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# IDEAL INDUSTRIES INC.

The Basics of Digital Multimeters
A guide to help you understand the basic Features and Functions of a Digital Multimeter.

Author:

Patrick C Elliott Field Sales Engineer IDEAL Industries, Inc

January 2010, Version 1

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The Basics of Electricity To better understand digital multimeters, it’s helpful to become clear on the basics of electricity. After all, DMMs always measure some aspect of electricity. Electricity passing through a conductor is similar to water flowing through a pipe. Every pipe has force that creates a certain pressure, causing water to flow. In the case of electricity, that force might be a generator, battery, solar panel or some other power supply. The pressure created by that power supply is called voltage. Voltage is the pressure applied to the circuit. Current is the Flow of the electricity in the conductor. Resistance is any restriction to the flow of the current in a conductor. Voltage, current and resistance are the three most fundamental components of electricity. Voltage is measured in volts, current in amps and resistance in ohms. .
The three components in an electrical system are electrical pressure, or voltage (measured in volts), the amount of electricity flowing, or current (measured in amps), and impedances within the system, or resistance (measured in Ohms)

Voltage, Current and Resistance Voltage is the pressure that is applied to a conductor. There are two common types of power sources, Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC). Alternating Voltage is the most common form of electricity. It is the power supplied by the utility or generators, which flows through our electrical circuits. The symbol for AC voltage is .

A generator creates electricity from two opposite magnetic fields, as the wire turns between these two fields, electrons are pulled first in a positive, then in a negative direction

DC Voltage is a constant level of stored energy. It is stored in batteries or converted from alternating voltage through the use of electronic rectifiers. Electronic products like TVs, VCRs and computer equipment run on DC power. The symbol for DC voltage is .

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Lower the resistance. The relationship of these three elements of Ohm’s Law. there are two types of current. Ohm’s Law can be expressed in equation form in this way: Ohm’s Law is expressed in an equation: V=A x Ω Tech Note: Voltage determines the flow of current. sometimes referred to as the horseshoe. but if we change the setting to high. As with voltage. must mathematically balance. the greater the voltage. direct voltage is a steady flow of positive energy. the greater the current. they can establish values for the three variables which help in diagnosing electrical problems. Current is the flow of electricity through a conductor.Unlike alternating voltage. If Ohms (Ω) increase. voltage. Volts. AC and DC. and if Current (A) increases. current and resistance comprise Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law Together. say we have a 120 Volt outlet and a hair dryer. By using a DMM. The symbol for resistance is the Greek Omega. Let’s take an example. The load resistance is around 17 Ω. and current will increase. The symbol for current is the letter A. It is commonly stored in batteries for use in electronic equipment. If the hair dryer is set on low. it would draw 7 amps. Ohm’s Law is an important equation for electricians. Ω. Ohms and Amperes. and the load resistance will decrease to 10 Ω. the current draw would increase to 12 amps. Ohms (Ω) decreases For useful formulas See Appendix A 2 . the current will decrease. The third component is resistance. current (A) decreases. measured in Ohms. If resistance is increased. Resistance in the circuit impedes the flow of current through a conductor.

