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Objective
Overview of LTE Measurements CQI Measurements Handover Measurements Cell Search Procedure PLMN Selection Cell Selection and Reselection Random Access Procedure Paging

LTE Physical Layer - Introduction
– It provides the basic bit transmission functionality over air – LTE physical layer based on OFDMA downlink and SC-FDMA in uplink direction • This is the same for both FDD and TDD mode of operation – There is no macro-diversity in use – System is reuse 1, single frequency network operation is feasible • No frequency planning required – There are no dedicated physical channels anymore, as all resource mapping is dynamically driven by the scheduler

FDD

.. ..
TDD

Frequency band 1 .. Frequency band 2 ..

..

Single frequency band Downlink

..

Uplink

FDD -Frame Structure
 FDD Frame structure ( also called Type 1 Frame) is common to both uplink and downlink.  Divided into 20 x 0.5ms slots
0.5 ms slot
sy0 sy1 sy2 sy3 sy4 sy5 sy6

Frame length =10 ms FDD: 10 ms sub-frame for UL - 10 ms sub-frame for DL 1 Frame = 20 slots of 0.5ms each 1 slot = 7 ( NCP) or 6 (ECP)

10 ms frame s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7

…..

s18 s19

SF: SubFrame
0.5 ms slot s: slot

SF0

SF1

SF2

SF3

…..

SF9

Sy: symbol

1 ms sub-frame

TDD -Frame Structure
 TDD has a single frame structure: same as FDD but with some specific fields to enable also TD-SCDMA co-existence (China):  DwPTS, GP, UpPTS  Subframe 0 and DwPTS are reserved for downlink;  subframe2 and UpPTS are reserved for UL.  Remaining fields are dynamically assigned between UL and DL
f UL/DL carrier

SF #0
subframe 0

SF #2
subframe 2

DwPTS GP UpPTS

subframe 4

subframe 0

DwPTS GP UpPTS

...

SF #4

SF #0

SF #2
subframe 2

...

SF #4
Subframe 4

half frame

Downlink Subframe Uplink Subframe

DwPTS: Downlink Pilot time Slot

time

UpPSS: Uplink Pilot Time Slot
GP: Guard Period to separate UL/DL

according to different DL/UL DL – Downlink subframe partition 1 frame = 10ms 1 subframe = 1ms UL – Uplink subframe SS – Special Switching subframe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 DL DL DL DL DL SS SS SS SS SS SS UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL DL UL UL UL DL DL UL DL DL UL DL DL DL DL DL DL DL SS SS SS DL DL DL SS UL UL UL DL DL UL UL DL DL DL DL UL UL DL DL DL DL DL DL DL DL DL UL DL UL SS .TDD -Frame Structure There are 7 frame configurations.

eNodeB ends transmitting GP PT Downlink Start of UL subframe reaches at eNodeB PT = Propagation Time SP = Switching Period RTD = Round Trip Delay GP = Guard Period SP PT Uplink eNodeB Downlink Uplink UE End of DL subframe has reached at the UE UE has switched to transmission and has begun UL subframe RTD = 2 x PT GP = RTD + SP . The guard period includes RTD (Round Trip Delay).Special subframe UE always needs a guard period in order to switch from receiver to transmitter.

PHICH configuration) UE . DL Reference Signals (Channel estimation & measurements – like CPICH in UMTS) eNodeB 4. SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal (Frame synchronisation + Physical Cell id group (1.. PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal (Time-slot & Frequency synchronisation + Physical cell id (0.2) ) 2.1. PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel (MIB – DL system bandwidth.Cell Search 1.168) ) 3.

Find Cell Possible planning of the 504 sequences:  3 (orthogonal) X 168 (pseudorandom) = 504 Physical layer cell identity (1 out of 504)  Cells belonging to the same Node-B get the 3 different cell IDs from the same group  Cells belonging to different Node-Bs get the different cell IDs from different groups Cell Groups Cell IDs 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 … 167 … 0 1 2 .

Time Synchronization FDD 10ms Radio frame 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 1ms Subframe SSS PSS 0.5ms (One slot) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Normal CP 1 2 3 4 5 6 Extended CP PSS and SSS frame and slot structure in time domain in the FDD case .

