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PROJECT ON NITROBENZENE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We here by place our sincere thanks to Dr.R.KARHIKEYAN, Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering , S.R.M Engineering College affiliated to S.R.M University and the faculty members of Chemical Engineering Department for their full hearted co-operation and encouragement for the successful completion of this project. We extend out thanks to Project guide D.BALAJI for the Motivation, encouragement and guidance provided by him. We would also like to extend our thanks to each and everyone who have helped us in completing this project successfully.

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ABSTRACT

The project deals extensively with the manufacture of nitrobenzene from mixed acid and benzene .Since the demand for aniline has been increasing day by day manufacture of benzene is more important. Nitrobenzene is obtained by treating mixed acid and benzene. A detailed process flow sheet, material balance, energy balance, have been done. A detailed design of equipments, cost estimation of plant, plant layout and safety aspects have been discussed.

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3. 9. 5 7 9 12 14 19 25 29 35 44 51 55 62 64 4 .CONTENTS Chapter No 1. 4. 11. 7. 8. 6. 10. 12. 5. 13 14. Topic INTRODUCTION PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES USES PROCESS DESCRIPTION MATERIAL BALANCE ENERGY BALANCE REACTOR DESIGN DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN COST ESTIMATION HEALTH AND SAFTEY FACTORS PLANT LAYOUT CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY Page NO. 2.

1.INTRODUCTION 5 .

Nitrobenzene is one of the important raw materials for the dye manufacture and most nitrobenzene produced is used directly or indirectly in dye manufacture. its color varies from pale yellow to yellowish brown. Depending upon the compound impurity . Ref[1] 6 . Nitrobenzene (oil of Mir bane) is a pale yellow liquid with an odor of bitter almonds. The relative case of aromatic nitration has contributed significantly to the large and varied industrial application of nitrobenzene and its derivative. It is manufactured on large scale only by aniline manufactures.1. and it was produced commercially in England in 1856.CHAPTER Nitrobenzene was first synthesized in 1834 by treating Benzene with Fuming Nitric Acid.

2.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 7 .

211 °C 6 °C 88 °C (closed cup) 4.3 (air = 1) 1 mm Hg at 44.04 mg/m3 8 .11 210 .85 2.4 °C 1.Physical Properties of Nitrobenzene :ref[4] Molecular Weight Boiling Point Melting Point Flash Point Vapor Density Vapor Pressure Density/Specific Gravity Log Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient Henry's Law Constant Conversion Factor 123.CHAPTER 2.44 x 105 atm-m3/mole 1 ppm = 5.205 at 15/4 °C (water = 1) 1.2.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 9 .3.

Nitrobenzene can undergo halogination. 2.sulfonation and nitration. 5. 6. the reduction of nitrobenzene can lead to a variety of products.3.CHAPTER CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 1. 4. Under nucleophilic conditions. Nitrobenzene reactions involve substitution on the aromatic ring and reactions involving the nitro group. Under electrophilic conditions. Depending on the conditions. the nitro group promotes ortho and para substitution. the substitution occurs at a slower rate than for benzene and the nitro group promotes met substitution 3. The reaction of nitro group to yield aniline is the most commercially important reaction of nitrobenzene. but it does not undergo Friedel-crafts reactions. 10 .

Reduction Products Of Nitrobenzene Reagent Fe.Zn or Sn+HCl H2+metal catalyst+ heat (gas phase or solution) SnCl2+acetic acid Zn+NaOH Zn + H2O Na3ASO3 LiAIH4 Na2S2O3 + Na3PO4 Aniline Aniline Hydrazobenzene.C6H5NHSO3NA Product Aniline 11 . azobenzene N-Phenylhydroxylamine Azoxybenzene Azoxybenzene Azobenzene Sodium Phenylsulfamate.

4.USES 12 .

with over 50% of capacity PAP primarily is used as an intermediate for acetaminophen.. producers of PAP are MALLINCHRODT.INC. The U. RHONEPOULENC. Mallinckrodt is the largest producer.4. For 1990.approximtely 95-98% of nitrobenzene is converted to aniline the demand for nitrobenzene fluctuates with the demand for aniline production grew at an average annual rate of almost 5% from 1984 to1988 but dropped by over 4% during the 1989-1990 economic downturn. and Hoechst cleanse with combined production capacities >35000 metric tons.96% of the 532972 metric tons of nitrobenzene left were used to produce variety of other products. such as para-aminiphenol and nigrosine dyes.CHAPTER The largest end use of nitrobenzene is in the production of aniline. Ref[4] 13 .S.

