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Saccules  Two rounded edges in the cross section. Ranges from 3 to 10 in a golgi complex.

It has a forming face, the cis face, and the trans face. The cis facs is Always con ex, and when you loo! at the cis face, it has small little esicles. These are transport esicles. It contains proteins which ha e "een synthesi#ed from the Rough $R which "ring it to the %olgi complex for glycosylation. The trans face is always &onca e. &ondensing acuoles and secretory granules are always associated with the trans face. The transport esicles are also !nown as translational esicles or transitory esicles. 'hich "ring it from the $R to the cis face. The acuoles are then formed off at the trans face, which then mature to form secretory esicles. It then (oins with the cell mem"rane to release compounds through exocytosis, which then reforms to form a cell mem"rane with no )age * Incorporation of glycoproducts to form glycoproteins in the golgi apparatus . +ere you can see monosaccharides coming in which form glycoproteins with the peptides )age 3. They form glycoproteins through glycosylation through glycosyltransferases They also con ert large molecues, proproteins into smaller mature proteins. Lysosomes They help to digest toxins which are endogenous or exogenous. This is "ecause of the presence of the ,0 en#ymes present in each of the lysosomes. They are for intracytoplasmic digestion for cells, or for toxins which are damaging to the cells itself. The examples on page 3 get rid of compounds in the human "ody or the cells itself )age , )rimary lysosomes are lysosomes which are not in ol ed in en#yme acti ity at all. This is the way it has "een formed, and it is not acti e at all. This "uds off from he golgi apparatus, and is not in ol ed in any form of digestion. The ones that ha e fused with the su"strate are !nown as secondary lysosomes In the primary lyso#ome, it has plasmalemma, which is non-permea"le to .oth the su"strate and the en#yme, which segregates a primary lysosome and pre ents it from wor!ing "efore it "ecomes a secondary lysosome This can only happen after the lysosome has fused with the cell organelle. It can also wor! digested matter ta!en up "y pinocytosis or phagocytosis. It only wor!s in an acidic medium, i.e. p+ /0. )age 1

often referred to as the powerhouse of the animal cell. In aginated space 4 intra cristae spae The spaces "etween the cristae are the inter cristae space. with the release of phosphate group and energy. 7itochondrial granules "affled scientists. This is the reason why scientists "elie e it is a "acteria ta!en up "y the animal cells. "ecause they are used to fuel the cell. This endosome fuses with primary lysosome to form secondary lysosome. Singular of cristae 4 crista. 3ne theory is that it is an pro!aryote "eing ta!en up "y an animal cell. dehydrogenases. 53T$ that the mem"rane is continuous "etween the inter cristae space. which store iron and calcium. . there is also AT)-ase. 'hate er is "eing endocytosed can "e !nown an endosome or a phagosome.esides the en#ymes for oxidati e phosphorylation. The residue is excreted "y exocytosis. &ristae are the folds of the mitochondria The intercristae space 4 mitochondrial matrix. and the cell may e entually succum" to the release of lysosomal digesti e en#ymes.This shows a primary lysosome "udding off from a golgi apparatus. the other is formed from pinocytosis. which "rea!s down AT) into A6). and the fla oproteins . 'hat is found in the inner mitochondrial mem"ranes is the cytochromes. This is ery important. )age 0 The "ottom diagram demonstrates ery clearly the inner mitochondrial mem"rane. also !nown as the mitochondrial matrix. It shows a )rimary lysosome "inding with a damaged organelle to find a secondary lysosome. one is formed from phagocytosis. The last scenario is when there is Autolysis of the lysosome. which is them rea"sor"ed. within the mitochondria. )roteins synthesi#ed with the ri"osomes are for its own use. It is to increase surface area for the respiratory en#ymes. and it2s !nown as autolysis Mitochondria Plural: mitochondrion 3uter mitochondrion mem"rane. Apparently it has migrated into the animal cell millions of years ago. until they reali#ed they are di alent cation "inding sites. AT) is useful "ecause it is "ro!en down as and when energy is needed for production.