5ms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PSS Normal CP Extended CP 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 PSS and SSS frame and slot structure in time domain in the TDD case .Time Synchronization TDD 10ms Radio frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1ms Subframe SSS 1 ms TTI (two slots = 2×0.

not included).c. not included) 72 subcarriers (d. They could be generated by using a different root sequence M for the ZadoffSequences Cell ID 0 1 2 Root index (M) 25 29 34 Zadoff –Chu Sequences are based on CAZAC = Constant Amplitude Zero AutoCorrelation sequences Length 63 Zadoff-Chu Sequence ZCM(0) ZCM(1) Five zeros 0 0 ZCM(62) Five zeros 0 0 OFDM Modulator 62 subcarriers (d. not included) PSS structure in frequency domain -> only 62 subcarriers out of 72 used.Frequency Synchronization – PSS 3 different PSS sequences corresponding to 3 different cell IDs.c.c. 3GPP TS 36.211 . This is because the length of the Zadoff-Chu Sequence is 63 (d.

5 ms Find physical layer cell ID 1 out of 3 sequences sent on PSS 1 to 1 mapping with the physical cell ID (table specified by 3GPP*) The cell ID group not known yet eNod eB UE .5 ms) syncronization PSS placed strategically at the beginning and middle of frame Estimation is vendor specific (matched filtering) Frame ambiguity of 0.PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal Time slot (0.

b = two different cyclic shifts of a single length-31 binary sequence The cyclic shift is Dependent on the Physical layer cell ID group (1.Frequency Synchronization – SSS a .c.c. not included) SSS structure in frequency domain . not included) SSS0 in subframe 0 SSS1 in subframe 5 72 subcarriers (d. SSS0 and SSS1 have the same structure but are shifted in frequency domain Length-31 binary sequence a0 a1 0 0 a30 b0 b1 b30 0 0 OFDM Modulator 62 subcarriers (d.168) 2 different SSS per cell: SSS0 in subframe 0 and SSS1 in subframe 5..

SSS1-PSS the middle of the frame Find physical layer cell ID group • Sequences SSS0 and SSS1 are mapped with the cell id group 1..SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal Frame (10 ms) synchronization • 2 different sequences depending on the cell group are sent: SSS0 and SSS1 • By observing the combination of pairs SSS0 and SSS1 the UE can identify either the begining or the middle of the frame – Example: the sequence SSS0-PSS is indicating the begining of the frame.168 (table specified by 3GPP*) • The combination of SSS0 and SSS1 is giving the cell ID group .

4 MHz (minimum LTE Bandwidth) SSS PSS Reference signals Unused RE 5 ms repetition period 10 ms Radio frame Time One subframe (1 ms) .PSS and SSS PSS and SSS Frame in Frequency and Time Domain for FDD Case Frequency 6 RBs – 72 subcarriers = 1.

PHICH configuration) UE . SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal (Frame synchronisation + Physical Cell id group (1. DL Reference Signals (Channel estimation & measurements – like CPICH in UMTS) eNodeB 4.1.Cell Search 1. PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal (Time-slot & Frequency synchronisation + Physical cell id (0..168) ) 3.2) ) 2. PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel (MIB – DL system bandwidth.

DL Reference Signals Used for: • DL channel quality measurements • DL channel estimation for coherent demodulation at the UE • Too many signals reduce the DL capacity • Too less signals may be not be enough for channel estimation • Easy to be found by UEs Like CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) in UMTS .

DL Reference Signals Frequency First slot Second slot In Frequency: 1 reference symbol to every 6th subcarrier In one RB (resource block = 12 subcarriers): every 3rd subcarrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reference signal *Normal CP (cyclic prefix) assumed Time In Time is fixed: 2 reference symbols per Time slot (TS 0 & TS 4) .

•Frequency Different Reference Signals Frequency Shift •Shift = 0 •Shift = 1 •Shift = 5 •Time •Reference signal .

Cell-specific Reference Signals in Case of Multi-Antenna Transmission Antenna port 0 Reference signal Antenna port 1 Unused symbol .