5.PROCESS DESCRIPTION 14 .

5. the reactor is charged with benzene. The reaction vessel or nitrator is a specially built cast-iron or steel kettle fitted with an efficient agitator. with a tubular reactor the reaction mixture is pumped through the reactor cycle loop and a portion of the mixture is withdrawn and fed into the separator. using a nitric acid-sulphuric acid mixture. The temperature of the mixture is maintained at 55-55°C by adjusting the feed rate of the mixed acid and the amount of cooling. Yield is about 98%. Nitrobenzene can be produced by either a batch or a continuous process with a typical batch. Benzene nitrating acid (56-65 wt% H2SO4. The nitator also can be designed as a tubular reactor e. Because of a continuous nitration process generally offers lower capital cost and more efficient labor usage than a batch. The kettle is jacketed and generally contains internal cooling coils for proper control of the exothermic reaction. The crude nitrobenzene is drawn from the top to the separator and washed in several steps. the temperature can be raised to 90°C towards the end of the reaction to promote completion of reaction.20-26%HNO3 & 15-18wt% water) are fed into the nitrator. Usually a slight excess of the benzene is used to ensure that little or no nitric acid remains in spent acid. most if not all of the nitrobenzene produce use continuous process.27-32wt% HNO3 and 8-17%wt% H2O) is added slowly below the surface of the benzene. depending on the desired purity of the nitrobenzene the product can be distilled. The reaction mixture is fed into separator where the spent acid settles to the bottom and is drawn off to be refortified. and the nitrating acid (5660% H2SO4.CHAPTER Nitrobenzene is prepared by direct nitration of benzene. 15 .g. Generally. which can be a stirred cylindrical reactor with internal cooling coils and external heat exchangers or cascade of such reactors. tube and shell heat exchangers with appropriate cooling coils involving turbulent flow.

ref[3] SPECIFICATION AND TEST METHODS Specification and test Methods: Specification for double-distilled nitrobenzene are give in table below.001 16 . 0C Distillation range (First drop).1 <0. 0C Dry point 0C Moisture.13 > 207 212 <0. The crude nitrobenzene is washed and distilled to remove water and benzene and if required nitrobenzene can be refined by vacuum distillation. % Value > 99.% Acidity As nitric acid. the temperature of the nitrator is maintained at 50-100°C by varying the amount of cooling. light yellow to brown > 5. Property Purity . The aqueous phase or spent acid is drawn from the bottom and concentrated in a sulfuric acid reconcentrated step or recycled to the nitrator where it is mixed with nitric and sulfuric acid immediately prior to being fed into the nitrator.8 Clear.A slight excess of benzene usually is fed into the nitrator to ensure that the nitric acids in the nitrating mixture is consumed to maximum possible extent and to minimize the formation of di-nitrobenzene. The reaction mixture flows from the nitrator into separator are centrifuged here is separated into two phases.% Color Freezing Point.

Now days most modern techniques use instrumental methods such as gas chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. calorimetric methods are subject to interferences from aromatic nitro compounds.Several qualitative spot tests are applicable to nitrobenzene and depend on characteristic color developed by its reaction with certain reagent. Certain colorimetric methods are based on the nitration of nitrobenzene to mnitrobenzene and subsequent determination by the generation of a red-violet color with acetone and alkali. In general. A general micrometric method for the determination of aromatic nitro compounds is based on reduction with titanium(lll) sulfate or chloride in acidic solution followed by back titration of excess titanium (lll) ions with a standard ferric alum solution. 17 .

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 18 .

6.Material Balance 19 .

