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# FWD

Car weight (laden) W 18200N :=
Wheel base L 2810mm :=
Center of Gravity l
1
1349mm := h 702mm := l
2
L l
1
÷ 1461mm = :=
Width of vehicle w 1811mm :=
car
1429mm :=
Aerodynamic drag coef. C
D
0.32 :=
Rolling resistant coef f
R
V ( ) 0.0136 0.4 10
7 ÷
· V
2
·
hr
2
km
2
· + :=
V : is the speed of the vehicle in km/hr
Transmission efficiency
(Direct Drive)
η
t1
0.98 :=
Transmissioni efficiency
(other gears)
η
t
0.95 :=
* tire slip and the inertia of the drive train components are neglected
a) Engine torque and engine power with respect to engine speed
Engine speed (rpm) Engine Torque (N*m) Engine Power (kW)
600 115 10
1000 125 12
1500 148 23
2000 150 30
2500 160 42
3000 167 50
3500 170 64
4000 176 70
4500 185 90
5000 183 100
5500 180 105
6000 170 111
b) Tire selection
W 18200N =
W
4 g ·
463.971kg =
Load index is selected : 88
Speed symbol is selected : H for 201 km/hr maximum speed
Selected tire : 185/65 R 15 88 H
Dynamic radius of tire : 302 mm r
dyn
0.302m :=
While vehicle moves on a road level θ 0deg := r
dyn
0.3m := a 0 :=
While our tire speed symbol is H, the maximum vehicle speed will be limited by 210 km/hr
Vehicle speed : V 0
km
hr
20
km
hr
, 200
km
hr
.. :=
Air density : ρ
air
1.23
kg
m
3
:=
Frontal area of vehicle : A
f
w h
car
· 2.588m
2
= :=
Rolling resistance coef : f
R
V ( ) 0.0136 0.4 10
7 ÷
· V
2
·
hr
2
km
2
· + :=
Total road resistance force : F
r
V ( )
1
2
ρ
air
· C
D
· A
f
· V
2
· f
R
V ( ) W · + :=
Total power required to overcome the road recistances :
N
r
F
r
V · = N
r
V ( ) F
r
V ( ) V · :=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
3 10
4
×
6 10
4
×
9 10
4
×
1.2 10
5
×
1.5 10
5
×
Required Power vs Vehicle speed
Speed of vehicle m/s
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

W
N
r
V ( )
V
d) The maximum speed this vehicle can reach on a level road
Air density : ρ
air
1.23
kg
m
3
:=
Frontal area of vehicle : A
f
w h
car
· 2.588m
2
= :=
Rolling resistance coef : f
R
V ( ) 0.0136 0.4 10
7 ÷
· V
2
·
hr
2
km
2
· + :=
Maxiumum power generated by engine is 111kW @6000rpm
N
emax
111kW := n
emax
6000rpm :=
Then traction power is : N
tmax
N
emax
η
t
· 105.45 kW · = :=
N
tmax
1
2
ρ
air
· C
D
· A
f
· V
max
3
· f
R
V
max
( )
W · V
max
· + =
V
max
56.353
m
s
202.871
km
hr
= :=
e) The maximum grade this vehicle can climb without wheel slippage on a dry pavement
where the traction coefficient is 0.8
μ
p
0.8 := f
R
0.014 :=
Assumptions: R
Lf
R
Lr
= 0 = a 0 = R
dx
0 = R
dz
0 =
From the traction limits criteria :
μ
p
f
front
>
F
xf
W
f.
=
W sin θ ( ) · W
r
f
R
· +
l
2
L
W · cos θ ( ) ·
h
L
W · sin θ ( ) · ÷
= Rear axle has only rolling resistance
μ
p
f
front
>
F
xf
W
f.
=
W sin θ ( ) ·
l
1
L
W · cos θ ( ) ·
h
L
W · sin θ ( ) · +
|

