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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY SOUTH
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

THESIS FOR UN ER !RA UATE "RO!RAM #$Sc%&
TITLE: MATERIAL HANDLING AND WASTAGE CONTROL IN ADDIS ABABA LOW COST HOUSING PROJECTS

ADVISOR: $ela' (ita'ew #Ato%& PREPARED BY: )% echasa Haile *% !ebrehiwot Hintsa' +% Saron Anteneh Prepared by: echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron 1

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Febr ary !"#"

APPROVED BY BOARD OF EXAMINERS ADVISOR: ______________________________ SIGNITURE: _____________________________ DATE: ______________________________

EXTERNAL EXAMINER: __________________ SIGNITURE: ______________________________ DATE: ______________________________

INTERNAL EXAMINER: ___________________ SIGNITURE: ______________________________ DATE: _______________________________
Prepared by: echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron 2

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Prepared by:

echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron

3

who ha-e shown their 1een interest o0 cooperation b' pro-iding us with the necessar' in0or. and super-isors. !ebrehiwot.portant in0or.panies% It is there0ore our great pleasure to ac1nowledge and than1 the.ent. consultants and e.ent 0or the ease access o0 the i. Saron 4 .plo'er 0or gi-ing their precious ti. 0or their collaboration and help0ul support% 2e sincerel' than1 and e3press deep gratitude to our ad-isor Ato $ela' (ita'ew 0or pro-iding -aluable ad-ice.ore realistic wa'% Our special credit also goes to those contractors.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects AC$NOWLEDGEMENT This research would ha-e been i.ation 0or this stud'% And 0inall' we are highl' indebted to all site engineers.endous assistance and cooperation o0 -arious indi-iduals and construction co..possible to reali/e without the tre.e to respond our sur-e' 4uestioners and inter-iews% The Ministr' o0 2or1s and Urban e-elop. the Ethiopian Association o0 5i-il Engineers also deser-es our ac1nowledge.ation and data re4uired 0or the thesis wor1% Prepared by: echasa.ents and suggestions during the progress o0 the research in a . continuous support and guidance and 0or his co.

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects TABLE OF CONTENT Ac1nowledge.ent *%+%) Materials "lanning *%+%+ In-entor' 5ontrol )* *%+%9 Handling and Transportation 666666666666 *%+%. !ebrehiwot.ent *%+ 5onstruction Materials Manage. 5odi0ication and Standardi/ation 6666666666 )+ *%+%< isposal o0 surpluses 666%%666666666666 )8 )* 666666666666 6666666666 .ent "rocess 666666666 *%+%8 Store?@eeping and 2arehousing Prepared by: echasa. III Abbre-iation 66%%6666666666666666666666 I7 Abstract 66%%6666666666666666666666 7 CHAPTER ONE )% INTRO U5TION 6666666666666666666666666 ) )%) Research bac1 ground 6%%666666666666666666% )%* Objecti-e o0 this research )%+ Methodolog' )%8 Scope and li. < = )> )) %%66666666666666666 %%66666666666666666666666 %%6666666666666666666 %%666666666666666666 ) + + 8 8 666666666666666 666666666666666 6666666666 *%+%* Materials "rocure.ent 66666666666666666 9 *%* 5onstruction Resource Manage.ent 6666666666666666666666 I Table o0 content 6666%%666666666666666666 II . Saron 5 .itation )%9 Structure o0 the paper CHAPTER TWO *% :ITERATURE RE7IE2 6666666666666666666% 9 *%) 5onstruction Manage.

endation 6666666666666666666%% Re0erences 666666666666666666666666666%% Appendi3 A B Research proposal Prepared by: echasa.. *. *< += 66666666666666666666 +%+%) Section one B E3istence o0 the proble.aterials 66666%%6 *8 *9 *.s %%6666666666666 88 89 8.aterial wastage *%8%9 S'ste.aterial wastage control *%8%9%* Material wastage anal'sis CHAPTER THREE +% ANA:(SIS +%)% "ro0ile o0 the 4uestionnaires +%*% The respondents +%+% ata presentation. 8%*% Reco.aterial wastage 666666666666666 *%8%8%) Side e00ect due to poor . o0 . !ebrehiwot. Anal'sis and 666666666666666 iscussion 66%66666% 666666 666% 666666% 66666666666666666 )A 666666666%%6 666666666%%6 *%8%9%) Accounting 0or construction . )9 )9 )9 )< )A *> ** ** ** *%8%+ 5auses o0 . +%+%* Section two B Major causes 6666666%%666666 +%+%+ Section three B Side e00ects %6666666666666 8) CHAPTER FOUR 8% 5ON5:USION AN 8%)% 5onclusion RE5OMMEN ATION 6666666666666666666666%% +%+%8 Section 0our B "roposed s'ste. Saron 6 .aterial handling *%8%8%* Side e00ect due to .ent 6%%6666666 *%8%) e0inition %%6666666666666666 66666666666%%6 *%8%* Materials wastage standard *%8%8 Side e00ect o0 the proble.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects *%8 5onstruction Materials 2astage Manage.

all Enterprises 8Ms C Materials.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Appendi3 $ B Research 4uestionnaires ABBRIVATIONS :5H C :ow 5ost House MSE C Micro and S. !ebrehiwot.ent AAH "O C Addis Ababa Housing e-elop. Reduce. Saron 7 . Manpower and Machineries 8Rs C Re-iew.ent H5$ C Hollow 5oncrete $loc1 Prepared by: echasa. Reuse and Rec'cle MSM C Material Storage Manage. Mone'.

in order to a-oid .s adopt to reduce the wastage generatedD In this thesis we ha-e e3plored construction . all 4uestions are grouped and anal'/ed according to their relationship. .l' to selected and concerned sta1e holders 0or those operating in Addis Ababa :5H projects% In this research wor1.u.ple.s.aterial wastage and their conse4uenceD And what are the s'ste. construction . and tried to identi0' wastage causes and their re.easures to decrease wastages% ata were collected using 4uestioner sur-e' distributed rando. we ha-e conducted our research on construction . Saron 8 .anage. wastage control .endations 0orwarded% !enerall'.s in :5H projects with in Addis Ababa% And we atte.ost recent . !ebrehiwot. discussed and possible conclusions and reco.ain causes 0or .edial ..aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.echanis.s are -ital to .' o0 our countr' which consu.aterial handling s'ste.e sort o0 .enting e00ecti-e wastage control s'ste.a3i.aterial plan and .i/e the una-oidable ..ini. the e3istences o0 .es larger percentage o0 the annual budget.s.ent s'ste.aterial wastage.aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.s in these projectsD 2hat are the .ption. there0ore i.aterial wastage control s'ste.aterial wastages% Prepared by: echasa.aterial wastage generation% Since construction industr' is one o0 the e. desires serious consideration and due attention% $ased on this assu.erging econo. earl' identi0ication and awarenessFs on wastage causes and use o0 so.aterial handling s'ste.pted to answer the 0ollowing 4uestions% 2hat are the .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects ABSTRACT In an' construction project especiall' in :ow 5ost Housing there should be a great concern 0or construction . )>>E o0 the cost e00icient :5H construction sta1e holders pro-ed that.

e crucial to sustain the cit' li0e% Accordingl' the cit' go-ern.ber *>>+.unicipal ad. the need 0or an increase in 4uantit' and 4ualit' o0 shelter. Saron 9 . which are about *>>.ands aroused b' the e-er increasing population and high rate o0 urbani/ation% 5onse4uentl'.plo'. in0rastructure. objecti-e o0 housing progra.plo'.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects CHAPTER % ONE #& INTRODUCTION #&# Re'ear() ba(* +r.entation o0 the Addis Ababa !rand Housing "rogra.ajorit'. is 0acing nu.eet the de.e citi/ens o0 the cit'. especiall' low?inco. 0or the construction o0 li-ing space% The national plan on housing has allocated about 9>E o0 its *>>. ? *>)> plans.% Since Septe. is to i. being the capital o0 the nation..inistration o0 Addis Ababa !rand Housing "rogra.ediate objecti-es o0 the progra.. are to be ser-ing the purpose o0J Prepared by: echasa.ent and -arious social ser-ices beco.e in Tigra' pro-ince and then in other regions o0 Ethiopia H<I% The cit' o0 Addis Ababa.pro-e the li-ing standard o0 citi/ens. through the creation o0 e.>>> housing units.inistration o0 Addis Ababa has been wor1ing on the planning and i.erous challenges in tr'ing to . which are the . !ebrehiwot.ent "lans along with other . which is an action progra.unicipal ad. e.ple.ent has planned to address these challenges strategicall' with the help o0 the National Integrated Urban e-elop. the .ent opportunities and the pro-ision o0 the decent a00ordable housing% The speci0ic i. to be e3ecuted in the cit' o0 Addis Ababa% The long ter. -d G:ow?5ost?Housing Technolog' #:5H&G was instituted 0or the 0irst ti.