H2SO4 = Wt / Mol.wt Basis : 1 Ton of Mixed acid 98 63 HNO3 (H2SO4) 161 H2SO4 600 Kg Mixer HNO3 400 Kg Where.wt = 400 /63 = 6.2111 no of moles Where.wt = 600/98 = 6.349 no of moles Mixed acid = Wt/Mol. Mass In = Mass of HNO3 + Mass of H2SO4 1000 Kg of Mixed Acid 20 .wt = 1000/161 = 6.1224 no of moles HNO3 = Wt / Mol.CHAPTER Individual Material Balance for Mixed Acid Reaction Involved H2SO4 + HNO3 Mol.6.

wt 21 .84 Kg H2O 129.36 Kg 646.333 no of Moles HNO23(H2SO4) = Wt / Mol.8 Kg Unreacted C6H6 13Kg UnreactedHNO3(H2SO4) 20 Kg C6H6 = Wt /Mol.wt = 650 /78 = 8.= 400 + 600 = 1000 Kg Mass Out = Mass of HNO3(H2SO4) = 1000 Kg Mass In = Mass Out Nitration: Reaction Involved: C6H6 + HNO3(H2SO4) Mol.Wt 78 161 C6H5NO2 + H2O + H2SO4 123 18 98 C6H6 650 Kg HNO3(H2SO4) 1000 Kg Nitration H2SO4 C6H5NO2 840.

6 Moles H2O : Wt % = 7.8 Kg No of Moles = 646.= 1000 /161 = 6.wt = Mass In 2 /100 * 1000 = 20 Kg = 2 / 100 * 650 = 13 Kg 6. Unreacted of C6H6 2%: = Wt / Mol.84 /123 = H2SO4 : Wt % = 39.36 Kg /18 = 7.84/100 *1650 = 129.96 /100* 1650 = 840.wt Unreacted of HNO3(H2SO4) 2%: = Wt / Mol.84 Kg No of Moles = 840.84% of Moles = 7.2 / 100* 1650 = 646.2111 C6H5NO2 : Wt % = 51% of C6H5NO2 = 50.8 /98 = 6.18 Moles.36 Kg No of Moles = 129.836 Moles = Mass of HNO3(H2SO4) + Mass of C6H6 22 .2 % of H2SO4 = 39.

8 Kg UnreactedC6H613Kg UnreacteHNO3(H2SO4)20Kg UnreacteHNO3(H2SO4)20Kg Separator H2O129.84 + 646.36 + 13+ 20 = 1650 Kg Mass Out = 1650 Kg Mass In = Mass Out 23 . C6H5NO2 840.36 Kg H2SO646.= 1000 + 650 = 1650 Kg Mass Out = Mass of C6H5NO2 + Mass of H2O + Mass of H2SO4 + Mass of Unreacted C6H6 + Mass of Unreacted HNO3(H2SO4) = 840.8 + 129.36Kg H2SO4646.36 + 13+ 20 Mass Out = 1650 Kg Mass In = Mass Out Material Balance in Separator .84 + 646.84 Kg UnreactedC6H6 13Kg C6H5NO2 840.8 + 129.84 Kg H2O129.8 Kg Mass In = Mass of C6H5NO2 + Mass of H2O + Mass of H2SO4 + Mass of Unreacted C6H6 + Mass of Unreacted HNO3(H2SO4) Mass In = 840.

84 + 13 = 853.84 + 13 = 853.84 Kg Mass In = Mass of C6H5NO2 + Unreacted of C6H6 = 840.84 Kg Mass In = Mass Out 24 .84 Kg Unreacted C6H6 13Kg D I S T I L L C6H5NO2 840.84 Kg Mass Out = Mass of C6H5NO2 + Mass of unreacted of C6H6 = 840.Material Balance for Distillation Column: Unreacted C6H6 13Kg C6H5NO2 840.

7.ENERGY BALANCE 25 .

165 * 400 (ΔHF) HNO3 = -1.402} + {(400/1000) * 2.402 30 2.9616*106 KJ = -41.CHAPTER Individual Energy Balance for Mixed Acid: Reaction Involved: H2SO4 + HNO3 Temp 0C Cp(KJ/Kg k) Cp of HNO3 (H2SO4) .0996 * 106 KJ 26 .013 HNO3(H2SO4) 55 1.2749.377*600 (ΔHF) H2SO4 (ΔHF) HNO3 = . ref[3] = .69 Kcal /Mol at 25 0 C.165 KJ/ Kg = .641 = (ΔHF) Product – (ΔHF) Reactant = (ΔHF) H2SO4 + (ΔHF) HNO3 = -193.377 KJ/Kg = .4. Cp of mix = { Mass fraction of H2S04 * Cp H2S04} + {Mass fraction of HNO H2S03 * Cp HNO3} = Cp of Mix ΔH Reaction (ΔHF) reactant (ΔHF) H2SO4 = {(600/1000) * 1.35 KCal / Mol at 25 0 C. ref[2] = -8269.013} 1.8269.2749.6464 KJ / Kg k 30 1.7.

