bold with colour, but not garish! ?ecent studies show that while )merican businessmen buy an impressi&e a&erage - suits each per year, 0erman men 2 suits and Jrench men ,.-Pthe 1ritish male purchases a mere half a suit per year E so thereFs still some catching up to do. +air should also be &ery clean and well cut. 5ails short and well kept. Jor women, plain stretch tops or &ery plain, preferably white shirts are much better than fussy blouses. Tailored trouser suits are now perfectly acceptable but they should be well cut. Skirts should not be too short and hair should be tied back and not fall in your face. 'ou might be sending out the wrong messages if you do so! 0ood, well;kept shoes are essential as are, of

course, perfect tights. +andbag and briefcase should be in peak condition. 9ake;up should be up to date but discreet. !ewellery kept to a minimum. 5o dangling earrings! Some perfumes can be (uite strong and penetrating E so ask a relati&e about yours. )gain, it should be very discreet. 9ary Spillane, :irector of 691 #mage 6onsultants and ad&iser to top international e/ecuti&es and prominent political figures, has an interesting answer for those who maintain that such concentration on image is unnecessary. When we first meet new peopleL @@J of the impact we make on this is via the way we dress, act and walk through the door. >EJ via the &uality of your voice, our accent, use of grammar and overall confidenceN and a mereO CJ from what we actually say. So thereFs a great deal we can communicate before we e&en open our mouths." 1ut $ust how do we appear professional, creati&e or international? #snFt it $ust a case of wearing a pinstripe suit, or a matching shirt and tie, or a&oiding mini;skirts? To a certain e/tent, yes. 1ut thereFs more to looking the part than simply playing it safe. )nd e&en the most conser&ati&e of professionals has scope for a little flair. +ere are some tipsL ress for success E ,0 points from image e/pert 9ary Spillane ,. *utward appearance is important ; you ne&er get a second chance to make a first impression. 2. 'our clothes are the packaging for your product E yourself. )nd (uality packaging implies a (uality product. G. ?emember the colour rules ; e/periment with colours to match your skin>eye>hair tones. #f necessary go to a colour consultant. I. #tFs not only women who ha&e to worry about hair and good grooming. -. Booking professional and reliable doesnFt mean you canFt e/press your indi&iduality. 'our profession will dictate how far you can go in the use of colours and patterns. <. 9en ; a&oid pre;matched shirts and ties, and instead wear plain>strip>pattern combinations. K. Women ; 6hoose softer colours and fabrics and a&oid se&ere suits. =. Spend as much as you can afford on clothes. 1uy (uality clothes which last ; it will be cheaper in the long run. H. ?emember --. of the initial impact we make when meeting new people is achie&ed through our dress and outward appearance ; only K. through what we actually say. ,0. #f you look the part and feel good about your appearance you will pro$ect a more confident and professional image. 1ow you speak When you speak before an audience or at an inter&iew, make sure your breathing and your pausing is right. Take your time and practice! 4repare what you ha&e to say and put it to paper. 4referably in neat sections and put each section on a different card or piece of paper. 5umber these and put them in the right order.4ractice in front of a mirror or e&en better with a TA or &ideo camera. :o not read from the paper E $ust glance at it and remember your lines.

"e have now come to the (formal) part of the manual. The processes we have set out have been designed to help you take a much more structured approach to career development and;or *ob hunting. As we said on the front cover

The content of this manual is entirely free to use. All we ask is that if you do find it of benefit to you you consider making a contribution, whatever you wish, to the Philippines isaster !und Appeal "e would also like you to forward it to anyone who you feel may benefit from it.

Thank you and good luck in your career
/ind regards


APP-0 #C-.

Appendi$ % Appendi$ '

2our achievement stories Asignments % and '

Also covered in the Appendi$ are34 • • • • • • • .ample Motivating Getters .ample referral #nterview Kuestions +eferral Meeting +eport !orm Market Campaign +eport !orm .ample thank you letter .ample referral Getters to Contacts .ample letters of Application

APP-0 #H % T1- .TB+#-. B! M2 .<CC-.. The first step is to consider your past achie&ements. )n achie&ement is not necessarily a moment when you made the world hold its breath, but a task or pro$ect which you tackled successfully, and from which you drew some satisfaction. :o not discount it merely because it was only part of my $ob", or # was only doing what # was paid to" 5ow choose ,0 of these achie&ements and write about a page on each, using action words. #n particular, say what you actually did to achie&e the successful outcome. 'ou may find it helpful to adopt the rough structure ofL hat was the situation !"#$% ........ result !"#$% hat & did about it !'#$%....... hat was the

