Introduction With the advent of the Internet much business has moved on-line, requiringenterprise systems to interact with millions of users and handle the associated dataflow. Data must be available promptly and continuously.Data stored electronically is roughly doubling every year.

The above figure shows Directly-attached storage Directly-Attached Storage Servers are at the center of the informationsystem. They store data on their dis s and access them to satisfy the users! requeststhat arrive on the "#$. %ach server is connected to its dis s by means of fi&ed, dedicated channels, such as the S'SI( parallel bus.This paradigm is called )Directly-attached Storage* +D#S,. Drawback o! directly-attached torage a. Scalability"The number of devices that can be attached to a dis controller is limited. b. #er!or$ance "#s the physical media is shared, adding devices results in less bandwidth being availableto each of them. c. Di tance li$itation "-arallel buses are limited in length few tens of meters by electrical issues, such as s ew. d. A%ailability "Devices attached to the bus cannot be added or removed without putting the whole thingoff-line. This causes downtime every time the storage subsystem needs to be reconfigured. e. Data &rotection "%ach server must be equipped with proper devices +for e&ample, tape drives, to bac upits data. If bac up operationsare performed through the "#$, the performance of the corporate networ might beseverely impacted for long time f. E!!iciency "Dis space not used by a server cannot be relocated to another one. Re'uire$ent (or E!!icient Storage Sub y te$ Systems must. - offer almost unlimited scalability, allowing the interconnection of thousands ofdevices distributed across distances spanning tens of /ilometers or more - provide high, dedicated bandwidth, at least comparable to that offered by "#$technologies +few gigabits0s, - allow large movement of data between storage devices +for e&ample, for bac up orreplication purposes, without involving neither the servers nor the "#$ - allow the reconfiguration of the system and almost any other maintenance operationwithout downtime - offer advanced and centrali1ed management capabilities

The advantage is that the same storage device may be accessed serially or concurrently by multiple servers. 7. availability. and availability. Single image of storage media simplifies management SAN +o$&onent S#$ 'omponents are a. fle&ibility. and serviceability. It is separatedfrom either the "#$ or the W#$. 6emote copy of data enabled for disaster protection and against malicious attac s. Simpler management. %&amples include a dis device bac ing up its data to a tape device without server intervention.Storage Area Network )SAN* # S#$ is a dedicated networ connecting servers and storage devices. or remote device mirroring across the S#$. Server .which allows meshed. Servers and storage devices are nodes of the S#$. # S#$ may be used for high-speed. This outboard data movement capability enables data to be moved without server intervention. This is the traditional model of interaction with storage devices. 3igher application performance. Improvements to application availability. Storage b. Server to storage. Server to server. 3. Storage to storage. 4. 'onnectivity c. scalability. potentially inany of the following three ways. Storage processing is off-loaded from servers and moved onto a separate networ . 'entrali1ed and consolidated storage. Simplified centrali1ed management. Storage is independent of applications and accessible through multiple data paths for better reliability. 2. high-volume communications between servers. any-to-any connectivity. S#$ facilitates direct high speed data transfers between servers and storage devices. 1. Data transfer and vaulting to remote sites. Ad%antage o! SAN" (. 5. thereby freeing up server processor cycles for other activities li e application processing. 2.