1.cp.6.0612) * 106 KJ = -0.0996) * 106 KJ = .dt) H2SO4 = [400 * 2.088 KJ Energy In = (m.013 *(30-25)] + [1000 * 1.088 * 106 = 8636.0612 * 106 KJ (ΔHF) Product = .6.155 KJ/ Kg = .dt) HNO3 + (m.dt) Product + ΔH reaction = 1000 * 1.cp.149 + 6.9616.6.1 KJ 27 .619 K Cal/ Mol = .641 *(55-25) -0.(ΔHF) reactant = (-4.6149.6149.236.155 * 1000 = .149 * 106 KJ (ΔHF) reaction = (.cp.402(30-25)] = 8232 KJ Energy Out = (m.

528 95 1.cp.dt) unreacted C6H6 + (m.641 C6H5NO2 + H2O(H2SO4) 95 1.75 KJ Energy Out = (m.dt) unreacted mix acid + ΔHrxn = [840.cp.cp.cp.cp.dt)C6H5NO2 + (m.16 * 1.769 * 55) + (1000 * 1.Overall Energy Balance: Reaction Involved: C6H6 + HNO3(H2SO4) Temp 0C Cp(KJ/Kg K) Energy In 30 1.641 *30) = 112471.84 * 1.769 *(95-25)] + [20 * 1.769 55 1.97 = (m.dt)C6H5NO2 + (m.79 KJ Energy In = Energy Out 28 .641 * (95-25)] – 1510080.0 = 113251.cp.528 *(95-55)] + [776.dt) H2O(H2SO4) + (m.97(95-25)] + [13 * 1.dt) mix acid = (650 * 1.

Design For Reactor 29 .8.

Vo CAo XA = = = Feed rate. ref[2] Volume of C6H6 = = Volume of HN03 = = volume of C6H6/ Density of C6H6 650 /876 = 742.CHAPTER Ideal steady state operation is carried out : We know that for a 2nd order reaction.0L Volume of HNO3 / Density of HNO3 400/ 1504 = 265.mol .2L 30 . Moles of A/VOL of fluid Conversion (98%) = XA/ KCAO(1-XA)2 We know that K is const = 1.412 Lit/min.9L Volume of H2SO4 = Volume of H2SO4/ Density of H2SO4 = 600 / 1834 = 327.12. V ______ FAO = XA _______ -rA (or) V /VO Where.

54 / 60 = 0.02733 m3 We know that.412*19.019 m3 31 .33 Litres Vol of the reaction = 27.027 * 4 * 1 /π*0.62*(1-0.Total Volume = 445.54/ 3600 = 5.31/60 = 19.1852 1.62 Mol/Lit = V /VO = V / VO = XA* CA / K *CAO*(1-XA)2 = 0.03 l/day = 445. π /4 D2 H = 0.309/ 1.0052 =1177.122/0. CAO = = No of Moles/ Total Volume 6.027*4 = 0.309 l/min = 18.00515 l/sec.98)2 = 27.62 Mol/Lit CAO τ τ = 19.54 l/hr = 18.98 * 0.03/24 = 18.33 Lit = 0.027 π * D2 D = 0.185 m3 π/4* (0.185)2 H = 0.027 H H = = 0.15*10-3 = 0.

64 mm = 207*106 ref[5] = 207*106 / 2 = 103*106 w/m3 if P t = P*D /2FN-P = 3 atm = 3+15% = 3.85 ref[5] Thickness of vessel t = P*D /2FN-P = 319173.15*1.64*10-3m Thickness of vessel = 1.01325 bars*105 N/m2 = 319173. We know that Yield stress Shear Stress Shear Stress We know that h—welding efficiency =0.15 atm = 3.75 t = 1.75 N/m3 = yield stress /2 32 .We know that . Thickness of vessel Operating Pressure Design Pressure Design Presure Shear Stress .85)-319173.75*09 / (2*103*106*0.

185 m3 1.DESIGN SUMMARY Volume of the reactor Diameter of the reactor Height of the reactor Thickness of vessel = = = = 2.019 m3 1.77 m3 0.64 mm 33 .

REACTOR 34 .

DISTILLATION COLUMN 35 .9.

