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C4ISR Needs

for Maritime Interdiction and Maritime Security Operations
RAdm Massimo Annati (ret’d), ITN m.annati@marina.difesa.it

• Naval C4ISR and CIC • designed for warfighting • Detecting, tracking and • engaging multiple • challenging targets • • High speed computers

Who is the master of that vessel ? What cargo is on board ? Origin - Destination ? Was it already stopped and searched ?

Different Data Set

And what about “daily” boarding ?
Aegis combat system: AAW ? BMD ? ASW ? ASuW ? Strike ?

Today’s Menu
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Virtual Regional Maritime Traffic Centre Man-wearable systems Case-packaged systems RHIB & integrated systems EMIO (biometrics & connectivity) Special communication needs

VRMTC
• Virtual Regional Maritime Traffic Center (…an Italian Navy idea…) • Data voluntary fed by participant countries, merged inside the ITN Hub and then distributed to all participants over secure Internet • Data from AIS, LRIT, VMTS, Radar Coastal Stations, Reports from ships underway, etc • Track history • Multiple regional and transregional agreements, both inside and outside Med, with separated data bases

24 countries Wider Meditteranean (2006-2008) + Observers (Ireland; Mexico; China (includes US) Russia; South Africa; Japan; Australia) 5 North-Africa (5+5) (2007) 6 Persian Gulf (8+6) (2008) + EU MARSUR Network Lebanon – RMMP-L (2007) Brazil – SISTRAM (2008) Singapore – OASIS (2008) T-RMN Federation India (2011)

Italy - VRMTC
• Tested onboard ITS Bersagliere in GoA-IO during Ocean Shield NATO counter-piracy operation (Oct 2010) • Slim and innovative architecture allows data exchange, useful to monitor maritime spaces, improving security and awareness • Exploiting the deployment of ITS Bersagliere in GoA waters, the VRMTC map included also, for the first time, the situation of that area, exchanging data with all the users

Common Requirements
• Systems need to operate in harsh maritime environment (sturdy, ruggedised, waterproof) • Compact and light enough to be easily carried by team members during their deployment on a rope ladder; or fitted into a RHIB deck • Interoperable with existing radio and networks • Robust & reliable connection; Secure comms • COTS components; Constantly evolving • Power source ?

Please Don’t Overload !

And, by the way, also waterproo would be nice…

Includes Marine Data Terminal System Interface Unit Cobham Eagle Radio Data Radio GPS + Compass Camera Battery User Data Terminal (Boat)

Cobham MIOS is a Situational Awareness and Blue Force Tracking system, developed for use by boarding teams. MIOS utilizes the company’s WaveHawk Command Information System software, core of the Integrated Digital Soldier System (IDSS) Being used by RNZN

Boarding Operations Support System

(BOSS). Defence Research and Development Canada
• First deployed in 2008, within CTF-150 • BOSS MkIII fielded in 2010, includes WiFi enabled devices • Collection platform in waterproof case (4kg), with screen, keyboard, passport scanner, GPS, fingerprint scanner, • + iris scanner, wireless digital camera, microwave radio, antenna, battery, wiring • Allows secure chat & messages • Server located onboard mother ship with Mission Oriented Biometrics Software and Watchlist

Boarding Operations Support System

(BOSS). Defence Research and Development Canada

9LV-SAT Situation Awareness Terminal
9LV SAT-R for mobile assets 9LV SAT-S for parent ship 9LV SAT-HQ for headquarters

9LV-SAT Situation Awareness Terminal

9LV-SAT Situation Awareness Terminal
• Smallest Child of 9LV Combat Data System family • Low-cost modular solution for over-the-horizon exchange of tactical info between warships and their organic boats • 9LV Sensor Manager gets signals from sensors (P&P) • 9LV Asset Manager fitted to RHIB (12” screen and ctrl box) provides coxwain with situation awareness and navigation safety data transmitted by parent ship • GPS coordinates, radar picture, text messages, via encrypted HF link • Tested by RAN onboard one patrol craft and two frigates (prior their deployment to Persian Gulf), and also by USSOCOM

