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IMPENDING PARADIGM SHIFT IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

Years have passed, roots of technology have engulfed the intact earth in it. With the invention of wheel, the race to attain the best started, and is still struggling hard to achieve the victory. With the invention of printing press, the making of books changed the culture of people and had a direct effect on the scientific revolution. Books became readily available, and were easier to handle and cheap to purchase. Masses and upcoming generations became aware of each and every growth, developments and newly made inventions that took place. This inspired and enabled them to do better and accurate jobs by surmounting the weaknesses of the earlier developers. o with these endeavors newspaper publishing was then reshaped into websites, blogging and web feeds. The discovery of internet revolutioned the entire life. !t enabled and accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, internet forums, social networking sites, etc. Many such inventions took place that included the use of electronic gadgets for simplifying the tricky jobs of the routine life, transport facilities, communication purposes, etc. Modes of communication were improved that resulted to the switch over from cabled connections to the wireless networks such as mobile phones, internet, fa", etc. !n almost every field, engineers proved themselves by making the ama#ing discoveries that truly astonished the common people. But with all these developments, all the changes that took place from one stage to another created joy among the natives but made the Mother $ature very%very sad. With the developments of electronic gadgets like batteries, &'T monitors, microwaves, refrigerators, etc. the threat has been doubled. The more the rise, the more threat it posses. (ust like the deadly waste% ) waste has raised a great environmental threat and is taking number of lives each day and leaving many in the state from which they will never be able to rehabilitate again in their original forms. The ) waste is increasing because of the import of life%e"pired electronic items which contain some of the most dangerous to"ic materials like mercury, cadmium,

lead, heavy metals and radioactive substances that tend to leach down to contaminate water and cause major damage to our heaths. The other major side effect of development is escalating amount of carbon dio"ide in the air and water. &arbon dio"ide which is the major cause of global warming, depletion of o#one layer, climatic variations, melting of ice bergs, ocean acidification is con*uering the entire earth with a very rapid rate. +ue to e"cessive usage of non%renewable resources in the working of vehicles, machinery, and +, sets, the rise in carbon dio"ide emissions is driving fundamental and dangerous changes in the chemistry and eco systems of the world-s oceans and climatic conditions. More than ./0 of carbon dio"ide released from burning fossil fuels, cement production, deforestation and other human activities goes straight into the oceans turning them gradually more acidic and thus resulting in ocean acidification. The resulting acidification will impact many forms of sea life, especially organisms whose shells or skeletons are made from calcium carbonate like corals and shellfish and will finally deliver the death blow to many marine species. &arbon dio"ide emissions are also ensuing in global warming which further result in the rise in temperatures and finally melting of the glaciers. The glacial melting will result in floods in some areas and water scarcity in other. Water scarcity and effects like desertification and soil erosion would bring the yields of wheat, rice and other crops down, and thus creating havoc in the global food market, for the people everywhere, as the prices due to less productivity will go up substantially. The threats of carbon dio"ide are not less, but the increasing radiations in the atmosphere due to the use of newly invented technologies for communication purposes like mobile phones are also harming the stunning e"istence. These radiations released by the cell phones are so strong that they can change the biological properties of a raw egg. They have actually affected the health of the people and have created horrid diseases like cancers and heart attacks. +ue to constant emission of these rays, birds%the beautiful and sweet creation of that almighty have also become e"tinct. parrows are the live e"amples. o my people after analy#ing these few but major problems we need to develop and e"ert methods that will solve our problems regarding health, work, transport, etc. without dirtying and ra#ing the charming nature. 1ur first and foremost re*uirement is renewable, unlimited and affordable energy i.e. clean energy. This energy cannot produce any pollution and comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally

replenished. ome renewals such as small hydro, modern biomass and bio fuels can also be used for producing clean energy. 'egarding ) waste, special disposable and isolated plants should be established for the disposal of this waste. 1ur major challenge also includes the challenge to create devices that take very less materials to build. ).g. if a computer monitor is replaced with some kind of a hologram then it will save some plastic and metal and prevent wastage. The need of cables and adapters should also be reduced, as less material usage means less conversion of nature into goods, which in turn will reduce impact. 2ttempts should be made to develop a semiconductor of cheaper material than silicon which can conduct even at room temperature. &heap, efficient, reliable solar cells should be developed so that solar energy can be brought in use. 3ehicles that rely on nuclear and renewable fuels instead of oil should be designed. 2 very minute reactor kind of thing can be attached in the machinery to generate energy and hence run the vehicle. $ew and advanced methods should be developed to grow more and more vegetables, plants and trees in a *uick and efficient way, without altering their *uality and effect. )fforts should be made to build multi utility wireless cell phones which are free of harmful radiations and have high battery power. 2dvanced devices should be invented that can predict natural disasters such as earth*uakes before they occur. o at last, ! want to conclude that !mpending 4aradigm hift is surely re*uired to support, develop and preserve our environment so that we can save our mother earth and nature from sliding in the hole of detrution.

Presented bySurabhi Goyal E.C.E. (2k9) Sem. 3rd Roll no. 693 G.!.S.C.E.". #athinda $ate- 22 %u&ust 2'('