which will not load down sensitive circuits. Their input resistance or impedance is very high. Analog and Digital.Types of Multimeters There are two common types of Multimeters. If I want to measure 120Vac the input resistance would be 5000 x 120 or 600.000 ohms. Digital Multimeters (DMMs) are the most common. You want this impedance to have as little effect on the measurement as possible so the higher the impedance the better. For most electrical measurements this effect is minimal. Analog meters use a needle movement and calibrated scale to indicate values. These were popular for years. The Digital Multimeter (DMMs) feature a digital or liquid crystal display (LCD). Most digital 4 .000.000 ohms. An advantage of a digital multimeter is their accuracy and input protection. The input impedance of an analog meter is expressed in ―Ohms per Volt‖ The input impedance of an analog meter is expressed in “Ohms per Volt” In this example the impedance for AC volts is 5000 ohms per volt. On good quality meters.000 to 10. Test instruments today devote a good deal of architecture to overload protection. Other advantages include higher input impedances. their inputs are also protected from faults and misuse. There are however a few useful applications for analog meters. so there is little effect on the measurement. to measure AC. Resistance and Amperes. DC voltage. Tech note: Analog Meters The internal impedance of the meter is in parallel to the measured circuit.000. and input protection. Tech Note: Digital Multimeters and ClampMeters use different techniques internally. but recently their numbers have declined. The display also alerts you to any pertinent symbols and warnings. Measurement readings are displayed as numerical values on the LCD Display. This is just one of the disadvantages of an Analog meter. but for sensitive electronics of today the effect of the added resistance could be significant. so they aren’t going away tomorrow. They use a liquid crystal display (LCD) technology to give more accurate readings. in the range of 1. Every voltmeter has an internal resistance or impedance.

UL. equipment. If a transient were to cause a fault within an instrument with high energy present.meters meet some safety standard such as UL601010 or IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). The diagram below explains where the test leads go for specific tests. Digital multimeters are more commonly used because of a few key features. Never use equipment that is outside of its manufacturer specified measurement range. portable equipment. Pay close attention to how and where you are using the equipment. telecommunication. IEC. fixed installation Local level mains. or outside of its category rating. and possibly personal injury. 5 . Tech Note: Multimeter Safety. CSA. Multimeter Safety When making a meter selection look for a tester that is independently certified to some safety standard. Distribution level mains. The major issue addressed by the UL601010 standard was to look at fault potential to available energy and define limited by category to each. Overhead or underground utility service. The most common fault was high voltage transients on high energy circuits. it could result in a cascading failure of meter. Over Voltage Category CAT IV CAT III CAT II CAT I: Description of Category Primary supply. including higher accuracies. The easiest way to understand the different category ratings of the IEC standard is to think of the potential Short Circuit energy. appliances. the higher the category. The higher available short circuit energy. Signal level. DMMs at a Glance The port panel is where you plug in your test leads. higher input impedances and input protection. special equipment or parts of equipment. and electronics.

the function and range must be selected Auto ranging meters will automatically choose the measurement range Symbols mV A mA Measurement Functions AC Voltage DC Voltage Milli Volts Amperes Milli Amperes Ohms Diode Audible Continuity Capacitance Descriptions Measures amount of AC Electrical Pressure Measures amount of DC Electrical Pressure .001 or 1/1000A Measurement of resistance to the flow of electron Device used to control direction of electron flow Audible indication of continuity for low resistance Device used to store electrical potential 6 . the position of the decimal point determines how refined.For additional information on Meter Safety refer to the IDEAL whitepaper on METER SAFETY The Dial Setting the Function The dial of the DMM allows you to choose the function you’re interested in measuring. This is called resolution. you must first set the dial to the appropriate function. Setting the Range The dial also plays another essential role in measuring electricity – that of determining the range of measurement.00V or 1/1000V Measures amount of electron flow . or precise. On a manual ranging meter. The range you select on the dial determines the placement of the decimal point as it appears on the LCD. In turn. your reading is. or a more advanced function like frequency or capacitance. Whether you intend to measure one of the three elements of Ohm’s Law.