is a transport protocol that carries S'SI commands from an initiator to a target. They are usually connected tohigh-throughput devices that require constant data bac -up. as such. It is a gigabit speed networ technology primarily used for Storage $etwor ing. tape drives are the means by which tapes can be connectedto other devices9 they provide the physical and logical structure for reading from.using this common-bus for such. higher level layers. i. possible to utili1e the individual dis s in such a way to achieve higher fault-tolerance and0or performance. is a serial interface +usually implemented with fiber-opticcable. can be viewed as a set of independent tape drives or autoloaders. Tape libraries Tape libraries are devices capable of managing multiple tapes simultaneouslyand. Thecentral control unit provides only basic functionality for writing and reading data from the dis s. Tape drives #s with dis drives. S'SIdevices are connected to form a terminated bus +the bus is terminated using aterminator. SAN connecti%ity 'omponents can be divided into three sections according to the level abstraction to which they belong. and is the primary architecture for the vast ma. the dis system appears as a set of individual storage devices to the device they are attached to. is the interface protocol of S'SI on :ibre 'hannel. Redundant Array o! Inde&endent Di k )RAID* It is a storage technology that combines multiple dis drive components into a logical unit. such as other dis systems or servers. is a parallel interface.a.unch O! Di k )-. simplifying the integration of the system with other devices./ower le%el layer Ethernet interface: They build up a common-bustopology by which every attached device can communicate with each other. thatare described as follows. It is a data storage networ ing protocol that transports standard Small 'omputer System Interface +S'SI.0iddle le%el layer FCP The :ibre 'hannel -rotocol +:'-. FCIP .ority of S#$s. -u t A . b. Tape autoloaders Tape autoloaders are autonomous tape drives capable of managing tapes andperforming automatic bac -up operations. autoloaders and libraries. middle level layers iii. i.OD* In this case.. and a ma&imum of (<devices can be connected to a single S'SI bus. requests over the standard Transmission 'ontrol -rotocol0Internet -rotocol +T'-0I-. SCSI Internet S'SI +iS'SI. The ma&imum cable length is 27 meters. Fibre Channel: :ibre 'hannel +:'.and writing to tapes. Ta&e y te$ There are basically three types of systems. Storage Di k y te$ " Dis system usually hasa central control unit that manages all the I08. networ ing technology. SCSI The Small 'omputer System Interface +S'SI. ii. lower level layers ii.

is also nown as :ibre'hannel tunneling or storage tunneling. and monitors the ability to incorporate already e&isting S'SI and :ibre 'hannel networ s into the Internet.+:'I-. is basically a "#$-attached file server that serves files using a networ protocol such as $etwor :ile System +$:S..and:ibre 'hannel.1igher le%el layer This section comprises of the presentation and application layers.:ibre 'hannel over I. # $#S storage element consists of an engine that implements the file services +using access protocols such as $:S or 'I:S. Network Attached Storage" $etwor #ttached Storage +$#S. Ser%er " %ach of the different server platforms +I=> %server1Series?. or on the Internet using T'-0I-.Sun.. #IA?. i. 3-. The SS# interconnection has primarily been used for dis storage. SS#. including S'SI. It is a method to allow the transmission of :ibre 'hannel information to be tunnelled through the I. and Windows +-' Servers. $#S elements may beattached to any type of networ . The server itself controls the I08 to the device.. issues the low-level device commands. Ser%er-attached torage Storage is attached directly to the server bus using an adapter card.networ . and the storage device is dedicated to a single server. have implemented S#$ solutions using various interconnects and storage technologies. IFCP Internet :ibre 'hannel -rotocol +i:'-.. @$IA. 2NI3-ba ed er%er " @$IA operating systemcalled #IA. iii. +. on which data is stored. offers various processor to storage interfaces. and one or more devices. . on which data is stored.i:'. and others. and one or more devices. is a mechanism for transmitting data to and from :ibre 'hannel storage devices in a S#$. 8S05BB?. $#S is a term used to refer to storage elements that connect to a networ and provide file access services to computer systems. "inu&. :ibre 'hannel adapters are able to connect to tape and dis . $#S storage element consists of an engine that implements the file services +using access protocols such as $:S or'I:S.