Try also to say why you found the achie&ement satisfying. #f you ha&e difficulty remembering, you may find that your partner will be able to assist. 'our achie&ements may come from any aspect of life, although we would encourage you to select more from work. !(ote) *or the purpose of this exercise you will have to set aside some of the rules you have learnt about writing style, especially those relating to report writing. &n particular, do not try to avoid using +&..., - indeed, the more you use it the better, for we want to .now what actions you too. !or shared in% to ma.e the achievement possible. The two attached examples may help you to understand what is wanted%. +egained and maintained Company profile and credibility with distributor network and retail customers. The company had traditionally been production;orientated and, with an 9: who &irtually refused to &isit customers, was seen as cold, arrogant and detached at the most senior le&els. # belie&ed that this was a ma$or shortcoming and set up a programme personally to change customer attitudes. This in&ol&ed targeting specific key customers with the ob$ecti&e of building personal relationships through regular business meetings and social contacts. # further encouraged all sales managers to in&ol&e me, where&er possible, when they had &isitors to the factory, and arranged an ambitious programme of $oint customer calls to e/plain company ob$ecti&es and, more importantly, to be seen to be asking (uestions and listening. )dditionally, # accepted all in&itations to speak and present to trade bodies, contractors, architects and customer references. # concei&ed the idea of a club" for the key 20. of indirect, independent retailers in order to get closer to our front;line customers. This included special promotions, point of sale material, competitions 7eg. ?etailer of the 'ear8 and a regular club bulletin. # briefed the marketing department to select and instruct an appropriate agency to work up the detail. Through this commitment to personal contact and interpersonal skills, we dramatically impro&ed the perception of the business in the eyes of the trade.

P1BG #0G T1- !B+T= # had been a solicitor about si/ months when my boss had to be away for eight weeks, so that # suddenly had to Shold the fortF in his absence. )s he was demanding, and technically strong, # was somewhat ner&ous at the prospect. :uring this time a prospecti&e land purchase by one of our largest clients came to a head. +a&ing read the papers, and it being agreed by another partner that # should handle the case myself, # met our client and asked a few probing (uestions about the situation and personalities in&ol&ed. # felt that my client would gain a better deal if he appeared reluctant, and that the risk of losing the deal was small. The client accepted my ad&ice and the negotiations followed the course # had predicted. The client was (uietly impressed as he took the trouble to mention to my boss on his return that # seemed to be a chip off the same block", which # took to be praise indeed.

Appendi$ '

Assignments % and ' A..#G0M-0T % ,. Go through each achievement story you ha&e written and underline each /-2 action word 7appro/imately< to = per achie&ement8 2. Prepare a fre&uency chart 7as shown below8 listing in the left hand column e&ery word that you ha&e underlined, and then counting the number of times it has been used in that achie&ement. Write a total in the appropriate column in the chart as shown in the e/ample below. "B+ % Manage 0egotiate G , ' , , , > ? 2 G AC1#-5-M-0T @ 2 , G A C E , F 2 , %I , %' %% TBTAG

6omplete the e/ercise for all underlined words. G. Jrom the total column prepare a list of words in descending order according to their scores. e.g. 9anage ,2 5egotiate :ecide ,, ,0 etc.,

I. Prepare a motivated word list from the list complied in G 7abo&e8, by looking at each word and assessing it in terms of whether you are comfortable with it or not, or if it does not matter to you either way, 7see e/ample below8. -$ample Gike 9anage 5egotiate :ecide 4raise -. "rite out @I 8yes @I9 blue sky ob*ectives. i.e. anything you ha&e e&er wanted to do. 'ou do not feel you ha&e been competent to do it, $ust that you ha&e a wish to do it. @I;@I islike

A..#G0M-0T ' #. 0roup the words, which are similar in meaning in the moti&ated word list together. 4ut these into about I to < groups and assign a general title to each. ) list of possible group headings is shown on the attached sheet. These word groups with your words identify each of your @2' 35#N32 )1#B#T#2S.

Typical /ey <ni&ue Ability groups 9anagement 6ommunication 4roblem Sol&ing 4lanning and organisation 4eople de&elopment 6reati&ity

2. Book at each the word group and write out a @2' 35#N32 )1#B#T' statement for each group along the following lines using the words in the group as far as possibleL # ha&e the ability to do something to someone or thing in a particular way. Think about the statement carefully, because it states how you do things as opposed to the way other people do them. Jor instance, many people ha&e a generic title e.g. 9anaging :irectorD Sales 9anagerD 4roduction 9anagerD etc. but if you think of se&eral e/amples of the people you ha&e worked with who held the same title, you will know how each of the did their $ob in a different way, i.e. displayed different abilities in doing the $ob. The purpose of this e/ercise is to get you to understand how you do things in your own way. These indi&idual abilities are your @2' 35#N32 )1#B#T#2S or @3)%s as we call them. The $ob you will be happiest and most successful in will be the one where you use your @ey 3ni(ue )bilities. G. When you ha&e completed these @3) statements place them in a moti&ated order with your strongest first. I. Book at the Aalidity 6heck as shown on the form below. 4repare a grid as shown. -. Jollow the instructions on the Aalidity 6heck and circle the best e/ample of your @3). <. Write a short prRcis of that circled e/ample as followsL WG0>I0 words WStating what you did and how you did it WNuantifying the result e.g. as a result # decreased o&erheads by 20. and by I0. increased profit

