Unit – I Modern Surveying Equipments

Revolutionary changes have taken place in last few years in surveying instruments that are used for measuring level differences, distances and angles. This has become possible because of introduction of electronics in these measurements. With rapid advancements in the technology and availability of cheaper and innovative electronic components, these instruments have become affordable and easy to use.

Digital Level:
Traditionally various types of levels have been used for measurement of elevation differences such as dumpy level, tilting level, automatic level etc. Recently electronic digital levels have evolved as a result of development in electronics and digital image processing. Digital levels use electronic image processing to evaluate the special bar-coded staff reading. The observer is in effect replaced by a detector diode array, which derives a signal pattern from the bar-coded leveling staff. This bar-coded pattern is converted into elevation and distance values using a digital image matching procedure within the instrument. Automatic data conversion eliminates personal errors in reading the staff and the field data is stored by the instrument on its recording medium, thus further eliminating booking errors Digital levels electronically read a bar-coded scale on the staff. These instruments usually include data recording capability. The automation removes the re uirement for the operator to read a scale and write down the value, and so reduces blunders. !t may also compute and apply refraction and curvature corrections. A digital level offers the following advantages compared to the conventional leveling and recording procedures"
#. %. '. ). *. +. ,. -.

$atigue-free observation as visual staff reading by the observer is not re uired. &ser friendly menus with easy to read, digital display of results. (easurement of consistent precision and reliability due to automation. Automatic data storage eliminates booking and its associated errors. Automatic reduction of data to produce ground levels, eliminating arithmetical errors. $ast, economic surveys resulting in saving in time. Data on the storage medium of the level can be downloaded to a computer enabling uick data reduction for various purposes. Digital levels can also be used as conventional levels with the help of dual marked staff.


Components of digital levels:
(ain components of digital level consist of two parts" .ardware /Digital level and leveling staff0 and 1oftware.
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2oth digital level and associated staff are manufactured so that they can be used for both conventional and digital operations. As mentioned earlier, digital leveling staves have dual marking. 3ne side is binary barcoded for digital recording. $or e4ample, 1okkia 1D5'6 uses a RA2 /RAndom 2idirectional 7ode0 staff. The other side is marked as the conventional staff for conventional staff reading. The staff is made from a glass-fiber-strengthened synthetic material with low coefficient of thermal e4pansion for high accuracy. $or highest precision work, !nvar bar coded staves are also available.

Typically digital level has the same optical and mechanical components as a normal automatic level. .owever, for the purpose of electronic staff reading a beam splitter is incorporated which transfers the bar code image to a detector diode array. $igure #.# shows components of a typical digital level /1choffield, %66%0. The light, reflected from the white elements only of the bar code, is divided into infrared and visible light components by the beam splitter. The visible light passes on to the observer, the infrared to diode array. The ac uired bar code image is converted into an analogous video signal, which is then compared with a stored reference code within the instrument. The image correlation procedure then obtains the height relationship by displacement of codes, while the distance from instrument to staff is dependent on the scale of code. The data processing is carried out on a microprocessor and the results are displayed on matri4 display. The measurement process is initiated by an interactive keypad and data can be stored onboard. Data from digital levels is stored onboard /e.g. R87 module 9R(#6, 9:7# with ;A%66%<%66' or on :7(7!A cards with Topcon D5 #6#7<#6%7 and D5 #6'<#6'A$0 and can be transferred to computer for further processing. $or e4ample, ;A %66% and %66' from 5eica 9eosystems use D85TA<58=;8T software which can carry out ad>ustment, profiling, instrument tests, etc. =arious capabilities of digital levels are as follows"
o o o o o o o

measuring elevation measuring height difference measuring height difference with multiple instrument positions leveling slope setting setting out with hori?ontal distance leveling of ceilings


Electronic Theodolite:
Theodolites or transits are used to measure hori?ontal angles. These have evolved as follows"
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=ernier theodolite /open face and =ernier e uipped instruments0

3ptical theodolite /enclosed with optical readouts with direct digital readouts or micrometer e uipped readouts0 '. 8lectronic theodolites /enclosed with electronic readouts0 8lectronic theodolites operate like any optical theodolite with one ma>or difference that these instruments have only one motion /upper0 and hence have only one hori?ontal clamp and slow motion screws.