Feed Distillate F D = Volume of feed = 35.wt / (unrectbenz/mol) + (nitrobenzene/mol) = 0/78 / (0/78) + (100/123) = 0 Average Molecular weight of feed = 123*0.29*(0. D = Fx xf-xb / xd-xb .576 Kg/hr. = Volume of distillate = 0.03-0/1-0) D = 0.98) = Feed rate = 35.wt) = 2/78 / (2/78) + (98/123) = 0.wt / (nitroben/mol) + (prod/mol.98+78*(1-0.wt) 1 = 100/78 / (100/78) + (0/123) = Xb = Unrectbenz/mol.5416 Kg/hr.wt / (Unrect/mol) + (prod/mol. 1 hour of operation.576 /122.036 Xd = nitrobenzene /mol.1 = 0.9. Fxf = Dxd + Bxb From above.CHAPTER Basis .0087 Kg mole/hr 122.1 36 . Bottom Product B = Volume of bottom Xf = unreacted of benzene /mol.03 Kg/hr. = 35.29 Kg mole / hr Also. ref[2] = 0.

8 ∼ 23 = 1 23+1 = 0.0087 = 0.2813 Kg mole/hr.29-0.2 Rm = 22.05 Rm+1 = 1/0.05 Rm+1 = 20 Rm R R Xd Rm+1 = 19 = 1.042 37 . Slope of q-line .line Xd / Rm+1 = 0. We know that q = Hg-Hf / Hg-Hl q=1 slope of q-line: slope of q-line = q/q-1 = 1/1-1 Tan-1(α) = 0 q line is st.B = 0.

964 Ideal Plate = 16 (From Graph) Ideal/n 26.10 0.74 0.45) = 12.From Mc-cabe Thile Graph X Y 0 0.82 0.63 0.01 0.45m Diameter : Vap rate = v = D(R+1) = 0.66 = 16/0.6 Actual Plate = Actual Plate = Height: Plate Spacing Ht = 450 mm = 0.03 0.88 0.155 0.1170 m3/hr Vol rate Velocity = 1.45m = (Actual Plate-1)*0.20 0.30 0 0.314*103*(82+273)/ 1.45 + 2(0.92 0.07 0.01325*105 = 6.21*8.03 0.485 0.7*10-3 m3/sec = 1 m/sec 38 .045 0.0087(23+1) n = 0.rate = nRT/P = 0.94 0.02 0.21 Kg moles/hr Top Column : Vol.

e) bottom diameter Bottom diameter D= 0.rate = nRT/P = 0. D = √4A/π D = 0.Area = Vol rate / Velocity = 1.32 m3/hr Area Velocity Area A = Vol .01325*105 = 8.047 m Bottom column: Vol. we choose the larger diameter (i.31*10-3 m2 = π D2 / 4 D2 = 4a /π .7*10-3 /1 = 1.7*10-3 m2 Area = π D2 /4 D = √4A /π D2 = 4A /π .314*103*(210+273)/ 1. D = 0.054 m Both diameters are approximately same .rate / Velocity = 1 m/sec = 2.054 m 39 .21*8.

DESIGN SUMMARY Ideal plate Actual Plates Column Height Column Diameter = = = = 16.054 m 40 .45m 0.66 12.00 26.

DISTILLATION COLUMN 41 .

TOPSIDE 42 .

BOTTOM SIDE 43 .

COST ESTIMATION 44 .10.

Piping and installation cost is 25% of the delivered cost = Rs1.Instrumentation and control and installation cost = 10% of delivered equipment cost this cost is equal to Rs7.4 = Rs. Equipment cost is 24% of fixed capital cost = Rs.4 * 106 2.87* 106 = Rs 21.7.10.Electrical and installation cost Rs 33.84 Kg/day for 1 year Gross `sales for 1 year or Total income Estimation of capital investment cost Turnover = 35 Rs = 29429.33% of the delivered cost. 45 .30.Installation and painting is 40% of delivered equipment cost = Rs3*106 3.4*106 4. DIRECT COST It is taken as 70% of fixed capital investment Hence direct cost = 0.7 * 30.6*106 The cost involved in direct costs are Equipment and installation + instrumentation = piping + electrical + insulation+ Paintings which amount for 50% of the fixed capital 1.85*106 5.87*106 = Gross Annual Sales Fixed Capital For Chemical Industries Turn Over ratio Therefore gross annual sales Therefore Fixed capital Investment = 1 = Fixed Capital Investment = Rs.87*106 1.CHAPTER Cost of a Kg of Nitrobenzene in Market The Capacities of Plant is 840.