K. ?epeat the e/ercise for the ne/t best e/ample. This will gi&e you two e/amples for each @3). #f you do not ha&e a suitable e/ample included in the ,0 then think of a new one. =. 6omplete the attached form for your #deal Junctional ?ole. .pecial note #f you find this a hard e$ercise to complete, revisit the achievement stories and really re4e$amine how you (made things happen)

5alidity check 1efore completing the &alidity check, refine the 3ni(ue )bilities. Then ask yourself is this really me? #f not then re;work until you are satisfied. 'ou must be happy and at ease with the 3ni(ue )bilities. The purpose of the Aalidity 6heck isL

• • • • •

To know and understand your accomplishments and your 3ni(ue )bilities &ery thoroughly. To prepare you for the $ob market by enabling you to talk confidentially about yourself. To assist you in analysing your own effecti&eness and reinforce your confidence. To enable you to clarify your $ob ob$ecti&e. To assist you de&elop your resume.

Bist your @3)Fs below and then look through your achie&ement stories and identify where each has been demonstrated. 4ut a tick in the s(uare where the @3) is demonstrated in that story and circle the 2 best e/amples. Achievement story /<A=s % ' > ? @ A C E F %I

0ow write out an #deal !unctional +ole # want a $ob whichL :e&elop this #deal Junctional ?ole so that it isL W5ot more than -0 words long, preferably less. W6ontains all the 3ni(ue )bilities. W6ontains a ma$or statement, i.e. a point of focus

0ote 6 once again, do not be concerned if you feel that you are not being precise enough or have a very clear idea of -HACTG2 what you want to do in your career. The first part of your marketing campaign will help you focus much more clearly on career options, when you have spoken to people.

+-!-++AG G-TT-+. TB CB0TACT. +-!-++AG G-TT-+ 4 P+#MA+2 CB0TACT :ear )lan, !ust for once, #Fm writing you a letter! 9y reason is that you ha&e a uni(ue position in the distribution field, and # should like your ad&ice as to where # might make a more effecti&e contribution with my ne/t career step. *ne thing # must make clear is that # am not asking you for a position, nor am # e/pecting you to know one, but # do know that your ad&ice would be in&aluable. The enclosed resume will, # feel, gi&e you a picture of my background which you may not know in its entirety. 'our opinions would be greatly appreciated on a &ariety of points, such as my ob$ecti&e, my presentation, areas in which # should concentrate my efforts, and so on. #%ll gi&e you a ring in the ne/t few days to arrange a meeting ; # do hope you%ll be able to find a space in your crowded diary. 1est wishes to 9ary and yourself. 'ours sincerely,

+-!-++AG G-TT-+ 4 P+#MA+2 CB0TACT :ear !ohn, Since we last met, some eighteen months ago #%m sorry to say, # see that 4aul ?oot%s recent 4ersonnel 9anagement article on ethnic minorities has endowed you with Xprofessional immortalityX, (uoting your article on integrating the multi;racial workforce as a reference source ; 6ongratulations! 9ore seriously, though, this letter has been inspired by my realisation that, as my first boss, you had a profound influence on the de&elopment of my professional e/pertise and outlook as 4ersonnel 9anager. )t this time, feeling at a cross;roads in my career and now in my thirties, # should like to call on your help once again ; for ad&ice and informed comment on my intention to seek my ne/t career mo&e. This re(uest is in no way an approach for a position within your organisation, nor do # e/pect you to know of one elsewhere. #nstead, in &iew of your wealth of understanding and e/perience in the personnel function, your ad&ice and suggestions on such things as my ob$ecti&e, general presentation and areas of opportunity would be &ery &aluable. To bring you up to date, # am enclosing a copy of the resume # ha&e prepared ; on which, incidentally, # should also welcome your &iews as to its effecti&eness. @nowing from the past how busy you are likely to be, and to a&oid correspondence, # will telephone you in a few days with a &iew to arranging a short meeting when con&enient to you. 'ours sincerely,