Characteristics of electronic theodolites:
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Angle least count can be #@ with precision ranging from 6.*@ to %6@

Digital readouts eliminate the personal error associated with reading and interpolation of scale and micrometer settings. '. Display window<unit for hori?ontal and vertical angles available at either one or both ends. ). 1ome digital theodolites have modular arrangement where they can be upgraded to be a total station or have an 8D(! attached for distance measurements. *. =ertical circles can be set to ?ero for hori?on or ?enith along with the status of battery shown in the display window.

Typical specifications for digital theodolites:

#. %. '. ). *.

(agnification" %+A to '6A $ield of view /$3=0 #.*6. 1hortest viewing distance #.6 m Angle readouts, direct *@ to %6@ 5evel sensitivity" plate level vial )6@<% mm, circular level vial #6@<% mm

The following description provides specifications for Nikon electronic theodolite (NE-202/203):
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Digital angle display is user-switch-able from *@<#6@ to #@<*@ 2uilt-in vertical a4is compensator automatically compensates for instrument inclination within B 'C /;8-%6'0 Accuracy is *@ in *@ display mode. 5arge, dot-matri4 dual-line 57D screen displays both vertical and hori?ontal angles simultaneously. 57D screen and keyboard are placed on both sides of the alidade for easier operation Telescope magnification of '6A with a )* mm ob>ective aperture diameter. 8mploys a uni ue linear focusing mechanism to simplify focusing at both short and long distances. (inimum focusing distance of 6., m. Repeat hori?ontal angle measurement possible up to B#DDDE*DC**@

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Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMIs)

8D(!s were first introduced in #D*6Cs by 9eodimeter !nc. 8arly instruments were large, heavy, complicated and e4pensive. !mprovements in electronics have given lighter, simpler, and less e4pensive instruments. 8D(!s can be manufactured for use with theodolites /both digital and optical0 or as an independent unit. These can be mounted on standard units or theodolites or can also be tribrach mounted. The electronic methods depend on the value of velocity of 8lectromagnetic radiation /8(R0, which itself is dependent upon measurement of distance and time. .ence, there is no inherent improvement in absolute accuracy by these methods. The advantage is mainly functional - precise linear measurement can now be used for longer base lines, field operations can be simplified and trilateration can replace or augment triangulation.

Principle of EDMI
The general principle involves sending a modulated 8lectro-magnetic /8(0 beam from one transmitter at the master station to a reflector at the remote station and receiving it back at the master station. The instrument measures slope distance between transmitter and receiver by modulating the continuous carrier wave at different fre uencies, and then measuring the phase difference at the master station between the outgoing and the incoming signals. This establishes the following relationship for a double distance /%D0"

Where m is unknown integer number of complete wavelengths contained within double distance, FG is the measured phase difference and H is modulation wavelength, and k is constant. (ultiple modulation fre uencies are used to evaluate m , the ambiguity.

=arious 8D(!s in use are based on two methods" 5

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&sing timed pulse techni ues such as those used in variety of radar instruments. &sing measurements of a phase difference which may be e uated to one part of a cycle e4pressed in units of time or length.

:ulse methods have advantages over the phase difference methods but their weight and power re uirement is such that they cannot be classed lightweight portable instruments. (i) Pulse techni ues All such measurements incorporate a very precise measurement of time usually e4pressed in units of nanoseconds /#4#6-D s0, which a 8( wave takes to travel from one station to another. !n this method, a short, intensive pulse radiation is transmitted to a reflector target, which is immediately transmitted back to the receiver. As shown in $igure #.), the distance /D0 is computed as the velocity of light /=0 multiplied by half the time /It<%0 the pulse took to travel back to the receiver /D J = 4 It<%0.