Building .4*106 = 2.001*30.1*21.96*106 8. Process and Auxiliary This cost is 39.87*106 2.INDIRECT COST: This is expenses which are not included with material and labor of actual installation of complete facilities this cost is equal to 0.544*106 46 . this cost is 10% of direct cost This cost is equal 0.87*106 b) Construction expenses and contractor fees.87*106 = Rs6.6.5*30.4*106 = Rs289*106 7.4*7.1667 of the purchased equipment cost this cost is equal to 391667*7.3*30.2*30.87*106 = Rs 30. Load cost is 1% of fixed capital this cost is equal to 0.174*106 a) engineering are supervision : this cost is 20% of the fixed capital investment this cost is equal to 0.16*106 c) Contingency : This cost in 5% of the capital This cost is equal to 0.6*106 = Rs2.87*106 = Rs1.Service Facilities and yard improvement is 40% of the delivered equipment cost this cost is equal to 0.

Raw Material : It is 20% of total product cost the cost of raw material is = 27.6*27.1*30.79*106 = Rs.79*106 1.87*106+0. Operating Labor is 15% of the total product cost The cost of operating labor is = 0.87*106 = Rs 7.87 *106/0.08*106 = Rs 27.58*106 Working Capital = 38.8(Total cost investment) total capital capital investment = 30.87*106-3.87*106 Total Grass Earnings = 10% of total annual incomes = 0.71*106 Estimation of Total Product Cost Total annual income = Rs.58*106-30.30.56*106 2.8 = Rs 38.87*106 = Rs3.168*106 47 .Working Capital: In 20% of total capital investment total capital investment = fixed cap+ Working cap =30.79*106 Total Product Cost = Direct Production Fixed + Charge Plant + Overhead DIRECT PRODUCTION COST It is 60% of total product cost the Direct Production cost is equal to = 0.08*106 Product Cost = Total annual Gross earnings income =30.79*106 = 4.15*27.5.

5.56*106 4.0145*30. Maintenance and Repairs : it is 3.6667% of the operating labor cost The cost of Laboratory Charges is = 0.03*30.168*106 = Rs 0.447675. The cost of fixed charges is DEPRECIATION Depreciation for building is 3% of land cost = 0.79*106 = Rs4. Operating Supplies : it is 0.168*106 5. The cost of direct supervisory and clinical labor is = .281681*106 8.5.3. Direct supervisory and clinical labor is 20% of operating labour.56*106 48 .0036*30.79*106= Rs.6% of fixed capital investment The cost of maintenance = 0. Utilities : In 15% of total Product cost The cost of utilities is = 0.87*106 7.5% of the fixed capital investment The cost of operating supplies is = 0.6667*4. Fixed charge : it is 20% of total product cost.87*106 = Rs.168*106= Rs.15*27.15*27.005*30. Patents and Royalties : it is 1.87*105 Total depreciation value = Rs0. Laboratory Charge is 6.87*106 6.45% of the fixed capital cost the cost of patents and royalties is = 0.00 9.93*106 = Rs 5.56*106 = Rs4.

overhead packaging.79*106 = Rs.00 b) Distribution and selling cost: Includes cost for sales offices. recreation salvage. legal fees. This cost is 5% of the total product cost Administrative cost = 0.79*106 = Rs.1389500. This cost is 5% of total product cost plant overhead is equal to = 0.3. medical services safety and protection.005*27.45 C) Plant overheads : The includes cost for following general plant upkeep and Overheads payroll. INSURANCE This is 1 % of the fixed capital investment The insurance value = 0.00 49 .030555*27. Restaurants.79*106 = Rs 1389500.01*30.849123.0555% of total product cost Rent value = 0.79*106 = Rs. clinical wage. sales man shopping and advertising This cost is 7 of the total product cost Distribution and selling cost = 0.87*106 = Rs 308700 4. office Supplies and communication. 1945300.05*27. laboratories and storage facilities.00 ll GENERAL EXPENSES: a) Administrative cost: Includes cost for executive officer.07*27. Rent : This is 3.

c) Research and development This cost is 1% of total product cost. Research and Development cost = 0.01*27.79*106 = Rs 277900.00