+-!-++AG G-TT-+ 4 +-!-++Private and Confidential :ear 9r 1ycroft,


!ohn Willard has suggested # contact you.1ecause of your own successful career both in the )d&ertising )gency world and more recently in client company organisations, !ohn felt that you would be the most able to gi&e me really helpful and constructi&e ad&ice. 9y situation is that # am seeking to change and de&elop my career after fifteen successful years in the )gency business, primarily handling J960 accounts. # must emphasise that # am not e/pecting you to ha&e a $ob or e&en know of a $ob opportunity for me. What would really be most helpful to me is to obtain a deeper insight into present acti&ities and future trends in the so;called Ser&ice #ndustries. The leisure world of sailing is one area that # ha&e so far identified as a good target, but # am interested in in&estigating and researching other areas, and # belie&e that you could help me to identify them. !ust twenty minutes of your time would be &ery much appreciated, and # will ring you shortly to arrange a con&enient time. ) copy of my resume is enclosed, which # hope you will find informati&e. # &ery much look forward to meeting you. 'ours sincerely,

+-!-++AG G-TT-+ 4 +-!-++Private and Confidential :ear 9r Thain,


# am writing to you at the suggestion of 1rian 6onway of the 0rimsby 1uilding Society, who has suggested that you may be able to help me. )t the moment # feel # am at a watershed in my career, and am acti&ely e/ploring options of the future. *ne possibility that has been suggested to me is that since # ha&e a background in professional training # should consider the Jinancial Ser&ices sector where, it is felt, training is urgently needed, especially in the light of the new challenges that many organisations are currently facing.# belie&e that you, as 6hief 2/ecuti&e of one of the most prestigious companies in this sector, ha&e the e/perience and perspecti&e to gi&e me particularly useful ad&ice. # must stress that # am not e/pecting you to ha&e a $ob for me in your organisation, not to know of anywhere else where there is a suitable &acancy, but # should be most grateful for your ad&ice. # enclose a copy of my resume that will show you something of my abilities and e/perience. # realise that you are &ery busy and shall not take up more than twenty minutes of your time. # suggest # telephone your office in the ne/t few days to make an appointment. # look forward to meeting you. 'ours sincerely,

APP-0 #H

.AMPG- G-TT-+. B! APPG#CAT#B0 = 2lm ?oad :idcot Somerset <th !anuary 2002

:r. @ +enderson Baboratory 9anager 4entagon 6hemicals Btd 5ewtown Bancs 92= G3S :ear :r. +enderson,

# am replying to your ad&ertisement in X6hemistry in 1ritainX, !anuary 2002 for an *rganic 6hemist, because this position closely fits my (ualifications and e/perience. # match my (ualifications to your re(uirements as followsL; 2our re&uirements 0ood basic training and (ualifications in *rganic 6hemistry. My &ualifications 4h. :. in 4olymer Science. 1tec 7+ons8 in 6hemistry, specialising in *rganic 6hemistry. 4ractical and applied shirt;slee&ed 6hemist with e/perience of Nuality 6ontrol, 4rocess and 4roduct :e&elopment and 6ustomer Ser&ice. 4lant commissioning production work is included in ,0 years e/perience in the 6hemical #ndustry co&ering a wide range of chemicals.

4ractical shirt;slee&e 6hemist to assume slee&ed responsibility for certain aspects of Nuality 6ontrol, 4rocess and 4roduct :e&elopment and 6ustomer Ser&ice. 4re&ious e/perience in the 6hemical industry would be an ad&antage.

you will obser&e from my resume, which # enclose, that my main areas of strength include an inno&ati&e approach to problem sol&ing together with the ability to communicate to achie&e defined ob$ecti&es. # also ha&e e/perience of managing laboratory and production staff. # am attracted to this $ob because # can make a ma$or contribution in the areas of Nuality 6ontrol, 4rocess and 4roduct :e&elopment and 6ustomer Ser&ice with an e/panding company such as yours. # look forward to meeting you soon to discuss my application. 'ours sincerely,

4 ) 4ersonnel Ser&ices West 4ark +ouse West 4ark 1irmingham :ear Sirs, +e3 Production Management Appointments # apply for the post of 4roduction 9anager as ad&ertised in the :aily Telegraph of Ith !anuary 2002. 4lease find enclosed my resume, which supports my application. # ha&e particular skills in the management of people, the efficient operation of plant and de&elopment programmes, together with a facility with facts and figures. These skills are well supported by technical ability, pro&en success at problem sol&ing, and communications. # summarise below my (ualifications against the re(uirements stated in the ad&ertisementL 2our re&uirements 2fficient operation of production and engineering functions. My &ualifications ?esponsible for a M,.-m. in&estment programme o&er the last two years, resulting in sa&ings of M,m. p.a. on operating costs. #ntroduced micro;processors in direct 6ontrol of sections of the plant at a cost of M2.2k, sa&ing M2Ik p.a. #n first line management role impro&ed morale and discipline from worst to best on site. )s 4rocess 9anager, # was responsible for 200 people with G departmental 9anagers. #mpro&ed industrial relations, negotiated ,0. reduction in manning le&els, sa&ed M,20k p.a.

