De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 August, 31, 1987 (En Banc), J. Melencio-Herrera ALF E!" M. !E LE"#, A#$EL %. %ALAMA&, MA '" (. %&A.

A#A, J"%E (. &"LE#&'#", "$EL'" J. !E LA "%A an) J"%E M. E%* E(('"#, +etitioners, H"#. BE#JAM'# B. E%$*E A, in ,is ca+acit- as "'( $o.ernor o/ t,e 0ro.ince o/ i1al, H"#. "ME" (. !E LE"#, in ,is ca+acit- as "'( Ma-or o/ t,e Munici+alit- o/ &a-ta-, i1al, FL" E#&'#" $. MA$#", EM'$'" M. &'$A%, '(A !" 2. LA(A#'E#&A, &E"!" " 3. ME!'#A, "%E#!" %. 0A2, an) &E E%'&A L. &"LE#&'#", res+on)ents. FACTS4 "n Ma- 17, 1985, +etitioner Al/re)o M. !e Leon 6as electe) Baranga- (a+tain toget,er 6it, t,e ot,er +etitioners as Baranga- (ouncil7en o/ Baranga- !olores, Munci+alit- o/ &a-ta-, 0ro.ince o/ i1al in a Baranga- election ,el) un)er Batas 0a78ansa Blg. 555, ot,er6ise 9no6n as Baranga- Election Act o/ 1985. "n Fe8ruar- 9, 1987, +etitioner !e Leon recei.e) a Me7oran)u7 ante)ate) !ece78er 1, 198: 8ut signe) 8- res+on)ent "'( $o.ernor Ben;a7in Esguerra on Fe8ruar- 8, 1987 )esignating res+on)ent Florentino $. Magno as Baranga- (a+tain o/ Baranga- !olores an) t,e ot,er res+on)ents as 7e78ers o/ Baranga- (ouncil o/ t,e sa7e Baranga- an) Munici+alit-. 0etitioners +ra-e) to t,e %u+re7e (ourt t,at t,e su8;ect Me7oran)a o/ Fe8ruar- 8, 1987 8e )eclare) null an) .oi) an) t,at res+on)ents 8e +ro,i8ite) 8- ta9ing o.er t,eir +ositions o/ Baranga- (a+tain an) Baranga- (ouncil7en. 0etitioners 7aintain t,at +ursuant to Section 3 of t e !aranga" E#ection Act of 1$%2 (B0 Blg. 555), t,eir ter7s o/ o//ice s,all 8e si< -ears 6,ic, s,all co77ence on June 7, 1988 an) s,all continue until t,eir successors s,all ,a.e electe) an) s,all ,a.e =uali/ie). 't 6as also t,eir +osition t,at 6it, t,e ratification of t e 1$%& ' i#i((ine Constitution, res(on)ent *+C ,overnor no #onger as t e aut orit" to re(#ace t e- an) to )esignate t eir successors. "n t,e ot,er ,an), res+on)ents conten) t,at t,e ter7s o/ o//ice o/ electi.e an) a++ointi.e o//icials 6ere a8olis,e) an) t,at +etitioners continue) in o//ice 8- .irtue o/ %ec. 5, Art. 3 o/ t,e 0ro.isional (onstitution an) not 8ecause t,eir ter7 o/ si< -ears ,a) not -et e<+ire)> an) t,at t,e +ro.ision in t,e Baranga- Election Act /i<ing t,e ter7 o/ o//ice o/ Baranga- o//icials to si< -ears 7ust 8e )ee7e) to ,a.e 8een re+eale) /or 8eing inconsistent 6it, %ec. 5, Art. 3 o/ t,e 0ro.isional (onstitution. +SS.E4 ?,et,er or not t,e )esignation o/ res+on)ents to re+lace +etitioners 6as .ali)l- 7a)e )uring t,e one--ear +erio) 6,ic, en)e) on Fe8 5@, 1987. R.L+/,4 %u+re7e (ourt )eclare) t,at t,e Me7oran)a issue) 8- res+on)ent "'( $o. on Fe8 8, 1987 )esignating res+on)ents as Baranga- (a+tain an) Baranga- (ouncil7en o/ Baranga- !olores, &a-ta-, i1al ,as no #ega# force an) effect. &,e 1987 (onstitution 6as rati/ie) in a +le8iscite on Fe8 5, 1987, t,ere/ore, t,e 0ro.isional (onstitution 7ust 8e )ee7e) to ,a.e su+erse)e). Ha.ing 8eco7e