(ii) Phase difference techni ues The relationship between wavelength and associated phase difference can be illustrated by the $igure #.* which shows that for a given complete cycle of 8( wave, the phase difference can be e4pressed both in terms of angular /degrees0 and linear /fraction of wavelengths0 units. !n phase difference method used by ma>ority of 8D(!, the instrument measures the amount KH by which the reflected signal is out of phase with the emitted signal /$igure #.+0.


Classification of EDMI
8D(! can be classified on the basis of three parameters " /i0 wavelength used /ii0 working range /iii0 achievable accuracy

Classification on the basis of wavelength :resent generation 8D(!s use the following types of wavelengths" 7

/a0 infrared /b0 laser /c0 microwaves The first two types of systems are also known as electro-optical whereas the third category is also called the electronic system.

8lectro-optical 1ystems
#. !nfrared 1ystems employing these fre uencies allow use of optical corner reflectors /special type of reflectors to return the signal, e4plained later0 but need optically clear path between two stations. These systems use transmitter at one end of line and a reflecting prism or target at the other end. 2. 5aser: These systems also use transmitter at one end of line and may or may not use a reflecting prism or target at the other end. .owever, the reflector-less laser instruments are used for short distances /#66 m to '*6 m0. These use light reflected off the feature to be measured /say a wall0.

8lectronic 1ystem

These systems have receiver<transmitter at both ends of measured line. (icrowave instruments are often used for hydrographic surveys normally up to #66 km. .ydrographic 8D(!s have generally been replaced by 9lobal :ositioning 1ystem /9:10 /9:1 has been e4plained in a separate module in these lectures0. These can be used in adverse weather conditions /such as fog and rain0 unlike infrared and laser systems. .owever, uncertainties caused by varying humidity over measurement length may result in lower accuracy and prevent a more reliable estimate of probable accuracy.

84istence of undesirable reflections and signal leakage from transmitter to the receiver re uires the use of another transmitter at the remote station /also called the slave station0. The slave station is operated at different carrier fre uency in order to separate two signals. This additional transmitter and receiver add to weight of e uipment. (ulti-path effects at microwave fre uency also add to slight distance error which can be reduced by taking series of measurements using different fre uency.

Classification on the basis of range 8

8D(!s are also available as"
#. %. '.

long range radio wave e uipment for ranges up to #66 km medium range microwave e uipment with fre uency modulation for ranges up to %* km short range electro-optical e uipment using amplitude modulated infra-red or visible light for ranges up to * km

Classification on the basis of accuracy Accuracy of 8D(! is generally stated in terms of constant instruments error and measuring error proportional to the distance being measured" B / a mm L ! ppm0. The first part in this e4pression indicates a constant instrument error that is independent of the length of the line measured. %. The second component is the distance related error.

.ere, a is a result of errors in phase measurements /M0 and ?ero error / "0, whereas ! results from error in modulation fre uency / f0 and the group refractive inde4 / ng0. The term group inde4 pertains to the refractive inde4 for a combination of waves- carrier wave and multiple modulated waves in 8D(!. M and " are independent of distance but f and ng are functions of distance and are e4pressed as

!n above e uations, N indicates the standard error. (ost 8D(! have accuracy levels from B /' mm L # ppm0 to B /#6 mm L #6 ppm0. $or short distances, part a is more significantG for long distances ! will have large contribution.