#dentify and recommend impro&ed production methods and plant utilisation programme.

9an;management skills

:irecting workforce through local management teams.

)bility to identify problems and formulate cost;effecti&e solutions

+a&e impro&ed plant design and operating procedures consistently by applying scientific study and modeling techni(ues. Si/ years% production management e/perience in a continuous process industry with many contacts with the food and drink packaging industry.

Jour years% e/perience in similar roles in food processing.

)s well as the foregoing, the following points are rele&ant to my applicationL Senior manufacturing appointment #n my last position # was a member of a senior group of three managers reporting to the 0eneral 9anager making policy decisions on all matters affecting production. Successful 3@ fmcg group whose leading brands are household names Success is important to me and my recent career history demonstrates a record of

achie&ement and promotion. 5umber of modern capital;intensi&e plants throughout 2ngland # ha&e tra&eled e/tensi&ely to &arious sites in the 3@, 1elgium and Spain as well as to suppliers in the 3@, Jrance and the 3S), and to customers throughout the 3@. Jorward programme of in&estment in new plant and e(uipment Se&eral years% e/perience both as a pro$ect engineer and as de&elopment manager, successfully controlling capital pro$ects of indi&idual &alue up to M2-0@. +a&e successfully negotiated with and controlled e/ternal contractors and consultants. # am &ery enthusiastic about the challenge and opportunity the position presents and # look forward to applying the skills and e/perience # ha&e ac(uired to de&elop the further aims of the 6ompany. # look forward to discussing the position further with you in greater depth. 'ours faithfully,

9rs A :owling Trans;World Transport +igh Street ?eigate ?T2 I++ :ear 9rs :owling, +e3 Commercial Bperations irector

Sunday Times, Grd !anuary 2002 # am applying for the abo&e position and enclose my c.&. in support. # ha&e been in&ol&ed in the road haulage industry at a senior le&el for ten years and in shipping for a further three. # am e/perienced in start;up operations, labour negotiations and managerial and financial controls. # am used to leading from the front and ha&e a &isible leadership style. #n thinking about this post, # ha&e tried to list the most significant attributes needed and how # match up to them as follows. 2/perienced top le&el 9anager in ?oad Transport. Ten years in road transport as 0eneral 9anager. 6ommercial director of &arious companies within a ma$or multinational. Set up new operation on dock site in @ent, produced profit after si/ months, first year turno&er M--,000. ?elaunched merged company after operational and managerial changes. :ouble customer base to <0 in first year by personal effort and attention to maintained ser&ice le&el. #ntroduced new ser&ices, increasing turno&er by a further M-00k in second year of operation. :i&ersified group by mo&ing from general haulage to parcels sector E return on sales increased from 2. to ,0..

6reator of companies.

6ustomer de&elopment and ser&ice.

6ompany de&elopment.

2/perience of port and &essel operations.

Set up an unaccompanied trailer operation to +olland from Sheerness in ,HK- using new *lau Bine ser&ice. Set up and negotiated all price and rate schedules E controlled sales staff of si/ to eliminate o&er;discountingD negotiated all supply contracts. :e&ised and installed monthly management accounts packages, set up and controlled by operating and capital budgets.

4ricing and commercial negotiations.

Jinancial 6ontrols.

9y family mo&ed to this area from 5orth @ent fi&e years ago, and would welcome an

opportunity to return. # am familiar with the business, which you are setting up, and ha&e a blend of practical, theoretical and managerial skills that can make a positi&e contribution to the de&elopment of your business. # look forward to an early meeting when we can discuss my application further. 'ours sincerely,


Appointment +ef3 0%>''A;.T3 Marketing


# refer to your ad&ertisement in the Sunday Times and wish to apply as # belie&e my skills, abilities and e/perience e/actly match the re(uirements of this important new position. 1elow, # ha&e identified the key !ob and 4ersonal factors and produced a concise summary of my capabilities against each oneL .timulate Customer #nterest # am completely familiar with all communication techni(ues within the media, sales;promotion, incenti&e, sponsorship, e/hibition, direct marketing, &ideo and 4? functions, their indi&idual strengths, weaknesses and effecti&eness related to specific marketing ob$ecti&es and opportunities. Within the )utomoti&e Sector, # ha&e been responsible for two successful multi;media 5ew 6ar launches in the 3@, the most successful launch of a car Jranchise in 2ire in the ,H=0%s, plus literally doCens of tactical campaigns at 5ational, ?egional and :ealer le&el featuring both tactical, short;term promotions 7e.g. low cost financeD no depositD buy now pay laterD car as full deposit %deals%8 and longer term product;based ; %branding% acti&ity. Co4ordinate a Marketing Policy that is now !ragmented # know that an integrated approach to marketing can pro&ide a ma/imum return on e/penditure and create the most solid foundation for continued future success. # ha&e pro&ed that only by establishing clear guidelines for implementing each element of the adopted marketing mi/, monitoring effecti&eness and adapting as necessary to cope with market changes and abo&e all, communicating regularly and effecti&ely with rele&ant personnel, particularly :ealership 0eneral 9anagers in a multi;site, multi;product company such as your 6lient, can an integrated marketing plan be effecti&ely controlled.