in the cit' H=I% $esides it is part o0 the national go-ern.aintaining their houses H<I% Following the 0irst success0ul :5H pilot projects in *>>8. which can absorb .otion o0 cost e00icient housing construction technolog'.inistration% In the sociall' integrated settle. pre? 0inancing being ad-anced b' the cit' .aterial wastages% Prepared by: echasa.unicipal ad.all?scale enterprise. Increasing the land deli-er' a.ent plan 0or the reduction o0 po-ert' in the new . Addis Ababa cit' go-ern.age o0 the cit' H.plete with .illenniu.s and 0urther stud' will be crucial to sa-e the e3tra lost cost due to .ple.powering citi/ens o0 the cit' through ownership o0 houses and possession securit'.ainders are 0inanced through building loans with a )9?'ear ter. particularl' in the capital cit' o0 Ethiopia% Since huge in-est.sel-es are to ta1e responsibilit' 0or .e owners. Saron 10 . b' pa'ing so.G allocated huge su.e +>E o0 the construction costs% The re.ount in the inner cit' as a process o0 densi0ication and -ertical growth.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects   Regenerating the slu. E. the residents the. "ro.ore labor 0orce and operate at a lower o-erhead cost. "ro.ent buildings and beco..ents are deplo'ed to construct :5H projects.icro and s.otion o0 .ponents% "eople wishing to . co. o0 budget to alle-iate shortage o0 housing and also reduce house slu.aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.entation o0 the e3isting . !ebrehiwot.ents. 5hanging the i. area o0 the inner cit'.inistration under G!rand Housing "rogra.I%     5onstruction is proceeding on the basis o0 :5H technolog' with pre0abricated co.o-e in to the apart.ent ad.unicipal in0rastructure 0acilities. i.

e3ist or not in :5H projectsD  2hat are the .s e3ist or notD  Find out the .ethodolog' adopted 0or this research is based on actual sur-e'% In this process data has been collected and discussion has been .2 /)0' re'ear() The .ade with di00erent pro0essionals 0ro. consultants and e.d.aterial handling%  E3plore the side e00ects o0 .e(/01e . local 0ir.aterial wastage and poor . Saron 11 .aterial handling correcti-e procedures to alle-iate proble. the low cost housing construction sector% For the data collection sur-e'.4.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects #&! Ob.ain objecti-es o0 this research areJ  Assess whether .aterial wastage reducing techni4ues and poor .s that acti-el' participating in low cost housing construction projects ha-e been selected to 0ill our 4uestionnaires% Anal'sis o0 the collected sur-e' data and inter-iews are used to answer the 0ollowing 0our -ital 4uestionsJ  Is .aterial handling and wastage control proble.aterial wastage and handling proble.plo'er.s 0aced on di00erent stages o0 the project% #&3 Me/).sD Prepared by: echasa.aterial handling%  Forward appropriate .ain causes o0 .aterial handling and wastage control proble.aterial wastage and poor . !ebrehiwot.+y The . construction industr' sta1eholders li1e contractors.ajor causes o0 .

prises o0 0our chaptersJ 5hapter two present an o-er-iew o0 di00erent literatures on construction .aterial handling and wastageD The 0ollowing procedure were used in order to prepare the research Pr.ple identi0ication Anal'sis Thesis writing Sub.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects   2hat are the side e00ects o0 the proble.aterials .itations are ti. chapter three deals with the anal'sis o0 the collected data. respondents Ta1ing all sa.es and due to lac1 o0 properl' collected and docu. !ebrehiwot.e 0or the research. since :5H projects ha-e been started in recent ti.i/e poor .ini.endations o0 the 0indings% Prepared by: echasa.ples Anal'sis were done on the collected 4uestionnaire #&5 S(.s used to .(ed re Topic Selection Research proposal :iterature re-iew De'(r0p/0. and chapter 0our e3plains the conclusion and reco. and absence o0 conducted researches on construction . Saron 12 .s in the projectD 2hat are the proposed s'ste.aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.2 /)e paper This paper co.ission ad-isor% Kuestionnaire sur-e' and des1 stud' were done% Kuestionnaire were collected 0ro.pe a-d 4060/a/0.ent ata collection Sa.ent and causes o0 poor ..2e discussed with our ad-isor on the contents o0 research proposal% Re0erring di00erent literatures and assessing di00erent web sites through internet then super-ised b' our Research instru.The scope o0 this research bases onl' to :ow 5ost Housing projects in Addis Ababa% The li.anage.aterial handling and wastage in construction industr'..ented dataFs% #&7 S/r (/ re .

anage. operating e4uip.anner to create s'ste..anage.-'/r (/0.ent addresses how the resources a-ailable to the .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects CHAPTER TWO !& LITERATURE REVIEW !&# CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT i00erent writers de0ine construction .entation o0 the 0unction o0 .ent and group o0 people in a suitable .ent in-ol-es the ti.6a-a+e6e-/ is dealing with the s'ste.ple.ent b' necessit' in-ol-es the creation o0 an en-iron. organi/ing. !ebrehiwot.ple. i. Saron 13 .-'/r (/0.anage.ent H+ I% C.pletion o0 an' construction wor1 or acti-ities% 5onstruction . we thin1 o0 the 0our M' o0 constructionJ Manpower. i. Machine. resources and acti-ities are planned.plish objecti-es% That is.ent on their own wa's asL C.atic operation with continuit' to achie-e a co.ent can also be de0ined as the use o0 people and other resources to acco.ong sta1eholders.entJ ? planning.ented and .. .anage..ple.onitored 0or the success0ul co.anager can be best applied% T'picall' when spea1ing o0 resources 0or construction.on goal% Manage. Material and Mone'% Manage.anaging a project and success0ull' appl'ing the 0our M' H*I% Prepared by: echasa. o0 how relationships a.enting and controlling% These 0unctions are the -er' essence o0 .6a-a+e6e-/ is de0ined as the art o0 arranging andMor organi/ing -arious acti-ities.el' and e00icient application o0 the 0our M' to construct a project% Man' issues should be considered when .anage.ent in which people can use resources to reach the stated goal% It also in-ol-es the i.

anage.ple.pletion o0 construction Prepared by: echasa.patible and that ade4uate super-ision is pro-ided% E00icient N e00ecti-e i.plete resource stud' identi0ies when and how .ented% Materials.an' o0 each trade will be on the job site each da' o0 the project% This allows . cost and ti.aterial% The correct .e% In our world construction resources are scarce.anaging basic resources 0or the success0ul co.anpower N . . . !ebrehiwot.ent o0 this resource ensures that the sta1eholders 1eep their pro0it and co.ong resources. e00icientl' and e00ecti-el'% resource .plete the project according to re4uired 4ualit'.anage.achineries #the 5M8'& are usual resources% The principal resource in-ol-ed in construction project is .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&! CONSTRUCTION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 5onstruction project% A co.ing e3pensi-e e-er' da' in spite o0 the 0act that their de.entation o0 construction project re4uire good .ple.one'.anage. acti-ities and sta1eholders as applied to the conte3t where such projects are i.anage.ent o0 relationships 0or and a.and is high% It is this realit' which obliged us to utili/e the. Saron 14 .ent is a concept o0 strategicall' .ent to ensure that wor1 scheduled concurrentl' is co. hard to obtain easil' and beco.

result in i.aterials .aterials use and how the' .aterials account 0or .ent% E00icient .anage.e.ooth.ent s'ste.'.aterials use can.ated% It is how .aterials can result in a large contribution% A great opportunit' 0or the construction industr' to reduce cost and increase pro0it and co.aterials cost through e00icient .all sa-ing in .pro-ed project econo.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&3 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Ma/er0a4' 6a-a+e6e-/ is a processJ It is how a building is designed and how .ent in project en-iron. additionall'.anage the . the re4uired ti. conser-ation o0 natural resources and reduced pollution% There0ore. the opportunit' to reduce cost and increase pro0its is also the Opportunit' to protect the en-iron. ti.anage.ore than 9>E o0 the project total cost% A s.anaged 0or use elsewhere or rec'cling rather than being discarded in a land0ill HAI% It is a culture how the custo.er e3pects the contractor and the contractor its subcontractors and the subcontractors its wor1ers to care 0or and properl' .el'. controlling or redirecting e00orts to achie-e a s.aterials and cuts% It is how waste is . and at an acceptable price and 4ualit'% In building construction projects.anage.aterials pro-ided% Ma/er0a4 Ma-a+e6e-/ can be de0ined as integrated .ent calls 0or an integrated approach co-ering nu.petiti-eness is in the area o0 . !ebrehiwot.aterials are esti.aterials are ac4uired and e-en how the pac1aging is speci0ied% It is how the deli-er' schedule is designed% It is how contractors plan . 0or planning.ent o0 .ent% $etter .aterials Prepared by: echasa.aterials to the project in the re4uired 4ualit'.anage.aterials .erous 0unctions such as .anage pre-iousl' used . Saron 15 . . e00icient 0low o0 .

aterials purchased O $etter use o0 the . locating sources o0 . de-eloping procure. design through 0inish% It is a two?phase plan corresponding to the and the 5onstruction "hase o0 'our project% 2ithin each o0 these phases there are 0our sections ?Re-iew.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects planning.aterials O Reduced waste and disposal costs% C. consist o0 procedures guiding all the pro0essionals and trades in-ol-ed in the entire process o0 the building creation 0ro. 0orecasting re4uire. de0ining speci0ications.aterials .aterials in-entor'.ent plan% Prepared by: echasa.ent and stoc1ing o0 construction . Reduce.aterials and ha-ing to purchase Ma1e?up . and the disposal o0 surplusesH)I% !&3&# MATERIAL PLANNING Ma/er0a4' p4a--0-+ is the 1e' 0unction o0 .ount o0 .ents.ent plans. is closel' lin1ed with project planning and control set B up% $oth these wor1 together to de-elop a plan 0or procure. store B 1eeping and ware housing.ent "lan. esti. handling and transportation. the right sources at the right ti.aterials so as to pro-ide at site . Saron 16 esign "hase .aterials appro-ed.aterials till the connected construction wor1s are co. and . in-entor' control. Reuse and Rec'cle HAI% The process and results o0 the planning done in the design "hase corresponds directl' to the site .anage.anage.-'/r (/0.ating 4uantities. designing .ent.onitoring 0low o0 . !ebrehiwot. codi0ication and standardi/ation. 0or.pleted% A Materials Manage.6a/er0a4' p4a--0-+ in-ol-es identi0'ing . purchasing.aterials purchased O Reduced labor in handling .ulated through the process o0 these guidelines.aterials.e% A 0ew hours spent in planning can produce project cost sa-ings throughJ O Reducing the a.aterials o0 the right 4ualit' in right 4uantit' at the right prices 0ro.aterials .