!elected electronic distance measuring instruments

("nderson and Mi#hail$ %&&')
Instrument !hort (ange D!#66# R8D ( ini % D(-.! D(-A* ;D %6<%# (D-#)<(D-%6 (A%66 ;D-%+ D!#+66 Intermediate (ange 9eodimeter %%6 D(-1%<D(-1'5 D!%66% R8D %A < R8D %5 5eica < Oern (8*666 D!3R '66%1 R8D %5= 8ldi #6 :ulsar *6 D! '6661 7riterian #66 Long (ange :ro 1urvey #666 Atlas %666 9eodimeter (RA , 5aser Atlanta 5aser Atlanta 9eotroincs ;avigation 5aser 5aser !nfrared (icrowave #-#6,666 ;o :rism, -*6 #-#6,666 ;o :rism, #,*66 6.%-#),666 #6-*6,666 B #66 mm B #66 mm B #66 mm B #66 mm B/* mm L # ppm0 B/#* mm L 'ppm0 9eotronics Topcon 5eica 1okkia 5eica 5eica 1okkia Peiss 9eo-$ennel 5eica 5aser Technology !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared 5aser !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared 5aser 6.%-%,'66 6.#*-%,)66 #-%,*66 %,66-',-66 %6-*,666 6-+,66 ;o :rism, '66 +,666 6.%-,,666 %--,666 #-D,666 #.*--,666 ;o :rism, )*, B /* mm L ' ppm0 B /* mm L ' ppm0 B /# mm L # ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /6.% mm L 6.% ppm0 B /'.* mm L 6.% ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /* mm L ' ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /' mm L # ppm0 B /D6 mm L *6 ppm0 5eica sokkia Topcan Topcan ;ikon :enta4 ;avigation 8lectronics ;ikon 5eica !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared !nfrared #--66 -66 6.#*--66 6.#*--66 ;<A-,66<#666 #-#,666<#,+66 #,+66 ;<A-%,666 #-',666 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /* mm L ' ppm0 B /# mm L % ppm0 B /* mm L ' ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /6.%* mm L 6.* ppm0 B /* mm L * ppm0 B /' mm L * ppm0 Manufacturer Emission source (ange (m) (!Ingle Prism) "ccuracy (mean s uare error)


Total !tation:
This is an electronic instrument. !n this instrument, all the parameters re uired to be observed during surveying can be obtained. The value of observation gets displayed in a viewing panel. The precision of this type of instrument varies in the order of 6.#@ to #6@.

These instruments can record hori?ontal and vertical angles together with slope distance and can be considered as combined 8D( plus electronic theodolite. The microprocessor in T1 can perform various mathematical operations such as averaging, multiple angle and distance measurements, hori?ontal and vertical distances, A, Q, P coordinates, distance between observed points and corrections for atmospheric and instrumental corrections. Due to the versatility and the lower cost of electronic components, future field instruments will be more like total stations that measure angle and distance simultaneously having" o all capabilities of theodolites o electronic recording of hori?ontal and vertical angles o storage capabilities of all relevant measurements /spatial and non-spatial attribute data0 for manipulation with computer. ;owadays surveying systems are available which can be use in an integrated manner with 9lobal :ositioning 1ystem /9:10. .ence, future theodolites<total stations may have integrated 9:1 receivers as part of the measurement unit. #enerall$ following t$pes of total stations are availa!le in the market:

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(echanical<manual T1" The conventional multipurpose manual T1 are used for routine works with powerful built-in applications program and are cheaper than the other types T1. (otori?ed T1" The motori?ed T1 are e uipped with servo to allow for fast, smooth and accurate aiming. This increases the productivity by about '6R. The servo technology enables automated measurement. $or e4ample, during angle measurement one can simply aim the instrument at each point. The instrument can then repeat the measurements automatically as may times as re uired. 1ervo e uipped T1 act as base for auto-lock and robotic surveying. Auto-lock T1" Auto-lock T1 allow for a semi-automatic measurement where measuring and recoding takes place at the T1. !n this case the instrument searches for an active remote positioning target /R(T0, locks to it and follows the target as it moves to different points. Auto-lock technology eliminates the need for time-consuming error prone focusing and allows you to work effectively even in poor and low visibility environment. !t improves the time efficiency by up to *6R. Automatic<Robotic T1" This a true one person surveying T1 and is ideal for surveying and stakeout operations. !n this T1, the control unit can be taken to the prism to record measurements and collect other data. 9enerally a radio communication is used between T1 and the prism. The control unit, battery, antenna and radio modem are integrated to allow full control over instrument and its operation. The prism used may be omnidirectional /usually for short distance up to *66 m0 which is always aligned to the 11

instrument or directional for longer distances. During stakeout, the control unit is used to move to point of interest. !t improves the time efficiency by up to -6R. !alient features of modern T! T1 is a fully integrated e uipment that captures all the spatial data necessary for a threedimensional position fi4. The angles and distances are displayed on a digital readout and can be recorded at the press of a button. =arious components of a typical T1 are shown in $igure '.' and are described below"