Conception Q #mplementation of #nnovative and cost4effective Marketing #nitiatives # ha&e o&er ,G years e/perience of formulating, briefing, presenting and implementing abo&e and below the line acti&ity within a budget spectrum from almost Cero, to o&er MG,K-0,000 in a two month period featuring a multi;media approach. # appreciate fully the associated costs and timing implications related to each a&ailable communication option and where&er possible, clearly establish beforehand the criteria upon which the effecti&eness of the e/penditure will be assessed. !urther efine and -$tend Customer Profile

# ha&e e/tensi&e knowledge of effecti&e use of customer database and the &alue of regular contact in a rele&ant, customer retention scheme using direct marketing techni(ues. # understand how to best use the &arious consumer research methods and appreciate the role and contribution of geo;demographic, socio;demographic and census data. # concei&ed and de&eloped a uni(ue, highly successful dealer micro;marketing strategy by linking such data to S99T > 9#A?#S postcode registration and media penetration information.

Proven Marketeer ; .enior +ole in Advertising Agency # was a 9ain 1oard :irector, 4artner at the top 20 0raham 4oulter 4artnership plc for eight years, 9anaging :irector of 0eddes )d&ertising and 9arketing for almost two years and, most recently, 9arketing :irector of Bumley #nsurance 6onsultants. # am a 9ember of the 6hartered #nstitute of 9arketing. # ha&e e/tensi&e knowledge of the motor industry, being )ccount :irector on Bada 6ars for o&er ten years, 2?J Trucks for three years as well as launching Tudor Aehicle #mports in ,H=0, directing and managing the 1arr and Wallace )rnold Trust 9otors, 6orby 9otors 7,HH,8 Btd and Bumley 2/tended Warranty and used car 91# )ccounts.

1ighly Creative ; Commercially Astute 2/amples of my entrepreneurial approach combined with an inherent ability to spot and assess an opportunity, generate ideas and translate them into structured briefs resulting in inno&ati&e yet effecti&e solutions are to be found throughout my marketing career. This success has always gone hand;in;hand with my constant pursuit of profitability and cost reduction, using my knowledge and e/perience of costs pre&iously incurred, recruitment and de&elopment of key staff in specialist functions and my own planning and negotiation skills. # am proud of my track record of profitability which can be matched by few of my peers. istinctly 1ands4Bn Approach )lthough a 9ain 1oard :irector for the past ten years, my management style of leading from the front and being completely in&ol&ed in the control, checking, organising and implementation of current and future programmes, plus my capabilities of moti&ation, thri&ing under pressure and staying power to see the pro$ect through to its re(uired conclusion, combined with my own personal 9ission Statement of %)lways doing my best ; ne&er $ust enough%, ha&e been the foundation of my success.

Management of .ubstantial Marketing 7udget # ha&e controlled marketing budgets in e/cess of o&er MK00,000 since ,HKK and for the twel&e months ended G,>K>H0 with an M=,I-0,000 in&oiced e/penditure le&el, Bada 6ars de&eloped into the largest single ad&ertising account outside Bondon. 2ach of its myriad indi&idual programmes was allocated a budget and control systems for constant monitoring and adherence to the agreed sum were originated and implemented. *n the occasions where potential o&er;budget ramifications were identified, clear and speedy communication took place with the parties concerned to either agree the incremental benefits outweighed the e/tra cost or the sourcing of an alternati&e solution to keep within budget. .trong #nfluencing and Commercial .kills # ha&e highly de&eloped communication and presentation skills at all le&els. 9y infectious enthusiasm, and en(uiring, analytical mind and thorough preparation and planning ha&e pro&ed to be an effecti&e combination for instilling confidence into my team members, peer, superiors and e&en the most sceptical :ealer 4rincipals. )s a ma$or multi;franchise operation, the establishment of a close working relationship with each 9anufacturer > 6oncessionaire to be aware of future acti&ity on each aspect of their Jranchise, negotiation of specialist support, ma/imisation of margins and optimum use of their resource and facilities, and integrating this into your 6lient%s own marketing plan will be a key element in the success created by the holder of this new post. # ha&e had considerable success in helping dealers incorporate both aspects into one cohesi&e programme.

