Recruitment, selection and training

Recruitment is the process of identifying that the organisation needs to employ someone up to the point at which application forms for the post have arrived at the organisation. Selection then consists of the processes involved in choosing from applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post. Training consists of a range of processes involved in making sure that job holders have the right skills, knowledge and attitudes required to help the organisation to achieve its objectives. Recruiting individuals to fill particular posts within a business can be done either internally by recruitment within the firm, or externally by recruiting people from outside. The advantages of internal recruitment are that: 1. Considerable savings can be made. Individuals with inside knowledge of how a business operates will need shorter periods of training and time for 'fitting in'. 2. The organisation is unlikely to be greatly 'disrupted' by someone who is used to working with others in the organisation. 3. Internal promotion acts as an incentive to all staff to work harder within the organisation. 4. From the firm's point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of an insider will have been assessed. There is always a risk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success 'on paper'. The disadvantages of recruiting from within are that: 1. You will have to replace the person who has been promoted 2. An insider may be less likely to make the essential criticisms required to get the company working more effectively 3. Promotion of one person in a company may upset someone else.

External recruitment
External recruitment makes it possible to draw upon a wider range of talent, and provides the opportunity to bring new experience and ideas in to the business. Disadvantages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation. There are a number of stages, which can be used to define and set out the nature of particular jobs for recruitment purposes: Job analysis is the process of examining jobs in order to identify the key requirements of each job. A number of important questions need to be explored: the title of the job to whom the employee is responsible for whom the employee is responsible

job analysis is expected to be part of the general skills of a training or personnel officer. 5. 3. a job specification for a trainee manager's post in a retail store included the following: . 6. however. Some large organisations specifically employ 'job analysts'. Information can be gleaned directly from the person carrying out a task and/or from their supervisory staff. Provide information which will help in decision making about the type of equipment and materials to be employed with the job. Choose employees either from the ranks of your existing staff or from the recruitment of new staff. In most companies.in addition. A job specification goes beyond a mere description . Job description A job description will set out how a particular employee will fit into the organisation. Job analysis is used in order to: 1. Help in setting rates of pay for job tasks. Alternatively. Set out the training requirements of a particular job. or by referring to documents such as training manuals. Job specification. A job description could be used as a job indicator for applicants for a job. It will therefore need to set out: the title of the job to whom the employee is responsible for whom the employee is responsible a simple description of the role and duties of the employee within the organisation. Identify areas of risk and danger at work. For example. it could be used as a guideline for an employee and/or his or her line manager as to his or her role and responsibility within the organisation. Identify and profile the experiences of employees in their work tasks (information which can be used as evidence for staff development and promotion). 4. 2. by finding out information from interviewing job holders. Job analysis can be carried out by direct observation of employees at work. it highlights the mental and physical attributes required of the job holder.a simple description of the role and duties of the employee within the organisation.

The appraisal will then involve a review of performance during the previous six months. The interviewing panel must have available to them all the necessary documentations. In some companies. staff appraisal is a means of monitoring staff performance and is a feature of promotion in modern companies. and setting new targets. It is important then to identify ways of testing whether candidates meet these requirements. for example. the first few days at work will simply involve observation. with new job advertisements being placed. They should have a flair for business.g. Generally. A short list must be made up of suitable candidates. The skills required should have been identified through the process of job analysis. employees and their immediate line managers discuss personal goals and targets for the coming time period (e. description. Keeping the costs of selection down will involve such factors as holding the interviews in a location. which is accessible to the interviewing panel. For example. and will stay with the company. so that the interviews do not have to take place a second time. developing a process for identifying them in candidates making sure that the candidates selected. will want the job. and specification can provide useful information to a business in addition to serving as recruitment instruments. Induction and training New workers in a firm are usually given an induction programme in which they meet other workers and are shown the skills they must learn. know how to sell. description and specification. and to work in a team. The company is looking for people who are tough and talented. Job descriptions can be used as reference points for arbitrating in disputes as to 'who does what' in a business.'Managers at all levels would be expected to show responsibility.' Job analysis. Testing this out may involve: interviewing candidates asking them to get involved in simulated work scenarios asking them to provide samples of previous work getting them to fill in personality and intelligence tests giving them real work simulations to test their abilities. and to those being interviewed.Selection involves procedures to identify the most appropriate candidates to fill posts. the next six months). with an . Job details can serve as a useful basis for establishing dialogue and targets. such as application forms available to study before the interviews take place. An effective selection procedure will therefore take into consideration the following: keeping the costs of selection down making sure that the skills and qualities being sought have been identified.