count or floor and refers to the least significant digit of the display in reference to range and resolution.001V 0.000 count displays are also available.1V. A 2000 count unit is often called a 3-½ digit display. we must determine the meter’s range and resolution.0 volts. The display count is important in determining the maximum resolution (number of digits after the decimal point) of the reading.99 1.89 and the High limit would be 12. one less than the display count. and the ½ refers to the capabilities of the most significant digit (furthest to the left) which can be either a 1 or 0.06 +. 8 Range 600 200 20 2 200mV Reading 600 199. so the Low limit is 11. The display count determines maximum range and resolution. The display maximum resolution is 39.01V . The 2000 count display would be in the 600V range and display 280 volts. As an example.11.11 Tech Note: Display Counts & Resolution The display count is the maximum digital resolution of the multimeter. The % accuracy for a 12V source would be 12 x 0. These two displays are the most common. On the 600V range the maximum resolution would be 1 Volt.999 199. If the display is a 4000 count display. This means that the most significant would be 0 to 3 or one less that the count of the analog to Digital Converter. let’s look at the difference when measuring a 240-volt supply with a 2000 count and 4000-count multimeter and what range you would set the meter to. The 3 refers to the number of full digits. The maximum resolution is 1 volt.06 To determine the count. The 4000-count multimeter would be in the 400V range and have a maximum resolution of . The unit would display the measurement as 280.01 with a total count of 0. For 12 V this would be the 40V range. we need to determine the best range and resolution. .1V .9 19. If we want to determine the maximum error of the meter that is measuring a source of 12V.(0.05) which is = +/. A 4000-count display has a maximum reading of 3999.99 and the least significant digit would be 0.05 The accuracy of the meter is +/. first determine the percentage error and add the count or floor.0. A 2000 count display.005= 0.000 and even 50.9 Resolution 1V . 5000. 20. has a maximum reading of 1999.1mV The 2000 count unit would need to be set on the 600 volt range to measure 280V. Most meters today are 4000 count units.

1mV The 4000 count unit would be set on the 400V range to measure 280V.1V .001 .9 39.000.000000001 Symbol G M K m m n Expression x109 x106 x103 x10-3 x10-6 x10-9 Port Panel The port panel is where you plug in your test leads.000 . expressed as 2.800 M Ω. 9 .000 ohm resistor.Range 600 400 40 4 400mV Reading 600 399. and have a maximum resolution of .000.800.1V In this case the 4000 count unit would give you the best resolution It is important that we understand our numerical expressions to properly setup or read the display of a Multimeter. The diagram below explains where the test leads go for specific tests. In this example the meter reading is 2. In this example we have an auto ranging meter. measuring a 2.01V .000 1.999 399.000001 . The display reads 2.800.000 1.800 M Ω.001V 0. M is the Symbol for Mega or one million ohms.99 3.8 Meg Ohms or 2.9 Resolution 1V .000 ohms Numerical Display notation Terms Giga Mega Kilo Milli Micro Nano Numerical Values 1.000.

Test Equipment use two methods to measure an AC waveform. The proper way to connect a meter is to connect the low or ground (black lead) first and the High (Red lead) next. True RMS The RMS or Root Mean Square value of an AC measurement is the “Effective Value” or “Equivalent Value” of the waveform to do work in relationship to DC. then the unknown circuit. The True effective value can be obtained as long as the AC waveform is a periodic sinusoidal waveform. Both are designed for periodic type perfectly sinusoidal waveforms and most are AC coupled. SCR’s or triac’s. Average Responding vs. The Root Mean Square value is a measurement of the “Effective Value” of the waveform or the ability to do work. Whenever making live voltage measurements use the Three Point method. You must use a True RMS meter to make an accurate measurement. Most are AC coupled. True-RMS voltmeters use an integrated circuit that computes the true root-mean-square value of a complex waveform.707 11 .Tech Note: Voltage Measurements Voltage measurements are perhaps the most common function used on a multimeter. such as square waves or AC signals which have been rectified or electronically controlled in some way by devices like diodes. When measuring complex waveforms with harmonics. Measure a known live circuit or source first. but in some higher end meters “AC + DC” coupling is available which gives you the “effective heating value” of both the AC and DC component of the waveform. Average Responding voltmeters use a simple circuit to provide a general-purpose voltmeter a low cost method to calculate the RMS value of a sinusoidal waveform.11= RMS of . Voltage is measured between two points so we must make sure that we have solid contact at each point. the True RMS or “effective heating value” cannot be accurately measured using an Average responding meter. One is Average responding RMS calibrated and the other is True RMS. Red first and then Black.637 x 1. meaning that is blocks any DC bias that may effect the measurement. We remove the leads in reverse order. then back to the known circuit. Average responding meters measure the average value of a pure sine waveform and calculate the RMS value Ave of .

