Lecture 5

Stress
• Definition • Types of stress • Nature of stress • Placement of stress within words • Simple words • Derived words • Compound words • Word class pairs • Strong form and weak form
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Definition
• Stress is an extra force exerted on a particular syllable or a particular word in spoken language. The stressed syllable or word is said with greater energy, and stands out in a word, phrase or sentence. Examples: father /«få…∂\/ information /»ˆnf\«meˆßn/

John bought a new car yesterday

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entertain Sentence stress: is an extra force put on a particular word in a sentence. Word stress: is an extra force put on a particular syllable of the word. It depends on the speaker’s feelings and attitudes and the message that he wants to get across to the listener. Sentence stress is not fixed. 3 .Types of stress 1. It is usually fixed. For example: invite 2. For example: John bought a new car yesterday.

Generally. . the production of stress is generally believed to depend on the speaker’s using more muscular energy than for unstressed syllables. and that is prominence. pitch and vowel quality.The nature of stress • 1. From the perception point of view: all stressed syllables have one characteristic in common. From the production point of view. 4 2. We can study stress from the point of view of production and perception. these four factors work together in combination though syllables may sometimes be made prominent by means of only one or two of them. length. At least four factors make a stressed syllable prominent: loudness.

5 . Primary stress (tonic/nuclear): is the strongest type of stress. but stronger than unstressed syllables. Unstressed: can be regarded as being the absence of any recognizable amount of prominence. Secondary stress (non-tonic): it is weaker than primary stress. For examples: photographic anthropology economical nationality 2. It is marked by a small vertical line high up just before the syllable it relates to. It is represented in transcription with a low mark. 3.Levels of stress 1. It is usually found in words of four or five syllables.

a. b. The number of syllables in the word. (whether the word is a simple. The grammatical category to which the word belongs. The phonological structure of the word. . Whether the word is morphologically simple or complex. c.Placement of stress within words • In order to decide on the stress placement. it is necessary to make use of some or all of the following information. 6 a. derived or compound word).

Adverbs and prepositions 2. Verbs b. Verbs b. Adjectives 7 . Adjectives c. Nouns c. Two syllable words a. Nouns d. Three syllable words a.Simple word stress 1.

invent. that second syllable is stressed. apply. occur. provide contain • protest agree More examples: select. arrest. 8 . If the second syllable of the verb contains a long vowel or a diphthong or it ends with more than one consonant. deny. succeed.Two-syllable verbs a.g. inform. depend. E. prefer. design. invite. record.

marry. If the second syllable contains a short vowel and ends with one or no consonant. Examples: follow borrow 9 worry open More examples: menace. The final syllable is also unstressed if it contains /@U/. .b. Examples: enter travel • equal. differ. settle. c. the first syllable is stressed. answer.

Examples: correct polite heavy sincere major complete happy precise 10 .Two-syllable Adjectives • Two syllable adjectives are stressed according to the same rules as verbs.

If the second syllable contains a short vowel. money office estate autumn delight canoe reason larynx balloon affair pocket surface 11 . Otherwise. it will be on the second syllable.Two-syllable Nouns a. the stress will be on the first syllable.

Notes • Other two-syllable words such as adverbs and prepositions seem to behave like verbs and adjectives. Examples: beyond seldom again before except never behind very after across 12 .

determine remember If the final syllable contains a long vowel or a diphthong. or ends with more than one consonant. the final syllable will be stressed. and stress will be placed on the second syllable. If the last syllable contains a short vowel and ends with not more than one consonant. the last syllable will be unstressed.Three-syllable verbs a. encounter abandon b. entertain intervene introduce recommend 13 .

14 . it is unstressed. and the first syllable is stressed. If the final syllable contains a short vowel and the second syllable contains a short vowel and ends with not more than one consonant. both the final and middle syllalbes are unstressed. the second syllable will be stressed. If the second syllable contains a long vowel or a diphthong. or it ends with more than one consonant. potato cathedral disaster advantage b. If the final syllalbe contains a short vowel or /@U/.Three-syllable Nouns a.

quantity enemy animal antonym c. the stress will usually be placed on the first syllable. paradise architect photograph exercise marigold attitude 15 . cinema alphabet company character If the final syllalbe contains a long vowel or a diphthong or it ends with more than one consonant.

Three-syllable Adjectives • Three-syllable adjectives seem to need the same rules as Nouns to produce stress pattern such as: opportune possible important enormous accurate insolent derelict absolute similar popular 16 .

Complex word stress • Derived words • Stress on the affix • No change in stress placement • The stress remains on the stem but is shifted to a different syllable. • Compound words • Primary stress on the second element • Primary stress on the first element. 17 .

The affixes will have one of three possible effects on the word stress. circle employ person Portugal cigar picture mountain semi-circle employee personality Portugese cigarette picturesque mountaineer 18 . The affix itself receives primary stress.Stress in derived words • 1.

The word is stressed as if the affix were not there.2. comfort marry refuse wide wonder amaze red power punish poison glory comfortable marriage refusal widen wonderful amazing reddish powerless punishment poisonous glorify 19 .

not the affix.3. The stress remains on the stem. but is shifted to a different syllable. advantage proverb climate injure tranquil photograph economy equator advantageous proverbial climatic injurious tranquility photographer economical equatorial 20 .

Compound words a. If the first word/part of the compound is in a broad sense adjectival. loudspeaker full moon fast food new moon open hearted ill mannered 21 . the stress goes on the second element with a secondary stress on the first.

the stress goes on the first element. car ferry tea cup suitcase bottle feed boatpeople farm house airplane bodyguard bedroom 22 . in a broad sense. a noun.b. If. however. the first element is.

apparently according to word class. The rule is as follows: The stress will be placed on the second syllable if the word is a Verb. there are pairs of two syllable words with identical spelling which differ from each other in stress placement. abstract conduct contrast desert abstract conduct contrast desert 23 .Word class pairs • In English. but on the first syllable of the Noun or Adjective.

escort export import insult object perfect permit present produce rebel record subject escort export import insult object perfect permit present produce rebel record subject 24 .

and some foreigners do this. Usually. so why is it important to learn how weak forms are used? a.Strong and weak forms • There are certain well-known English words that can be pronounced in two different ways which are called strong form and weak form. I like that I hope that you are fine • It is possible to use only strong forms in speaking. Most native speakers of English find an ‘all-strong-form’ pronunciation unnatural and foreign sounding. . they can still be understood by other speakers of English. somethings 25 that most learners would wish to avoid.

prepositions.. conjunctions. Since practically all native speakers of English use them. It is important to remember that there are certain contexts in which only the strong form is acceptable.• More importantly. learners of the language need to learn about these weak forms to help them understand what they hear. and others where the weak form pronunciation is the normal. • Almost all the words which have both a strong and weak form belong to a category that may be called grammatical words such as auxiliary verbs. speakers who are not familiar with the use of weak forms are likely to have difficulty understanding speakers who do use weak forms. 26 ..

The letter is from him. not to him. When a weak form word is being contrasted with another word. The strong form is used in the following cases: When the word occurs at the end of a sentence.• a. What are you looking at? I am looking at my pictures. He likes her. but does she like him? 27 . Where are you from? I am from Vietnam b.

You must marry me I have to go You must choose us or them. 28 . When a weak form word is given stress for the purpose of emphasis. d. When a weak form word is being ‘cited’ or ‘quoted’ You shouldn’t put ‘and’ and the end of a sentence.• A similar case is what we might call a co-ordinated use of prepositions. c. I travel to and from London a lot. A work of and about literature.