learning through attending courses. This is particularly true of larger public companies such as banks and insurance companies. On the job . Induction is the process of introducing new employees to an organisation and to their work responsibilities in that organisation. trainee accountants will be expected to pass exams set by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). accountants must have passed examinations that make them eligible for membership of one or more professional accounting bodies. staff may be encouraged to attend college courses to learn new skills and get new qualifications.experienced worker showing the 'new hand' the ropes. In conjunction with this. It is the responsibility of the training department within a business to make sure that staff with the right skills are coming up through the firm or being recruited from outside. Promotion within a firm depends on acquiring qualifications to do a more advanced job. Many large firms will have a detailed training scheme. which is done on an 'in-house' basis.000 members and students throughout the world. Off the job . Training thus takes place in the following ways: 1.learning skills through experience at work 2. . In accountancy for example. At the same time. such as ACCA. a candidate for promotion must show a flair for the job. Typically accountants will improve their knowledge and experience by taking courses run and organised by ACCA during their professional training enabling them to develop and enhance their careers. To be properly qualified. The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants has 300. It is a professional body setting standards for the accountancy profession.

assessment of candidates' motivations and their fit with organizational requirements by interviewing and other assessment techniques. . or other search methods. the sourcing of candidates by networking. The stages of the recruitment process include: job analysis and developing a person specification. advertising. Alternatively parts of all of the process might be undertaken by either public sector employment agencies. matching candidates to job requirements and screening individuals using testing (skills or personality assessment). or commercial recruitment agencies. The recruitment process also includes the making and finalizing of job offers and the induction and on boarding of new employees. human resource generalists and / or recruitment specialists. screening. or specialist search consultancies. selecting.Recruitment Recruitment refers to the process of attracting. Depending on the size and culture of the organization recruitment may be undertaken in-house by managers. and on boarding a qualified person for a job. At the strategic level it may involve the development of an employer brand which includes an 'employee offering'.

Often a company will already have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed. using appropriate media. job centres.Recruitment process: The process of recruitment may be define in the following ways: Job analysis: In situations such as where one or more new jobs are to be created and recruited to for the first time. From these the relevant information is captured in such documents as job descriptions and job specifications. results in a contact information of potential candidates who can then be contacted discreetly to be screened and approached. a job analysis and/or in some cases a task analysis might be undertaken to document the actual or intended requirements of the job. job . employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates who may be content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move companies may be proactively identified. knowledge. or in a variety of ways via the internet. Sourcing: Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. also called name generation. aptitude. professional publications. such as local or national newspapers. window advertisements. these documents need to be reviewed or updated to reflect present day requirements. Screening and selection: Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for relevant skills. These can be via: screeningrésumés (also known as educational determined CVs). Prior to initiating the recruitment stages a person specification should be finalized to provide the recruiters commissioned with the requirements and objectives of the project. Where already drawn up. This initial research for so-called passive candidates. Alternatively. It may involve internal and/or external advertising. qualifications and or job related experience. specialist recruitment media.

the term is used with two different. In one meaning. numeracy. Multinational organisations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities are also concerned candidates will fit into the prevailing company 'culture. In another meaning. psychological. An example is the recruiting of a partner of a law firm by another law firm. a lateral hire is a newly hired employee who has no prior specific applicable expertise for the new job. the hiring organization targets employees of another. Performance based assessment is a process to find out if job applicants perform the responsibilities for which they are applying. Many recruiters and agencies use applicant tracking systems to perform the filtering process. possibly luring them with a better salary and the promise of better career opportunities. employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards. In some professional branches such lateral hiring was traditionally frowned upon. A British Armed Forces recruitment centre in Oxford. but the practice has become increasingly more common. The new lateral hire then has specific applicable expertise and can make a running start in the new job. An example is the . interviews. along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance based assessment. An employee's contract may have a non-compete clause preventing such lateral hiring. More proactive identification methods include performance assessments. almost opposite meanings. similar organization. In addition to the above selection assessment criteria. and for whom this job move is a radical change of career.applications. aptitude. such as interpersonal or team leadership and have the ability to reinforce the company brand through their behaviour in front of customers and suppliers. physical and litera cy testing. employers are likely to recognise the value of candidates who also have the so-called 'soft skills'. Lateral hiring: "Lateral hiring" refers to a form of recruiting. In many countries.