treat the waste rec'cling as rigorousl' as 4ualit' o0 the construction% Prepared by: echasa. Saron 17 . lu.a-d C.ent weather% Re(y(4eJ "lan the rec'cling o0 the construction waste be0ore the project starts at the site% Once the project is underwa'.ounts% More care ta1en on the jobsite and di00erent cleanup practices could dra..pan'Ps policies regarding esti. and used plastic 0il. can be stored and used to co-er e3posed wor1 in case o0 incle.ore than once.P)a'e The "lan that design should consider the GFour RPsGJ Re10e9J Reconsider the design philosophies and practices% Re-iew the co.aterials as possible% For instance 0or. !ebrehiwot..Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects De'0+. but generall' 0or another concrete 0or.ating and purchasing and the site construction practices% And re-iew the sources o0 those policies and are the' -alid in toda'Ps econo.-'/r (/0.ber is used .' or proceduresJ ecolog'D Red (eJ Reduce 4uantities purchased as well as waste% A wa' o0 loo1ing at the esti.atorPs and purchaserPs G0udge 0actorG is that the' are actuall' Speci0'ing the waste a.aticall' reduce waste% Then 0inall' create a substantial list o0 waste?reducing practices% Re 'eJ Reuse .

anage. pretender esti.pan'Fs 0inancial status. deli-er' ti. and their pro0essional co.ent o0 .aterials procure.s is . where applicable% On receipt o0 4uotations. -endorFs proposals are co. and support ser-ices% Prepared by: echasa. !ebrehiwot.s o0 deli-er' and pa'.ent 0or in-iting 4uotations with sa.ination o0 the t'pe. drawings.ates.ent tea.ents. PROCESS C.ent ter.atic and gradual process H)I% Ma/er0a4' Pr.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&3&! MATERIALS PROVISIONING :PROCUREMENT.inar' in-estigations 0or de-eloping sources 0or procure.ent% These are processed b' the .-'/r (/0. speci0ication.ples o0 .e.e.ent depart. 4uantit' and speci0ications o0 the construction .( re6e-/ "reli.aterials procure.inar' -endor en4uires% Such a stud' consu.pared with en4uir' speci0ications and stipulated re4uire.ents.aterials needs a detailed stud' o0 the contract docu.6a/er0a4' needed 0or a project wor1 -ar' with the nature o0 the project% The deter. and preli.ent depart.aterial. and the resulting de-iations are e3a. a co. Saron 18 .ade b' 0loating en4uir' indents.es considerable ti.ade jointl' b' both . and is a s'ste. speci0ications and deli-er' ti. co..parati-e stud' o0 the price.petence and engineering s1ills.aterials and project planning in charges% uring the course o0 this stud'.e should include 4ualit' o0 .pan'Fs .es are jointl' prepared b' the project planning cell and . containing 4uantities.aterials. 4ualit'. co. ter.aterials are .ined 0or acceptabilit'% The 1e' criteria 0or e-aluating the potential o0 the supplier to deli-er the right 4uantit' product at the right ti. including the bill o0 4uantities.

aterials is held to act as a cushion between suppl' and de.aterials in stoc1 at a gi-en ti. Qin-entor'F i.ent.plies the cost o0 .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects The 4uotation co.ed as a su.aterials 0or the s.ined sa0et' stoc1 to cater 0or slippages in deli-er' schedules H)I% In-entor' control not onl' loo1s into the ph'sical balance o0 -arious .onitoring .aterials is . and 0ewer in-entories carr' the ris1 o0 supplies 0alling behind de..ent till supplies are recei-ed% It includes pre? deter.ethods o0 reducing the co.ooth running o0 the project% Higher in-entor' i.e o0 the .ar' o0 the alternati-e proposals 0or gi-en .ent o0 . Saron 19 .parison sheet can be best ter.portant consideration in cost reduction% This .s o0 suppl'% And the 0inal step in the procure. stoc1 o0 .onetar' -alue o0 in-entor' indicates the e3tent o0 in-est.aterials should be 0or the 4uantit' needed and the purchase 4uantit' should be neither .ade at the right ti.eans that the purchase o0 .aintain .aterials% These proposals undergo 0urther processing be0ore .plies higher in-est.a1ing a decision about placing o0 purchase order% The -arious stages encountered prior to the purchase decisions are appro-al in principle 0or processing proposals. are so.ini.aterials deli-er' schedule% !&3&3 INVENTORY CONTROL The ter.aterials and negotiations o0 ter.ore nor less% "urchases ha-e to be .ini. clientFs appro-al o0 proposed .ponent o0 . !ebrehiwot.ain issues concerning in-entor' control% Further.and% The .e% This stoc1 o0 .u.ent re4uired to .e and at the . .i/ing the in-entor' cost% Another aspect o0 in-entor' control is control o0 the in-entor' carr'ing cost% A-oiding shortage.aterials cost in the product cost is an i.ost econo. a-oiding e3cessi-e stoc1ing and increasing in-entor' turno-er.ic cost% Prepared by: echasa.and% A balanced in-entor' acts as a cushion between suppl' and site re4uire.aterials but also loo1s into aspects o0 .

Saron 20 epart. Prepared by: echasa. the relationship between warehouses and other .age and pil0erage.portant aspects o0 store .ent tool 0or cost reduction% !&3&5 STORE < $EEPING AND WAREHOUSING S/.anage.s are housed or a building designed 0or storage purposes and constructed with roo0 and co.re < *eep0-+J . using proper .ent% !&3&7 HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION Ma/er0a4' )a-d40-+J re0ers to techni4ues e. !ebrehiwot.plo'ed to . stored.o-e. transport. and 1eeping record and in-entor' o0 stores up?to?date% Ware).eans whereb' goods are recei-ed.ethod o0 identi0'ing and coding. in a proper place.ust be seen as pro-iding ser-ices to the rest o0 the organi/ation in which the' operate% The le-els o0 these ser-ices will a00ect the o-erall e00icienc' o0 the organi/ation% There0ore.e o0 the essentials o0 good store B 1eeping are assigning and placing each ite.ents 0or health and sa0et'% Store B 1eeping is both a science and an art% So. identi0ied.plete side and end walls% 2arehouses . pro-iding protection against da.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects In-entor' control is there0ore a strong .ents #or 0unctional areas& within the organi/ation are -er' i. account 0or and replenished in accordance with de0ined ser-ice le-els and with due regard o0 legal re4uire.anage. issued. 'eJ is a place where ite.

ent si/es and other 0actors% Ship. as the carrier can tra-el 0ro. !ebrehiwot.aterial speci0icall'.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects and store or distribute store ite.a' 0a-or a .aterials should be gi-en a code identi0'ing the .pact.ore e3pensi-e .passes all acti-ities in-ol-ed in the .ents o0 .aterials% These include storage space.ajor objecti-e. de0initel'. producti-e process.ust be de-eloped to identi0' all ite. and una. Saron 21 . cost and ti.e ite. or 0ro.el' suppl'% There are .ent costs% !&3&= CODIFICATION AND STANDARDI>ATION The recei-ed o0 goods should be identi0ied b' a clear wa' o0 identi0ication% 2ithout identi0ication it is i. precise #i%e% e3act&.ent is another consideration in reducing shipping cost% 2hile the reduction in shipping costs is a . si. the origin to the destination o0 the 0ull load without ha-ing to stop 0or deli-ering part o0 the cargo at other stations% A-oiding transship.ent b' the 0ull load o0 a carrier o0ten reduces prices and assures 4uic1er deli-er'.. concise.ar' purpose o0 classi0'ing .s with or without the aid o0 .aterials to. and 0le3ible enough to acco.o-e.s .s held in store% All . and in recei-ing and shipping areas% Transportation enco.aterials is to control 4ualit'.e the' are shipped% The transportation costs are a00ected b' ship. the ti.o-e.aterials 0ro.anage to ha-e a uni4ue. can be sol-ed using codi0ication% The code .ple and consistent .aterials needed% This proble.echanical appliances% The .biguousl'% Adopting a well designed codi0ication s'ste.e the' are recei-ed to the ti. the re4uire. enables the stores .an' 0actors that need consideration while classi0'ing .odate 0uture addition% The pri.ethod o0 identi0'ing stoc1s% 5ode should be co.ent and 0low o0 .possible to uni4uel' identi0' the .ode o0 transportation to a-oid brea1age and replace.ents o0 delicate handling o0 so. shel0 li0e. suppl' Prepared by: echasa. through.

etal.ent.posting% surpluses is -er' e3pensi-e% ue to continuing shortage o0 du. procure. paper etc% 5onstruction waste can occur at e-er' stage o0 the acti-ities but . price.ostl' unsuitable 0or disposal b' incineration or co. gra-el. bric1s.ost o0 the resources are being used in this stage% 5onstruction waste is bul1' and hea-' and is .ent source and project li0e% !&3&? DISPOSAL OF SURPLUSES 5onstruction acti-it' leads to generate o0 solid wastes. stone. the disposal o0 Prepared by: echasa. in-entor' costs. wood. transportation re4uire. . !ebrehiwot.ost signi0icant waste le-el can be obser-ed during the construction phase especiall' on site where . procure. Saron 22 .e. construction se4uence. which include sand.ost o0 those in-ol-ed in the operation do not aware o0 that% 2aste le-el 0or initial stage o0 construction acti-ities can be low and the .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects reliabilit'.ent ti. concrete.ping sites and increase in transportation cost. ease o0 identi0ication.

