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ASSIGNMENT CLASS XII RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

Important Formulas
If A and B are finite sets containing m and n elements, then
1. Total number of relations from the set A to set B is 2mn .
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2. Total number of relations on the set A is 2m .
3. Total number of functions from the set A to set B is n m .
4. Total number of one-one functions from the set A to set B is n Pm if n  m , otherwise 0.
n
nr n
5. Total number of onto functions from set A to set B is  (1) Cr r m if m  n , otherwise 0.
r 1

6. Total number of bijective functions from the set A to set B is m !, if m  n , otherwise 0.


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7. Total number of binary operations on A is m m .

Q1. Prove that the relation R on the set Z of all integers defined by  a, b  ,  c, d   N  N is divisible by n is
an equivalence relation on Z .
Q2. Prove that the relation R on the set N  N defined by  a, b  R  c, d   a  d  b  c for all
 a, b  ,  c, d   N  N
is an equivalence relation.
Q3. Let N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation on N  N , defined by
 a, b  R  c, d   ad  bc for all  a, b  ,  c, d   N  N . Show that R is an equivalence relation on N  N .
Q4. Let a relation R1 on the set R of real numbers be defined as  a, b   R1  1  ab  0 for all a, b  R .
Show that R1 is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.
Q5. Let R be a relation defined on the set of natural numbers N as R   x, y  : x, y  N , 2 x  y  41 .
Show that R is neither reflexive nor symmetric but it is transitive.
Q6. Let S be a relation on the set R of all the real numbers defined by S   a, b   R  R : a 2  b 2  1 .
Prove that S is not an equivalence relation on R .
Q7. If a  b(mod m) means that m divides a  b. Show that  is an equivalence relation on Z .
Q8. Le N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation in N , defined by
R   a, b  : a is a factor of b . Show that R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
Q9. Prove that the relation R on the set Z of all integers defined by x R y  x y  y x for all x, y  Z is an
equivalence relation.
Q10. Test whether the following relations R1 , R2 , R3 are (i) reflexive (ii) symmetric (iii) transitive:
(i) R1 on Q0 defined by (a, b)  R1  a  1/ b (ii) R2 on Z defined by (a, b)  R2  a  b  5
(iii) R3 on R defined by (a, b)  R3  a 2  4ab  3b 2  0
Q11. Classify the following functions as injection, surjection or bijection:
(i) f : R  R, f ( x)  x (ii) f : Z  Z , f ( x)  x 2  x
(iii) f : Z  Z , f ( x)  x  5 (iv) f : R  R, f ( x )  sin x
(v) f : R  R, f ( x )  x 3  1 (vi) f : R  R, f ( x)  x3  x
2x  3
(vii) f : R  R, f ( x)  sin 2 x  cos 2 x (viii) f : Q  {3}  Q, f ( x) 
x3
(ix) f : Q  Q, f ( x)  x 3  1 (x) f : R  R, f ( x)  5 x 3  4
Q12. Prove that the function f : N  N , f ( x)  x 2  x  1 is one-one but not onto.
x 1
Q13. Let f : R  {2}  R  {1} is a mapping defined by f ( x )  , show that f is bijective.
x2
Q14. Let f : N  {1}  N f (n)  the highest prime factor of n . Show that f is neither one-one nor onto.
Find the range of f also.
Q15. Find gof and fog when and f : R  R and g : R  R are defined by:
(i) f ( x )  2 x  3 and g ( x)  x 2  5 (ii) f ( x)  2 x  x 2 and g ( x)  x 3
(iii) f ( x)  x 2  8 and g ( x )  3 x 3  1 (iv) f ( x)  x and g ( x )  x
Q16. If A  1, 2,3, 4,5 , B  3,5, 7, 9 , C  7, 23, 47, 79 and f : A  B and g : B  C be defined as
f ( x)  2 x  1 and g ( x )  x 2  2 . Express as the sets of ordered pairs and verify ( gof )1  f 1og 1 .
Q17. Let f be the greatest integer function and g be the modulus function, then prove that:
5 5  5   5  5  5 
(i) gof    fog    0 (ii) gof    fog    1 (iii) fog    gof     1
3 3  2   2   2  2 
x 1
Q18. If f ( x)  where x   1 . Show that fof 1 is an identity function.
x 1
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Q19. Let f : R  R : f ( x )  2 x  3 and g : R  R : g ( x )  ( x  3) . Show that ( fog )  I R  ( gof ) .
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Q20. Show that the function f : R  R defined by f ( x)  x 3  3 is invertible. Also find the inverse of f .
Q21. Determine whether or not each of the definition of  given below gives a binary operation. In the
event that  is not a binary operation, give justification:
ab
(i) On N ,defined by a  b  (ii) On R  , defined by a  b  a 2  4ab
2
a 1
(iii) On N , defined by a  b  a  b  2 (iv) On Q , defined by a  b 
b 1
Q22. For each of binary operations  defined below, determine whether  is commutative and associative:
ab
(i) On Q ,defined by a  b  (ii) On R , defined by a  b  2a  2b
2
(iii) On Z , defined by a  b  a  b  ab (iv) On Z , defined by a  b  a  b  ab
Q23. Let A be a set of all real numbers i.e. A  R  {1} . Let  be defined on A as a  b  a  b  ab .
(a) Prove that (i)  is a binary operation on A . (ii)  is commutative and associative .
a
(iii) 0 is the identity element. (iv) is the inverse of a .
1 a
Q24. Show that the operation  on Z , defined by a  b  a  b  1 , satisfies
(i) closure property (ii) associative property (iii) commutative property.
Also find the identity element and inverse of an element a  A .
Q25. Let S  Ro  R . A binary operation  is defined on S as follows:
(a, b)  (c, d )  (ac, bc  d )  (a, b) , (c, d ) R0  R . Find:
(i) identity element in S . (ii) invertible element in S .
ANSWERS
10. (i) R1 is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. (ii) R2 is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.
(iii) f : Z  Z f ( x)  x  5 is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive.
11. (i) Neither an injecton nor a surjection (ii) Neither an injecton nor a surjection (iii) bijective (iv) Neither
an injecton nor a surjection (v) bijective (vi) surjective but not injective (vii) Neither an
injecton nor a surjection (viii) injective but not surjective (ix)injective (x) bijective 14. set of all
prime numbers
3 3
15.(i) 4 x 2  12 x  14 , 2 x 2  13 (ii)  x 2  2 x  , 2 x 3  x 6 (iii) 3  x 2  8   1, 9 x 6  6 x 3  9 (iv) x , x 16.
1

 7,1 ,  23, 2  ,  47,3  ,  79, 4  1 3


20. f ( x)  ( x  3) 21. (i) No (ii) Yes (iii)No (iv) No
22. (i) commutative but not associative (ii) commutative but not associative
(iii) commutative and associative (iv) neither commutative nor associative
 1 b 
24. identity is 1 and inverse of a is (2  a ) 25. (i) (1, 0) (ii)  , 
a a 