Diabetes is a disased which occurs due to an increase in the bodys glucose level.

Diabetes is characterized by pancreatic defects due to the body’s inability to use insulin this disease can be categorized into type 1 and type, 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes which is caused by both genetics and lifestyle factors.

Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Type 1 diabetes
Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which beta cell loss is a T-cell[7] mediated autoimmune attack. There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes, which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were in children. "Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent [8] diabetes. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used. There are many reasons for type 1 diabetes to be accompanied by irregular and unpredictablehyperglycemia, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes serious hypoglycemia, including an impaired counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, occult infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e.g., Addison's [8] disease). These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type 1 [9] diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes
Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance, which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin [2] secretion. The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor. However, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type.

Obesity[edit] Obesity has been found to contribute to approximately 55% of cases of type 2 diabetes. hormones and cytokines. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable. congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies. most likely because adipose tissue (especially that in the abdomen around internal organs) is a source of several chemical signals. It occurs in about 2% –5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose. however. hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver. Sugar sweetened drinks appear to [3][4] increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both through their role in obesity and potentially through a direct effect." and are thus prone to insulin resistance. A 2008 study completed in the U. engorged fat [8] . Inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα may activate the NF-κB pathway which has been linked to the [9] development of insulin resistance. found the number of American women entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes is increasing. the rate of diabetes in expectant mothers has more than doubled in the past six [10] years. perinatal death may occur. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. Though it may be transient. Fat tissue has also been shown to be [11] involved in managing much of the body's response to insulin and control of uptake of sugar. as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese.In the early stage of type 2. It secrets RBP4 which [12][13] increases insulin resistance by blocking the action of insulin in muscle and liver. to other tissues. Gestational diabetes Main article: Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects. and skeletal muscle malformations. such as shoulder dystocia. Fat cells also secrete adiponectin which acts in an opposite way to RBP4 by improving the action of insulin. About 20%–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life. as well as increasing the potential for the children of diabetic mothers to become diabetic in the future Factors Type 2 Dietary[edit] The composition of dietary fat intake is linked to diabetes risk. decreasing consumption of saturated fats and trans [5][7] fatty acids while replacing them with unsaturated fats may decrease the risk. untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. At this stage. can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria [10][unreliable medical source?] than is normal. involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia. —chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into type 2 diabetes. This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy. In fact. most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment.S. the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity. Risks to the baby includemacrosomia (high birth weight). In severe cases. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction. but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy.

which is found in the endocrine tissue of the pancreas. How Does the Pancreas Relate to Diabetes? Simply put. This is a condition known as insulin resistance.Pancreas transplant 3. further reducing the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. or suffered prenatal exposure during period of famine such as the Dutch Hunger Winter (1944–1945) during World War II. The obese therefore may have higher level of RBP4 but lower [13][14] level of adiponectin. fat. There are also three procedures that can potentially treat diabetes: 1. large waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio are therefore often used as [15][16] indications of an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. the pancreas produces insulin but the body is not able to use it. but eventually fails to produce enough to do so. both of which increase the risk of developing diabetes. while subcutaneous fat under the skin is much less metabolically active. The increased rate of childhood obesity between the 1960s and 2000s is believed to have led to the increase in [17] type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. which is found around organs such as the intestines and liver. the effects of repeated high blood glucose levels will damage beta cells. releases signalling molecules directly into blood heading into the liver where glucose is absorbed and [11] processed. However. Traditional treatment of diabetes includes the regulated use of insulin and/or oral medications. [11] Prenatal environment[edit] Research also suggests intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or prenatal undernutrition (macro. People with insulin resistance need more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Studies of those who were small or disproportionately thin or short at birth. in addition to proper diet and exercise. and liver cells do not respond to insulin properly. The visceral fat is located in the abdomen in the waist region. Muscle.Artificial pancreas . In people with type 2 diabetes. Visceral fat.Pancreatic islet transplant 2. The pancreas tries to keep up with the increased demand for insulin. different fat tissues behave differently. diabetes is the result of a deficiency of insulin.and micronutrient) [18] as another probable factor.cells secrete it in lower amount than normal fat cells. This causes excess glucose to build up in the bloodstream. have [19] shown that they are prone to higher rates of diabetes. Over time.