A typical T1 has the following characteristics"

9raphic display" All commands for survey operation as well as results are displayed on graphic 57D using alphanumeric keyboard. &sing built in software with menu and edit facilities, they automatically reduce angular and linear observations to three dimensional coordinates of the vector observed. Detachable control units are available on particular instruments. Dual a4is compensation " The dual a4is tilt sensor monitors any inclination of the standing a4is in both A- and Q-directions. These tilt sensors generally have range of ')* 7onse uently hori?ontal and vertical angle readings are free from error due to any deviation of the standing a4is from the perpendicular /$igure '.)0. The hori?ontal and vertical angles are automatically corrected, thus permitting single-face observations without loss of accuracy.


5eveling and centering" A few T1 have electronic display for leveling operation enabling rapid and precise leveling. The electronic leveling also eliminates errors caused by direct sunlight on plate bubbles. 5aser plummet are replacing the optical plummet. A clearly visible laser dot is pro>ected on to the ground that helps in uick and convenient centering of the instrument.

1torage " (ost T1 have on-board storage of records using :7(7!A memory cards of different capacity. The card memory unit can be connected to any e4ternal computer or to a special card reader for data transfer /$igure '.*0. The observations can also be downloaded directly into intelligent electronic data loggers. 2oth systems can be used in reverse to load information into the instruments. 1ome instruments and<or data loggers can be interfaced directly with a computer for immediate processing and plotting of the data. $riction clutch and endless drive" This eliminates the need for hori?ontal and vertical circle clamps plus the problem of running out of thread on slow motion screws. 9uide light or 5umi-guide tracking light " This arrangement is fitted above the telescope ob>ective lens and enables the target operator to maintain alignment when setting-out points. This system emits two visible beams of coherent red light, one steady and one blinking, enabling the rod-man to locate the correct line uickly and easily by finding the position where both are visible /$igure '.+0. This light changes colour when the operator moves off-line. With the instrument in the tracking mode, taking measurements every 6.' s, the guide light speeds up the setting-out 13

process. !t can also be used as a convenient signal to the rod-man, assists in one-man clearing of lines and work as a prism illuminator in night surveying.

(easurement modes " =ariety of measurement modes are available with T1 such as precise, acc%rate, and fast tracking, etc. These modes are result of a combination of accuracy and speed. Depending up on accuracy levels re uired and measurement times, the surveyor can choose an appropriate measurement mode. Automatic target recognition /ATR0" This facility ensures that the instrument will lock on to the active target /by using R(T" remote measurement target0. The instrument receives coded signal by !R diode on the R(T. !n this mode, the instrument automatically follows the reflector after the first measurement. The telescope is pointed in the general direction of the target, and the ATR module completes the fine pointing with e4cellent precision and minimum measuring time as there is no need to focus. !t can also be used on a moving reflector. A single key touch records all data without interrupting the tracking process. 3mni-direction /'+6 o0 prisms reflector are used for short distances which are always aligned automatically ensuring high accuracy /$igure '.,0. $or longer distances directional active targets are available. The ATR mode also allows operation in darkness. Reflectorless or direct refle4 measurement" Distance measurement without prism is also available on many instruments, typically using two different coa4ial red laser systems. 3ne laser is invisible and is used to measure long distances /+ km to a single reflector0, the other is visible, does not re uire a reflector, and has a limited range of about %66 m. A single key stroke allows one to alternate between the visible or invisible laser. With Trimble *+66 DR %66L, distances of up to *66 m have been recorded /$igure '.,0. The reflector-less measurements are useful for surveying the facades of buildings, tunnel profiling , cooling tower profiling, bridge components, and dam faces - indeed any situation which is difficult or impossible to access directly. The e4tremely narrow laser used clearly defines the target points. 14