If you cut across a cilium. The centriole has 9 triplets. .ut the moment it reaches the "ase. and the diameter of each of the su"unit is 1nm. Inermediate filaments. which are mainly found in the s!eletal musles. It consists of the 9 triplets.ecause they are different. )age 10 &lilium is plural . su"fi"re A and su"fi"er . !nown as a "asal "ody. They are "ro!en down to release energy. !nown as an axoneme. They are formed from heterodimer. "ecause 3 microtu"ules are shared with su"fi"er A.ut other cells also ha e them to support the cell. The diagram at the "ottom shows the cell is undergoing &ellular 6i ision As mentioned earlier. su"fi"re A has 13 units. you reali#e that they are similar to flagella. and you get 9 dou"lets. The 9 triplets are connected "y protein lin!s to form a pinwheel formation. A cilium has a plasma lemma . 'hen you loo! at the nine dou"lets. . 'hen you loo! at the 9 dou"lets with two singlets. &yto!eratins are found in the epithelial. and the core of the entire center is 1. &ilia and :lagella is !nown as 9 dou"les and two singlet pattern -. and & has 10 units. 13 of them form a concentric ring. . They polymeri#e to form proteofilaments. and su"fi"er . the star shaped cells . su"fi"re has 13 su"units. 6esmein are mostly found in cardiac and s!eletal muscles <imentin are found in the mesodermic cells %lial &ells are founds in Astrocytes. nm. . the "asal "ody gi es rise to the axoneme pattern. some "oo!s call them hetereomers. the & su"fi"re disappears.y chance. while su"fi"re . 7' 10000..)age 8 Cytoskeleton 7icrofilaments are usually actin and myosin. you reali#e they are made up of two su"units. and 9 dou"lets which is then connected to the central sheath with radial spo!es. it2s !nown as the axoneme pattern. which generates energy from AT) to A6).. has 10 units. )age 9 7icrotu"ules are formed from alpha and "eta tu"ulin. Su"fi"re A has dynein arms with AT)ase.

"ut in its normal state. 11 to *0 nm. surrounding the nucleus. The region contains se eral tandem copies of ri"osomal R5A genes. There is a nucleolar organi#er 65A. and only 1 strand produced in transcription. then it forms a nuclear pores.? T+$ 7$R%I5% 3: T+$ I55$R A56 3=T$R 5=&>$AR 7$7. )ars fi"rosa contains the primary transcripts of the rR5A genes. 5=&>$AR )3R$ IS :3R7$6 . 6aughter strands produced in replication. the chromosomes can "e differentiated. made up of * concentric layers. 'here the inner plasmalemma and the outer plasma lemma fuse together gi es a nuclear pore. to the cell cytoplasm through the nuclear pore. 1 strand of 65A forms 1 strand of mR5A. The cisternae is the space which is formed "etween the two layers. +ence this forms a selecti e "arrier for proteins. The nuclear en elope is made up of a unit mem"rane. In addition to the rR5A genes. Nucleolus organizer region (NOR is a chromosomal region around which the nucleolus forms. It is also called the Anucleolar organi#erA. they also contain the newly synthesi#ed rR5A . . The nuclear pore is 00nm.0 to 00 nm. 'here the unit mem"rane fused. This can range from . which allows meta"olites and iron and tR5A and mR5A to come in and out of the nucleur. R5A and ri"osomes and pro ides a way to tra el out. which then form ri"osomes in the )ars %ranulosa. +ence they form a perinuclear space. In transcription.)age 1* Cell nucleus In its completely resting states. hence you can see them @uite clearly under the electron microscope. they are !nown as heterochromatin.RA5$ The 6ar! structure is the nucleolus which main contains the rR5A $uchromatin is electron lucent  <ery acti e +etero chromatin is eletron dense  not so acti e 5ucleolus associated protein  5o"ody !nows the function of the nucleolus associated protein. )age 11 5uclear sap is the nucloplasm. The outer surface of the nuclear mem"rane is studded with ri"osomes. 'hen chromatin are dar! and tied together under the electron microscope. which indicates a ery acti e cell. This nuclear pore is not empty. )ars granulosa are maturing ri"osomes. The light areas refer to euchromatin. indicati e of the fact that is capa"le of protein synthesis. Another thing that is produced here is tR5A. which codes for the se@uence for the R5Ase. +ence if you cut through the top you see a space. and it is co ered "y a nuclear diaphragm. it uncoils into chromatin.