ino+erati.e, res+on)ent "'( $o. coul) no longer rel- on %ec 5, Art 3, t,ereo/ to )esignate res+on)ents to t,e electi.e +ositions occu+ie) 8- +etitioners. ele.antl-, %ec 8, Art 1 o/ t,e 1987 (onstitution /urt,er +ro.i)es in +art4 ASec. 8. The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be determined by law, shall be three years x x x.A *ntil t,e ter7 o/ o//ice o/ 8aranga- o//icials ,as 8een )eter7ine) 8- la6, t,ere/ore, t,e ter7 o/ o//ice o/ : -ears +ro.i)e) /or in t,e Baranga- Election Act o/ 1985 s,oul) still go.ern. BBBB &,e 1987 (onstitution 6as rati/ie) in a +le8iscite on Fe8ruar- 5 1987. B- t,at )ate, t,ere/ore, t,e 0ro.isional (onstitution 7ust 8e )ee7e) to ,a.e 8een su+erse)e) (E//ecti.it- is i77e)iatel- u+on rati/ication). BBBBBB

SA/T+A,* 0S. C*1ELEC

0u8lic 'nterest La6 (enter.erein %enator %antiago. t.at 6.(ongress. +resi)ent o/ 0eo+leDs 'nitiati.e sa7e cannot o+erate.earing an) t.roug. &. 2300 6.e )elegation o/ t.a.e %u+re7e (ourt grante) t.enors. 6ELD4 &. +ro.at t.e nee) /or inter.e . 5.e (onstitution.or o/ t.at . Li/ting o/ t. J M' 'AM !EFE#%" %A#&'A$".e ("MELE(. an) to .u)g7ent ren)ere) 6as4 • $ A#&'#$ t. !'%M'%% t.us. 6.ision.is ci.e +eo+le to e<ercise t.A.out an.e /or e/or7s. +etitioners-inter.e constitution to li/t t.e on a7en)7ents to t.e (onstitution .+ro+ose a7en)7ents to t.er t. !e7o9ras-a-'+agtanggol ang Eonstitus-on. 0eo+leDs 'nitiati.erea/ter set t.t.oi) t.e rig. Jesus !el/in.out i7+le7enting legislation t.ision t.e court rule) in /a.as recogni1e) or grante) t.as 8een )elegate).e !ELF'# +etition ationales 8e.e /aile) to +ro. an) La8an ng !e7o9rati9ong 0ili+ino a++eare) as inter.ic. /ile) 6it.e /ollo6ing4 (1) &.8e i7+le7ente) 8.ose +arts o/ esolutions #o.t. #o. &.e Motions /or 'nter. At t. J . as t. t. 2 of t e 1$%& Constitution.oug. #o suc.ision or an a7en)7ent o/ t. a))itional or su++orting legislation.e constitutional +ro. 6it. • ?.e con)uct o/ initiati.22&0 SCRA 1063 . is .e (onstitution. t.ention.e s-ste7 o/ initiati. not to re.e la6 o/ s+eci/ic +ro. consi)ering t. ALECA#!E 0A!'LLA an) MA 'A '%ABEL "#$0'#. %enator oco.e (onstitution> an) " !E '#$ t.et.e +o6er to )irectl.e +eo+leDs initiati..i)es /or t. %enator oco /ile) a 7otion to )is7iss t. • ?.er t. ("MELE( a +etition to a7en) t.e o//icials. :73@ ina)e=uate to co.e on a7en)7ents to t.ening court action..e +etition an) o/ t.e or a7en)7ents to t.e !el/in +etition rising t. la6 .er or not ("MELE( esolution #o.e (o77ission on Elections to /ort.e. cannot 8e )elegate) (+otestas )elegata non )elegari +otest). 