• C-Raid Network Based Operations: units can exchange tracks data and messages in addition to voice comms • Smallest craft is integrated within network and exploits situational awareness • TAU (Tactical Access Unit) acts as gateway to handle data link comms (HF, VHF, UHF, SATCOM, WiFi frequencies) and fed with GPS, AIS tacks, ARPA tracks • Ruggedised panel with touch screen and hard keys enabling operations with gloves or in choppy sea • Any possible function can be reached with no more than three “clicks” from anywhere • Tested by RDN and Royal Malaysian Coast Guard • Procured by Australian SOF

C-RAID Operations Management

C-RAID Map Transparency

C-RAID Track List

C-RAID Tactical Overlay

C-RAID Pre-Canned Messages

XERES Maritime Interdiction System

XERES Maritime Interdiction System
• Command Ship and RHIB / Walk-aboard Interdiction System • Fitted onboard all Type-22, Type-23 and now Type-45 vessels, following an Urgent Operational Requirement • Provides automated position tracking of parent vessel and associated boats (up to 15 boats) • Onboard the frigate a standalone WS generates GPS-based tracks of the boats at 5 sec interval, with dedicated VHF secure link • Waypoints, routes, boundaries, protected points, etc • Transmission of automatic radar plotting on selected targets • Chat messages • Encrypted comms between all assets, long-range (up to 10 nm) link for digital images, video, scanned data, etc • Boats fitted with stowage for crypto and comms devices

XERES Maritime Interdiction System

XERES Maritime Interdiction System
• • • • • Command Ship and RHIB / Walk-aboard Interdiction System Boarding team equipment supplied in two safe, rugged and waterproof cases. Two team members trained to operate the equipment Equipment operational in five min. after having boarded the target vessel Capture and Transmission Packages. Capture Case contains a ruggedised digital camera housing special authentication software, allowing images to be certified and accepted as evidence within a court of justice. Also included are a flatbed scanner, and a video camera. All captured information can be stored onto a Panasonic ToughBook ruggedised laptop computer or sent to the command vessel via a VHF radio modem data link for instant analysis or further transmission. Additional equipments includes also a sensor which monitors the surrounding air for the presence of explosive gases, with audible and visual alarms. The boarding party equipment is man portable and buoyant with both cases weighing less than 12.5 kg.

• • •

XERES Maritime Interdiction System
Marinized Xtreme Tablet

Ship Work Station Radio Case

Capture Case

Expanded Maritime Interdiction Operations
• 2004 : intercept vessels identified to be transporting terrorists and/or terrorist-related materiel that poses an imminent threat to the United States and its allies • This generated a number of new requirements for specific equipments and training
– Biometric tools; – Networked comms; – Radiation sensors.

US Navy & US Coast Guard
Vessel Boarding Inspection System
• Awarded multiple contracts ($1.2 M; $3.1 M) • 3E Technologies International (now a subsidiary of ULTRA Electronics UK) is lead integrator of communications, WMD sensor, technology integration with the Vessel Boarding Inspection System (VBIS) • VBIS utilizes secure broadband and sensor technologies to support maritime interdiction operations by providing the interdiction teams with below decks connectivity on board a boarded vessel and enables transfer of WMD data over a secure wireless network for reach back analysis. Integration includes:
– – – – Biometrics Explosive detectors Radiological detectors Below-deck comms

The Quest for Identity
• IDT-RDC (Identity Dominance Toolset Rapid Deployment Capability) • First tested in 2008 onboard an US destroyer • Includes a ruggedized computer, a digital camera, a digital fingerprint scanner, and a scanning device • Planned for 97 warships

• Evoluzione bio

AN/PYX-1

Intel & Comms Support to IDS
• Identification probability
– Threshold 90% – Objective 99%

• Users require recommendation to detain, release, hold for further info in
– Threshold 30 min – Objective 2 min

• File size 3.2 MB • Expected submissions/day
– Navy expeditionary forces 1,200 – Other US naval forces 200

AN/SSQ-131 WRBS
Wireless ReachBack System
Twenty-five WRBS kits were initially deployed in 2009 to fulfill the Rapid Deployment Capability
As June 2011, 82 WRBS kits were delivered out of a total authorization for 157 kits
–Wireless Access Point provides secure mesh network, gateway, and bridge / repeater capabilities for wireless voice, video and data applications. –It features a dual-radio configuration with a 2.4 GHz (802.11a/b/g) Wi-Fi radio and a 5.8 GHz (802.11a/b/g) radio packaged in a Military IP66 outdoor rugged, weatherproof enclosure.