As the current flow is identical. It is also important that the Clamp be around either to Hot or Neutral. current flows to the load through the hot conductor. turn the power off at the breaker as close to the source as possible. It is also not practical to shut down power and break the circuit to take a measurement. This allows the clamp meter to measure the current flow indirectly. and returns back through the neutral conductor. Meters without fuse protection on the current inputs should not be used on high energy electrical circuits.To measure current with a multimeter. and reestablish power. resulting in a measurement of 0. From a practical standpoint. The strength of the magnetic field is determined by the amount of current flowing through the conductor. the magnetic fields would be exactly the same strength. Using a Clamp or Current Transformer. connect the multimeter in series with the circuit. If you clamp around both wires the meter would read “0” In a household power cord. and cancel each other out. Tech Note: When using a Clamp-meter. only small currents are measured with a multimeter. but let’s not forget “Murphy’s Law”. 13 . Tech Notes: Good multimeters are now protected by a high-energy fuse. High energy fusing is used to protect the meter and the user. Current flows through both wires but create magnetic fields in opposite directions. Most multimeters have a maximum current capability of 10 amperes. A Clamp-or Current transformer (CT) measures the magnetic field around a conductor. The most common application for direct current measurements with a multimeter is small DC currents. like 4-20 mA control loops found in most process control systems. or a Multimeter with a clamp adapter. The most common mistake is to accidentally have the test leads in the current input jacks and make a voltage or parallel measurement. Break the circuit.

Measuring both the forward and reverse bias of the diode ensures that current will flow in only one direction 15 .5V +/.2V. Most meters have overload protection on all ranges to prevent this. but you should check the specifications of your digital multimeter to be sure. When you first place the meter in the ( ) function the meter will give a display of ―OL‖ or ―1____‖ indicating an infinite reading. This potential for most meters is around 3 volts. The diode function applies an appropriate amount of pressure. To test a diode.. It is important when measuring Resistance that the circuit be de-energized or turned off. For most silicon diodes the voltage drop should measure around .Resistance Measurements ). The standard Ohms function on a digital multimeter does not supply enough energy to test a diode. measure the reverse bias of the diode. (or voltage potential). For resistance measurements. place the test leads on each side of the resistor. first measure the forward bias of the diode. in the reverse bias you would see the maximum voltage potential. Diode Measurement A diode is a semiconductor device which allows current to flow in only one direction. or the circuit may damage the meter. Other components in parallel with the resistor being measured will have an effect on the measurement. Some meters display the voltage potential applied to the diode. and measures the voltage drop across the diode. You should see an ―OL‖ or overload condition on the display. Next. In this case.

It is widely used to give a boost of energy at start up when power is applied to lighting and motor systems. Before making a measurement on a capacitor.. Never test without verifying that the energy has been discharged from the capacitor. using a 10. Frequency Measurement Frequency is measured in Hertz. make sure it is not holding a charge.000 ohm 2 or 5 watt resistor. This is the number of cycles per second of an Alternating waveform to complete one cycle or transition from 0 to max amplitude positive back to 0 to max amplitude negative then back to 0. Otherwise poor performance and possible damage may result. first remove power from the device. Discharge the capacitor. Remember that a capacitor stores energy so the next step is to discharge the device.000 to 20. Maintaining the right frequency is crucial for devices that rely on AC voltage and current.Capacitance Measurement A capacitor is a device that stores energy. In this example we have 4 cycles in one second so the frequency is 4Hz 16 . Now you are ready to test. To test a capacitor.

