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Important Formulas

If A and B are finite sets containing m and n elements, then

1. Total number of relations from the set A to set B is 2mn .

2

2. Total number of relations on the set A is 2m .

3. Total number of functions from the set A to set B is n m .

4. Total number of one-one functions from the set A to set B is n Pm if n m , otherwise 0.

n

nr n

5. Total number of onto functions from set A to set B is (1) Cr r m if m n , otherwise 0.

r 1

2

7. Total number of binary operations on A is m m .

Q1. Prove that the relation R on the set Z of all integers defined by a, b , c, d N N is divisible by n is

an equivalence relation on Z .

Q2. Prove that the relation R on the set N N defined by a, b R c, d a d b c for all

a, b , c, d N N

is an equivalence relation.

Q3. Let N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation on N N , defined by

a, b R c, d ad bc for all a, b , c, d N N . Show that R is an equivalence relation on N N .

Q4. Let a relation R1 on the set R of real numbers be defined as a, b R1 1 ab 0 for all a, b R .

Show that R1 is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

Q5. Let R be a relation defined on the set of natural numbers N as R x, y : x, y N , 2 x y 41 .

Show that R is neither reflexive nor symmetric but it is transitive.

Q6. Let S be a relation on the set R of all the real numbers defined by S a, b R R : a 2 b 2 1 .

Prove that S is not an equivalence relation on R .

Q7. If a b(mod m) means that m divides a b. Show that is an equivalence relation on Z .

Q8. Le N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation in N , defined by

R a, b : a is a factor of b . Show that R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

Q9. Prove that the relation R on the set Z of all integers defined by x R y x y y x for all x, y Z is an

equivalence relation.

Q10. Test whether the following relations R1 , R2 , R3 are (i) reflexive (ii) symmetric (iii) transitive:

(i) R1 on Q0 defined by (a, b) R1 a 1/ b (ii) R2 on Z defined by (a, b) R2 a b 5

(iii) R3 on R defined by (a, b) R3 a 2 4ab 3b 2 0

Q11. Classify the following functions as injection, surjection or bijection:

(i) f : R R, f ( x) x (ii) f : Z Z , f ( x) x 2 x

(iii) f : Z Z , f ( x) x 5 (iv) f : R R, f ( x ) sin x

(v) f : R R, f ( x ) x 3 1 (vi) f : R R, f ( x) x3 x

2x 3

(vii) f : R R, f ( x) sin 2 x cos 2 x (viii) f : Q {3} Q, f ( x)

x3

(ix) f : Q Q, f ( x) x 3 1 (x) f : R R, f ( x) 5 x 3 4

Q12. Prove that the function f : N N , f ( x) x 2 x 1 is one-one but not onto.

x 1

Q13. Let f : R {2} R {1} is a mapping defined by f ( x ) , show that f is bijective.

x2

Q14. Let f : N {1} N f (n) the highest prime factor of n . Show that f is neither one-one nor onto.

Find the range of f also.

Q15. Find gof and fog when and f : R R and g : R R are defined by:

(i) f ( x ) 2 x 3 and g ( x) x 2 5 (ii) f ( x) 2 x x 2 and g ( x) x 3

(iii) f ( x) x 2 8 and g ( x ) 3 x 3 1 (iv) f ( x) x and g ( x ) x

Q16. If A 1, 2,3, 4,5 , B 3,5, 7, 9 , C 7, 23, 47, 79 and f : A B and g : B C be defined as

f ( x) 2 x 1 and g ( x ) x 2 2 . Express as the sets of ordered pairs and verify ( gof )1 f 1og 1 .

Q17. Let f be the greatest integer function and g be the modulus function, then prove that:

5 5 5 5 5 5

(i) gof fog 0 (ii) gof fog 1 (iii) fog gof 1

3 3 2 2 2 2

x 1

Q18. If f ( x) where x 1 . Show that fof 1 is an identity function.

x 1

1

Q19. Let f : R R : f ( x ) 2 x 3 and g : R R : g ( x ) ( x 3) . Show that ( fog ) I R ( gof ) .

2

Q20. Show that the function f : R R defined by f ( x) x 3 3 is invertible. Also find the inverse of f .

Q21. Determine whether or not each of the definition of given below gives a binary operation. In the

event that is not a binary operation, give justification:

ab

(i) On N ,defined by a b (ii) On R , defined by a b a 2 4ab

2

a 1

(iii) On N , defined by a b a b 2 (iv) On Q , defined by a b

b 1

Q22. For each of binary operations defined below, determine whether is commutative and associative:

ab

(i) On Q ,defined by a b (ii) On R , defined by a b 2a 2b

2

(iii) On Z , defined by a b a b ab (iv) On Z , defined by a b a b ab

Q23. Let A be a set of all real numbers i.e. A R {1} . Let be defined on A as a b a b ab .

(a) Prove that (i) is a binary operation on A . (ii) is commutative and associative .

a

(iii) 0 is the identity element. (iv) is the inverse of a .

1 a

Q24. Show that the operation on Z , defined by a b a b 1 , satisfies

(i) closure property (ii) associative property (iii) commutative property.

Also find the identity element and inverse of an element a A .

Q25. Let S Ro R . A binary operation is defined on S as follows:

(a, b) (c, d ) (ac, bc d ) (a, b) , (c, d ) R0 R . Find:

(i) identity element in S . (ii) invertible element in S .

ANSWERS

10. (i) R1 is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. (ii) R2 is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iii) f : Z Z f ( x) x 5 is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive.

11. (i) Neither an injecton nor a surjection (ii) Neither an injecton nor a surjection (iii) bijective (iv) Neither

an injecton nor a surjection (v) bijective (vi) surjective but not injective (vii) Neither an

injecton nor a surjection (viii) injective but not surjective (ix)injective (x) bijective 14. set of all

prime numbers

3 3

15.(i) 4 x 2 12 x 14 , 2 x 2 13 (ii) x 2 2 x , 2 x 3 x 6 (iii) 3 x 2 8 1, 9 x 6 6 x 3 9 (iv) x , x 16.

1

20. f ( x) ( x 3) 21. (i) No (ii) Yes (iii)No (iv) No

22. (i) commutative but not associative (ii) commutative but not associative

(iii) commutative and associative (iv) neither commutative nor associative

1 b

24. identity is 1 and inverse of a is (2 a ) 25. (i) (1, 0) (ii) ,

a a

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