41 views

Uploaded by Aihnee Ong

- chemistryproject
- Calculator Questions
- Element Puns
- Workshop of Atoms
- Chapter 3 Reading Guide
- Entry Quiz 1 and 2 Inorganic Perioidic Table Quiz
- Higher Novemeber 2009 Paper 4.
- Standard Form - Lesson Plan 2
- chemistry project advertisement
- ec1
- 0580_w15_qp_11
- Significant Digits
- Periodic Table
- chemistryproject-2
- chemistryproject
- elias arsalah 1a
- Assessments in Periodic Table
- Chapter1 - Matter
- Lecture 1- Matter & Measurement
- Tos Science 8 3rd Quarter

You are on page 1of 43

1

Introduction to Chemistry

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Study Matter States of Matter Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and Physical Changes Classification of Matter Measurements

Introduction

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Health and Medicine Sanitation systems Surgery with anesthesia Vaccines and antibiotics

Gene therapy

Energy and the Environment Fossil fuels

Solar energy

Nuclear energy

4

Materials and Technology Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals Room-temperature superconductors? Molecular computing?

Natural pesticides

Specialized fertilizers

5

Macroscopic Microscopic

tested modified

7

A law is a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions.

Force = mass x acceleration

A theory is a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and/or those laws that are based on them.

Atomic Theory

Classification of Matter

Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties.

liquid nitrogen

gold ingots

silicon crystals

A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. 1. Homogenous mixture composition of the mixture is the same throughout soft drink, milk, solder

2. Heterogeneous mixture composition is not uniform throughout

10

Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components.

magnet distillation

11

An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.

114 elements have been identified 82 elements occur naturally on Earth gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon, sulfur

12

13

A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.

Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means.

lithium fluoride

quartz

14

Classification of Matter

15

16

17

Types of Changes

A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance. sugar dissolving ice melting in water A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved.

18

An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is being considered.

mass length

volume

An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is being considered.

density

temperature color

19

mass measure of the quantity of matter

1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 103 g weight force that gravity exerts on an object weight = c x mass

on earth, c = 1.0

1 kg on earth

on moon, c ~ 0.1

0.1 kg on moon

20

21

22

1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3 1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3

23

24

25

Example 1.1

Gold is a precious metal that is chemically unreactive. It is used mainly in jewelry, dentistry, and electronic devices. A piece of gold with a mass of 301 g has a volume of 15.6 cm3. Calculate the density of gold.

gold ingots

K = 0C + 273.15

273.15 K = 0 0C 373.15 K = 100 0C

0F

= 9 x 0C + 32 5

32 0F = 0 0C 212 0F = 100 0C

27

Scientific Notation

The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon: 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 6.022 x 1023

0.0000000000000000000000199 1.99 x 10-23 N x 10n

N is a number between 1 and 10 n is a positive or negative integer

28

Significant Figures

Any digit that is not zero is significant 1.234 kg 606 m 0.08 L 4 significant figures 3 significant figures 1 significant figure

Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant If a number is greater than 1, then all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant 2.0 mg 2 significant figures If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros that are at the end and in the middle of the number are significant 0.00420 g 3 significant figures

29

Significant Figures

Addition or Subtraction

The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers. 89.332 +1.1 90.432 3.70 -2.9133 0.7867

two significant figures after decimal point round off to 0.79

30

Significant Figures

Multiplication or Division

The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures.

4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 = 16.5 3 sig figs round to 3 sig figs

31

Significant Figures

Exact Numbers

Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures.

6.64 + 6.68 + 6.70 = 6.67333 = 6.67 = 7 3 Because 3 is an exact number

32

1. Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed 2. Carry units through calculation 3. If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly.

given quantity x conversion factor = desired quantity desired unit given unit

given unit x

= desired unit

33

Example 1.6

A liquid helium storage tank has a volume of 275 L. What is the volume in m3?

Example 1.6

Strategy The problem can be stated as ? m3 = 275 L How many conversion factors are needed for this problem?

Example 1.6

Solution We need two conversion factors here: one to convert liters to cm3 and one to convert centimeters to meters:

1000 cm3 1L

and

1 10-2 m 1 cm

Because the second conversion deals with length (cm and m) and we want volume here, it must therefore be cubed to give

3

1 10-2 m 1 cm

3 3 1000 cm ? m3 = 275 L 1L

1 10-2 m 1 cm

= 0.275 m3

Example 1.6

Check From the preceding conversion factors you can show that 1 L = 1 10-3 m3. Therefore, a 275-L storage tank would be equal to 275 10-3 m3 or 0.275 m3, which is the answer.

Example 1.7

Liquid nitrogen is obtained from liquefied air and is used to prepare frozen goods and in low-temperature research. The density of the liquid at its boiling point (196C or 77 K) is 0.808 g/cm3. Convert the density to units of kg/m3.

liquid nitrogen

Example 1.7

Strategy The problem can be stated as ? kg/m3 = 0.808 g/cm3 Two separate conversions are required for this problem:

Example 1.7

Solution In Example 1.7 we saw that 1 cm3 = 1 106 m3. The conversion factors are

Finally

Check Because 1 m3 = 1 106 cm3, we would expect much more mass in 1 m3 than in 1 cm3. Therefore, the answer is reasonable.

p. 23 -25 problem #s 1.8, 1.18, 1.32, 1.39, 1.41

41

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Study Matter States of Matter Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and Physical Changes Classification of Matter Measurements