# ha&e also firsthand e/perience of the benefits accruing from a structured training programme ; a &ital element of success in a traditionally high staff turno&er market sector and particularly when an acti&e ac(uisition policy is a core growth element. To ensure similar standards throughout the 0roup are maintained and raised, a comprehensi&e training programme is &ital, as the professionalism of the dealership staff in (ualifying and con&incing potential customers to by, the handling of complaints and (ueries and the care and attention gi&en to customers in after;sales is increasingly influential on the reputation of each dealership within its own catchment area and to the 0roup as a whole. The scale, scope and &ariety of the challenges that this new position will create for the successful candidateD the skills, e/perience, diligence and commitment that will be re(uired to meet themD the en$oyment, satisfaction and future personal prospects that will ensue from the resultant success of these efforts is a combination that appeals to me more than e&en the world%s best copywriter could e/plain on paper. # know that # ha&e the personal skills, intellect, e/perience and e/pertise to create the le&el of success sought by your client and # am certain that my work ethic and demeanor will be highly compatible with their own. # look forward to meeting you to discuss this opportunity further and enclose my 6areer ?esume together with a recent 0raphologist%s personality assessment to supplement my letter of application. 'ours sincerely,


Appointment +ef3 0%>''A ; .T 3 Marketing


Thank you for a stimulating inter&iew yesterday in connection with the abo&e position for your client ; the 9otor :i&ision of T 6owie plc. +a&ing reflected at length on the content of our discussion, particularly related to my direct in&ol&ement with marketing at indi&idual automoti&e dealership le&el, # thought it rele&ant to itemise in a little more detail, some of the acti&ities # ha&e undertaken which # consider to be particularly rele&ant in this respectL Y 6onsumer and business;to;business ad&ertising in all formats of national, regional and local media for new and used &ehicles 7both strategic XbrandX acti&ity and tactical XdealX campaigns8, parts, accessories, ser&icing, insurance and e/tended warranties. Y #ndi&idual dealership consumer media selection analysis in&ol&ing prioritisation of allocated territory postcodes based on analysing e/isting and potential registration performance using 9A?#S registration data, demographic data and media household penetration information. Y Jormulation and deli&ery of a dealer training programme on ad&ertising effecti&eness. Y 6orporate new dealership launch programme incorporating the facility for appropriate personalisation related to indi&idual dealership needs. Y 6ustomer loyalty programmes featuring database marketing. Y 2/isting and potential customer follow;up and prospecting systems. Y #mplementation of a network product liability training programme. Y #ncenti&e schemes for all le&els of dealership personnel. Y 5ew product de&elopment research and launches in the 3@ and launch of a Jranchise new to 2ire. Y )d;hoc and on;going consumer research programmes to ascertain satisfaction with both product and e/perience of dealerships. Y Signage schemes ; internal and e/ternal. Y 4oint of sales systems ; internal and e/ternal, short and long term. Y 6orporate, product and dealership literature ; brochures, price lists, dealer directories, ser&ice manuals, salesman%s product guides, and reference manuals on used car marketing, product liability, promotional acti&ity and (uarterly campaign administration documents. W *n;going promotional items ; rear window stickers, license holders, key fobs, demonstrator car kits, bunting, flags. Y )d;hoc open day promotional items ; in&itations, hats, badges, balloons, childrenFs% colouring forms, competition entry forms, test dri&e in&itations, &ideos, short; lists of celebrities, specific attractions and suggested priCes. Y 5ation;wide, themed promotional days > e&ents for an entire dealership network. Y ?egional and national dealer meetings, presentations and international con&entions. Y 5ational, regional and local e/hibitions. Y Test dri&e days 7particularly I;wheel dri&e &ehicles8.