e .aterials deli-ered and accepted on site and those properl' used as speci0ied and accuratel' .aterials% So. a0ter deducting the cost sa-ing o0 substituted . Saron 23 .aterials and labor costs in a project are conceptuali/ed during the inception stage b' using past e3perience% 2hile contracting the 4uantities o0 wor1 in-ol-ed in a project are detailed in the contract bill o0 4uantities% These are deri-ed 0ro.a' be incurred b' .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&5 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WASTAGE MANAGEMENT !&5&# DEFINITION C.aterials trans0erred elsewhere in which unnecessar' cost and ti.aterials wastage H8I% !&5&! MATERIALS USAGE STANDARDS !enerall'.easured in the wor1.e wastage is ine-itable in actual wor1% This wastage in .-'/r (/0.ed as @S/a-dard Wa'/a+eA% Prepared by: echasa. and is ter.aterials is generall' e3pressed as percentage o0 . the design and drawings% $ut there is inherent . the . !ebrehiwot.6a/er0a4 9a'/a+e' can be de0ined as the di00erence between the -alue o0 .aterials calculated theoreticall' 0ro.. the 4uantities o0 wor1 in-ol-ed.aterials wastage associated with all t'pes o0 .

aterials procure.e% Table *%) 5onstruction Materials 2astages "lanning Nor. etc% It .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects The total 4uantit' o0 . there is wastageMpil0erage which 0alls in the categor' o0 controllable wastage% The .aterials depends upon .aterials are a-ailable at the right ti.ethod o0 application.ent Sand Aggregate Rein0orce.s H8I% Ite.an' -ariables such as the nature o0 wor1. Saron "lanned 2astage # E & * )> 9 + 24 Prepared by: .ent% c% 2astage during handling and storage% d% 2astage during utili/ation% Since.aterials.ain causes o0 controllable wastage at -arious stages can be due to the 0ollowingJ? a% 2astage during design and super-ision% b% 2astage during . No% ) * + 8 T'pes o0 Materials 5e.-ed B Theoretical 4uantit' o0 .aterials . t'pe o0 .aterials O #)>> R standard wastage #E&&M)>> S/a-dard 9a'/a+e o0 the construction . !ebrehiwot.ent sta00 the additional pro-isions to co.pensate 0or such wastage should be .anage.ade b' the. so as to ensure that the right 4uantit' and right 4uantit' o0 . controllable wastage 0alls under the pur-iew o0 the . . be pr.ent steel bars echasa.10'0.aterials to be pro-isioned should cater 0or the standard wastage b' increasing the theoretical 4uantit' proportionatel'% Ma/er0a4' /.a' be noted that standard wastage caters 0or wastage during utili/ation onl' 0or causes considered be'ond control at site% In addition to the uncontrollable wastage.

asonr' Steel sheet roo0ing Tile roo0ing Floor tiling Marble lining Rein0orced concrete :ean concrete "ainting 9 * 9 *?9 *> * )> 9 !&5&3 CAUSES OF MATERIAL WASTAGE 2astage o0 .ore o0 the 0ollowing . !ebrehiwot.a' result 0ro.s to cater 0or unrealistic and un0oreseen e-entualities% Unti.atch the 4ualit' o0 the building re4uired% Resistance to adopt alternati-e .ain causes ? • • • • $u'ing . Saron 25 Prepared by: .ore than the actual re4uire.ension dis?coordination% 7ariations in design at the construction stage #de.ent can result 0ro.aterials% *% 2astage during procure.olishing&% iscrepancies in drawings and speci0ications% O-er design% Speci0ication 0ailing to .aterials can ta1e place during -arious stages o0 the project% )% 2astage arising 0ro. design .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects 9 . one or .el' bu'ing o0 short?li0e . the 0ollowing reasons ? • • • • • • i.aterials% echasa.ent% Unnecessar' bu'ing o0 ite. < = A )> )) )* Stone .aterials o0 wrong speci0ication% $u'ing .

etc% High rate o0 deterioration due to long storage at the place o0 wor1% O-er?issues 0ro.proper and unnecessar' handling o0 . 0ire.atic conditions% 8% 2astage during utili/ation #usage& can be attributed to one or .aintenance and short?shel0 li0e% :osses due to 0ire. incorrect .ore o0 the 0ollowing reasons ? • • • • • • • • • • • E3cess 4uantit' esti. Saron 26 . the0ts and e3posure to cli.ation% Shortage in deli-er'% The0t and pil0erage% $rea1ages and da.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects • • I.ages during handling% :ac1 o0 pre?wor1 preparation and coordination% In0erior 4ualit' o0 .aterials% 2astage in transportation% +% 2astage during storage can occur due to the 0ollowing reasons ? • • • a.stances li1e accidents.aterials% Prepared by: echasa.aged and brea1ages during handling% eterioration due to incorrect storage.aterials% I. !ebrehiwot.proper accounting and poor store 1eeping% Negligent and careless attitude o0 the super-isor% Un0oreseen circu. the central stores and 0ailures to return unused surplus .

etc% Higher le-el o0 wastage .aterials% A lot o0 .anship% b& "oor . and poor wor1.age to . it . !ebrehiwot.aterials are not in properl' arranged.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&5&5 SIDE EFFECT DUE TO MATERIAL HANDLING AND WASTAGE CONTROL PROBLEMS !&5&5&#& S0de e22e(/' d e /.age. .echanical plant% Materials should be unloaded and stored near to the point o0 use to pre-ent double handling o0 wor1% 2ithout proper planning a location o0 ..aterials and obstruct the handling o0 .r 6a/er0a4' )a-d40-+ a& High le-el o0 . the site .aterials wastage ue to poor storage s'ste..a' be congested and a00ect site accessibilit'% There is alwa's a tendenc' 0or so.aterials are being wasted due to poor handling s'ste.aterials storage.aterials to be stored in wrong place% For Prepared by: echasa. -andalis. Saron 27 . loss.aterials storage 2hen the .aterials are e3posed to da.e o0 .a' be occurring due to o-er order or under suppl' o0 . p.a' cause da.

the .aterials are used and the ti. shortage o0 .e spent 0or the re?construction and replace.ent is needed to . 6a/er0a4' 9a'/a+e a& :ow pro0itabilit' The pro0itabilit' o0 a project can be in0luenced b' the cost o0 .ages during the transit o0 . and late deli-er' o0 .s.s li1e door closers and loc1set.a' occur when wrong t'pes or 4ualit' o0 .aterials da.ent.a3i. !ebrehiwot. Saron 28 .aterials.b.ent 0or the goods% Another cause o0 dela's is da. i0 the .aterials in site% E3cess o0 .aged b' progressing wor1s is high% !&5&5&!& S0de e22e(/' d e /. sound Material Storage Manage. the lower pro0itabilit' o0 the project% There0ore.e dela' The dela' o0 construction wor1 .aterials deli-ered to site creates lot storage proble. which are alwa's stolen b' wor1ers or sub?contractors when stored in an open store% c& Materials shortage or e3cesses on site 2ithout proper planning o0 ordering and deli-ering o0 .aterials.aterials% :arge costs can be sa-ed 0ro.aterials are deli-ered too earl' on siteL the ris1 o0 .aterials and so on% 2ithout proper planning in Material Storage Manage. there is a high tendenc' 0acing the shortage o0 .aterials since it contributes to a substantial -alue o0 a project% As a rule o0 thu.all and -aluable ite. the higher le-el o0 wastage.aterials.i/e pro0itabilit' o0 a project% b& 5onstruction ti.ple s. the project is li1el' to be dela'ed% Prepared by: echasa.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects e3a.

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects c& :ow producti-it' "oor Materials Storage Manage.ent natural resources% A.pact o0 construction operations on natural conser-ation is cu.ent #MSM& is in great concern% These are all done to ensure the waste is being controlled as well as the en-iron.an' countries nowada's% Material Storage Manage. Saron 29 . construction industr' also contributes a signi0icant waste to the o-erall waste -olu.ulati-e and collecti-e in .ajorit' countr'% The i. loss o0 grassland can result 0ro.ple.ong those industr' operations.aterials suppl' that disrupt progra. a congested site with .ental i. !ebrehiwot.ent will a00ect producti-it'% For e3a. the need 0or land0ill sites% New concepts o0 waste control are being applied in . such as disturbance o0 sensiti-e habitats and species b' water pollution% In addition.ounts o0 waste are generated.ental condition is being protected% Prepared by: echasa. waste generated b' industrial operations need to be categori/ed in list o0 concern too as waste le-els indicate the appreciation o0 use o0 en-iron.ost situations.e annuall' 0or . where large a.ental issue is in concern globall'.aterials not properl' allocated will create a lot o0 double handling wor1s and obstruct the operation wor1s% The producti-it' o0 the wor1 will be reduced with shortages and dela' o0 .pact Since the en-iron.% d& En-iron.

