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04/07/2013

Dr.Eng., Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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MODELLING WITH LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP)

By: Dr.Eng. Syafi’i Post Graduate Program of Civil Engineering Sebelas Maret University

Dr.Eng., Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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TWO-VARIABLE LP MODEL
Example 2.1-1 (The Reddy Mikks Company): Reddy Mikks produces both interior and exterior paints from two raw materials, Ml and M2. The following table provides the basic data of the problem:

Tons of raw material per ton of Maximum daily Exterior paint Interior paint Availabilty (tons) Raw Material, M1 6 4 24 Raw Material, M2 1 2 6 Profit per ton ($1000) 5 4

Dr.Eng., Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University, Indonesa

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.Eng. Syafi'i.Eng. The LP model. has three basic components. Sebelas Maret University... increase as much as possible) the total daily profit of both paints. Also. Thus the variables of the model (decision variable) are defined as:  𝑥1 = Tons produced daily of exterior paint  𝑥2 = Tons produced daily of interior paint To construct the objective function. 1. Objective (goal) that we need to optimize (maximize or minimize). Indonesia 4 We need to determine the daily amounts to be produced of exterior and interior paints.e. Reddy Mikks wants to determine the optimum (best) product mix of interior and exterior paints that maximizes the total daily profit. Decision variables that we seek to determine. Dr. Dr. 3. Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University.Eng. the maximum daily demand for interior paint is 2 tons. Constraints that the solution must satisfy. Indonesa 2 . note that the company wants to maximize (i. Indonesia 3 A market survey indicates that the daily demand for interior paint cannot exceed that for exterior paint by more than 1 ton. Sebelas Maret University. 2.. Syafi'i. as in any OR model.04/07/2013 Dr.

. Sebelas Maret University. Indonesia 6 Next.Eng. Syafi'i... Syafi'i. it follows that  Total profit from exterior paint = 5 𝑥1 (thousand) dollars  Total profit from interior paint = 4 𝑥2 (thousand) dollars Letting z represent the total daily profit (in thousands of dollars). Indonesia 5 Given that the profits per ton of exterior and interior paints are 5 and 4 (thousand) dollars.  Usage of raw material Ml by both paints = 6 𝑥1 + 4 𝑥2 tons/day  Usageof raw material M2 by both paints = I 𝑥1 + 2 𝑥2 tons/day Dr.04/07/2013 Dr. Sebelas Maret University.Eng.  Usage of raw material Ml by exterior paint = 6 𝑥1 tons/day  Usage of raw material Ml by interior paint = 4 𝑥2 tons/day Hence. the objective of the company is 𝑴𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒊𝒛𝒆 𝒛 = 𝟓𝒙𝟏 + 𝟒𝒙𝟐 Dr. we construct the constraints that restrict raw material usage and product demand. respectively.Eng. Syafi'i. Indonesa 3 . Sebelas Maret University.

Sebelas Maret University. 𝑥2 . Indonesa 4 . 𝒙𝟏 ≥ 𝟎 𝒙𝟐 ≥ 𝟎 Dr. The nonnegativity restrictions. should not exceed 1 ton.Eng. Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University. Sebelas Maret University. Indonesia 8 The second demand restriction stipulates that the maximum daily demand of interior paint is limited to 2 tons.Eng. respectively. which translates to: 𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟐 (Demand limit) An implicit (or "understood-to-be") restriction is that variables 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 cannot assume negative values. the associated restrictions are given as: 𝟔𝒙𝟏 + 𝟒𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟒 𝑹𝒂𝒘 𝒎𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝑴𝟏 𝒙𝟏 +𝟐𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟔 𝑹𝒂𝒘 𝒎𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝑴𝟐 The first demand restriction stipulates that the excess of the daily production of interior over exterior paint. Indonesia 7 Because the daily availabilitiesof raw materials Ml and M2 are limited to 24 and 6 tons...Eng.𝑥1 .. Syafi'i. which translates to 𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 ≤ 𝟏 (Market limit) Dr. Syafi'i.04/07/2013 Dr.

𝒙𝟐 ≥ 𝟎 Dr.04/07/2013 Dr. Dr. the solution is infeasible. Indonesa 5 .. The goal of the problemis to find the best feasible solution. that maximizes the total profit. Syafi'i.. Sebelas Maret University.Eng.Eng. Indonesia 10 Any values of 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 that satisfy all five constraints constitute a feasible solution. Syafi'i. Otherwise.. or the optimum. Sebelas Maret University. Indonesia 9 The complete Reddy Mikks model is: 𝑴𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒊𝒛𝒆 𝒛 = 𝟓𝒙𝟏 + 𝟒𝒙𝟐 Subject to: 𝟔𝒙𝟏 + 𝟒𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟒 𝒙𝟏 +𝟐𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟔 − 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟏 𝒙𝟐 ≤ 𝟐 𝒙𝟏 .Eng. Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University.

Sebelas Maret University.Eng.Eng. Indonesa 6 . Sebelas Maret University.Eng. 2. Determination of the optimum solution from among all the feasible points in the solution space. Indonesia 11 GRAPHICAL LP SOLUTION The graphical procedure includes two steps: 1. Determination of the feasible solution space.. Sebelas Maret University.. Syafi'i. Indonesia 12 Fig: Feasible space of the Reddy Mikks model Dr. Syafi'i..04/07/2013 Dr. Syafi'i. Dr.

and (2) building the new development.04/07/2013 Dr. Indonesia 14 Exercise The city of Erstville is faced with a severe budget shortage. Seeking a long-term solution. Sebelas Maret University. The project involves two phases: (1) demolishing substandard houses to provide land for the new development. The following is a summary of the situation. Sebelas Maret University.. Indonesa 7 . the city council votes to improve the tax base by condemning an inner-city housing area and replacing it with a modern development..Eng. Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University.Eng.Eng. Indonesia 13 Fig. Optimum solution of the Reddy Mikks model Dr.. Syafi'i. Dr. Syafi'i.