Cell Search 1.1. DL Reference Signals (Channel estimation & measurements – like CPICH in UMTS) eNodeB 4.168) ) 3. SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal (Frame synchronisation + Physical Cell id group (1.. PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel (MIB – DL system bandwidth. PHICH configuration) UE .2) ) 2. PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal (Time-slot & Frequency synchronisation + Physical cell id (0.

PBCH Design Criteria  Detectable without the knowledge of system Bandwidth • mapped to the central 72 subcarriers • over 4 symbols • during second slot of each frame  Low system overhead & good coverage • Send minimum information → only the MIB (Master Information Block) • SIBs (System Information Blocks) are sent on PDSCH  MIB (Master Information Block) content: • DL system Bandwidth • PHICH configuration (PHICH group number) • System frame number SFN • .

4 MHz (minimum LTE Bandwidth) Time First subframe (1 ms) .PBCH Mapping Frequency Slot 0 Slot 1 SSS PSS Reference signals Unused RE PBCH 6 RBs – 72 subcarriers = 1.

PBCH Repetition Pattern one radio frame = 10 ms 72 subcarriers Repetition Pattern of PBCH = 40 ms .

C-RNTI & TMSI) UE . PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (Contention Resolution. PRACH Preamble 11. eNodeB TMSI or random number) 13. C-RNTI) 12. C-RNTI.Initial Access 8. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (Random Access response. ID of the received preamble. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel (RRC: RRC Connection Request. UL resources for TX.

Random Access-Initial Access •Random access procedure handled by MAC and PHY Layer through PRACH (in UL) and PDCCH ( in DL) •RACH only carries the preambles and occupies 6 resource blocks in a subframe .

08 MHz Time: 1 ms . 1ms) PUCCH Total UL Bandwidth PRACH PUSCH PRACH slot period PRACH PRACH bandwidth (1.08MHz) PUCCH Time UL PRACH is orthogonal with the data in PUCCH and PUSCH (reserved resources) • • • Reserve resources for PRACH preambles Frequency: 6 Resource Blocks x 180 KHz = 1.Multiplexing of PRACH with PUSCH and PUCCH PRACH slot Duration( e.g.

PRACH Preamble Received at the eNodeB PRACH slot duration GT = Guard Time UE close to the eNodeB Other users CP Preamble Other users Observation interval UE at the Cell edge Other users CP Preamble Other users CP = Cyclic Prefix It can be seen that the UE at cell edge is using almost all Guard Time .

PRACH Formats and Cell Ranges 1 ms 800 µs Format 0 C P Preamble G T  2 ms 684 µs Format 1 CP 800 µs Preamble 520 µs GT  77 Km 100 µs  14 Km CELL RANGE  2 ms 203 µs Format 2 CP 1600 µs Preamble Preamble  3 ms 684 µs Format 3 1600 µs Preamble Preamble 720 µs 200µs GT  29 Km CP GT  100 Km .

Intra-Cell Interference How can multiple terminals perform random access attempt at the same time without collision? eNodeB Solution ? UE1 UE2 UE3 64 different orthogonal Preambles available in each cell obtained by cyclic shift of a Zadoff-Chu sequence If however collision is happening (2 UEs using the same preamble) -> contention resolution process .

PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel (RRC: RRC Connection Request.Initial Access 8. C-RNTI. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (Random Access response. C-RNTI) 12. C-RNTI & TMSI) UE . UL resources for TX. eNodeB TMSI or random number) 13. ID of the received preamble. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (Contention Resolution. PRACH Preamble 11.

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (CQI based on DL reference signals measurements) 3. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (How many symbols (1.3) in the beginning of the sub-frame are for PDCCH) 4. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (user data → eventual re-transmission) . PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (ACK/ NACK for HARQ) 7.2. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel (Downlink assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding.DL Transmission 1. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel UE eNodeB (user data → initial transmission) 6. resource blocks) 5. DL Reference signals 2.

DL Transmission Process description: → The eNodeB is broadcasting the Reference Signals (like CPICH in UMTS) → The UE is performing measurements on Reference Signals → Based on the measurements the UE is generating the CQI → The CQI is transmitted to the eNodeB UE Proposes eNB an optimum MCS so BLER is on target 4-bit CQI Table .