\
|
|
.
f
R
· +
l
2
L
W · cos θ ( ) ·
h
L
W · sin θ ( ) · ÷
=
tan θ ( )
FWD
l
2
L
μ
p
·
l
1
L
f
R
· ÷
1
h
L
μ
p
f
R
+
( )
· +
s Max. grade the vehicle can climb
l
2
L
μ
p
·
l
1
L
f
R
· ÷
1
h
L
μ
p
f
R
+
( )
· +
0.34 = := The maximum grade vehicle can climb is %34
f) 4th gear is direct drive and 5th speed is reserved for fuel economy
ξ
4
1 :=
M
emax
185N m · := @ n=4500rpm
tan θ
max
( )
ξ
1
W tan θ
max
( )
f
R
+
( )
· r
dyn
·
M
emax
ξ
ax
· η
t
· 1 tan θ
max
( )
2
+ ·
= Wheel torque / Engien torque
ξ
1
ξ
ax
· ξ
overall
=
W tan θ
max
( )
f
R
+
( )
· r
dyn
·
M
emax
η
t
· 1 tan θ
max
( )
2
+ ·
=
ξ
overall
R
+
( )
· r
dyn
·
M
emax
η
t
2
+ ·
10.414 = :=
4th gear is direc drive ξ
4
1 = i 0 := no slip n
e
6000rpm :=
ξ
4
ξ
ax
·
n
e
r
dyn
1 i ÷ ( ) ·
V
max
= ξ
ax
n
e
r
dyn
· 1 i ÷ ( ) ·
V
max
3.345 = :=
ξ
1
ξ
overall
ξ
ax
3.113 = :=
Geometric speed transmission : K
g
3
ξ
4
ξ
1
0.685 = :=
ξ
2
K
g
ξ
1
· 2.132 = :=
ξ
3
K
g
ξ
2
· 1.46 = :=
g) 5th gear ratio for the best fuel consumption cruising on a highway at a constant speed of
110 km/hr
b
e
250
g
kW hr ·
:= V 110
km
hr
:= n 2400rpm :=
Power required for the best fuel consumption is N
opt
40kW :=
From vehicle speed formula : V
n r
dyn
· 1 i ÷ ( ) ·
ξ
o
= ξ
o
n r
dyn
· 1 i ÷ ( ) ·
V
2.468 = :=
ξ
5
ξ
o
ξ
ax
0.738 = :=
h) Graphs of tractive effort w.r.t. the vehicle speed and tractive power w.r.t. vehicle speed for
all gear ratios
Tractive effort formula : F
M
e
ξ
o
· η
t
·
r
dyn
=
Vehicle speed formula : n 600rpm 650rpm , 6000rpm .. := V n ( )
n r
dyn
· 1 i ÷ ( ) ·
ξ
o
:=
V 600rpm ( ) 27.5
km
hr
= V 6000rpm ( ) 275
km
hr
= V 27.5
km
hr
28
km
hr
, 275
km
hr
.. :=
Tractive power formula : N F V · = M
e
n · 1 i ÷ ( ) · =
Rolling resistance coef : f
R
V ( ) 0.0136 0.4 10
7 ÷
· V
2
·
hr
2
km
2
· + :=
Total road tractive force : F
t
V ( )
1
2
ρ
air
· C
D
· A
f
· V
2
· f
R
V ( ) W · + :=
M
t
V ( ) F
t
V ( ) r
dyn
· :=
M
e
V ξ
g
,
( )
M
t
V ( )
ξ
g
ξ
ax
· η
t
·
:=
Tractive effort formula : F V ξ
g
,
( )
M
e
V ξ
g
,
( )
ξ
o
· η
t
·
r
dyn
:=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
1 10
3
×
2 10
3
×
3 10
3
×
4 10
3
×
Tractive Effort vs Vehicle Speed
Vehicle Speed [m/s]
T
r
a
c
t
i
v
e

e
f
f
o
r
t
F V ξ
1
,
( )
F V ξ
2
,
( )
F V ξ
3
,
( )
F V ξ
4
,
( )
F V ξ
5
,
( )
V
Tractive power formula : N V ξ
g
,
( )
F V ξ
g
,
( )
V · :=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
5 10
4
×
1 10
5
×
1.5 10
5
×
2 10
5
×
2.5 10
5
×
3 10
5
×
Tractive Power vs Vehicle Speed
Vehicle Speed [m/s]
T
r
a
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r
N V ξ
1
,
( )
N V ξ
2
,
( )
N V ξ
3
,
( )
N V ξ
4
,
( )
N V ξ
5
,
( )
V