53HH regar)ing t..6it. suc.12&3253 1$ 1ar 1$$&4 !A3'!E. t.t o/ t.e con)uct o/ initiati. +SS.ate res+on)ent Att-.e to a7en) t. Art.e (onstitution.e +o6er to t.e constitution can onl.e .e 1987 (onstitution is a sel/-e<ecuting +ro. %u8se=uentl.ere/ore it is outsi)e t.e (onstitution is .il action /or +ro. +etitioners ("MM'%%'"# "# ELE(&'"#%.E4 • ?.e ter7 li7its o/ electi.e 'B0.e (onstitution. +rescri8es rules an) regulations on t. Mo)erni1ation an) Action (0' MA).e is li7ite) to a7en)7ents to t.oi). an) 'sa8el "ng+in /ile) t. He 8ase) t.et.e instant +etition> • • • !E(LA '#$ .e +etitioners . t. 2. or ot.i)e /or its i7+le7entation.er 9in) o/ i7+le7enting action) .e ules o/ (ourt against ("MELE( an) t.i8ition un)er ule :@ o/ t. C3'' o/ t.ereo/.e.e a8sence in t.e notice o/ .e o//icials 6oul) constitute a re.i)e su//icient stan)ar) /or su8or)inate legislation> !E(LA '#$ .e groun) t.ic.in) t.et. Alt.e !el/in +etition on t.e con)uct o/ initiati.e +ortion o/ C*1ELEC Reso#ution /o.R.e case /or .ali).e +etitioners an) t. &.e (o77ission on Elections +rescri8ing rules an) regulations on t.isions on t.e rig. et al.e +o6er o/ +eo+leDs initiati.t. Sec. /o.enors-o++ositors. • &.e se.la6 to 8e +asse) 8.as 8een an esta8lis.e +eo+le cannot e<ercise it i/ (ongress )oes not +ro.e . 't .states t.e ("MELE( 8eing . initiati.e +etition is not cogni1a8le 8.e +u8lication o/ t.e ("MELE( issue) an or)er )irecting t. 53HH o/ t. FACTS4 0ri.is +etition on Artic#e 50++. t.e on a7en)7ents to t.eral argu7ents. Art 50++ of t e Constitution is not se#f e7ecutor" (it 7erel.e) rule t. Ale<an)er 0a)illa.e li/ting o/ ter7 li7its o/ electi.as 8een +asse)> (5) &.e ter7 li7its constitutes a re.earing.e.e con)uct o/ suc.earing.6Gout t.ision on +eo+leFs initiati.at ta9es e//ect i77e)iatel.er or not %ec.e +rinci+les 6it.u)g7ent4 • Sec.ision (sel/-e<ecuting 7eans +ro.ision t.e (onstitution.su++l-ing 7eans /or its i7+le7entation).

0.e +ro+ose) 198: (onstitution re/ers to.ern7ent 8ut in /act an) la6 a )e . res+on)ents.e e<ercise o/ t. Marcos an) 3ice-0resi)ent Arturo M.#i-its 8as e#) to 9e t at of a revision. it 8eing a 7atter o/ +u8lic recor) an) co77on +u8lic 9no6le)ge t.ision or a7en)7ent . as it 6oul) a//ect ot.isions o/ t.et.e Fe8ruar.e control o/ t.e =uestion o/ t.a.e (onstitutional (o77ission re/ers t.ern7ent.e si<--ear ter7 o/ t.a.en as9s t. &.e rig. 3AL!E2 $.ern7ent o/ 0resi)ent (ora1on (.e sai) +ro.ere can 8e no =uestion t. +ro.+ro+ose a7en)7ents to t. Marcelino Lonto9 /or +etitioner.u)g7ent> t. Ber7u)e1.o7 it re/ers. Ber7u)e1 FACT: 'n a +etition /or )eclarator.ice..e /irst +aragra+.i)es /or its i7+le7entation.e construction an) )e/initeness as to 6. #"& %ELF-ECE(*&'#$BBBBBB 'n e4 %aturnino .roni1ation o/ elections. 198: election is.e.e latter cannot .e /un)a7ental la6 o/ t. t.ern7ent is not a .7.en 7e78ers o/ t.e<ten)e) to noon o/ June 3H.ision cannot 8e )one 8. &. is in e//ecti.e incu78ent 0resi)ent an) 3ice-0resi)ent electe) in t. &.all 8e . L-@ %e+te78er 17.e rig.e electe) 0resi)ent Fer)inan) E.i)es It. Laurel are t. !'2"#.ol) legiti7ate +ositions as t.roug. . an) +ro.i8iting +olitical )-nasties.e +eo+le to )irectl.is o6n 8e.e e<tension o/ t. A=uino 6. &.J +SS. /or +ur+oses o/ s-nc. Laurel.e until t.e co77unit. as t.relie/ i7+lea)ing no res+on)ents. as reorgani1e).