*ne of the key factors in this position creating success, certainly in the short and medium term, is establishing the credibility and benefits accruing from the establishment of a professionally organised and co;ordinated marketing function, especially in &iew of the e/istence of most $ustifiable pride in the high le&el of past achie&ements without such a facility. The confidence, respect and support of the :i&ision%s senior staff and, in particular, the dealership 0eneral 9anagers must be gained as (uickly as possible and then consolidated upon. # belie&e that my straightforward, logical, no;nonsense yet infectiously enthusiastic approach and natural affinity with senior automoti&e personnel which has worked so well for the past thirteen years, will continue to do so. 9y persuasi&e communication abilities in concei&ing and deli&ering tailor;made, more formal presentations using appropriate techni(ues, which comprehensi&ely address issues and command support or appro&al will also be of particular &alue in this task. +owe&er, the ultimate measurement of the success emanating from this position%s duties and responsibilities must be a reduction in ad&ertising cost per unit ; selling the same number of &ehicles at less cost, more &ehicles at the same cost or, ideally, more &ehicles at less cost! 9y comprehensi&e knowledge of media planning and buying and )d&ertising )gency creati&e, artwork, production, repro and print procedures, techni(ues and costs plus my hands;on approach will be in&aluable in planning and negotiating the best possible deals with appropriate indi&idual and > or centralised suppliers. 6ontinuous monitoring of best;buying performance and my successful approach to tight budgetary control will ensure that each cost is essential and is minimised. 6ombining such sa&ings with the rational selection of the most suitable media > channel of communication and highly effecti&e creati&e e/ecutions of an appropriate, benefit related message to the identified target audience will pro&ide the strongest foundation for achie&ing this ob$ecti&e. #n the final analysis howe&er, such acti&ity only generates awareness, interest, desire and ultimately showroom traffic ; it is then the responsibility of the professional sales team to (ualify each prospect and con&ert the action of dealership contact into firm sales and profit with subse(uent customer retention as a result of their complete satisfaction with the ser&ice offered and e/perienced. # trust that you find this supplementary information is of &alue and consolidates and strengthens my original application. # know # am capable of making a significant contribution to enhance further your 6lient%s 9otor :i&ision prospects and relish the thought of o&ercoming the many challenges that the successful candidate will face. +a&ing had such a fruitful and informati&e discussion with yourself, # am e&en more con&inced that my skills, e/perience and e/pertise match e/actly your 6lient%s re(uirements. # look forward with positi&e anticipation to meeting your 6lient when # genuinely hope that the final, mandatory considerations of personal synergy and work ethic compatibility will also become e&ident. 'ours sincerely,


:ear ....................., # am acti&ely seeking my ne/t career mo&e, which ideally will be Jinance :irector or Jinancial 6ontroller in the fast;mo&ing consumer goods sector. 9y career resume, a copy of which is enclosed, demonstrates a successful track record operating at 1oard le&el for more than ten years with ma$or organisations, including a 3S multi;national. Jor the last four years # ha&e been with Watney 9ann as :irector of Treasury *perations, ad&ising the 1oard on Treasury and 6ash 9anagement acti&ities, formulating financial policy and participating in the de&elopment of the business. # recently left following a reorganisation that would ha&e reduced my responsibilities, although # was offered a post in the new structure. # suspect you recei&e many unsolicited letters and are probably &ery busyD therefore, # do not e/pect you to reply or acknowledge this letter. # would re(uest, howe&er, that you hold my papers on current file for consideration when an appropriate assignment arises. Whether or not you ha&e an appropriate assignment, # would be pleased to meet you to discuss my career record and salary aspirations with you in more detail. 'ours sincerely,

APP-0 #H


:ear......................, This personal approach is made to you in the belief that my skills and e/perience in the field of e/port sales would be of &alue to you and may well match an employment need in your company on either a permanent or contract basis. 9y particular pro&en abilities include identifying and de&eloping o&erseas business opportunities, taking and fully implementing decisions, team leadership, and effecti&e communication at all le&els, including fluent Jrench and 0erman. 6urrently, # am with a ma$or 6hemicals company and, following two promotions, am 4roduct and Sales 9anager with responsibility for sales in )frica, Batin )merica and )ustralia. )mong my achie&ements ha&e been the planning and management of the re;launch of a ma$or product range in Batin )merica, achie&ing a near threefold increase in market share, and leadership of the sales team, resulting in a 2<. increase in turno&er in one year from MI.-m. to M-.Km. in a definite world trade recession and despite se&ere internal cutbacks. 4rior to $oining my present company, # was with a ma$or 1ritish car manufacturer for fi&e years, rising to the position of )rea Sales 9anager, in which # successfully managed the franchised distribution network to achie&e budgeted sales &olume and market share ob$ecti&es. #n personal terms, # am normally described as ha&ing an outgoing, enthusiastic personality, a logical mind, and a creati&e imagination. ) meeting with you would be welcomed to discuss whether my skills and abilities could make a significant contribution to your company, either now or in the future, and # look forward to hearing from you. 'ours sincerely,

• APP-0 #H +-!-++AG M--T#0G K<-.T#B0.

.ome <seful Kuestions +ow did you get in this $ob > fieldD what are the challenges it presents? What is the state of the industry sectorD growing > decliningD key players in that marketD future changes? Who does he talk to about industry problems > opportunities? #s my rRsumR clear to youD would it get me through your door? )re my skills rele&ant to your industry? or other fields > industries? What type of organisation > industry should # be looking at? What sort of organisational le&el > salary is realistic for me? What problems or difficulties will # e/perience? +ow can they be o&ercome? What industry specific publications should # read? )re people recruiting in the industry? What is the normal method of recruitment? Who will be interested in me?

APP-0 #H

+-!-++AG M--T#0G +-PB+T !B+M

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