>emory requirements are very much application dependent. >ore energy is required for data communication than any other process. temperature differences. Sensors. Tran cei%er" The functionality nownas transceivers. 0icrocontroller" The controller performs tas s. and low power consumption. # microcontroller is often used in many embedded systems such as sensor nodes because of its low cost.WIRE/ESS SENSOR NETWORKS # wireless sensor networ +WS$. etc.pressure. sound. processes data and controls the functionality of other components in the sensor node. and to cooperatively pass their data through the networ to a main location. is appro&imately the same as that used for the e&ecution of 4 million instructions by a (BB million instructions per second0W processor. both rechargeable and non-rechargeable. Two power saving policies used are Dynamic -ower >anagement +D->. Transceiver c. ease of programming.. communicating and data processing. The continual analog signal produced by the sensors is digiti1ed by an analog-to-digital converter and sent to controllers for further . :lash memories are used due to their cost and storage capacity. digital signal processors. fle&ibility to connect to other devices. E4ternal $e$ory" :rom an energy perspective. such as temperature. =atteries. +O0#ONENTS O( WIRE/ESS SENSOR NETWORKS %ach nodeconsists of a. of both transmitter and receiver are combined into a single device d. b. #ower ource" The sensor node consumes power for sensing. other alternatives that can be used as a controller are.:or programming the device. -ower is stored either in batteries or capacitors. • • @ser memoryE for storing application related or personal data -rogram memory. consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. used. >icrocontroller b. c. The energy cost of transmitting ( /b a distance of (BB metres +44B ft. -ower source e. 'urrent sensors are able to renew their energy from solar sources. :-C#s and #SI's. are the main source of power supply for sensor nodes. the most relevant inds of memory are the on-chip memory of a microcontroller and :lash memoryDoff-chip 6#> is rarely. a general purpose des top microprocessor. e. While the most common controller is a microcontroller. Sensors measure physical data of the parameter to be monitored. Two categories of memory based on the purpose of storage are. %&ternal memory d. if ever.D-> conserves power by shutting down parts of the sensor node which are not currently used or active. a. Sen or " Sensors are hardware devices that produce a measurable response to a change in a physical condition li e temperature or pressure. and Dynamic Foltage Scaling +DFS. # DFS scheme varies the power levels within the sensor node depending on the non-deterministic wor load.

c. a sonar or radar sensor. -oint-to-point is simply a dedicated lin between two points.. . Sel!-healing"Self-healing networ s allow nodes to reconfigure their lin associations and find alternative pathways around failed or powered-down nodes. #ll nodes are connected to all the nodes.processing. $arrow-beam sensors have a well-defined notion of direction of measurement. with a central master node that manages fi&ed number of slave nodes and serves as the conduit for all upstream communication. • • • • -assive.oin the networ without the need for manual intervention. similar to a camera. +haracteri tic o! WSN" • • Sel!-organi5ing" Self-organi1ing networ s allow a new node to automatically . and be adaptive to the environment. operate in high volumetric densities. #ctivesensors . be autonomous and operate unattended. -oint-to-point . They are self-powered9 that is. 8mni-directional sensors . #ggregation of point-to-point lin s. To&ologie Wireless sensor networ s use three basic networ ing topologies a. Sensors are classified into three categories. energy is needed only to amplify their analog signal. -assive sensors sense the data without actually manipulating the environment by active probing. b. # sensor node should be small in si1e. #ctive sensors actively probe the environment. and they require continuous energy from a power source. narrow-beam sensors . >esh. 8mni-directional sensors have no notion of direction involved in their measurements. for e&ample. consume e&tremely low energy. Star +point-to-multipoint. -assive.

They are controlled by the microcontroller according to the function and device in which they are used. and bridging from the I%%% GB2. and battery.Working o! Wirele Sen or Network " The applications are based on smaller nodes. A&&lication (. process. .(7. controller. Industrial process monitoringand control 4.5 wireless networ to the wired %thernet networ . where you can collect. radio transceiver. >achine health monitoring. These nodes are of different si1es according to the function they perform. which acts as the networ coordinator in charge of node authentication. The system is totally dependent on the nodes and the harmony established between them through proper frequency. >ilitary applications such as battlefield surveillance 2. and present your measurement data. message buffering. #ll the system remains in wor ing condition with the help of energy supply which is in the form of battery. To activate the monitoring 0 trac ing function of these nodes a radio transmitter is attached to forward the information in the form of waves. analy1e. The distributed measurement nodes communicate wirelessly to a central gateway. The wireless sensor networ s perform function concurrently where nodes are autonomous bodies incorporated in the field spatially for the accurate results.