anage. !ebrehiwot.e una-oidable wastage is inherent during utili/ation.-'/r (/0.ine the causes o0 wastage and i. docu.aterials.ini.enting .aterials procure.i/ing wastage in usage% "roducti-it' control at the construction responsibilit' center le-el can be broadl' di-ided into accounting 0or . anal'/ing usage -ariances to deter.r C. Saron 30 .. but it is the e3cessi-e wastage which is o0 concern to the . -/0-+ 2.s at .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !&5&7 SYSTEM OF MATERIAL WASTAGE CONTROL So. and conse4uentl' results in e3tra costs% "roducti-it' control ai.ini.ent status% It shows the holding o0 .ple. it pro-ides the .aterials data.aterials Prepared by: echasa.ent% E3cessi-e wastage during the utili/ation stage a00ects the producti-it' ad-ersel'.easures to .i/e wastage H)I% !&5&7&# A((.Ma/er0a4' Materials accounting s'ste.ents the .

el' procure.aterials o0 right 4uantit' and 4ualit' at the re4uired ti.ulating . !ebrehiwot.e o0 esti. the crusher.aterials consu.aterial issues and return notes transacted between super-isors and stoc1holders% In case o0 .ing wor1s% It identi0ies and 4uanti0ies issues o0 . and site a-ailabilit' o0 . the supplierFs deli-er' note along with .ation% Ma/er0a4 'a+e 1ar0a-(e Prepared by: echasa. or aggregate 0ro.aterials deli-ered directl' to the construction sites b' the supplier.aterials wastage anal'sis is to 4uanti0' standard 4uantit' and t'pe o0 direct . o0 e-aluating and i.pletion o0 the wor1?ite.aterials. when consolidated 0ro.aterials costs% "roject planners are especiall' concerned with .plications o0 -ariations 0ro. the acceptable wastage standard. site batching plant o0 0abricated steel 0or rein0orce.ed 0or each wor1 ite.ini.i3 concrete 0ro. 0or.ates and wastage during usage. costs.aterials.aterials?0low data 0or ensuring the ti. the accepted .i/ing esti.aterials consu.% These issue slips and deli-er' notes.ed indicates the e3cess #i0 an'& 0ro.ine the 4uantit' consu.aterials usuall' consu. the start to co. such as read'?.ent 0ro.ent o0 .ed% The di00erence between the standard .ent and the .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects in-entor' 0or the inco.plied 0ro. the . can be co.aterial needed 0or each wor1 ite.aterials to the site and it re-eals the . can gi-e the 4uantities o0 . the site steel 'ard.aterials return note can be used to deter.aterials costing nor. at .s 0or 0uture wor1s% !&5&7&! Ma/er0a4' Wa'/a+e A-a4y'0' The 0irst step in .e and place% The' also ai. Saron 31 .aterials re4uire.ed 0or a gi-en wor1 ite.% The actual . updating e3penditures .aterials wastage standard prepared at the ti.

aterials wastage% CHAPTER THREE 3& ANALYSIS 3&#& PROFILE OF THE CUESTIONNAIRES As discussed in the .aterials wastage ? Actual .ain causes o0 wastage.ethodolog' part o0 this paper.aterial handling and wastage proble. the second approach to assess the e3istence o0 .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects B standard acceptable . their side e00ects and proposed . !ebrehiwot.Fs e3perience% The 4uestionnaires were Prepared by: echasa. Saron 32 .s.ethods is the use o0 4uestionnaires sur-e' based on 0ir. the .

and out o0 which ** were collected% The respondents ha-e been as1ed to respond 4uestions in relation to 0ir. procure. in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects% • Section two is designed to asses the .ent are the 0ollowingsJ • Section one is related to the e3istence o0 .on side e00ects o0 the proble.aterials poor handling and wastage% 2astage resulting during design and super-ision.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects designed to collect data regarding the current .aterial .ari/es the nu.aterial handling and wastage proble.anage. 4uestionnaires were distributed.aterial .ajor causes 0or .anage.aterials has recei-ed a particular attention% • Section three is designed to asses the co. i0 there is an'% RespondentFs reaction was positi-e and it has a response rate o0 .plo'ers engaged .ent.ent and wastage control practices% The 4uestionnaires were grouped into 0our .s on both sta1eholders and projects% • Section four is related to the s'ste.ajor sections% The sections and their area o0 assess.ent practices and an' pre identi0ied causes o0 wastage in projects.ber o0 distributed 4uestionnaires and rate o0 responses% Prepared by: echasa. !ebrehiwot. proposed b' sta1eholders to . Saron 33 .ainl' in low cost housing construction projects% A total o0 +. consultants and e.)E% Table +%) su.aterials poor handling and wastage in the low cost housing projects% 3&!& THE RESPONDENTS The respondents were local contractors.i/e . handling and storage and during utili/ation o0 .Fs .ini...

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Table +%), Su..ar' on the response rate o0 4uestionnaires 5onstruction part' 5ontractors 5onsultants E.plo'ers istributed 4uestionnaires )* )* )* 5ollected 4uestionnaires = = ; Response #E& ;<E ;<E 9>E rate

3&3

DATA PRESENTATIOND ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

3&3&# Se(/0,- ,-e % is related to the e3istence o0 .aterial handling and wastage proble. in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects% Table +%*, E3istence o0 .aterial handling and wastage proble.%
I/e 6 N,& C e'/0,-' Re'p,d Re'p,-de-/' I- N,& I- E

Prepared by:

echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron

34

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

)

Is there an' .aterial handling and wastage proble. directl' connected to low cost housing projectsD (es or No A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er (es No (es No (es No )>> > )>> > )>> > )>> > )>> > )>> >

Fig% +%), E3istence o0 .aterials handling and wastage proble.s% D0'( ''0,- ? The abo-e Table +%* and Fig% +%) indicated that the e3istence o0 .aterial handling and wastage proble. in projects% According to the result 0ound 0ro. the sur-e' stud', )>>E o0 the sta1eholderFs respondents belie-e thatL the .aterials poor handling and wastage proble. e3ist in Addis Ababa :ow 5ost Housing projects% 3&3&! Se(/0,- /9, % is related to the .ajor causes o0 .aterials poor handling and wastage% Prepared by: echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron 35

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Table +%+, Major causes o0 poor .aterials handling and wastage%
I/e 6 N,& * C e'/0,-' 2hat are the .ajor causes o0 poor .aterial handling and wastage in :5H projectsD )% "oor wor1.an ship A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er *% I.proper .aterial handling and storage s'ste. A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er +% Utili/ation A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er 8% esign proble. ; 8 * 8 * * * * ) 8 + + <9 9> ++ 9> *9 ++ *9 *9 )< 9> += 9> A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er 9% 7ariation in design at construction stage A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er ;% Incorrect procure.ent o0 .aterials A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er <% In bul1 .aterial suppl' b' the owner A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.plo'er 8 9 9 9> ;+ =+ 8 9 8 9> ;+ ;< Re'p,-de-/' I- N,& I- E

+ 8 8

+= 9> ;<

Prepared by:

echasa, !ebrehiwot, Saron

36

the .e o0 the .a1es the contractors unable to e.r 9. a-erages o0 . .aterial suppl' in bul1 4uantit'% #& P.aterials handling and wastage% D0'( ''0. incorrect procure. Saron 37 ..aterial wastage in :5H project% $esides. so.ajor causes o0 .r*6a-')0p According to the result 0ound 0ro.. the stud'. Major causes 0or . -ariations in design at construction stage.plo' 4uali0ied Prepared by: echasa.ent o0 .ain causes o0 .aterials poor handling and wastage are poor wor1. utili/ation.aterial handling and wastage in :5H project% According to the sur-e' data.s. design proble.anship is one o0 the .aterials and .ajor causes 0or poor .>E o0 the respondents belie-e thatL poor wor1.? Table +%+ and Fig% +%* shows that.anship. !ebrehiwot. lac1 o0 appropriate handling and storage.ost :5H projects are awarded on 0i3ed price bases 0or selected 4uali0ied consultants and contractorsL this .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Fig% +%*.

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects pro0essionals and s1illed .anship during production stage and lac1 o0 super-ision% Under super-ision the 0ollowing steps should be properl' i.anpowerFs% In addition to this.aterials and i.anship.pan' which pa's better% Thus poor and non?sustainable wor1.ent bars and to pour concrete%  A0ter casting it has to be properl' dis.ented% uring production stageL right -ibration.ostl' wor1ers see1 another co. since the contractor e. it should be properl' cured% A0ter that it should be well transported to wor1ing site and properl' handled%  Prepared by: echasa.aterial selection and correct .s attain its co.proper 4ualit' .plo' laborers with low basic salar'. .antled and get proper curing%  Until precast bea.anship contributes 0or the increase o0 . utili/ation o0 i./.prehensi-e strength. !ebrehiwot. 4ualit' . #: Material wastage due to poor wor1. Saron 38 .a' rise due to poor wor1.proper super-ision% The proble.ple.i3 ratio should be 1ept%  The .aterial wastage% P). .ould has to be chee1ed and properl' prepared 0or 0i3ing rein0orce.

/. !ebrehiwot.n junctions due to poor wor1. Saron 39 .anship% Prepared by: echasa.anship% This grade bea. bulge out is due to lac1 o0 4ualit' .aterial selection and S1illed laborers% As a result o0 this./.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects P). the entire bulge out concrete a.e out o0 standard% P). !: Material wastage due to poor wor1. 3J E3cess -oids obser-ed on casted grade bea.ount increases the wastage li. and 0oundation colu.it to beco.