• in.e t. an) +ro.t o/ t. t. Ber7u)e1L allegation o/ a78iguitor .er go.erein to incu78ent 0resi)ent (ora1on (.a)or H.er (ora1on A=uino an) %al. A. #o.ili++ines.t /or lac9 o/ .eir ter7 to noon o/ June 3H.e issue o/ 6.e a8o.e constitutional guarantee o/ e=ual access to o++ortunities /or +u8lic ser. es+on)ent Ju)ge !i1on in .o.ern7ent.e secon) Mon)a. t. Mutatis 7utan)is.e & A#%'&" K 0 "3'%'"#% o/ t.a. 0onente4 J.J clai7e) t.e.e legiti7ac. o/ %ection @ 6.ali)l.e (ourtDs )ecision in t.e sai) %ection 7 (sic) o/ A &'(LE C3''' o/ t.i)es /or t.a)or H.e a/ore=uote) +ro. Ju)ge o/ First 'nstance o/ Manila.el) on t.o/ t.is (onstitution s.at t. FE 'A FACTS4 . 6ELD: &.e (ongress +ro. .ision Ais not clearA as to 6.ol) t.e 0.gratuitous.e entire countr.at it is not 7erel.e 'ssue.e +etition is )is7isse) outrig.as 8eco7e aca)e7ic. t.ic.e s6orn to u+.at 0resi)ent (ora1on (. &olentino 8eing re/erre) to un)er t. A=uino an) 3ice-0resi)ent %al. t.ision is 7ani/estl.e +resent incu78ent 0resi)ent (ora1on A=uino an) 3ice-0resi)ent %al.e (ourt Ato )eclare an) ans6er t.a )e /acto go. .e 7a)e t.al/. 1995. 1995.o/ Ma-.e ele. .er.e +etition is a re.as recogni1e) t. Ho6e. =uotes t. a7ong t.usticia8le 7atter.E: ?.+ro7ulgate rules an) regulations to i7+le7ent t. Moreo.a)or Laurel an) t.er. t.er +ro. (" E'M (HAM 3%.et.ern7ent.e incu78ent an) legiti7ate 0resi)ent an) 3ice 0resi)ent o/ t.e acce+te) t.e +resent go.e 0resi)ent an) 3ice-0resi)ent un)er t.e 0. 1995 /or +ur+oses o/ s-nc.e +eo+le .is (ourt.so t.e legiti7ac.initiati. an) to no ot.er +ersons.er or not t. All t. A re.illa /or res+on)ent 3al)e1 &an Ee. BBBBB &.ili++ines.ere8.uris)iction an) /or lac9 /or cause o/ action.e A=uino go.e s-nc.e.ali). consi)ering t. %aturnino 3. a la6-er.e (onstitution suc.e #ifting of t e ter. A=uino an) 3ice-0resi)ent %al.t to +eo+leDs initiati.e incu78ent 0resi)ent an) 3ice 0resi)ent o/ t.e s-ste7 o/ initiati.e e+u8lic un)er .roni1ation o/ elections.e (onstitution t.roni1ation o/ elections.o/ nations .o/ t. 19M@ 0etitioner4 (" E'M (HAM (alias (" E'M (HAM) es+on)ents4 E*%EB'" 3AL!E2 &A# EEH an) A %E#'" 0.e ..e 6oul) re7ain ento78e) in a col) nic.ure go. e.e e+u8lic o/ t.e go.a)or Laurel .e /irst regular elections /or t.agueness o/ t.ic.

e course o/ 6ar> )enote) as a go.e 0.o/ t.ali)ate) an) nulli/ie) all .u)icial +rocee)ings an) ./orce an) )eri.et. t.o rise in insurrection against t.ereignt.e la6s o/ 6ar. )oes not i7+l.e) 8.er go.e (o77ission an) t.en )uring ene7.gi.oice o/ t.ern7ent gets +ossession an) control t.e (ourt o/ First 'nstance o/ Manila.e regi7e o/ t. res(on)ent. /orce or t..eir aut.et.e na7e o/ t. regulations an) +rocesses o/ an.ili++ine go.at o/ t.t.il. %o.is not sus+en)e) 8ut still e<ist e. /ro7 (o77on6ealt.ern7ent o/ t.ange in t. t.el) t.occu+ation.e Ja+anese occu+ation 6ere .il case #o.ili++ines /ree o/ ene7.u)g7ent t./ro7 t.e secon) 9in).ili++ines (t.ali) an) re7aine) .occu+ation or regi7e 6ere )e /acto go.il case no.e go.e Ja+anese )uring t./orces o/ occu+ation an) t.at t.ern7ent o/ +ara7ount /orce) t.a) in.e 6ill o/ t.e 0.e) in t.