DL Transmission • The Node-B scheduler should decide based on CQI:  The number of UEs to be scheduled  The allocated resource block (time & frequency)  Modulation and coding scheme  MIMO used or not • The decision is sent to the UE in the Control Channel Region of the subfame (1ms) (on PDCCH) together with the allocated resource blocks • The actual user data is sent to the UE on the remaining subframe → Data Region (on PDSCH) •eNodeB •U E .

DL Reference signals 2. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (How many symbols (1.2.3) in the beginning of the sub-frame are for PDCCH) 4. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (ACK/ NACK for HARQ) 7. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (CQI based on DL reference signals measurements) 3. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (user data → eventual re-transmission) . PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel eNodeB (user data -> initial transmission) UE 6. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel (Downlink assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding. resource blocks) 5.DL Transmission 1.

PCFICH • CFI = control format indicators • Indicates how many OFDM symbols per subframe are for PDCCH: 1. 2 or 3 symbols • The CFI is carried by 32 bits of information • 16 RE Resource Elements distributed in frequency • Sent in the first 3 symbols of the subframe .

C. 2 or 3 symbols 4 2 bits Rate 1/16 block code 32 bits 32 bits Scrambling QPSK modulation 16 symbols D.PCFICH Structure 2 input bits are enough to signal the PDCCH size: 1. One Resource Element Group (REG) = 4 RE PCFICH resource elements Resource elements reserved for reference symbols 4 4 Time 72 subcarriers 4 .

PDCCH Resource Adjustment from PCFICH First subframe (1ms) Second subframe (1ms) Frequency 12 subcarriers Time Control region 1 OFDM symbol Indicated by PCFICH Control region – 3 OFDM symbols .

PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (user data → eventual re-transmission) . PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel (Downlink assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (How many symbols (1. resource blocks) 5.DL Transmission 1.3) in the beginning of the sub-frame are for PDCCH) 4. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (ACK/ NACK for HARQ) 7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel eNodeB (user data -> initial transmission) UE 6. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (CQI based on DL reference signals measurements) 3.2. DL Reference signals 2.

PDCCH Design Several PDCCHs could be transmitted in one subframe  One PDCCH contains DCI = DL control information  DCI could indicate: • Uplink scheduling grants for PUSCH • Downlink scheduling assignments for PDSCH • TPC command for PUSCH and PUCCH •The DCI may have different size (depending on the information e. scheduling or power control command → different formats possible) •The number of bits for one PDCCH may change based on channel conditions:  UE at cell edge → more bits per PDCCH  UE close to BTS → less bits per PDCCH .g.

2.3 OFDM symbols in the beginning of the subframe → not allocated by PCFICH. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time .Size of the PDCCH Region Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2Subframe 3Subframe 4Subframe 5 Subframe 6 …… PDCCH region → 1. PHICH Frequency 0 Slot No.

PDCCH Size PCFICH PHICH PDCCH Allocation for UE 1 UE 1 Allocation for UE 2 Frequency Time REG = Resource Elements Groups RE = Resource Elements UE 2 .

PDSCH – Physical Downlink Shared Channel • Contain the actual user data from DL-SCH • Use the available Resource Elements eNodeB UE • Allocation is signalled by PDCCH Also used for: • SIBs (System Information Block) of the system information • Paging • PDCCH acting like a Paging Indicator Channel in UMTS .

.Physical Downlink Shared Channel Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2 Subframe 3 Subframe 4 …. SSS PSS PBCH PCFICH PHICH PDCCH Reference signals PDSCH UE1 PDSCH UE2 Slot No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency Time .

System Information System Information ( ) MIB Sent on PBCH! 40 ms repetition UE MIB: Master Information Block SIB: System Information Block SFN: System Frame Number eNodeB SIB 1 Fixed repetion 80 ms First transmission in subframe #5 for which SFN mod 8 = 0 Indicates the allocation of the other SIBs 2.11 SIB 2 SIB 3 SIB 4 SIB 11 ...

Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) primary notification .Information relevant only for cell re-selection to the cdma2000® system.Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) secondary notification SIB 2 SIB 3 SIB 4 SIB 5 SIB 6 SIB 7 SIB 8 SIB 9 SIB 10 SIB 11 .Information for cell selection . PCCH) .Frequency information (UL UARFCN. uplink bandwidth) .Radio resource configuration of common channels (e. .Inter-frequency cell re-selection like E-UTRAN related information .Access barring information .System Information SIB 1 .g.UTRA FDD and TDD frequency information for cell reselection .Cell access related information (PLMN.TDD configuration . cell identity. . .Inter-frequency neighboring cell related information .Home eNodeB identifier .Cell-reselection information that is common for intra-frequency. inter-frequency and/or inter-RAT cell re-selection.Neighbor cell related information only for intra-frequency cell re-selection. Tracking Area code etc.Information about time-domain scheduling of the remaining SIBs .) .Information relevant only for cell re-selection to the GERAN .

UL Demodulation Signal (UL channel estimation. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) (UL scheduling request) 2. demodulation.UL Transmission 1. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel (UL grant – capacity allocation) 5. → Like DPCCH in UMTS) 4. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel UE eNodeB (user data → initial transmission) 6. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel (user data → eventual re-transmission) . UL Sounding Reference Signal (used by Node-B for channel dependent scheduling) 3. PHlCH Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (ACK/ NACK for HARQ) 7.

PUCCH and PUSCH Multiplexing PUCCH Total UL Bandwith PUSCH Frequency 12 subcarriers PUCCH 1 subframe = 1ms Time PUCCH contains UCI = UL Control Information UCI could indicate: • Scheduling requests • HARQ ACK/NACK for DL transmission • CQI = Channel Quality Indicator .

PUCCH Formats PUCCH format 1 1a 1b 2 2a 2b Modulation scheme Number of bits perType of information subframe N/A Scheduling Request N/A (SR) 1 ACK/ NACK BPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK+BPSK QPSK+BPSK 2 20 21 22 ACK/ NACK CQI CQI + 1 bit ACK/ NACK CQI + 2 bits ACK/ NACK UE eNodeB .

Uplink Reference Signals Demodulation Reference Signals •UE • Associated with transmission of uplink data on PUSCH or PUCCH • Used for channel estimation for coherent detection and demodulation (both PUCCH and PUSCH) Sounding Reference Signals • Not associated with UL data transmissions • Used for estimation of the UL channel quality to enable the channel dependent scheduling •eNodeB .

Design of Demodulation Reference Signals DRS Position of DRS Time domain: For PUCCH: the number and the exact position of the DRS is dependent on the format (1/1a/1b or 2/2a/2b) used For PUSCH: every 4th symbol in every time slot (the 3rd symbol for the extended cyclic prefix) Frequency domain: DRS has the same bandwidth like the UL transmission of the terminal .

Uplink DRS Multiplexed with PUCCH PUCCH Total UL Bandwith PUSCH Frequency 12 subcarriers PUCCH 1 subframe = 1ms Time ACK CQI 0 ACK DRS 1 DRS CQI 2 DRS CQI 3 DRS CQI 4 ACK DRS 5 ACK CQI 6 ACK CQI 0 ACK DRS 1 DRS CQI 2 DRS CQI 3 DRS CQI 4 ACK DRS 5 ACK CQI 6 ACK = Acknowledgment CQI = Channel Quality Indicator DRS = Demodulation Reference Signals Simbol number (normal CP) .

Sounding Reference Signals SRS The SRS can be used for: • • • • initial Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) selection initial power control for data transmissions timing advance Frequency dependent scheduling for the UL UE eNodeB • .

often larger. frequency span than for example PUSCH (if they are transmitted together).Sounding Reference Signals SRS Subframe 0 Why Demodulation References Signals cannot be used instead of SRS? Slot 1 Slot 2 • The demodulation reference signals are only sent on the transmitted bandwidth! We need an estimation of the whole spectrum so the SRS may cover a different. The SRS is not necessarily transmitted together with any physical channel PUSCH DM RS • • SRS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 • 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 Normal CP 36 Subcarriers .

C.PHICH Structure PHICH carries the HARQ ACK/NACK. 72 subcarriers . which indicates whether the eNodeB has correctly received a transmission on the PUSCH HARQ Indicator PCFICH resource elements Reference symbols PHICH resource elements 1 Repetition coding 1 1 1 Walsh spreading +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 D.

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