Remote control systems " This arrangement allows truly one-person surveying capability. !t is particularly useful for mass point surveys, cadastral surveys, staking out and machine guidance. 7ontrol of operation is transferred to the surveyor at the survey point where all functions can be called up. The unit generally employs a radio communication between T1 and the prism. The control unit, battery, antenna and radio modem are integrated to allow full control over instrument and its operation. $igure '., shows a Trimble system with one radio antenna for communication with R(T.

$ield techni ues with T1"
=arious field operations in T1 are in the form of wide variety of programs integrated with microprocessor and implemented with the help of data collector. All these programs need that the instrument station and at least one reference station be identified so that all subse uent stations can be identified in terms of /A, Q, P0. Typical programs include the following functions" • :oint location
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1lope reduction (issing line measurement /(5(0 Resection A?imuth calculation Remote distance and elevation measurement 3ffset measurements 5ayout or setting out operation Area computation Tracking 1takeout


+P! Principles:
At least four /)0 satellites are re uired to solve four /)0 unknown parameters" 5atitude, 5ongitude, .eight and Receiver time offset /difference between the receiver clockCs indicated time and a well-defined time scale reference such as &T7 /7oordinated &niversal Time0, TA! /!nternational Atomic Time0 or 9:1T /9:1 Time00 The following * basic steps are re uired to obtain these coordinates" #. All 9:1 satellites have synchroni?ed atomic clocks as time keepers. %. The coordinates of all satellites, acting as moving control stations, are known precisely with the help of system control. '. 1atellite coordinates and time signals are transmitted to ground receiver. ). These signals reach the ground delayed by distance traveled. *. (aking use of simple resection principle and the range information to each satellites, the receiver computes its coordinates During 9:1 based positioning, the steps are followed are" #. 2asic navigation point position can be calculated like a resection in which satellites are the orbiting control stations. %. Range vectors are measured to each of the satellites using a time dependent code based on the times of transmission and receipt of the signals. '. 1ince these times are biased by a common amount due to offset between the satellite and receiver clocks G they are called pseudo-ranges . ). :seudo-range measurements from four satellites are needed to estimate the user position and the corresponding receiver clock bias. The unknown coordinates of 9:1 receiver uJ/&'( &$( &"0 are calculated by solving ) range /or pseudo-range :0 e uations. A minimum of four e uations are needed to solve for four unknowns- three unknown position coordinates / &'( &$( &"0 and to account for the fact that atomic clocks onboard 9:1 satellites and uart? clocks in 9:1 receivers are not synchroni?ed. This unknown time variable is called receiver time offset or bias / dT%0.


+P! signal structure:
1atellites have highly precise oscillators with a fundamental fre uency of #6.%' (.?. 1atellite signals basically consists of ' components /$igure +.%0" #. Two micro wave 5-band /also called 7arrier0 waves o 5# carrier" #*,*.)% (.? o 5% carrier" #%%,.+6 (.? %. Ranging codes modulated on the carrier waves o 7<A code, the clear<access or coarse<ac uisition code modulated at #.6%' (.?, degraded code for civilian users, modulated on 5# only o : /Q0 code, the private, protected, or precise code modulated at #6.%' (.?. !t is modulated on both 5# and 5% carrier waves, for authori?ed military users '. ;avigation message (odulated on both 5# and 5% and contains satellite positions and constants Two different fre uencies are used to eliminate errors introduced by iono-spheric refraction"

,igure -*. +P! signal structure All fre uencies derived from the fundamental fre uency / f J #6.%' (.?0 with the following fre uencies and wavelengths 5# 5% 7<A code : code J #*) f J #*,*.)% (.?, wavelength of #D.6 cm, J #%6 f J #%%,.+6 (.?, wavelength of %).) cm J /#<#6 f 0 J #.6%' (.? /(ega bits per second (bps0, wavelength of %D'.# m, period of # millisecond J #6.%' (.?, wavelength of %D.'# m, period of %++ daysG , days<satellite