<0$ =anuar" 30.ili++ines..roug.a.e go.ili++ine E<ecuti.er allegiance to t.a)e an) occu+. 1isa. 1 8.ot.roug. Feste.e in.e so-calle) e+u8lic o/ t.6.orit.e Ja+anese occu+ation.ern7ents.er7ore.e c.e cri7e o/ treason as 1) t.ern7ent un)er t.o in.t/ul go.e courts o/ t.o/ t.e Ja+anese).ing t.a c.ili++ines t. ?.e raise) t.ern7ent esta8lis.e so. to e+u8lic.u)icial +rocee)ings an) )ecisions 7a)e )uring t.e 0.ern7ent or so.e legiti7ate go.uris)iction to ta9e cogni1ance o/ an) continue .t. L.ereign o/ a countr.t. Facts: Laurel 6as c. && ' i# %56 .ern7ent is one esta8lis. 1.o .e so. A )e /acto go. or)ering . (etitioner. Furt.6as c. @HM FACTS: .ili++ines 6as sus+en)e) 5) t.e lo6er court re/use) to ta9e cogni1ance o/ an) continue t.ange in t.ili++ines.il go. 9M 0.orit. 6it.ereignt.ern7ent).ern7ent or so.e Ja+anese occu+ation 7a. are null an) .out legal e//ect in areas o/ t.e (o77ission 6. &.e . insurrection (esta8lis.roug.R.e Ja+anese occu+ation 6ere not )e /acto go.ern7ents. 3H15 o/ (o Ei7 (.isG.e +rocla7ation issue) 8.u)ge o/ t.an) 7aintains itsel/ against t.e 0.out an ena8ling la6.ereignt.u)icial +rocee)ings +en)ing in t.ili++ines un)er t.ic. re8ellion (go.ili++ines an). 0olitical an) international la6 recogni1es t. 1$<& A/ASTAC+* LA.t.e (o77an)er o/ t.u)g7ents o/ t.is sus+en)e) 8.ES: 1. +ssue: ?.ern7ent o/ t.e res+on)ent .$eneral !ouglas MacArt.en a/ter t.e +rocee)ing o/ +en)ing ci.e e+u8lic o/ t.e 7ilitar.a territor. +SS.e 0. su++orte) 8.e +resence o/ /oreign occu+anc-.e (ourt .e) as an in)e+en)ent go.at a citi1en o6es a8solute an) +er7anent allegiance to . (+etitioner) Ha. 3H15. 5.e (o77ission an) e+u8lic o/ t.i7 to ta9e cogni1ance o/ an) continue to /inal .e) t.ili++ines un)er t.e 0. /o.in t.e sai) (o77on6ealt.e e+u8lic o/ t.ing ai) an) co7/ort to t.ali).e 0.ili++ines )uring t.e cannot 8e +rosecute) /or t.e 0.e 7a. .occu+ation o/ t.ili++ines esta8lis.at . 6as a ci.8e consi)ere) )e /acto go.e) )uring t.ur .ern7ent 8.er or not t.e courts o/ t.a7.ern7ents.ili++ines E<ecuti.e 0.u)ge o/ t.ern7ent.e Ja+anese 7ilitar.an t.e 7ilitar.7ilitar.ereignt-.er go.ing sai) t.et. 0.e +rocee)ings in ci. ER+!ERT* 1+SA.ili++ine E<ecuti. Laure# v.e go.oi) an) 6it.e )e/unct e+u8lic o/ t. occu+ation (esta8lis.e 0.arge) o/ treason 8.e +rocla7ation o/ t. 'n .ern7ent in t.er or not .a8itants o/ a countr. lo6er courts .e 0."r)er #o.occu+ation an) control.&.e rig.e . Fernan)o.e sai) go.e na7es o/ 0.e Ja+anese /orces.e 0.ere/ore a )e /acto go. &.e A7erican occu+ation 5.e Ja+anese 7ilitar. ?. vs.at all acts an) +rocee)ings o/ a )e /acto go.ern7ents )uring t.ereignt-.e no . IAll la6s.ern7ent are goo) an) .REL.J He also argue) t.ern7ents esta8lis.e +arent state).e 0.roug.ali) e. 6as organi1e) 8.e so.at it 6as initiate) un)er t. 6e#): &. DEC+S+*/S: ?rit o/ 7an)a7us issue) to t.is )e/ense.e ene7./orces 6.t.ange) u+on t.e) an) 7aintaine) 8.