After the test lead resistance has 18 . Measurements are now shown as a differential to this reference value. and average readings recorded during the duration of the test. Pressing the min/max button will step you through the minimum. and sets the display to zero. The difference from the new measurement and the original should be displayed. Remember to turn off the Auto Power Off function if you will be leaving the multimeter connected to the circuit for extended periods of time. Some advanced multimeters will add an averaging function to this feature.or avg. A typical application would be monitoring a motor for over voltage and under voltage conditions. value on the secondary display. stores the instantaneous measurement as a reference value. It calculates the average reading over the duration of the test period. most meters will give an audible indication when a new minimum or maximum value has been captured. ―Press and hold‖ for > 2 seconds will disable the min/max function. select the measurement. Digital multimeters with a dual display will show the real-time or instantaneous measurement on the main display. Relative Mode Relative mode. and then press the ▲REL button. You can compensate by measuring the test leads using the relative mode feature.Min/Max or Min/Max/Avg. maximum. and show the min-max. highest and average value that the meter has seen during the duration of the measurement. The test leads of every multimeter have some resistance (0. The min/max button captures the lowest. usually displayed as ▲REL. This feature is often used when taking very low resistance measurements. To use this function. As with max hold.1 to 0. Allow the reading to stabilize. Take a new measurement.2 Ohms). The display should read zero. and attach the test leads to measurement circuit.

This feature captures the highest and lowest amplitudes of the wave form. In this TTL square wave the % of duty factor. which calculate the effective value of the voltage or current waveforms. or in-rush current. the multimeter will capture new readings and notify the user with an audible beep. time on versus time off.been set as the reference value. is equal or 50% 19 . How long on versus how long off. A Peak min/max feature captures the highest and lowest points on the sine wave. Pressing the Peak Hold button on a clamp meter and clamping the jaws around one leg of the motor just prior to start-up will capture the highest peak. When new minimum or maximum values are measured. all new measurements will be the resistance of the circuit or component without the test lead resistance. Peak measurements capture the highest amplitude of the waveform. Duty Factor or [% DF] is a measurement of relative time between positive and negative parts of one cycle or pulse. Peak hold is often used to measure in-rush current caused by a motor start-up. Peak Hold and Peak Min/Max Unlike True RMS measurements. Another way to get this information is with a Peak min/max feature.

Appendix A Ohms Law Pie Chart Direct Current calculation Symbolic V W Ω A C Hp EFF PF kW kWh VA kVa Term Voltage Watts Ohms Amperes Capacitance Horsepower Efficiency Power Factor Kilowatts Kilowatt hour Voltage Amperes Kilovolt-Amperes Symbolic E P R I Term Voltage Watts Resistance Amperes Real Power Apparent Power Direct Current Ohms Law. Amperes= Watts / Voltage Watts = Voltage x Amperes Volts = Watts / Amperes Horsepower= (Voltage x Amperes x Efficiency) / 746 Efficiency = (746 x Horsepower)/ (Voltage x Amperes) 20 .

732 Volts x Amperes Power Factor = Watts / (1.732 x V x PF) W=1.732 x V x A x PF) A= W/(V x PF) W=V x A x PF V= W / A VA = V x A PF= W / VA HP = (V x A x EFF x PF)/ 746 Eff= (746 x HP) / (V x A x PF) 21 .732 x Volts x Amperes x Power Factor Voltage = Watts / Amperes Volt – Amp = 1.732 x VA) HP = (1.732 x Volt-Amp) HP = (1.732 x V x A x Efficiency x PF) / 746 Efficiency = (746 x HP) / (1.732 x V x A PF= W / (1.732 x V x A x PF) A= W/(1.732 x V x A x PF V= W / A VA = 1.732x Volt x Power Factor) Watts = 1.732 x V x A x EFF x PF)/ 746 Eff= (746 x HP) / (1.Ohms Law Pie Chart Alternating Current calculation AC Single Phase calculations Amperes = Watts / (Voltage x Power Factor) Watts = Voltage x Amperes x Power Factor Voltage = Watts / Amperes Volt – Amp = Voltage x Amperes Power Factor = Watts / Volt-Amp HP = (V x A x Efficiency x PF) / 746 Efficiency = (746 x HP) / (V x A x PF) AC Three Phase Calculations Amperes = Watts / (1.