;avigation code J *6 bits per second /bps0, data signal cycle length of '6 seconds The structure of 9:1 carrier signals, codes and their combinations is uite comple4. 1ince the carriers are pure sinusoids, they cannot be used easily for instantaneous positioning purposes and therefore two codes are modulated onto them" the 7<A /coarse ac uisition0 code and : /precise0 code. The codes /: and 7<A0 are nothing but binary se uence of information generated by a complicated algorithm.


$or purposes of imposing these binary data onto the carriers, all of the codes are transferred from the 6 and # states to the -# and # status respectively. $igure +.' shows how both code and carrier are combined in 5# signal /1ickle, %66#0. The techni ue is called binary bi-phase modulation /alternatively binary phase shift keying 2:1O0. $or more details on signal structure one can refer to 1eeber /%66'0, 1ickle /%66#0 and :arkinson et al. /#DD+0.

+P! Carrier /aves
The two carrier waves 5# and 5% are pure right handed circularly polari?ed sinusoidal waves. Two fre uencies are useful to eliminate ionospheric effects /discussed later in 5ecture #60. $igure +.' provides a schematic diagram for carriers and codes for 9:1 signal.

+P! Codes
(a) C0" Code • !t is a binary se uence of information. !t is also called pseudo random noise /:R;0 code /states of 6 and #0 consisting of #,6%' elements, or chipsor bits, that repeats itself every millisecond giving rise to a chipping rate /the rate at which each chip is modulated onto the carrier0 of #.6%' (bps /mega bits per second0. The term pseudo random indicates that the code is apparently random although it has been generated by means of a known process, providing the repeatability. • :R; codes allow range measurements, accesses to underlying carrier signals, satellite message, and time markers. • The chip length /distance corresponding to one chip or bit0 corresponds to %D' m in length. Due to the code length, the ambiguity in measurement with 7<A code is appro4imately %D' km - i.e the complete 7<A code pattern repeats itself every %D' km between the receiver and the satellite. (1) P code • =ery long se uence /about #6#)0 of pseudo random binary biphase modulations on the 9:1 carrier at a chip rate of #6.%' (.? which repeats itself every %++ days. 8ach oneweek segment of the :-code is uni ue to one 9:1 satellite and is reset each week. • The chip length /distance corresponding to one chip or bit0 corresponds to %D.' m in length. 7<A and : codes are rotated by D66 /called phase uadrature0 to each other.

!atellite or navigational message:

;avigational message includes information on 1atellite time of transmission :recise satellite position /ephemeris0 1atellite health 1atellite clock correction :ropagation delay effects /due to signal propagation in ionosphere and troposphere0 o Time transfer to &T7 /7oordinated &niversal Time0 o 9:1 satellite 7onstellation status 5ength of navigation message is #*66 bits which is modulated onto both 5# and 5% carriers. (essage takes about '6 seconds, each second contains *6 bits. Data is modulated at a much slower rate of *6 bps and thus it takes #%.* minutes to transmit all of the information. !n order to reduce the time it takes to obtain an initial position, the ephemeris and clock data is repeated every '6 seconds. 8ach satellite sends /:arkinson and 1pilker, #DD+0" o a full and precise description of its own orbit and clock data /within the ephemeris information0 and an appro4imate guide to the orbits of other satellites /almanac information0. o parameters representing the delay caused by signal propagation through the ionosphere /called the ionospheric propagation delay parameters0.
o o o o o

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Accuracy of some aspects included in navigation message deteriorate with time which are updated by certain renewal mechanisms from the ground monitoring stations.

Contents of su12frames
;avigational message contains * sub-frames, each of #6 words with each word of '6 bits /$igure +.)0.