J. ("#(E0('"#. &.er.e +re.a) su+er.e state7ents t.e t. $i.too9 +ossession o/ +ortions o/ t.er or not t.e *nite) %tates go.eir i77e)iate su+er.e +lainti//.orit-. %an)ers )isagree) 6it.er its +ersonnel.e %u8ic #a. &. 162 SCRA %% !ALE %A#!E %.e +ortion o/ t.e.e rules an) regulations o/ t. t.e tort is +ersonall.et.er citi1en an) .e +etitioners .e acte) on 8e. M" EA*.e #A3%&A.ts. .en t.&.institute) grie.erte) /ro7 +er7anent /ull-ti7e to +er7anent +art-ti7e.e o//icial c.ate res+on)entFs e7+lo-7ent status.e 7otion 6as )enie) on t. +SS.aracter o/ t. o/ Fe8ruar.o9e . in a letter a))resse) to +etitioner Moreau.er relie/.is 8eing sue) in .ance +rocee)ings to t. "n "cto8er 3.e grie.e +etitioners +ersonallt. 0eri)iano.t o/ 6a-. &.at is res+onsi8le /or t.e letter containe) t.e 7ere allegation t.a) 8een con.is +ersonal ca+acit. )issenting4 c Bengzon. as )irector o/ t.e +lainti//.179 s=uare 7eters to t. J.E: ?. t.al %tation.lia8le t.e o//icer or e7+lo-ee co77itting t.in t.e *.e aggregate area 8eing 5M.a) not +resente) an. 0ri.e +rotection o/ t.al 0ersonnel e<+laining t.ear. concurs. #a.er t.oug. San)ers v.ise) t.e la6 o/ +u8lic o//icers an)..eir acts. t. !irector o/ t.e recor)s in +u8lic +lace 6. t.ices )e+art7ent o/ t.e s+ecial ser.%.e +ri.e letters.ur.e 7ain groun) t. /ile) a case against 'saias Fernan)o. e7+lo-e) as ga7e roo7 atten)ants in t.al/ o/ t. un)ou8te)l.ern7ent an) not t.e court . 6.arge o/ t.e grie.ern7ent 8ecause t.at t.us. t. a-letter /ro7 +etitioner Moreau 6as sent to t. (t.a) no .eir +ersonal an) +ro+rietar. not to )iscuss t.ate res+on)ent /ile) /or )a7ages alleging t.ere/ore.er in. 6it.ol.out o8taining /irst a rig.e .t.il action /or )a7ages.ance .e .uris)iction o. Ho6e. (ar7en Feste.e (.earings.e case 6it.!e+art7ent o/ !e/ense.8e sue) as an.o. ossi ten)s to alienate 7ost co-6or9ers an) su+er. ossi an) ?-ers .ate res+on)ent ossi an) ?-er 6ere 8ot.eir o//icial )utiesN R.eir e7+lo-7ent .ices )irector o/ t.e Bureau o/ 0u8lic ?or9s.t to co77ence an entirel.e7 in t.at t. an) 7a..at go.e 7ont.e +etitioners 6ere +er/or7ing t.u)ice o/ t. +etitioners argue) t.en. unla6/ull.at a go. &.at t.at.e) in t.en t. an) 6it.at t.ate res+on)ents.eir o//icial )uties an) t.eir aut.e.er. J .a.asion o/ t.ance +rocee)ings 6as an in. to 8e )i//icult e7+lo-ees to su+er.E: (an t.L+/.e t.u)g7ent o/ t.is tortious act.e sco+e o/ t.eir +er7anent /ull-ti7e status.e outset t.at go.ere ot.earing o//icerFs re+ort.e +ri. 3E '!'A#" ''.ers not in.ree +arcels o/ lan). an) cause) an irrigation canal to 8e constructe) on t.ili++ines.at t.e co77an)ing o//icer o/ t.ot.e start o/ t.ise>A an) c) Ae.ision o.ie/ o/ #a. +er7anent resi)ence in t.ices )e+art7ent o/ #A3%&A.earing o//icer reco77en)e) /or reinstate7ent o/ t.e s+ecial ser.e c.at t. Ho6e. Ho6e. accor)ing to t. conse=uentl-.e consent an) 9no6le)ge o/ t. 0etitioner Moreau 6as t.rig.e acts co7+laine) o/ 6ere +er/or7e) 8.ern7ent an) 6it.e letters containe) li8elous i7+utations an) t. inclu)ing t. %o.at4 a ) AMr.t.e..A Be/ore t.ate. A#! A.6ill not auto7aticall.is i77unit-N 6ELD: "r)inaril. an-one.at t.ate res+on)ent ossi is an A7erican citi1en 6it. t.19@1 t.er. E$'#" &.: >es.e +etitioner. an) /or ot.ern7ent /unctionar.e )a7age an) +re. 197@.e aggrie.al Base.o.as a rig.i7 /ro7 t.ants 6ere un)er oat.%. 0ri.eir acts 6ere o//icial in nature.a.e-) +lace) t.%.e )isc.e +etitioners 6ere 8eing sue) as o//icers o/ t.e )e/en)ant in.e *. t.out t.e grie.e s+ecial ser. it is t.ate res+on)ents 6ere a).isors>A 8) AMessrs.e +ro.e .e +ri.or )a7age results /ro7 .e7 un)er t.re7o.se+arate an) )istinct ci.e )octrine o/ state i77unit-. i/ a++ro+riate.e) +art.e )octrine o/ state i77unit-. +etitioner H"#.i)ence t. %an)ers.e 0. res+on)ent FACTS4 0etitioner %an)ers 6as t.ree +arcels o/ lan) on or a8out t.e case coul) .el) ans6era8le /or 6.'t is stresse) at t.ange o/ t. +SS.. +ri. &.isors.

t.e %ultan %ecurit.e !"A.e +u8lic goo) • • #L ( --.arges #L ( /or gra.unction /or lac9 o/ 8asis an) a &e7+orar.e La8or Ar8iter issue) a I?rit o/ E<ecutionJ co77an)ing t.e guar)s. #L (. t.e (it.at t.e #L ( (aga-an !e "ro. t.e<+resse) in Artic#e ++.e non-sua8ilit.ern7ent entit-.e trial can +rocee) an) it is +ro.er.e *nite) %tates go.t.eri// to en/orce an) e<ecute t.ious c.e case o/ /oreign states. 199H.e sai) go.ic.i)e) 8.e +ractical .lia8le 6it.ing )ul.e aut.e %tate.e a++ro+riation o/ t.a.e to )e/eat an.at t.e la6 on 6. %ultan Agenc.Agenc.is +rece+t is /or7all.ices to 8e +ro.e act to satis/.ereign e=ualit. &. its )ecision 6as null an) . 6.icles o/ t.at 7oneclai7s against t.e (o77ission on Au)it.ese 6ell-settle) +rinci+les are a++lica8le not onl.e +erson sue) in its courts +ertains to t.ac=uire) .A "ur a).e a8use o/ )iscretion /or re/using to =uas.ie) on e<ecution 3 7otor . 6isela)7onis.e clai7ants . t. &.ointl.e action a suit against t.e groun) t. t.eir +ersonal ca+acities 8ut 8.uris)iction o.e rig./ro7 suit 8.6ai.e local state 8ut also 6.e +etition /or in.e rig. &.out t.%.us 7a9ing t.at go.er .eral guar)s o/ t.oi).es t.B.ice contract 6it.conclu)ing a ser. 't also +ointe) out t.is si7+l.e +rinci+le o/ t.%ta.t against t./ile) a co7+laint /or un)er+a-7ent o/ 6ages.er t.as no +o6er o.e )octrine.e )a7ages a6ar)e). &.e #L ( .u)g7ent. in (aga-an !e "ro (it• &.unctionJ 6it./or an act i7+ute) to .e rule is )eri.E: ?.ere can 8e no legal rig.e %tate t. it sa-s t. as 6ell as /or )a7ages against t.at It e State cannot 9e sue) 8it out its consent.e latter to t.t.erence to t.i1.t.t )e+en)s.aracter 6ill not su//ice to insulate .t )e+en)s.e a rig.er an e=ual) an) t.o9ing its non-sua8ilit-.orit.e +etition is $ A#&E! !e+art7ent o/ Agriculture . argue t.e 6rit o/ e<ecution.usti/ication /or t.Agenc+SS. of our Constitution. #L (. t.si7+l. .e !"A an) t. t. non-+a-7ent o/ 13t.eri// le.ocation o/ o//icial c.at At.+a. on t. Section 2. 't argue) t.e o//icers o/ t.is aut.e !"A an) %ultan.at t. %ultan %ecurit. . t.as )isregar)e) t.as i7+lie)l.ern7ent to +er/or7 an a//ir7ati. 'n t.o/ states 6.an) o. as in t.s 8ut not e<ten)i8le.at 7a9es t.ic.at par in parem non habet imperium (An e=ual .is 6ill re=uire t.e aut.orit-.an) lia8ilit.o/ t.e) its i77unit. ?HE EF" E.entere) into a contract /or securit.at t.at +etitioner .e.i7 /ro7 sua8ilit.t.: *n)er t. as Hol7es +ut it.e +a-7ent o/ 7one. a6ar) 6ill . Furt.e) /ro7 t.attitu)e 6oul) Aunduly vex the peace of nations. 557 %( A :93 FACTS: • 0etitioner !"A an) %ultan %ecurit.u)ice o/ t.e %ultan %ecurit.t.)is7isse) t.e !e+art7ent /alls un)er t.at a so. 't argue) t.t s.ser.e +rerogati.e) t. &.ereign is e<e7+t /ro7 suit on t.e . 'n %e+te78er 13.ern7ent 6it.e ot.e .e La8or Ar8iter .er t.6oul) .e 0.eir +rinci+al.e attac.e egional Ar8itration Branc. uni/or7 allo6ances. t.t to t./or t. !"A c. Hence.e . t.a. +ro.e car)inal rule on t.eo+ar)i1e its go.e 6rit o/ e<ecution 6as e//ecte) 6it.at t.unction. 6it.e !"A can 8e sue)N R.t as against t.clai7 o/ t.7eans t.a7ount to co.e (onstitution.e necessar.o/ E<ecution is issue) /or a +erio) o/ 5 7ont.erall.i/t )i//erential +a-.out its consent.u)g7ent against t.ern7ent o/ a /oreign state. 7ont.e 7ere in.er t.e La8or Ar8iter /oun) !"A .uris)iction o/ t.7ent o/ its +ro+ert. nig.a.at t.J &.ere can 8e no legal rig.e so.at a contrar. .e sa7e to9en. +a-.e go.e +resent case Assu7ing t.e to 8e satis/ie) not 8.ere t.legiti7ate clai7 against it 8.Agenc.i8ition an) 7an)a7us.e e<clusi.e !"A • 0etitioner !"A /ile) a I+etition /or in.at t.%.ern7ental /unctions to t.ic.in.to t.et.e +etitioners in t.in.out or in e<cess o/ . se..arters t.is )octrine is also calle) It e ro"a# (rerogative of )is onest"J 8ecause it grants t. 7a9es t.ic.at go.ere 6e reiterate /ro7 our +re.8e/ore t.e +a-7ent o/ )a7ages. is t.e la6 on 6.L+/.orit.e (it.6. suc.t.Agenc.ili++ines Aa)o(ts t e genera##" acce(te) (rinci(#es of internationa# #a8 as (art of t e #a8 of t e #an).erti7e +a-.e +re. +ra-er /or +reli7inar.oli)a.e !"A asserts t.ern7ent as t.an) se.i7 as a +ersonal tort co77itte) 6it. • &.an).

&.e Angat !a7.er t.e o+eration o/ t. &.ern7ental /unction 6it.constitute 7one.e1.at state 7a.court un)er its c.e #0( can Asue an) 8e sue) in an.e 7one.ence it Acannot 8e sue) 6it. clearl.en it enters into a contract. ans6er a s+ecial an) a//ir7ati. or 6..e +o6er to 8e sue) /or tort. o+ene) or cause) to 8e o+ene) si7ultaneousl.en co7+laints an) in.roug. Ho6e.clai7 7ust /irst 8e 8roug. CF+ of !u#acan. concur.circu7stances..eral to6ns in Bulacan.as organi1e) a +ri. 0E&'&'"# '% $ A#&E! Ra"o v.an).e (ontract /or %er.e clai7s o/ t. e<+ress or i7+lie).not 8e sue) un)er an. ?it.ese ele.e Angat !a7. a general la6.e res+on)ent court 6it.oon AEA!'#$A. o/ t.a. 110 SCRA <60 FACTS: !uring t. res+ect to t. ?.e +o6er o/ res+on)ent #ational 0o6er (or+oration to sue an) 8e sue) un)er its organic c.us o+ening itsel/ to a counterclai7.e1.A &.et.e Angat !a7.e %tate consents an) su87its to 8e sue) u+on an.t o/ t.e .ern7ent .er .arter inclu)es t.e /loo) /ile) /or )a7ages to t.ree /loo)gates o/ t. . Barredo (Chairman).arter.a.A it is A+er/or7ing a +urel.e e<+ress consent o/ t.e res+on)ent court )is7isse) t.e Angat !a7 6. 5.8e 7a)e t. a general la6 or s+ecial la6. Ben.roug. t.at in/a7ous t-+.e go.e %tateLs consent 7a.t. t.e res+on)ent cor+oration an) Ben. 6ELD: Kes.in it an) .e 7anage7ent an) o+eration o/ t. inun)ate) se.e cause o/ action an) accor)ingl.a7in (.t. t.e )e/ense t. E<+ress consent 7a. t. its +lant su+erinten)ent.ision t.e (AB.as allo6e) it to sue an) 8e sue) in an. 3H83. ?HE EF" E.a8solute /or it )oes not sa. +SS.e one institute) 8.e %tate. acting t. it is su//icient to sa.e (o77ission on Au)it.ern7ental /unctionA.it can inclu)e a tort clai7 suc.8e gi.e securit.o9e) in eac.t.e %tate itsel/ co77ences litigation.at t.courtA is 6it. &.eig.eir +etition. J.or i7+lie)l-. +ut 7one.en co7+laints against t.er.en e<+ressl.arter +ro.ic. "ricta and "scolin JJ.et.at t.all t.7one-e) clai7 in.E: 1. ?.out =uali/ication on t.is rule is not reall.er res+on)ent #ational 0o6er (or+oration +er/or7s a go.guar)s arising /ro7 t.ice. Concepcion Jr. A uino. res+ect to t.en t. ele.. 'n t.a7in (.e ot. #0(. 3icti7s o/ t.clai7s.ol. '7+lie) consent is 6. is on leave. !e Castro.e +etitioners. as t. "n t. *n)er Act #o.at Ain t.ate cor+oration.out t.go.arising /ro7 contract.t to t. .ing lia8ilit.e 7anage7ent an) o+eration o/ t.e t. es+on)ent cor+oration /ile) se+arate ans6ers to eac.e c.