AN/SSQ-131 WRBS Wireless ReachBack System
Portable IP router Clamped antenna Secure 2.4 GHz 802.11 wireless link

Wireless dual radio mesh node

France - Comms
In 2009 the French Marine Nationale began deploying Wi-Fi Kits onboard frigates and OPVs

Currently next-generation SysSmart Relay available only to a couple of test vessels

• • • • • • •

Freq: 2.4 GHz (WiFi) Power: 1 W amplifier Range: 1 nm Authentication: EAP-TLS or EAP-FAST Encryption: AES 256 Data rate: 54 MBps Authonomy 2 to 8 hrs (+ spare batteries)

Italy - Comms 1
• Since 2003 normal Wi-Fi was used to connect the boarding team with host vessel (short range, unstable) • In early 2009 a “reinforced” Wi-Fi was tested, using portable wireless access points with 2W power operating on 802.11.b and 802.11.g WLAN standards (in Europe the maximum authorised power for Wi-Fi is 100mW, while in the US is 1W) • An additional high-gain (24dBi) directional antenna is also available, to extend the communication range to a few miles

Italy - Comms 2
• ITS Etna Dec 2009-Apr 2010 (Op Atalanta) • Wi-Max, adopting the 802.16e standard, 3.5 GHz • Compared to the traditional Wi-Fi connections, Wi-Max provides a longer range, an higher data rate (more than 15 Mbps), better flexibility and higher stability, including an inherent capability to support a robust cryptography • System included two directive antennas and one omni-directional antenna • GPS receivers, both on the host vessel and the deployed boarding team, enabled the system to select the best combination of signal power among the different antennas • The operator of the boarding team was equipped with a video camera, headphone and microphone, a laptop, a portable routeraccess point, and a battery package providing 3 hours of operations. The entire set is fitted inside a rucksack. Voice communications are also permitted through VOIP • Stable communications were constantly possible up to 4 nm, compared to the just some hundred meters available with standard Wi-Fi technology

ITS Etna 2009-2010 Wi-Max Configuration
Top of the Bridge

4 nm

Bridge

Battery Pack 3 x 6V

C.I.C.

The Netherlands - Comms
• Four new Holland-Class OPV for RNLN • Thales Nederland Integrated Mast, with ICAS, (Integrated Communication Antenna System). • Includes also GSM/UMTS mobile phones, Iridium, and Wi-Max. • The latter is especially aimed to enable voice, data and video exchange with the deployed boarding team

US Coast Guard – Below Deck Comms
• • • Requirement emerged in 2004, to establish reliable comms with boarding team below the deck of large merchant vessels. The Mesh Network Subsystem consists of wireless smart routers and handheld PDA, capable of providing an 11 Mbps ad-hoc link, managed by a specific proprietary software; The Radio Gateway Subsystem with portable wireless repeaters (a.k.a. Tactical Mesh Router, TMR) routing the wireless communication across the mesh, and a Tactical Radio WiFi Gateway housed into a watertight briefcase, acting as connector to the parent Coast Guard vessel

US Coast Guard – Below Deck Comms
• • • • MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork) Tactical Mesh Router battery operated (8 hrs) Network traffic quickly re-routed in rapidly changing environment USCG once used up to 40 TMR on a large vessel

To conclude…
• Though many of the systems presented were spin-off of “future soldier” and “army digitalization” programs,

To conclude…
• Though many of the systems presented were spin-off of “future soldier” and “army digitalization” programs, • Remember, “Joint” is important, but:
We are Navy ! They are Army !

C4ISR Needs
for Maritime Interdiction and Maritime Security Operations
RAdm Massimo Annati (ret’d), ITN m.annati@marina.difesa.it