,igure -*3 ,rame and su1frames in 4avigational message (Pa5ares et al*$ .663) 8ach sub-frame contains a telemetry /T5(0 and handover /.3W0 word which is spaced + seconds uniformly and contains system time. .3W is part of 9:1 message containing time synchroni?ation information for transfer from 7<A code to : code. The following description briefly provides contents of different sub-frames /$igure +.*0"

1ubframe # 7lock correction parameters, giving the satellite clock offset from 9:1 time. 7oefficient of the ionospheric propagation delay model for single fre uency users /only 5# detection0. 1ubframe % and ' o 1atellite ephemeris from which satellite coordinates in instantaneous coordinate system can be determined. 1ubframe ) o Reserved for alphanumeric message for future applications and almanac data for satellites %* through '% 1ubframe *
o o

Almanac data for one satellite, successive subframes /*0 will contain almanac data for up to %) satellites. $irst ' subframes are refreshed every hour with ephemeris data that are applicable to new time period /and are valid for #.* hours0. 1ubframes ) and * are refreshed at the upload time /nominally each day0.


+eneration of +P! signals The structure of 9:1 carrier signals and codes is uite comple4 in order to satisfy the several re uirements as given below"
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(ulti-user system"
o 9:1 is used for one-way measurements /a listen-only system0 Real-time positioning" o 1ince there is simultaneous measurements to many satellites, there is a need to identify different signals o &nambiguous range measurements - need to determine signal delay o 1atellite positions needed hence one needs broadcast ephemerides .igh accuracy positioning" o (icrowave carrier fre uency - #.% to #.+ 9.?G use of dual-fre uency to minimi?e ionospheric delay o .igh fre uency modulation o Anti->amming re uirement" 9:1 uses a special techni ue called the 1pread spectrum techni ue for this purpose (ilitary and civilian users"

9:1 needs two different codes and restriction on dual-fre uency use in order to provide differential access to civilian and military<authori?ed users. 1ince the carriers are pure sinusoids, they cannot be used easily for instantaneous positioning purposes and therefore two binary codes are modulated onto them" the 7<A /coarse ac uisition0 code and : /precise0 code . The codes /: and 7<A0 are nothing but binary se uence of information which are generated by a complicated algorithm. $or purposes of imposing these binary data onto the carriers, all of the codes are transferred from the 6 and # states to the -# and # status respectively. $igure +.+ shows how both code and carrier are combined in 5# signal /1ickle, %66#0. The techni ue is called binary biphase 21

modulation /alternatively binary phase shift keying 2:1O0. $or more details on signal structure one can refer to 1eeber /%66'0, 1ickle /%66#0 and :arkinson and 1pilker /#DD+0.

,igure -*- Code modulation of the L% carrier (!ic#le$ .66%)

The structure of 5# and 5% signals is given below where epochs /times0 of both codes and carriers are synchroni?ed /1eeber, %66'0"


1ince the codes /:R; or pseudo random noise codes0 and message are binary data streams, only two states of phase modulations are possible. The state L# or -# leaves the carrier unchangedG a code transition from L# to -# or from -# to L# involves a phase shift of #-6 degrees. The 5# channel has to carry both : and 7<A code. This arrangement is accomplished by a techni ue called phase uadrature . !n this, the un-modulated 5# carrier is split off and shifted in phase by D6 degrees before it is mi4ed with the 7<A code signal, and is then added to the modulated : code signal /$igure +.,0.

1atellite coordinates and additional information is sent within the broadcast data message which is also modulated onto the carriers. !t is modulo-% added to both the 7<A code and the : code resulting in inversion of code and the autocorrelation function.


,igure -*7 +eneration of +P! signal (Pa5ares et al*$ .6638 !ee1er$ .669)

+P! !ervices:
Two types of services are available"

1:1 /1tandard :ositioning 1ervice0 :ositioning accuracy that is provided by 9:1 measurements based on the single 5# fre uency 7<A code . ::1 /:recise :ositioning 1ervice0 .ighest level of dynamic positioning accuracy that is provided by 9:1 measurements based on the dual fre uency :-code .