D) Gross earning cost: it is the net profit obtained after deduction of tax from gross earning Gross earning cost = 60% Net profit = Rs 1.848*106

d) Pay back period: with interest charge Pay back = Depreciable fixed capital investment Average profit/year-Average depreciation/year = (30.87-3.08)*106 /(1.846+3.08)*106 = 5.612 years Pay back = 5years 233 days ref[2]

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11.HEALTH AND SAFTEY FACTORS

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11.CHAPTER
Nitrobenzene is a very toxic substance the maximum allowable concentration for nitrobenzene is 1ppm or 5 mg/m³.It is readily absorbed by contact with skin and by inhalation of vapor, If a worker was exposed for 8 hours to 1ppm nitrobenzene in the working atmosphere, about 25mg of nitrobenzene would be absorbed, of which about one-third would be by skin absorption and the remainder by inhalation . The primary effect of nitrobenzene is the conversion of hemoglobin to met hemoglobin; thus the conversion eliminates hemoglobin from the oxygen-transport cycle.

Exposure to nitrobenzene may irritate the skin and eyes. nitrobenzene affects the central nervous and produces fatigue, headache,vertigo,vomiting, general

weakmess,and in some cases unconscious and coma. There generally is a latent period of 1-4 hours before signs or symptoms appear. Nitrobenzene is a powerful met hemoglobin former, and cyanosis appears when the met hemoglobin level reaches 15%. Chronic exposure can lead to spleen and liver damage, jaundice and anemia. Alcohol in any form should not be ingested by the victim of nitrobenzene poisoning for several days after the nitrobenzene poisoning or exposure. Impervious protective clothing should be worn in areas where risk of splash exists. Ordinary work clothes that have been splashed should be worn in areas where risk of splash exists. Ordinary work clothes that have been splashed should be removed immediately, and the skin washed thoroughly with soap and warm water. In areas of high vapor concentrations full face marks with organic-vapor canister or air-supplied respirators should be used. clean work clothing should be worn daily and showering after each shift should be mandatory. With respect to the hazards of fire and explosion, nitrobenzene is classified as a moderate hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Nitrobenzene is classified by the ICCas a classB poisonous liquid. Ref[1]

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toxicity 53 . the International Labor Organization and the World Health Organization. jointly or separately. and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound management of chemicals. The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish the scientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals. The International Programmer on Chemical Safety (IPCS).ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS First draft prepared by L. through international peer review processes. established in 1980. WHO. The Inter-Organization Programmer for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was established in 1995 by UNEP. 230) 1.Nitrobenzenes . is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programmer (UNEP). the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Davies. Therapeutic Goods Administration. to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment. the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ILO. Office of Chemical Safety. Australia Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programmer. as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety. (Environmental health criteria . Australian Department of Health and Ageing. Canberra. following recommendations made by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programmer for the Sound Management of Chemicals. the United Nations Institute for Training and Research and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (Participating Organizations). Nitrobenzene. The purpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organizations. the United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

S interstate commission (ICC)as a poisonous liquid.Series. International Programmer for Chemical Safety II. brass and copper.30) and usually can be handled with little danger of fire. Stainless steel (400 series) is recommended for color critical applications. Ref[2] 54 .They are classified by the U.classB (regulation 173 347) and as a class 6 poison by united nations as such they must be packaged in ICC specifications contains when shipped by rail.Risk assessment I. cars.Nitrobenzenes . copper alloys.Environmental exposure 4.adverse effects 3. Carbon steel or cast iron is considered materials of choice for handling nitrobenzene except when decolonization must be kept to minimum. or metal drums. ref[1] HANDLING AND STORAGE TRANSPORTATION Nitrobenzene samplings handling procedures in the united states are described by ASTMP 3436-75. nitrobenzene ordinarily is transported in tanks.2. tank trucks. water or highway and all of ICC regulations regarding loading handling and labeling must be followed. It is rated on class IIIA combustible liquids (NFPA std no. Nitrobenzene attacks.

PLANT LAYOUT 55 .12.