%ach node or mobile device is equipped with a transmitter and receiver. Therefore.AD1O+ NETWORKS #n ad hoc networ is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary networ without the use of e&isting networ infra-structure or centrali1ed administration. thus each node acts as a router. Ad 1oc Network 6 O&erating #rinci&le #n ad-hoc networ is a self-configuring networ of wireless lin s connecting mobile nodes. There is no master slave relationship that e&ists in a mobile ad-hoc networ . where the routers are free to move randomly and arrange themselves as required. and therefore have no fi&ed infrastructure. . They form an arbitrary topology. # collection of two or more devices equipped with wireless communications and networ ing capability To&ologie " • 1eterogeneou " Differences in capabilities • 1o$ogeneou or !ully y$$etric "#ll nodes have identical capabilities and responsibilities. The mobile nodes communicate directly with each other and without the aid of access points. a pac et can travel from a source to a destination either directly. They are said to be purposespecific. autonomous and dynamic. These nodes may be routers and0or hosts. in a mobile ad-hoc networ . $odes rely on each other to establish communication. or through some set of intermediate pac et forwarding nodes.

4. they should act as a router ❒ %&ample. 2. Third node ' .e. = tries to determine if single hop communication is feasible and establishes a connection. They may also include their location info if C-S equipped. with their respective address information. =-H' +"ets assume bi-directional lin s. Then between = I ' again confirming that # and ' both can reach each other via = . =eaconing messages are control messages. or DI %. 8nly one of the nodes e.ringing u& an Ad hoc Network (. ii. :or communication between #-'.g. In first scenario. # I = both try to determine if single hop communication is feasible +ii. the routes are updated i. all routes are direct i. 7. #-HD-H= ❒:or multi-hop communication to wor . the intermediate nodes should route the pac et i. +i. <. iii.Working o! Ad hoc Network The figure depicts a peer-to-peer multihop ad hoc networ ❒ >obile node # communicates directly with = +single hop. then between = I #. In the second scenario.oins the networ with its beacon signal. If node # is able to establish a direct communication withnode = verified by appropriate control messages between them. they both update their routing tables. :irst between = I '.e. then multi-hop communication is necessary e. #d hoc networ begins with at least two nodes broadcasting their presence +beaconing. Two scenarios are possible. #-H=. when a channel is available ❒ If 'hannel is not available. 5. =. should act as routers .g.

7. 5. 2. %arly wor on pac et radio is based on 'S># . converge 7. "in changes are happening quite often 4.e. Then # I % iii.To&ology 2&date Due to a /ink (ailure (. Distributed channel access. Fery hard to avoid pac et collisions K. i. Then D #roble$ (aced during Routing in Ad hoc Network (. 6outers mobile 2. 4. >obility of nodes may cause lin brea age requiring route updates #ssume lin between = I ' brea s because of some reason $odes # I ' are still reachable via D and % So old route between # I' was #-H=-H' is to be replaced by #-HD-H%-H' #ll five nodes are required to incorporate this change in their routing table i. 'urrent wired routing uses shortest path metric J. %vent updates are sent often E a lot of control traffic 5. Fery hard to support LoS (B. 6outing table may not be able to. This change will happen first in nodes = I ' ii. 6outing loop may e&ist <. no fi&ed G.