temporary. On-boarding is included in the recruitment process for retention purposes. "On boarding" is a term which describes the process of helping new employees become productive members of an organization. In the smallest organisations recruitment may be left to individual managers. A wellplanned introduction helps new employees become fully operational quickly and is often integrated with a new company and environment. Services may support permanent. or casual worker recruitment. They may be generic agencies that deal with providing unskilled workers through to highly skilled managerial . see on boarding. In summary five basic models more commonly found are: An in-house personnel or human resources function may in some case still conduct all stages of the recruitment process. Many companies have on boarding campaigns in hopes to retain top talent that is new to the company. Recruitment approaches: There are a variety of recruitment approaches and most organisations will utilize a combination of two or more of these as part of a recruitment exercise or to deliver their overall recruitment strategy.recruiting of a university professor to become chairman of the board of a company. campaigns may last anywhere from 1 week to 6 months.  Outsourcing of recruitment to an external provider may be the solution for some small businesses and at the other extreme very large organisations  Employment agencies are established as both publicly funded services and as commercial private sector operations. More frequently whilst managing the overall recruitment exercise and the decision-making at the final stages of the selection process external service providers may undertake the more specialized aspects of the recruitment process. On boarding: For more details on this topic.

target and headhunt external candidates (much like an external agency or search firm). In-house recruitment: Many employers undertake at least some if not most of their own inhouse recruitment. conducting aptitude or psychological testing. using their human resources department. interviewing. These firms operate across a range of models such as contingency or retained approaches and also hybrid models where advertising is also used to ensure a flow of candidates alongside relying on networking as their main source of candidates. In addition to coordinating with the agencies mentioned above. trade groups and/or focus on campus graduate recruitment. coordinate internal employee referrals. Some large employers choose to outsource all or some of their recruitment process (recruitment process outsourcing) however a much more common approach is for employers to introduce referral schemes where employees are encouraged to source new staff from within their own network. in-house recruiters may advertise job vacancies on their own websites and other job boards. Internal recruiters may be multi-functional. work with external associations. In addition social network sourced recruitment has emerged as a major method of sourcing candidates. screening CVs orrésumés.or technical staff or so-called niche agencies that specialize in a particular industrial sector or professional group. serving in an HR generalist role or in a specific role focusing all their time on recruiting. Internal recruiters: An internal recruiter (alternatively in-house recruiter or corporate recruiter) is member of a company or organization and typically works in the human resources (HR) department. .  Executive search firms for executive and professional positions.  Internet recruitment services including recruitment websites and job search engines used to gather as many candidates as possible by advertising a position over a wide geographic area. frontline hiring managers and recruitment personnel who handle targeted functions and populations. Activities vary from firm to firm but may include.

advising candidates on benefits. onboardingnew recruits and conducting exit interviews with employees leaving the organisation. see employee referral. An employee referral program is a system where existing employees recommend prospective candidates for the job offered. In typically the largest organisations a formal contract for services has been negotiated with a specialist recruitment consultancy. or total outsourcing of the recruiting function. . Referral bonus depends on the grade of the referred employee. administering contracts. the employee who referred receives a cash bonus. Contract recruiters tend to move around between multiple companies. In some cases the organization provides the employee referral bonus only if the referred employee stays with the organization for stipulated time duration (most cases 3 – 6 months). These are known in the industry as Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Employee referral: For more details on this topic. Recruitment process outsourcing may involve strategic consulting for talent acquisition. Outsourcing: An external recruitment provider may suit small organisations without the facilities to recruit. and if the suggested candidate is hired. The responsibility is to filter candidates as per the requirements of each client. sourcing for select departments or skills. On-Campus Recruiting: College recruiting may not be living up to its potential:  Companies may not be realizing full value from their recruitment programs.undertaking reference and background checks. higher the grade higher the bonus however the method is not used for senior level hiring. working at each one for a short stint as needed for specific hiring purposes. They can be permanent employees or hired as contractors for this purpose. hiring.

recruiters do not follow the corporate script about: 1. and the Job Centre Plus service in the UK. On the other end of the spectrum there are agencies that are paid a retainer to focus on a client's needs and achieve milestones in the search for the right candidate. such as those which form part of the New Deal program in the US. and then again are paid a percentage of the candidate's salary when a candidate is placed and stays with the organization beyond the probationary period. Recruiters tend to form a positive or negative impression about an applicant's qualifications in the first few minutes of an interview. Recruiters also tend to spend more time talking with applicants they consider to be qualified and less time with applicants they dismiss on the basis of a superficial judgement. Often. The commercial recruitment industry is based on the goal of providing a candidate to a client for a price. at the two extremes are the traditional providers and the niche operators. fail to discuss important issues with All these points reflect a lack of interviewing skills. Fewer than half of corporate recruiters receive training in the proper techniques for interviewing job applicants. hardly sufficient time to collect information on which to base a recruiting decision. therefore agencies have sought out ways to differentiate themselves and add value by focusing on some area of the recruitment life cycle. Sometimes they applicants. often having been introduced to mitigate the impact on unemployment of economic downturns. . Publicly funded services have a long history. The agency recruitment industry is highly competitive. At one end of the spectrum there are agencies that are paid only if they deliver a candidate that successfully stays with the client beyond the agreed probationary period. The topics to be covered in an interview 2. Though most agencies provide a broader range of service offering. Employment agencies: Employment agencies operate in both the public and private sectors.

These niche firms tend to be more focused on building ongoing relationships with their candidates as is very common the same candidates are placed many times throughout their careers. Niche recruiters: 'Specialized recruiters' exist to seek staff with a very narrow specialty. Financial arrangements operated by agencies take several forms. these firms can very often produce superior results due to their ability to channel all of their resources into networking for a very specific skill set. Niche firms also develop knowledge on specific employment trends within their industry of focus (e. This type of recruitment usually has a rebate guarantee should the candidate fail to perform or leave within a set period of time (often up to a 3-month period and as much as a 100% rebate).g.Traditional agency: Also known as employment agencies. A candidate visits a local branch for a short interview and an assessment before being taken onto the agency’s books. also paid by the company. 40% up front.5% can be found online). Recruitment consultants then work to match their pool of candidates to their clients' open positions. This specialization in staffing allows them to offer more jobs for their specific demographic which in turn attracts more specialized candidates from that specific demographic over time building large proprietary databases. the most popular are:  A contingency fee paid by the company when an agency introduced candidate accepts a job with the client company. Typical fees range from 15% to 25% based on the candidates first-year base salary (fees as low as 12.g.  An advance payment that serves as a retainer. 30% in 90 days and the remainder . non-refundable paid in full depending on outcome and success (e. Suitable candidates are short-listed and put forward for an interview with potential employers on a contract or direct basis. recruitment agencies have historically had a physical location. Online resources have developed to help find niche recruiters. the energy industry) and are able to identify demographic shifts such as aging and its impact on the industry. Because of their focus.