000. $2. 3. and quadruple. How many units of each type should be constructed to maximize tax collection? Dr. Lot sizes for new single-. 0. Syafi'i.28. The costof demolishing a condemned house is $2000.. Streets. Indonesa 8 . Each house occupies a 25-acre lot. triple-.000. In the new development the triple and quadruple units account for at least 25% of the total. $130.700. Single units must be at least 20% of all units and double units at least 10%. As many as 300 substandard houses can be demolished. triple-. 5. open space. Financing through a local bank can amount to a maximum of $15 million.900. and quadruple-family homes (units) are 0. Syafi'i.Eng. and quadruple units is $1. The construction cost per unit for single-. double.000. double-. double-. respectively.4 and 0.Eng. respectively.5 acre. 2.000. The tax levied per unit for single.04/07/2013 Dr. Syafi'i. Sebelas Maret University. and utility easements account for 15% of available acreage. and $160.Eng.400.family homes is $50. $70. triple. Dr. Indonesia 15 1.000. Indonesia 16 4.. respectively. $1..18. Sebelas Maret University. and $3. Sebelas Maret University. 0.

That is. Syafi'i.28𝑥2 + 0.. Net available Acreage used for new ≤ acreage home construction Acreage needed for new homes = 0. the variables of the problem can be defined as follows:  𝑥1 = Number of units of single-family homes  𝑥2 = Number of units of double-family homes  𝑥3 = Number of units of triple-family homes  𝑥4 = Number of units of quadruple-family homes  𝑥5 = Number of old homes to be demolished Dr. Syafi'i.. Sebelas Maret University. Indonesia 17 Mathematical Model: Besides determining the number of units to be constructed of each type of housing.04/07/2013 Dr.Eng. Syafi'i..Eng.Eng. 𝑴𝒂𝒙 𝒛 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟏 + 𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟐 + 𝟐𝟕𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟑 + 𝟑𝟒𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟒 The first constraint of the problem deals with land availability. we also need to decide how many houses must be demolished to make room for the new development. Indonesa 9 . Thus. Sebelas Maret University.4𝑥3 + 0.18𝑥1 + 0.5𝑥4 Dr. Indonesia 18 The objective is to maximize total tax collection from all four types of homes. Sebelas Maret University.

85 0.. Sebelas Maret University. 𝟐𝟖𝒙𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝟓𝒙𝟒 − 𝟎. 𝟒𝒙𝟑 + 𝟎. each demolished home occupies a 0. streets. 𝟓𝒙𝟒 ≤ 𝟎. Syafi'i. 𝟐𝟓 (𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ) Budget constraint 𝟓𝟎𝒙𝟏 + 𝟕𝟎𝒙𝟐 + 𝟏𝟑𝟎𝒙𝟑 + 𝟏𝟔𝟎𝒙𝟒 ≤ 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 Dr.04/07/2013 Dr..Eng. Allowing for 15% open space. 𝟒𝒙𝟑 + 𝟎. Indonesa 10 . Syafi'i.25-acre lot.2125𝑥5 The resulting constraint is 0.18𝒙𝟏 + 𝟎. 𝟐𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟓 or 0. Indonesia 19 To determine the available acreage. Sebelas Maret University. Syafi'i. the net acreage available is 0.Eng. 𝟐𝟖𝒙𝟐 + 𝟎.. 𝟐𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟓 ≤ 𝟎 Dr.25𝑥5 = 0. and easements.25𝑥5 acres. Sebelas Maret University. thus netting 0.Eng. Indonesia 20 The next constraints: 𝒙𝟓 ≤ 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒙𝟏 ≥ 𝟎. 𝟐 (𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ) 𝒙𝟐 ≥ 𝟎.18𝒙𝟏 + 𝟎. 𝟏 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ≥ 𝟎.

𝟏 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ≥ 𝟎.Eng. Sebelas Maret University. Syafi'i. Syafi'i.18𝒙𝟏 + 𝟎. 𝒙𝟓 ≥ 𝟎 Dr. 𝟐𝟖𝒙𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝒙𝟑 . Indonesa 11 .Eng. 𝟐𝟓 (𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ) 𝟓𝟎𝒙𝟏 + 𝟕𝟎𝒙𝟐 + 𝟏𝟑𝟎𝒙𝟑 + 𝟏𝟔𝟎𝒙𝟒 ≤ 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝒙𝟏 .. 𝒙𝟐 .04/07/2013 Dr. 𝟐 (𝒙𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟒 ) 𝒙𝟐 ≥ 𝟎. 𝟓𝒙𝟒 − 𝟎. Sebelas Maret University.. 𝟒𝒙𝟑 + 𝟎. 𝒙𝟒 . 𝟐𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟓 ≤ 𝟎 𝒙𝟓 ≤ 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒙𝟏 ≥ 𝟎. Indonesia 21 The complete model: 𝑴𝒂𝒙 𝒛 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟏 + 𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟐 + 𝟐𝟕𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟑 + 𝟑𝟒𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟒 Subject to: 0.