Saron 40 .pensation . 5J Forwarded reco.ented here% !& La(* .e 0unctioning o0 the building due to dela's o0 project co.aterials are wasted due to poor wor1.e co.anshipL in addition the contractor incurs additional labor cost% Here also the e. !ebrehiwot.pletion ti./..echanis.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects P). .ple.ra+e Prepared by: echasa.plo'er loses the on ti.pr0a/e )a-d40-+ a-d '/.e unless so.2 appr.endations% As obser-ed in photo + N 8.s i.

ostl' sub?contractors are not sensiti-e to . this is becauseL . 7: Inappropriate .ents are stored directl' in contact with 0loor and it is stoc1piled rando. the' 0ocus on outputs% Hence the client should pro-ide close super-ision in order to .ages and brea1ages during loading and un?loading. losses due to the0t and e3posure to e3tre. !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects As the result o0 the stud' shows.atic condition% As the' replied. Saron 41 .a1e the subcontractors gi-e attention to . in the contract docu.aterial handling and wastage control ite. ce. deterioration due to incorrect storage.e cli.aterial #ce.plo'er and 9>E o0 the consultant belie-es that.s associated with this. wastages are . nearl' . lac1 o0 appropriate handling and storage o0 .ore in cases o0 labor based contracting s'ste. are da..aterials in the project% So./.aterial handling and control their negligence% Inaddtion to this the owner should pro-ide .<E o0 the e.e proble.l'% Prepared by: echasa.ent% P).aterials rather.ent& storage% As obser-ed in photo 9.aterials b' the contractors #sub?contractors& contribute 0or the wastage o0 .

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects P).entioned isL e3cess . the rein0orce.ent bars% As it is easil' obser-ed in the picture. and use o0 dr' ce. =J Inappropriate rein0orce. using unsuitable tools and . the -er' beginning% In addition the rein0orce. !ebrehiwot.s .proper utili/ation proble. due to this the corrosion e3tent enhanced a lot% As a result.eans it is placed directl' in contact with earth and which is not under shed.E o0 the sta1eholderFs respondent belie-es thatL i.plo'er alwa's not suppl' newl' produced rein0orce. it creates a direct additional cost to the contractor and dela's on project co.proper utili/ation #usage& is one o0 the ..aterial wastage% So.ortarMconcrete preparation.aterials.ent bars get corroded 0ro.As the result o0 the stud' shows.e o0 the i.isuse o0 ratio to -arious grades.ent bars not stoc1piled properl'L which .ajor causes 0or ./. . Saron 42 . .ent stoc1piling% E.achines. poor handling o0 .ent etc% Prepared by: echasa.pletion ti.e% 3& U/040Fa/0.

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects P). ?J Material wastage during concrete transportation to cast a structure% Prepared by: echasa./. Saron 43 . !ebrehiwot.

e a cause 0or .aterial wastage% So. G: Material wastage during concrete . !eside this the contractor not handle the materials by using proper techni"ues and mostly the labor orce lac# expected .aterial -olu. <9E o0 the contractors and 9>E o0 the consultants belie-e thatL design proble. and design without soil test% In this case.s associated with this.i3ing% Material wastage mostly observed in LCH project to a maximum degree than other high scale projects.-' 0.'/a+e Prepared by: echasa.. Saron 44 .ajor cause 0or ? LCH projects are labor based contract rom the very beginning. This is due to various reasons:5& De'0+.ension dis?coordination.-'/r (/0.es are . are o-er design.b4e6' As the result o0 the stud' shows.aterial wastages% A good design can reduce wastages b' considering di. larger .andator' 0or construction than should be the case. and this beco. di.pr.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects P).ensional coordination and grid s'ste. o0 designing% 7& Var0a/0. !ebrehiwot./.de'0+.s as the .a/ (.e proble.

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects In this section. since it is obser-ed on contractors when procuring and deli-ering incorrect .aterials does not ha-e an in0luence on . incorrect procure. !ebrehiwot.ost <9E o0 the respondents replied that. al.pact o0 its in0luence as 0ollowsJ a% The suppl' o0 .9-er It is agreed b' nearl' 99E o0 sta1eholders that.on understanding o0 its e3istence. 9>E o0 the contractors accept -ariations in design at the construction stage ha-e e00ect 0or the increase o0 . howe-er the' re..aterials b' the owner #AAH "O& is not conceding with the project .( re6e-/ .odi0ication& at construction stage which leads to the additional =& I-(.ent o0 . site when it is understood b' the consultant% ?& I. during our site -isit and discussion with the e.aterial wastage% Howe-er.aterial wastage in the project% The' ha-e e3plained the i.aterials b' the owner #AAH "O& and MSE has in0luence to the increase o0 .aterial deli-er' schedule. which 0acilitates unti. the stud' indicates that.aterials which are in0erior in 4ualit'.el' bul1 suppl' o0 .aterial wastage in the project% The e00ect is . Saron 45 . bul1 suppl' o0 .plete design and design change order gi-en to the contractor b' the consultant orMand e. o0 de.b 4* 6a/er0a4 ' pp4y by /)e .olishing o0 0ault' design wor1s% esign change #.o-e it 0ro.plo'ees o0 sta1eholdersL we ha-e reached to a co.rre(/ pr.ani0ested b' not ha-ing co.plo'er at the construction stage% wastage in the 0or.aterials% Prepared by: echasa.2 6a/er0a4' As the result o0 the stud' shows.

-' Re'p. MSEFs produce poor 4ualit' .& oes the in-ol-e.aterials and suppl' .& I. !ebrehiwot.N.aterial wastage in :5H projectsD (es or No. * < ) ) 9 <9 *9 == )+ )< =+ A% 5ontractors $% 5onsultant 5% E. Saron 46 .e% Table +%8. I/e 6 N.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects b% ue to lac1 o0 super-ision.E + oes the in-ol-e.ent o0 MSEPS ha-e contribution 0or the increase o0 .plo'er Prepared by: echasa. i0 'es what are the side e00ects in 'our conte3tD "lease 0orward possible justi0icationD (es No (es No (es No .d Re'p.ent o0 MSEFs increase wastage C e'/0.-de-/' I.aterials with out 1eeping the re4uired 4uantit' and right ti.

.? Table +%8 and Fig% +%+ shows that.ent o0 MSEFs in this sector does not contribute 0or the increase o0 wastage whileL <9E o0 the contractors and =<%9E o0 the consultants replied that. Saron 47 . !ebrehiwot.aterial wastage in the project% As the result shows =+E o0 the e.aterials li1e precast bea. the in-ol-e.aterials% The' ha-e e3plained the i.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Fig% +%+.all Enterprises& ha-e contribution 0or the increase o0 .aterials has large e00ect on wastages o0 . oes the in-ol-e. slab and H5$ walls% b& ue to lac1 o0 super-ision. MSEFs produce and suppl' poor 4ualit' .s.ent o0 MSEFs increase wastage D0'( ''0. their participation in producing and suppl'ing .plo'ers belie-e that.aterials% Prepared by: echasa. whether the e3istence o0 MSEs #Micro and S.pact o0 their in0luence as 0ollowsJ a& "roduction error and lac1 o0 per0ection on .

N.ajor side e00ects o0 .aterials with re4uired 4ualit' and di. the MSEFs not 'et got enough training and 1nowledge which enables the.plo'er 9 8 8 + 8 8 8 9 9 + 9 + .+ 9> Re'p.& I.ain proble.plo'er *% ela' in project co.E Prepared by: echasa.plo'er 8% En-iron.pact A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.ental i.s in :5H projectsD )% 5ost o-errun A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.e A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E.& 8 C e'/0. side e00ects o0 the proble. ..aterials with poor 4ualit' and incorrect di.plo'er +% Ine00ecti-e resource utili/ation A% 5ontractor $% 5onsultant 5% E. we ha-e understood here is that.ension produced and 3&3&3 Se(/0.+ 9> ./)ree % is related to the .pletion ti.s in the project% I/e 6 N. Saron 48 .< += 9> .ension% wastages generated% ue to this reason.< 9> .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects The .+ =+ += .-de-/' I. to produce .-' 2hat are the side e00ects o0 the proble. !ebrehiwot.aterials poor handling and wastage in :ow 5ost Housing projects% Table +%9.

aterials poor handling and wastage a00ects the e3pected project cost planned b' e.ajor side e00ects o0 poor .ental i.aterials handling and wastage in the low cost housing projects% So.1err According to the result 0ound 0ro. Saron 49 .ain side e00ects according to the sur-e' data are cost o-errun. and en-iron..'/ . Side e00ects o0 the proble.ore than 9>E o0 the project total cost% The e00ect is .e o0 the . transportation. dela' in project co. a-erages o0 .aterials account 0or . storage.? Table +%9 and Fig% +%8 shows that the .s in the project% D0'( ''0.e.plo'er and contractor% More o-er as stated in the literature re-iew section *%+ in building construction projects .ani0ested b' not using proper handling during procure. !ebrehiwot.pletion ti.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Fig% +%8. the stud'. and utili/ation% Prepared by: echasa. ine00ecti-e resource utili/ation.>E o0 the sta1eholdersF respondents belie-e that .pact% #& C.ent.