42

Introduction to Chemistry

- chemistryprojectUploaded byapi-245185836
- Calculator QuestionsUploaded bySteve Bishop
- Element PunsUploaded bysissyjo261
- Workshop of AtomsUploaded byJUAN CARLOS
- Chapter 3 Reading GuideUploaded byMaiah Phylicia Latoya
- Entry Quiz 1 and 2 Inorganic Perioidic Table QuizUploaded byShiyi Yau
- Higher Novemeber 2009 Paper 4.Uploaded byNeil Bradford
- Standard Form - Lesson Plan 2Uploaded byfayyzal
- chemistry project advertisementUploaded byapi-272661257
- ec1Uploaded byratessly1054
- 0580_w15_qp_11Uploaded byRunWell
- Significant DigitsUploaded byvm66
- Periodic TableUploaded byVenkat Reddy Yedulla
- chemistryprojectUploaded byapi-245631331
- elias arsalah 1aUploaded byapi-466686358
- Chapter1 - MatterUploaded bysmpaderna08
- chemistryproject-2Uploaded byapi-242753834
- Assessments in Periodic TableUploaded byValen Monterozo
- Lecture 1- Matter & MeasurementUploaded byapi-19824406
- Tos Science 8 3rd QuarterUploaded byDabe Genesis Ligalig
- Chapter 1Uploaded byCharleneKronstedt
- ibchintroUploaded byapi-293306937
- Anderson Sec 2010 AM Prelim_P2Uploaded bymath3matics3
- Exam 1 Review f 2016 Chemistry Intro UniversityUploaded bypal
- Test Chemical Substances Periodic TableUploaded byseyka4
- Grade 8 First Term AssessmentUploaded bypamela2pabalan
- 1d - ii-discoveringtheelementsUploaded byapi-279609143
- Basic CommandsUploaded bySolo Nunoo
- Chemical Element - WikipediaUploaded byGowtham Sp
- chm202_statistics.pdfUploaded byMohammad Mouallem

- Sets & Real Numbers (College Algebra)Uploaded byAihnee Ong
- CHE40-CS2-GRP6.docxUploaded byAihnee Ong
- levenspiel-chemical-reaction-engineering.pdfUploaded byDaniel Perez
- Drinking Cadbury Chocolate 2Uploaded byAihnee Ong
- Annex 1 Narrative Report June 2009 FinalUploaded byAxle Vega
- Drinking Cadbury ChocolateUploaded byAihnee Ong
- MATH 15 SYLLABUS (EE,ECE,CPE).pdfUploaded byAihnee Ong
- MATH 23-1 SyllabusUploaded byAihnee Ong
- Assignment #1 Math 21-1Uploaded byAihnee Ong
- Gravimetric Analysis Practice ProblemsUploaded byAihnee Ong
- Psychsm Tb Ch05Uploaded byAihnee Ong
- Direct RequestUploaded byAihnee Ong
- Basics of Writing Business LettersUploaded byAihnee Ong
- Apa 5Uploaded byranbir888
- Math12_lesson10Uploaded byJeff William Acosta
- celm3Uploaded bymehta_chintan
- Mga Sagisang Panulat ng mga Ilang Pilipinong ManunulatUploaded byAihnee Ong

- 2. Matematik Tambahan SoalanUploaded byDequeNo Mohd Noor
- Self Tuning Adaptive ControlUploaded byMuhammad Zulfiqar
- G power test 2Uploaded byquierolibrosya
- BBA.pdfUploaded bykhannapuneet
- Lua ProgrammingUploaded byMikhail Miguel
- 10.pdfUploaded byanderson
- Improving learning in mathsUploaded byReinaldo Ramirez
- Metrics of Separation in ChromatographyUploaded bykir223
- First ProofsUploaded byNatasha Chandra
- Nonlinear Difference Equations and Simulation for Zooplankton Fish Model with NoiseUploaded byOyelami Benjamin Oyediran
- Position, Orientation and Coordinate TransformationsUploaded byVeronicaNistor
- NAS 402.Uploaded byMarielle Mae Tan, BSN RN MN
- MFPT- 3Uploaded byJuanPesantes
- A World of Secret SharesUploaded byMarcos Corrêa
- Statics 3Uploaded byguptaranjeet40
- Homework 1Uploaded byChuah JiaYi
- A STEM Education Framework for Students With DisabilitiesUploaded byfrenape591177
- Biopython Tutorial and CookbookUploaded byRangerTalon
- MATH 15 SYLLABUS (EE,ECE,CPE).pdfUploaded byAihnee Ong
- Centripetal ForceUploaded bySiddharth Soni
- 01-CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology Volume 60 issue 1 2011 [doi 10.1016%2Fj.cirp.2011.03.042] Katja Windt; Marc-Thorsten Hütt -- Exploring due date reliability in production systems using data mining methods adaUploaded byHareesha N G
- Mit18 05s14 Exam2 SolUploaded byErwin Dave M. Dahao
- Test 1 March-june 2012 Completed SchemeUploaded byMohd Khairudin Abdul Radzak
- Bit HacksUploaded byetapomay
- Bayes NetsUploaded byFouad Tachi
- Lect 1Uploaded byanushreejazzz
- AEE 463 Homework 12Uploaded byAndy Tran
- IEEE MIMO-OfDM for High Rate Underwater Acoustic CommunicationsUploaded byjaki001002
- Chapter 1-MATH 101Uploaded byHassan Mosa
- MB 0031(02)Uploaded bynayeem118