Reduces the number of handling. to permit the quickest flow of materials at lowest cost and least amount of handling in processing the raw material from the receipt of raw material to the shipment of finished products. Reduces the number of accidents. Advantages of a good plant layout in labour cost: • • • Increases output per man hour. Provides basis for higher earnings.CHAPTER Plant layout is the functional arrangement of machinery and equipment in a existing plant. Advantages of good plant layout to the workers : • • • • • Reduces the effort of the workers. where the material arrives as raw material. moving the from of worked material from department to department . The material handling planned in the layout begins at the receiving point . Reduces number of operators. Plant layout may be defined as the floor plan for determining and arranging the desired equipment of a plant. Provision is made for inspection. the material flows in and out of temporary storage is fed through assembly lines for final assembly. Permits working at maximum efficiency.15. in the one best place. then continuous progressively from storage through process. packaging and storing the material as finished product. from machine to machine. Loss setup time involved 56 .

This department performs machining assembly and packaging. 57 . These constitute the facilities provided to keep the processing department in operation without interruption. • Administrative department. • • The factory is altered or constructed around the prescribed plant layout. TYPES OF DEPARTMENT • • • • Processing department. The production efficiency of the plant is determined by the limitations of its layout. • Then speed of production in the plant is determined primarily by the adequacies of its material handling facilities. as is initially suppose but material handling. Service department. • Major part of production works is not processing .Advantages of a good plant lay out in production control: • • Reduces production control expenses Pace production Fundamental concepts of plant layout : In apprising the advantages of good layout in the light of conditions prevailing in a particular plant . • A good plant layout is designed to provide the proper facility for material handling.it is well to bear in mind the following concepts of plant layout.

accounting production control. Worked materials. • • Liquids such as chemicals are transported in tank cars. maintenance supplies etc are kept.engineering. departments etc.• This department administrative sales. 58 . • In addition to the above vehicular traffic should be separated from pedestrian traffic and the roads should be wider. • The conveyors should be placed at reasonable height to mal functioning and waste. column spacing. PLANNING THE PROCESSING • The plant layout engineer should obtain data on building elevation. 3. Space. finished products. climate conditions. • The design of a receiving involves the following considerations: 1. PLANNING THE PLANT SERVICE FACILITIES: • Material received at a plant arrives via the particular forms of transportation which are generally prescribed. variety of vehicles STORE ROOM: • • A store room is the reservoir for raw material. 2. drums or pipelines The receiving department must be well equipped to receive the material in all modes. door and conveyors. • The traffic in the plant may be greatly by location store rooms close to the building entrances.

• The sprinkler system is fitted with a sensitive transducer which lets water up to a height of 15 feet. handling of the materials 3. 59 . so that the samples from the production plant Can be checked for its quality requirements. WATER STORAGE: • • • Water is used in the plant for variety of purposes. • So the water storage system should be planned out with most more. A plant must have adequate water supply to crater all these needs. protection to materials 2.• The functional requirements of a store room are: 1. • The labs should be well equipped and should be properly planned. control points The above factors also help the layout engineer to design the store room as per requirements. By far the most reliable and effectives means of fire protection is the automatic sprinkler system. INSPECTION ROOM: • The inspection room or quality control room should be located near then production unit.

providing light to plant. 5. Employment office cafeteria. ref[6] 60 . • The employee service facility consists of parking lots. 2.POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEM: • • Power and lighting systems forms the main part of the plant. first aid stations and medical department etc. supplying power to run motor. The significant features of the power plant operations are. 3. conference room and vault room storage of documents and records. Providing heat for process operations. 1. • The general administrative block should have administrative rooms. PLANNING OF ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK: • Location of an administrative block depends upon the geographic location with respect to the plant functions. power for surplus use. For supplying steam. 4.

PLANT LAYOUT 61 .

13.CONCLUSION 62 .

13. The design aspects are above described in detail.CHAPTER The Manufacture of Nitrobenzene has been described in detail. The necessary flow diagram. The cost has been estimated . material and Energy balance for the production of 1 Ton of Nitrobenzene has been worked out in detail. 63 .

14.BIBLIOGRAPHY 64 .

Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Vol.V: Process Equipment Design 3 rd Ed. Pg:776-778 4.4503-1967. ROBERT H . KIRK AND OTHMER. GEORGE T. JOSHI.14.PERRY : PERRY’S Chemical Engineers Hand Book 5th & 6th Ed. Mc Graw Hill international Editions .15.B. 19990. Pg:5 6. 2nd Ed.M.CHAPTER 1. AUSTIN : Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries 5th Mc Graw Hill international Editions . IS CODES : 2825 .chand . Pg:642-644 3.Pg :45 65 . 1969.S & ARUN BAHL : A text book of organic Chemistry.Pg:176-190 2. BAHL. Pg:350-355 5.