+E o0 the consultants belie-e that .- As the result o0 the stud' shows nearl' =+E o0 the e./06e As the result o0 the stud' shows nearl' 9+E o0 the sta1eholdersF respondents belie-e that project co. such as disturbance o0 sensiti-e habitats and species b' water pollution% In addition.aterials and so on% 3& I-e22e(/01e re'. the stud' shows nearl' 9>E o0 the sta1eholdersF respondents belie-e that wastes due to .aterials b' the contractors #subcontractors& contribute 0or wastage o0 .pletion ti.ounts o0 waste are generated.aterial to co. !ebrehiwot.pr. and late deli-er' o0 .aterials in projects% 5& E-10r.pact o0 construction operations on natural conser-ation is cu.a' occur when wrong t'pes or 4ualit' o0 .ent% The i.aterials. where large a.-6e-/a4 06pa(/ According to the result 0ound 0ro.aterials poor handling and wastage a00ects the planned 4uantit' o0 .ulati-e and collecti-e in . loss o0 grassland can result 0ro.plete a project% :ac1 o0 appropriate handling and storage o0 .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects !& De4ay 0.plo'er and . shortage o0 .aterials.ost situations. the need 0or land0ill sites% Prepared by: echasa.aterials are used and the ti.ent 0or the goods% Another cause o0 dela's is da.ages during the transit o0 .e is a00ected ha-ing .e(/ (. Saron 50 .6p4e/0.. r(e /040Fa/0.aterials poor handling and wastage is easil' a00ect the en-iron.aterials poor handling and wastage in projects% uring our discussion with the project engineers the dela' o0 construction wor1 .e spent 0or the re?construction and replace..

e to e00icient laborers and pro0essionals as per their position and encourage.aterial handling 0ro.i/e . !ebrehiwot.aterial handling and wastages% Sta1e holders A& C. concrete placing and .s  Assign.ini.ethodologies used to .aterials wastage and to .ent o0 0ollow up engineer b' preparing chec1lists%  Training is 0orwarded to engineers #senior and 0resh& and to other rele-ant s1illed laborers with in so. position incre.F. Saron 51 .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects 3&3&5 Se(/0.r' "roposed and practiced s'ste.i3ing% All these .i/e poor .e% $ecause o0 this reason.-/ra(/.aintain proper .i/e .eeting e-aluation which obtain one .aterial handling% Table +%.ini.s to . 0inance budgetingL brea1 downed .aterial schedule preparation be0ore 0orced to e3ecutions%  Rec'cling.ajor agenda about .s and .ini. proposed s'ste. the three sta1eholders point o0 -iew% Material is the large portion o0 the project costL our pro0it is highl' depending on proper utili/ation o0 . r: proposed s'ste.aterial handling and its standard utili/ation%  "ro-iding bonuses..aterial wastage will be processed again to use 0or ordinar' wor1s% Prepared by: echasa. sta1eholders 0orward the 0ollowing s'ste.aterial resources at di00erent stage o0 the project ti.ple wastage created during plastering.e inter-al or as it need%  Regular .s to . 0or e3a.ent on di00erent aspect%  $ar schedule preparation..aterial wastage and poor .ent. preparing scheduled recreational ti.

unication and that obliged the contractors to proceed b' 0ull 0illing their responsibilit'%  5onsulting o00ices are tr'ing to prepare trainings 0or .ent a0ter repeated oral co. unloading. sand N gra-el%  Filling inspections on .aterial handling procedure and s'ste. !ebrehiwot.anage.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects  The contractor should ta1e care on handling o0 .s  !i-ing orientation and brie0ing 0or the cause o0 wastages to construction .aterials in :5H projects such as slab N wall H5$Ps. placing and on how .aterial . Saron 52 .. .s on storing.ent can be handled%  "ro-iding special training to super-isors.ands awareness%  Assisting the contractors in how N where to store .aterials during loading.aterials when supplied b' the client%  2arning contractors b' writing on site boo1 to create a good .e inter-als to create "recast bea. rein0orce.anage.-' 4/a-/' "roposed and practiced s'ste.an resource% Sta1e holders B& C. how the' should handle the project to the e3tent low cost de. 4ualit' .ost sta1eholders li1e Engineers under 5onsulting with in so.aterials be0ore the' brought in to the building to construct slab or H5$ wall%  "reparing chec1lists.aterials such as ce. bar.ajor raw . N on . transportation and utili/ation periods%  The contractor should ha-e ta1en right .i3.ent.aterial and properl' sta00ed hu.ent Prepared by: echasa.

ajorl' all sta1eholders agreed on sta00 training.aterial handling and wastage% To a-oid these proble.e N better pro0it with less wastage%  The consulting o00ice should properl' asses the project site be0ore rushing to the design wor1 and 0orces the contractor to i.andator' and help0ul data 0or design wor1% Sta1e holders C& E6p4.yer "roposed and practiced s'ste. contractors. here rewarding goes to the degree o0 additional wor1 pro-isions to the constructing parties%  All sta1e holders should 1eep their responsibilities to achie-e targets% D0'( ''0. un loading.s. transportation and usage o0 .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects o00ices. suppliers N MSEPs about how to acco.pletion ti.plish the project with appropriate 4ualit'..ini.s  The organi/ation should ta1e rando.aterials poor handling and wastage in low cost house projects% Prepared by: echasa.ent it% Here soil e3ploration . and utili/ation o0 di00erent wastage reduction . close super-ision.? Table +%.ust be the 0irst . relati-e co.s practiced and proposed techni4ues used to .ong others in order to .i/e . proper wor1 0orce sta00ing.i/e poor .ple.aterials%  Appreciate position rewarding to e00icient pro0essionals to ac4uire better 1nowledge.s including inno-ations are the basics% Out o0 the.. !ebrehiwot. 0ollow up and super-ision not onl' on . speci0icall' clients ha-e wea1nesses in super-ising MSEFs% In addition to this all the sta1eholders should tr' to ha-e good relationship a.aterials production but also due attention should be ta1en during loading.echanis. .ini. shows the s'ste. Saron 53 .

ost project sites% Major out co.ings are project cost increase.% +% Fro.proper .aterials e3ist due to lac1 o0 strong super-ision on the production o0 .ethods% <% Unless we 0a.anaged concerning . training and wor1shop re4uire.iliar con-entional .aterial handling and storage s'ste. design proble.aterials% 2. The client and MSEs do not use proper .aterial deli-er' s'ste.ong architects.ini.s. there is a natural tendenc' a.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects CHAPTER % FOUR 5& CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION 5&#& C. !ebrehiwot.% $uilding participants are o0ten lac1ing s1ill and 1nowledge in appl'ing wastage .aterial shorten and en-iron.-(4 '0.ings will be obser-ed widel' on .andator' 0or the reduction o0 . and i..ajor out co.s% 8% Fro. we can . Sta1eholders should 1now how projects properl' . On . Saron 54 .i/e it% Prepared by: echasa.ore 0a. the 0ollowing .ent is .iliari/ed and go in to practice on wastage reduction techni4ues.aterials li1e precast bea. poor 4ualit' . wor1 will be dela'ed due to the o-erall . poor wor1.ent ris1% =% 2astage is una-oidable in construction wor1L but b' appl'ing appropriate controlling s'ste. obser-ation.ostl' created due to utili/ation.aterial wastage% 5.ini.ost obser-ed sites.aterial wastage is .The research on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa :ow 5ost Housing projects is concluded with the 0ollowing pointsJ 1. . great lost 0or the owner and to other participated sta1e holders. slabs and wall H5$s% .i/ation techni4ues in their dail' wor1% Hence. the research 0indings.anship. engineers and contractors to use the .

ini.s o0 a 0ew new construction .% ))% Use appropriate wastage .aterial deli-er' s'ste..% I.entation o0 en-iron.ethods ha-e to be o-erco. Sta00s or wor1ers ha-e to be consulted to ensure the' 1now how to handle the .portant so that each reali/es how the design decisions will a00ect on site operations and wastage generation% .unication between the designer and contractor is i.i/ing techni4ues 0or :5H projects% )*% Further stud' is reco.ple.aterials correctl' and tr' to reduce wastage% 8% "roper design should be i. Saron 55 .ple.ethods% <% Selections o0 the best reputation contractor ha-e to be .ple.% Prepared by: echasa.ade to insure the wastages are .ended on .% +% e-eloping sta00 training. !ebrehiwot.e be0ore the' can be widel' adopted% )>% e-eloping In0or.entall' 0riendl' construction .)% A proper wa' to handle the project is earl' planning% *% The client should 0ollow proper .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects 5&! Re(.ent s'ste.ented which considers .66e-da/0..i/ed% =% Tr' to i.ent inno-ations li1e low?wastage building technologies b' a-oiding obstacles% A% Technical proble.aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.ation and record .aterial wastage reduction% 9% 5o.anage.ini.

a4 : To in-estigate an' e3isting . stud'ing their causes and side e00ects and 0or 0orwarding i.ini.aterial handling and wastage control proble.aterial handling on :5H project%  To 0orward latest .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects APPENDIH % A RESEARCH PROPOSAL  Re'ear() /0/4e : Material Handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects%  Re'ear() +.s to .pro-ed s'ste.e(/01e' : To in-estigate the presence o0 . -d :    Prepared by: echasa.aterial wastage and poor .aterial handling correcti-e procedures to alle-iate proble. !ebrehiwot.b.i/e wastages and correct poor .aterial handling.aterial wastage and poor .ain causes o0 .aterial handling s'ste. on :5H project including its e3tent%  To 0ind out the .s 0aced on di00erent stages o0 the project% Re'ear() ba(*+r.aterial wastage and poor . Saron 56 .aterial handling%  To e3plore the side e00ects o0 .aterial wastage reducing techni4ues and poor .s to :5H projects% Re'ear() .