Ad%antage o! !ibre o&tic cable co$&ared to $etallic cable" 'ompared to metallic cable. 'ladding c.O#TI+A/ NETWORKS 8ptical networ ing is defined as the types of connection between more than two networ ing devices with the help of fiber optical cables for the sa e of computer networ ing and for other uses such as surfing internet."ight rays reOect bac into the core if the hit the cladding at a shallow angle -acket /ayer The cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer. lower attenuation. . and no crosstal or electrical interference. The buffer is what gets stripped off the fiber for termination or splicing. Mac et "ayer d. 'ore b. watching TF. The co$&onent o! O&tical !ibre" #n optical fiber is a cylindrical waveguide made of two transparent materials each with a different inde& of et layer.u!!er The cladding is coated by a PbufferP that protects it from moisture and physical damage. which may be further surrounded by a . Q . telecommunication and file sharing technology etc is called as the optical networ ing. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. usually glass. This causes total internal reOection. The layers of optical fibre are a. =uffer +ore and +ladding # glass core of Nbre with a cladding around the outside with a lower inde& of refraction. These coatings are @F-cured urethane acrylate composite materials applied to the outside of the fiber during the drawing process. fiber optic systems offer greater bandwidths.

$otice how little light escapes from the sides and how the light goes around the loops from the "%D to the end of the fiber facing you at left. #t the base signalling level called PSTS-(. The ne&t level of S8$%T signalling. . light attempting to leave the core is reflected by the cladding. -assive 8ptical $etwor ing 2. supports triple the bandwidth. (. #a i%e O&tical Networking" # type of optical networ ing in which only single strand of fiber optics can ta e part and build a connection between the multiple computer networ ing clients from different areas is called as the passive optical networ ing. through which light travels. Star $etwor ing 7.P :or the appropriate wavelength +color.P S8$%T supports 7(. or (77. we can build up a data lin system by using a transmitter. such as glass. Synchronous 8ptical $%Twor 4.G5 >bps. 8. receiver. S8$%T performs at very high speeds. even if the wire is bent. plastic fiber. S8$%T possesses several characteristics that ma e it appealing on the Internet today.. Ty&e o! O&tical Networking" >a. Two layers of the material are used. S8$%T was originally designed by the #merican $ational Standards Institute +#$SI. STS-4. a core.72 >bps. =ut some times customers complained that it can lower the rate of internet connection. #ccording to above optical concept. This allows signals to travel through the wire for long distances. The fiber shown above and to the right is a multimode +i. =ecause of differences in the refractive inde&es of the layers. SONET S8$%T is a physical layer networ technology designed to carry large volumes of traffic over relatively long distances on fiber optic cabling. the e&treme purity and clarity of the materials used allows the light to travel for long distances with little reduction in strength. for the @S# public telephone networ in the mid-(KGBs.Working" 8ptical fibers are made from a clear material. • • • S8$%T defines clear interoperability standards between different vendorsR products S8$%T can carry nearly any higher-level protocol +including I-. and a cladding layer which eeps the light in the core.e. andcable assembly that can transmit information between two points. more than one wave of light can flow through it. because the cladding eeps the signal from Pescaping. of light. and S8$%T includes built-in support for ease of management and maintenance.or types of optical networ ing.

Star networ s deals with connection between the main computer systems to the other multiple computers over the networ . In the event one path fails.3igher levels of S8$%T signalling increase the bandwidth in successive multiples of four.The speed and cost of S8$%T ma e the technology competitive with alternatives li e #T> and Cigabit %thernet.ene!it o! O&tical Networking" (. 2. Self Healing S8$%T can be built in a self-healing ring architecture that uses two or more transmission paths between nodes. They are faster as compared to other mode of transmission of data between distances. 'o a&ial cables are also used for the data transmission purposes but they are quite slow. It is very e&pensive process to construct the fiber optics for optical networ s 2.or disadvantages are I (. 4.oy the facility of the transmission from different places at large distances because all the data is wrapped in the core of fiber optics. The connectivity of the optical networ ing is more efficient as compared to other connections between the networ s Drawback o! O&tical Networking" The ma. Star networking" $etwor ing carried out with the help of star networ s is called as the star networ ing. . 8ptical networ s are more reliable and convenient for the users to en. They are also able to enhance the performance of the connection san the networ . 9. It is very difficult to . traffic can be rerouted.oin the fiber optical cables as compared to the copper cables etc. . up to appro&imately 5B Cbps.