000001A or 1/1.Appendix B Measurement Functions Symbols VAC VDC mV A mA Measurement Functions AC Voltage DC Voltage Milli Volts Amperes Milli Amperes Micro Amperes Ohms Diode Audible Continuity Capacitance Descriptions Measures amount of AC Electrical Pressure Measures amount of DC Electrical Pressure .000A Measurement of resistance to the flow of electron Device used to control direction of electron flow Audible indication of continuity for low resistance Device used to store electrical potential Measurement of Frequency or number of cycles per/sec Temperature measurement Temperature measurement µA HZ o o Hertz Degrees Fahrenheit Degrees Celsius F C 22 .000.00V or 1/1000V Measures amount of electron flow .001 or 1/1000A .

hertz — One cycle per second. frequency — The number of cycles per second that a wave form repeats. caused by non-linear loads such as variable speed motor drives. Most meters with APO may be disabled or set to a certain amount of time before shutting off.Glossary A. the unit of frequency. auto ranging — A DMM that automatically selects the range with the best resolution and accuracy in response to the sensed values. diode — Electronic device in circuits that allows current to flow easily in only one direction and blocks flow in the opposite direction. contact — A connection between two conductors that allows a flow of current. capacitor — Electronic component which stores energy and then discharges it rapidly. digital multimeter — An instrument that uses an LCD display typically capable of measuring voltage. manual ranging — DMM that requires the user to manually select the range. alternating current — An electric signal in which the current and voltage vary in a repeating pattern over time. light. DC. calibration — To adjust the meter measured value to a recognized artifact or standard. includes resistance. harmonic distortion — Diminishes power quality. harmonics — A signal with a frequency which is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency (60Hz).) ground — A large conducting body (earth) used as a common return for fault current in a circuit. usually stated in microfarads. heat or pressure. current — The flow of an electrical charge through a conductor. is 60 Hz. current and resistance. measured in amperes or amps. electronic lighting ballasts and computers. continuity — A continuous path for current flow in a closed circuit. (Line voltage in the U. chemicals (batteries). measured in hertz. ampere or amp — The basic unit of electric current. 23 . using the meter’s dial. farad — The basic unit of capacitance. DMM. typically produced through electromagnetism.Auto-Power — Off Automatically shuts down unit after a certain amount of time to preserve battery life. clamp-on — DMM with jaws that allow it to fit around a conductor to measure AC or DC current without breaking the circuit. F. load — Any device which consumes power in a circuit. AC. may damage or degrade the performance of electrical devices. impedance — Total opposition to current flow.S. APO. the most common type of voltage. analog meter — A mechanical measuring device using a needle moving across a graduated scale or dial. capacitance — Ability of a component to hold an electrical charge. H. blocks DC and allows AC to pass through. data hold — Feature of a DMM that allows continued display of the last reading taken after probes have been removed. direct current — a direct. capacitance and reactance. steady voltage.

polarity — The positive or negative direction of DC voltage or current. V. specified as equal to that of a conductor in which one amp of current is produced by one volt of potential across its terminals. Typically. short — Any connection that has relatively low resistance or any resistance between two points below a preselected threshold. 24 . overload — Signal amplitudes or frequencies above the specified limits of the instrument. ohm — The basic unit of resistance. OL. volt — The unit of electrical pressure. resistance — Opposition to current. typically displayed as ―OL‖ on the display of a DMM. True RMS meter — DMM that has the True RMS feature. this is unintended.min/max — Feature that allows a meter to capture and store the highest and lowest readings during a specific measurement. the greater the resolution the more precise the readout. Sleep mode — Automatically shuts down unit not in use to preserve battery life. resolution — Increments in value that can be displayed by a DMM. one volt is the potential difference needed to cause one amp of current to pass through one Ohm of resistance. allowing for accurate measurement of AC voltage in environments with harmonics (see harmonics). peak hold — Feature of DMM that allows retention of highest reading in a series of measurements. measured in ohms.