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The Nervous System

The Nervous System
A network of communicatory pathways that allows an organism to interact with the environment Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

executes voluntary movements “Higher” cognitive functions Memories. learning. organizes responses..The Central Nervous System Composed of the brain and spinal cord Gathers & processes info. etc .

The Peripheral Nervous System Interface between CNS and the environment Sensory and motor components Primary afferent neurons – sensory receptors α motor neurons – innervate skeletal muscle Autonomic motor neurons – sympathetic and parasympathetic responses .

Sensory Receptors Chemoreceptor – responds when a particular chemical stimulus reacts with the membrane Mechanoreceptor – responds to mechanical force on the membrane Photoreceptor – hyperpolarizes membrane in response to light .

glands. internal organs Sympathetic Parasympathetic Two pathways: .Autonomic Nervous System Assists in maintaining homeostasis Controls smooth and cardiac muscle.

Sympathetic Nervous System Originates in thoracic and upper lumbar regions of the spinal cord Triggers “Fight or Flight” reactions ↑ HR. gastric function . respiration ↓ peripheral blood flow.

etc. . insulin secretion.Parasympathetic Nervous System Originates in brain stem and sacral spinal cord Acts to restore “normal” function. regulates function of internal organs Activates glands. gastric acid secretion.

The Visual System Iris Lens Cornea Fovea Retina Optic Nerve .

The Retina 10 layers containing photoreceptors and interneuron/ganglion cells Photoreceptors located closer to choroid Outer layers filter light and prevent scatter .

blue and green photopigment.Photoreceptors Rods: light sensitive. detect light and dark More sensitive in low light Rhodopsin (purple) photopigment Light and dark adaptation More sensitive in brighter light Red. visible light: 400-750 nm Highest density at the fovea Cones: color vision .

Rods Cones .

How we see… .

Boston Retinal Implant Project .

frequencies and phases. Human hearing: 20Hz – 20kHz .Basic Acoustics What is sound? A pressure wave propagating through a medium Pitch: frequency of the wave Intensity: amplitude of the wave (loudness) dB = 20 log (pressure/reference Characteristics: pressure) Reference pressure = 20 µPa All sounds are made by adding waves of differing amplitudes.

The Audiogram .

The Auditory System .

tympanic membrane Middle Ear: Ossicular chain Malleus. stapes Hair cells Inner Ear: Cochlea.The Auditory System Outer Ear: Auricle. ear canal. Auditory Nerve . incus.

How we hear… .

Hair Cells: A Closer Look .

Causes of Deafness .

The Coclear Implant .

Design Considerations for Implantable Bio-electric Devices Biocompatibility: what happens after it’s implanted? Can it withstand the body environment? Will it break down? Does it release particles? Sterility? Short and long-term considerations Power Source: How does it get power? How long is it going to be implanted? Battery? External source? Localized Stimulation: Target tissue? No current leaked to other tissues .