e 0air li-ing sites especiall' to low?inco.ore than 9>E o0 the total project cost and :5H projects target cost?e00icient house construction.s to a-oid e3cess wastages% Re'ear() pr. e3istD I0 it e3ists.aterial wastages% The research is tried to describe di00erent crucial s'ste.D Is .b4e6 '/a/e6e-/:%  Identi0' and use appropriate s'ste.aterial handlings a-ailable in :5H projects% !& Re'ear() I e'/0.s on . in respect to econo. the sta1e holders share and gi-e outstanding solution 0or the proble.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects In order to respond the high de.' and land resource utili/ation. job opportunit' to une.s appear associated with wastageD Prepared by: echasa.b4e6' : #& Pr.e citi/ens o0 the cit'% Since building construction .aterials account .i/e  .aterial handling and wastage control s'ste.aterial handling and proble.ain causes and to what e3tent it appearsD  To what degree. Saron 57 .and o0 population housing proble.aterial handling is -ital 0or the reduction o0 cost e3penditure due to poor . !ebrehiwot.-':%   2hat is . what are the .s and proper .aterial wastages and poor .ber o0 'oung people and beco.ini.ent has gi-e due attention 0or low cost housing% $esides it is belie-ed that it creates better urbani/ation.aterials handling and wastage proble.s to . and using e00ecti-e wastage control s'ste. the Ethiopian go-ern.plo'ed large nu.

aterials and attain the per.aterials properl'.s to reduce wastages% Re'ear() (.aterial wastage is a  Prepared by: echasa.ini.ents etc are the .issible percentage o0 construction .edial .aterials.ain inputs 0or the construction o0 :5H buildings% Howe-er.ost ite. slab and wall H5$sF.-/eJ/ : Out o0 the construction .-(ep/ : 2ea1ness to . 5e. handling and storage% 2astage during utili/ation #construction&%     And these again. will lead to ha-e . Saron 58 .s o0 wor1s% 2hich shows sta1e holders are not 'et gi-e due attention 0or wastages created in di00erent stages o0 the project% So we tr' to e3plore in depth the . !ebrehiwot.ent. pre0abricated concrete ele.enses and strengthening .a3i.aterials poor handling to the project and what are the proposed re.easures to reduce these proble.sD  Re'ear() (. we obliged to 0ace di00erent t'pe o0 wastages in degree% These wastages areJ 2astage during design and super-ision% 2astage due to incorrect purchasing% 2astage during transportation. Rein0orce.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects  2hat are the e00ects o0 e3cess wastage and . wastages 0or .ent bar.u.echanis. since we are not using the .i/e controllable wastage o0 .

plo'ers contractors consultants ata collection ata anal'sis !& De'* S/ dy:% •  • • • • • • • For conte3tual concept de-elop.ent% Re'ear() pr.ent ata collection Anal'sis Thesis writing echasa.+y : • Sur-e' N es1 stud'  #& S r1ey:% • • • • • • • • Research data t'pe is Kualitati-e #proble.entL postal 4uestioners% ata SourceL stud' population will be ta1en 0ro.4.d.(e''e' : Topic "roposal :iterature re-iew Research instru. !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects big proble.% There0ore the research will 0ind out causes and wea1nesses to reduce wastage and gi-e appropriate solutions% Re'ear() Me/). sol-ing N case stud' approach&% Research instru. Saron 59 Prepared by: . the 0ollowing categories o0 project sta1e holdersJ E.

2 C. Saron 60 .-'/r (/0.4.eJ 6666666666666666666666 "ro0essionJ 66666666666666666666 Organi/ationJ 666666666666666666% (ears o0 E3perienceJ 666666666666666%% "ositionJ 666666666666666666666 Prepared by: echasa.r: % Ato $ela' (ita'ew S b60//ed by: % • echasa Haile • • !ebrehiwot Hintsa' Saron Anteneh APPENDIH % B Add0' Ababa U-01er'0/y Fa( 4/y .+y a-d Ma-a+e6e-/ Kuestioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared 2.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects  Re'ear() /06e '()ed 4e : Ad10'.r C.2 Te()-.+y Depar/6e-/ .204e Na.r' Pr..-/ra(/. !ebrehiwot.Te()-.4.

ental i. what are the conse4uencesD A& 5ost o-er run% $& ela's o0 project co.aterial handling and wastage proble.ount to the site b' the clientD S S S (es S No 8% I0 'es. Saron 61 . brie0 all how it a00ects% A& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 $& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666% 5& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666% +% Is there an' .ention the i.aterial in bul1 a. and causes 0or construction .e% 5& Ine00ecti-e .pletion ti. !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects )% Is there an' .pact% "lease. directl' connected to low cost housing ( Λ Χ Η ) π ρ ο ϕ ε χ τ σ ? (es No *% I0 'our answer is 'es.pacts o0 its in0luenceD 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 Prepared by: echasa.aterial resource utili/ation% & En-iron.aterial handling proble. please .aterial wastage due to deli-ering o0 construction .

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4. Saron 65 S S . what proble.+y a-d Ma-a+e6e-/ Kuestioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared 2..-'/r (/0.panies obser-e during design periodD Prepared by: echasa.+y Depar/6e-/ .4.eJ 6666666666666666666666 "ro0essionJ 66666666666666666666 Organi/ationJ 666666666666666666% (ears o0 E3perienceJ 666666666666666%% "ositionJ 666666666666666666666 )% Is there an' .Te()-.2 C.aterial handling N wastage proble.2 Te()-.s 'our co.204e Na.r C.-' 4/a-/' Pr. during 'our design N super-isionD (es No *% I0 'our answer is 'es. !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Add0' Ababa U-01er'0/y Fa( 4/y .

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i/ing .Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects $& "oor wor1.ini. & ela' in . "lease circle one or two and illustrate% # & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666666 # & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666 ))% 2hat 1ind o0 . Saron 68 . 5& I.proper .aterial handling and storage. 'ou adopt to 'our co.aterial handling proble. !ebrehiwot.aterial suppl' b' the owner. and wastage controls 0or :5H projectsD 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666666666666666666666666666%% Prepared by: echasa. E& Unconcerned super-isor' sta00.pan'.an ship.ethodolog' and s'ste. in .

4. !ebrehiwot.r E6p4.aterial handling and wastage proble. Saron S No 69 Prepared by: .+y Depar/6e-/ .2 Te()-.-'/r (/0. directl' connected to low cost housing ( Λ Χ Η ) π ρ ο ϕ ε χ τ σ ? S (es echasa.eJ 6666666666666666666666 "ro0essionJ 66666666666666666666 Organi/ationJ 666666666666666666% (ears o0 E3perienceJ 666666666666666%% "ositionJ 666666666666666666666 )% Is there an' ..+y a-d Ma-a+e6e-/ Kuestioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared 2.yer' Pr.204e Na.2 C.4.Te()-.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Add0' Ababa U-01er'0/y Fa( 4/y .

ent o0 . what are the side e00ectsD A& 5ost o-er run% $& ela's o0 project co. is . brie0 all how it a00ects% A& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 $& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666% 5& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666% +% 2hich t'pe o0 .ental i.aterial resource utili/ation% & En-iron. Saron 70 . !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects *% I0 'our answer is 'es.aterials 5& ue to .pact% "lease.e% 5& Ine00ecti-e .aterial wastage proble.aterial storage N handling & ue to utili/ation "lease. brie0 all how it a00ects% A& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 Prepared by: echasa.ostl' 'our organi/ation 0aced in :5H projectsD A& ue to design $& ue to procure.pletion ti.

ent o0 .all enterprises #MSE&.proper .aterial wastages 'our organi/ation obser-e in :5H projectsD A& 5ontractors negligence $& "oor wor1.aterials such as H5$.ents etcD Prepared by: echasa.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects $& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666% 5& 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666%% 8% 2hat are the .an ship 5& I. Saron 71 .aterial handling and storage & 7ariations in design at the construction stage E& Unconcerned super-isor' sta00 "lease circle one or two and illustrate% # & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666666 # & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666 # & 666666666666666666666666666666666666 666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666 9% Is the in-ol-e.ain causes that enhancing .icro N s. precast ele. !ebrehiwot. ha-e contribution 0or the increase o0 wastage in producing and suppl'ing .

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Saron 73 e-elop. Matiwos Enser. Scheduling and 5ontrolling ? Second reprint *>>>% *% 3.e *.ent "rogra. !TU B IS. AAH "O.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects REFERENCES: )% @%@ 5hit1araJ 5onstruction "roject Manage. #M "& in "ro0essional "roject Manage. Material Handling and Stores Manage. ocu.. in association with Nehru Institute o0 5onstruction and Enterprise.ent% "lanning.ent B Reprint *>>8% 2ubishet Te1ale Mengesha # r%Ing&. Organi/ed b' Sileshi 5onsult. Successes in 5apacit' Housing "rogra.s o0 re0erence& prepared 0or lideta urban renewal. Ingo $ec1er.ent #ter. B *>>+% =% Technical Manual 0or :ow 5ost Housing 7olu. Addis Ababa Uni-ersit' 5ollege o0 5o. *>>+ Prepared by: echasa.ent 8% Manage.ent. !ebrehiwot.ent B 5ourse Material. Er% % :allJ 5onstruction Manage.u.ent e-elop. IN IA% 5. "rinciples o0 5onstruction Manage. hand out B *>>. Unpublished% 7.% 6.ent B :ow 5ost .erce.

Reducing 2aste Through Architectural "ractices B *>><% esign 11./oniW'ahoo%co%u1 B 5onstruction 2aste Mini.erican Institute o0 Architect% AIA 10.ent% !uide lines 0or econo.ber )9.ani. a chapter o0 the A.i/ation%ht. Houston. !ebrehiwot.Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects A% 5onstruction Materials Manage. accessed on ece..' and ecolog' in design and construction% "repared b'. httpJMMwww%naserVela. Saron 74 . M% Os. *>>A% Prepared by: echasa.