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General Chemistry 1 LECTURE UNIT No.

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Introduction to Chemistry

Engr. Edgie Estopace School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry

Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Study Matter States of Matter Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and Physical Changes Classification of Matter Measurements

Introduction

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century


Health and Medicine Sanitation systems Surgery with anesthesia Vaccines and antibiotics

Gene therapy
Energy and the Environment Fossil fuels

Solar energy
Nuclear energy
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Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century


Materials and Technology Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals Room-temperature superconductors? Molecular computing?

Food and Agriculture Genetically modified crops

Natural pesticides
Specialized fertilizers
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The Study of Chemistry


Macroscopic Microscopic

The scientific method is a systematic approach to research.

A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a set of observations.


tested modified
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A law is a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions.
Force = mass x acceleration

A theory is a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and/or those laws that are based on them.
Atomic Theory

Classification of Matter

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.


Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties.

liquid nitrogen

gold ingots

silicon crystals

A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. 1. Homogenous mixture composition of the mixture is the same throughout soft drink, milk, solder
2. Heterogeneous mixture composition is not uniform throughout

cement, iron filings in sand


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Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components.

magnet distillation
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An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
114 elements have been identified 82 elements occur naturally on Earth gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon, sulfur

32 elements have been created by scientists technetium, americium, seaborgium


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A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.
Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means.

lithium fluoride

quartz

dry ice carbon dioxide


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Classification of Matter

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A Comparison: The Three States of Matter

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The Three States of Matter: Physical States of Water

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Types of Changes
A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance. sugar dissolving ice melting in water A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved.

hydrogen burns in air to form water


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Extensive and Intensive Properties


An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is being considered.
mass length

volume

An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is being considered.
density
temperature color
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Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass


mass measure of the quantity of matter

SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)


1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 103 g weight force that gravity exerts on an object weight = c x mass
on earth, c = 1.0

A 1 kg bar will weigh


1 kg on earth

on moon, c ~ 0.1

0.1 kg on moon
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International System of Units (SI)

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Volume SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)


1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3 1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3

1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3 1 mL = 1 cm3

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Density SI derived unit for density is kg/m3

1 g/cm3 = 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m3

mass density = volume m d= V

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Example 1.1
Gold is a precious metal that is chemically unreactive. It is used mainly in jewelry, dentistry, and electronic devices. A piece of gold with a mass of 301 g has a volume of 15.6 cm3. Calculate the density of gold.

gold ingots

A Comparison of Temperature Scales

K = 0C + 273.15
273.15 K = 0 0C 373.15 K = 100 0C

0F

= 9 x 0C + 32 5

32 0F = 0 0C 212 0F = 100 0C
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Scientific Notation
The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon: 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 6.022 x 1023

The mass of a single carbon atom in grams:


0.0000000000000000000000199 1.99 x 10-23 N x 10n
N is a number between 1 and 10 n is a positive or negative integer
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Significant Figures
Any digit that is not zero is significant 1.234 kg 606 m 0.08 L 4 significant figures 3 significant figures 1 significant figure

Zeros between nonzero digits are significant


Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant If a number is greater than 1, then all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant 2.0 mg 2 significant figures If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros that are at the end and in the middle of the number are significant 0.00420 g 3 significant figures
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Significant Figures
Addition or Subtraction
The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers. 89.332 +1.1 90.432 3.70 -2.9133 0.7867

one significant figure after decimal point round off to 90.4


two significant figures after decimal point round off to 0.79

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Significant Figures
Multiplication or Division
The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures.
4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 = 16.5 3 sig figs round to 3 sig figs

6.8 112.04 = 0.0606926 = 0.061 2 sig figs round to 2 sig figs


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Significant Figures
Exact Numbers
Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures.

The average of three measured lengths: 6.64, 6.68 and 6.70?


6.64 + 6.68 + 6.70 = 6.67333 = 6.67 = 7 3 Because 3 is an exact number
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Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problems


1. Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed 2. Carry units through calculation 3. If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly.

given quantity x conversion factor = desired quantity desired unit given unit

given unit x

= desired unit

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Example 1.6

A liquid helium storage tank has a volume of 275 L. What is the volume in m3?

A cryogenic storage tank for liquid helium.

Example 1.6
Strategy The problem can be stated as ? m3 = 275 L How many conversion factors are needed for this problem?

Recall that 1 L = 1000 cm3 and 1 cm = 1 102 m.

Example 1.6
Solution We need two conversion factors here: one to convert liters to cm3 and one to convert centimeters to meters:

1000 cm3 1L

and

1 10-2 m 1 cm

Because the second conversion deals with length (cm and m) and we want volume here, it must therefore be cubed to give
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1 10-2 m 1 10-2 m 1 10-2 m = 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm

1 10-2 m 1 cm

This means that 1 cm3 = 1 10-6 m3. Now we can write


3 3 1000 cm ? m3 = 275 L 1L

1 10-2 m 1 cm

= 0.275 m3

Example 1.6
Check From the preceding conversion factors you can show that 1 L = 1 10-3 m3. Therefore, a 275-L storage tank would be equal to 275 10-3 m3 or 0.275 m3, which is the answer.

Example 1.7
Liquid nitrogen is obtained from liquefied air and is used to prepare frozen goods and in low-temperature research. The density of the liquid at its boiling point (196C or 77 K) is 0.808 g/cm3. Convert the density to units of kg/m3.

liquid nitrogen

Example 1.7
Strategy The problem can be stated as ? kg/m3 = 0.808 g/cm3 Two separate conversions are required for this problem:

Recall that 1 kg = 1000 g and 1 cm = 1 102 m.

Example 1.7
Solution In Example 1.7 we saw that 1 cm3 = 1 106 m3. The conversion factors are

Finally

Check Because 1 m3 = 1 106 cm3, we would expect much more mass in 1 m3 than in 1 cm3. Therefore, the answer is reasonable.

Problem Set No. 1


p. 23 -25 problem #s 1.8, 1.18, 1.32, 1.39, 1.41

Textbook: General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts by Chang/Goldsby, 7th Ed.


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Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Study Matter States of Matter Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and Physical Changes Classification of Matter Measurements

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General Chemistry 1 LECTURE UNIT No. 1


Introduction to Chemistry

Engr. Edgie Estopace School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry