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# Radar Cheat Sheet- 1st Exam

Eng-Sa’di Y. Tamimi October 15, 2013
These notes can be used as helping material to prepare you to the ﬁrst exam. So refer to it while you are studying, to test your understanding. Note that these notes cover most of the material’s parts (but do not include everything), so it cannot be used as an alternative to the text-book. The Radar systems material is divided into three parts as shown below:

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Basic Concepts

This part is descriptive by its nature! In this part, you are required to deﬁne, describe, and talk about the basic Radar concepts such as: 1. What is a Radar? and how it operates? 2. What are Radar types? and their advantages? 3. What information can we extract from the Radar? (mention 3) 4. Mention some Radar applications? Explain one of them? 5. Deﬁne the following terms: • Max unambiguous range? • Pulse-to-pulse, Scan-to-scan correlation?

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Mathematical Questions
Grab your calculator and think about these topics! 1. The best start is to review the basic mathematical notations, equations, and the physical implications of the following terms: • Timing parameters: Pulse period(Tp ), Pulse width(τp ), Pulse delay time(τd ), Beam time on target(τb ). • Beam width (θb ), Scan rate(θs ). • Transmitted power, Transmitted power density, Average transmitted power, Received power. 1

etc. 2. Draw the block diagram of a standard Radar system? • Trace the received signal at each stage? • State the function of each part of the diagram: Duplexer. how can a target (ex: drone) cheat the radar? 2 . Is Basic radar equation pessimistic or optimistic. pulse integration. • Calculate the threshold voltage? (see example in the appendix) 4. etc ? 4. Matched Filter. . Illustrate eﬀect of pulse integration: • Calculate number of pulses that hit the target? • Coherent vs. 1.• Antenna gain. Non-coherent? 3 Analytical Questions This section comes after the mathematical calculations. if compared with real world? Explain? 2. Illustrate the process of the threshold detection? • Mention two types of errors? • What eﬀect do the threshold have on them? plot to explain. Make a comment on your results. Based on what you have learned about Radar operation. Ampliﬁer gain (IF and RF stages). . Derive the radar equation? then • Express it in terms of SNR? • Add other factors to make it more accurate? • Remember you’ll need some curves when using Radar equation (ﬂuctuating targets. 3. ). What is the relationship between these factors: (try to repeat calculation on diﬀerent values and compare) • Rmax as function of PRF? • Rmax Peak power and pulse duration? • Rmax as function of operating frequency? • Rmax as function of target cross section? • Others . . 3. .

) 12. What is the disadvantage of the slower rotation rate? 5 . Is this true? If so. ﬁnd the new maximum range for the radar in clear air conditions (no rain in the path) and a PRF of 380 Hz.10. It is suggested that the performance of the radar could be improved by slowing the antenna rotation rate to 6 rpm. Dont forget that the radar signal must pass through the rain storm twice.8 GHz signals. the radar can be operated with a PRF of 650 Hz. Find the maximum range of the radar under these conditions. To resolve range ambiguity. (Use the base PRF of 380 Hz. A rainstorm is located at a distance of 50 km from the radar and causes 1 dB of attenuation to 2. What is maximum range when the 650 Hz PRF is used? 11.

so bring them with you.5 Radar Curves Some of these curves might be needed in the exam. (Don’t write anything on them!) 6 .

7 .Figure 1: Probability of detection and function of SNR and Probability of false alarm.

8 .

9 . Adapted from Swerling.Figure 2: Comparison of detection probabilities for ﬁve diﬀerent models of target ﬂuctuation for n=10 pulses integrated and false-alarm number nf = 108 (nf = n/Pf a ).

Figure 3: Additional SNR required to achieve a particular Pd. when the target cross section ﬂuctuates. 10 . n=1. as compared with a nonﬂuctuating target. single hit.

11 .

Raylieh ﬂuctuation. ρ = signal voltge correlation coeﬃcient.Figure 4: Eﬀects of correlation between pulses on Pd. two pulses integration (n=2) 12 . square-law detector.