they may network. They may arrange a meeting or a formal interview between their client and the candidate and will usually prepare the candidate for the interview. such as emerging scientific research areas. They may also purchase expensive lists of names and job titles but more often will generate their own lists. This form of compensation is generally reserved for high level executive search/headhunters  Hourly charge for temporary workers and projects. for example. They are frequently members in good standing of industry trade groups and associations. in which the agency is paid and pays the applicant as a consultant for services as a third party. Headhunters will often attend trade shows and other meetings nationally or even internationally that may be attended by potential candidates and hiring managers. Headhunters are generally considered more aggressive than in-house recruiters or may have pre-existing industry experience and contacts. in some fields. headhunters are usually employed to fill senior management and executive level roles. there may only be a handful of top-level professionals who are active in the field. Headhunters are also used to recruit very specialized individuals. While in-house recruiters tend to attract candidates for specific jobs.once a search is completed). Headhunters are typically small operations that make high margins on candidate placements (sometimes more than 30% of the candidate’s annual compensation). Due to their higher costs. To do so. Executive search firms ("Head-hunters") An executive search firm or "head-hunter" are industry terms for a third-party recruiters who seeks out candidates often when normal recruitment efforts have failed. since there are so few qualified candidates. it makes more sense to directly recruit them one-by-one. headhunters will attract both candidates and actively seek them out as well. cultivate relationships with various companies. They may use advanced sales techniques. help negotiate the salary and conduct closure to the search. Many contracts allow a consultant to transition to a full-time status upon completion of a certain number of hours with or without a conversion fee. rather than advertise internationally for candidates. In this case. A prenegotiated hourly fee. maintain .

test. Fees are charged for job postings and access to search resumes. Since the late 1990s. This approach is often called social recruiting. purchase company directories or candidate lists and cold call prospective recruits. These firms usually charge a daily rate or fixed fee. the recruitment website has evolved to encompass end-to-end recruitment. These firms provide competitive passive candidate intelligence to support companies' recruiting efforts. The online software provided by those who specialize in online recruitment helps organizations attract. Normally they will generate varying degrees of candidate information from those people currently engaged in the position a company is looking to fill. Executive research can help companies uncover names that cannot be found through traditional recruitment methods and will allow internal recruitment and resourcing managers more time to deal with face to face interviews. employ and retain quality staff with a minimal amount of administration. Websites capture candidate details and then pool them in client accessed candidate management interfaces (also online). Executive research & resourcing firms: These firms are the new hybrid operators in the recruitment world able to combine the research aspects (discovering passive candidates) of recruiting and combine them with the ability to make hires for their clients. Online recruitment websites can be very helpful to find candidates that are .large databases. Alternatively. Headhunters are increasingly using social media to find and research candidates. candidates can upload a résumé to be included in searches by member companies. Internet recruitment services: Recruitment websites Such sites have two main features: job boards and a résumé/curriculum vitae (CV) database. Key players in this sector provide e-recruitment software and services to organizations of all sizes and within numerous industry sectors. who want to e-enable entirely or partly their recruitment process in order to improve business performance. Job boards allow member companies to post job vacancies. recruit.

Also. Recruitment agencies are then able to showcase their services directly to those looking. and online recruitment websites. Twitter. Job search engines: The emergence of meta-search engines allows job-seekers to search across multiple websites. approach and recruit top performing . These sites tend to aim for providing a "one-stop shop" for job-seekers. also came the functionality to provide recruitment agencies with a low-cost alternative to advertising. there are many other job search engines which index solely from employers' websites. some candidates who are actively looking to change jobs are hesitant to put their resumes on the job boards. Unlike a standard directory. These vertical search engines allow job-seekers to find new positions that may not be advertised on traditional job boards. Recruitment Agency Directories: With the emergence of the Internet. Organisations requiring external recruitment or headhunting firms are now employing "talent acquisition" specialists whose job it is to identify. Social recruiting: Social recruiting is the use of social media for recruiting including sites like Facebook. co-workers. choosing to bypass traditional job boards entirely. customers or others might see their resumes. for fear that their companies. a way to narrow down their requirements based on their own job-searching requirements. Talent Acquisition: Talent acquisition is the targeted recruitment/acquisition of high performing teams for example. these niche directories have helped those searching for employment representation.very actively looking for work and post their resumes online. However. Some of these new search engines index and list the advertisements of traditional job boards. in sales management or financial traders into a company from a competitor or similar type of organisation. and LinkedIn. but they will not attract the "passive" candidates who might respond favorably to an opportunity that is presented to them through other means.

whilst removing the same performing sales people from competitors. . In many cases the talent acquisition person is linked directly to a company's executive management. This role is a highly specialised role akin to that of a traditional recruiter/head-hunter specialist but carrying greater visibility and strategic importance to a business. given the potential positive impact a company can benefit from by getting high performing sales people into the business.teams from competitors.