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a unified body of individuals: as

a : state, commonwealth b : the people with common interests living in a particular area; broadly : the area itself c : an interacting population of various kinds of individuals (as species) in a common location d : a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society e : a group linked by a common policy f : a body of persons or nations having a common history or common social, economic, and political interests g : a body of persons of common and especially professional interests scattered through a larger society

Types of community A number of ways to categorize types of community have been proposed; one such breakdown is: 1. Geographic communities: range from the local neighbourhood, suburb, village, town or city, region, nation or even the planet as a whole. These refer to communities of location. 2. Communities of culture: range from the local clique, sub-culture, ethnic group, religious, multicultural or pluralistic civilisation, or the global community cultures of today. They may be included as communities of need or identity, such as disabled persons, or frail aged people. 3. Community organizations: range from informal family or kinship networks, to more formal incorporated associations, political decision making structures, economic enterprises, or professional associations at a small, national or international scale. Communities are nested; one community can contain another—for example a geographic community may contain a number of ethnic communities.

A sense of community has the following four key elements: Membership
  

A demonstrable boundary between those who are members and those who are not (us vs them) The boundary can be:

as in “we share things with one another” not “we listened to our customers!” Fulfilment  The need that instigated joining the community must be satisfied.o o o o o geographical access-oriented. like Aussie “mateship” . requiring a tag. the rewards range from a stronger community to all sorts of other unexpected benefits    Connection      A shared emotional connection is possibly the most important element for true community Frequent high-quality interaction will result in stronger bonds between members Communities that have a purpose and shared tasks will develop greater group cohesion Members sharing a major community event will be more strongly connected to one another Can develop into a spiritual bond. only those who have access to something are part of it a label. or is replaced with a new need that must be satisfied Giving to the community will result in fulfilment of needs Communities have an economy of social trade. badge or title a rite-of-passage. subcultural dialects. often fuelled by mutual reinforcement of one another and of the community Going above and beyond in supporting the community will not only fulfil a member’s own needs but also further those of the community. or private memes a combination of all of the above o   Members use the boundary to identify one another Members use the boundary to identify new members Influence     The ability for a member to influence the rest of the community The ability for the community to influence each of its members The ability for the community to influence external parties Can also be looked at as “trust”. requiring the completion of a task a shared system of symbols such as uniforms. handshakes.

14). and some influence by the group on its members is needed for group cohesion. Current researches (e. Shared emotional connection The "definitive element for true community" (1986. 2013) on rural and urban communities have found that sense of community is a major factor in development. . Chigbu.[1] Integration and fulfillment of needs Members feel rewarded in some way for their participation in the community. p.Four elements of sense of community There are four elements of "sense of community" according to the McMillan & Chavis theory: Membership Membership includes five attributes:      boundaries emotional safety a sense of belonging and identification personal investment a common symbol system Influence Influence works both ways: members need to feel that they have some influence in the group. That interconnectedness of the elements is important — to truly exist a sense of community requires all four elements. it includes shared history and shared participation (or at least identification with the history).g. You’ll notice these four elements have a lot of potential for interrelation and overlap.

ca/2012/11/11/the-elements-of-community/ The. posses the same sentiment. and have the same attitudes. essential elements of community are described below: i) Group of people: Community is a group of human beings. Without a definite locality. ii) Definite locality: A community always occupies a definite geographical area. social relations between human beings cannot be established and the 'we' feeling cannot evolve. iii) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment means a feeling of belonging together. conform to the same mores. . Locality is the physical .http://howtosavetheworld.basis of community. It is not possible to form a community without a group of men and women. It is "we feeling" among the members. The members of a community speak the same language.

Practices. towns. customs. Their customs. District may enclose small communities-like villages. People in a community come together to meet the primary needs through a common set of institutions and organisations. it often describes personality and each community is something of a personality ". v) Permanency: A community is not temporary like a crowd or a mob. vi) Neutrality: Communities are not deliberately created. and morals. it indicates it points out individuality. People work together to fulfill some common interests. "It points identity. traditions. viii) Size: A community may be big or small. x) Regulation of Relations: Every Community in course of time develops a system of traditions. A small community may be included in a wider community. http://www. tribes etc. They associate not for the fulfillment of a particular end. An individual is born in a community.preservearticles. are similar. The ends of a community are wider. For example. They are not made by planned efforts. It includes a permanent life in a definite place.iv) Like ness: The people in a community share a common way of life. language etc. mores. vii) A particular Name: Every community has some particular name. some rules and regulations to regulate the relations of its members. It is relatively stable. It has a natural growth of its own.html . In the words of Lumley. a city and a village may be included in a district. ix) Wider ends: People in community share several common interests.

but consider it along with other sources of information and their own experience and make their own decisions that are right for them. community research and other forms of community interventions. duplications and sometimes conflicting advice or treatments. that effective communication among all involved. age. if not an explicit goal of a CD program. but only after all voices are heard and considered and minority rights are protected. disability. Community Ownership: Communities thrive when they develop their own assets. Inclusive: There are many barriers to participation in society.Community development is sometimes confused with community-based programs. A community development approach would ensure that services are coordinated. Non-authoritarian: Organizational structures are as flat as possible. Social justice and equity: This is fundamental to community development and is at least implicit in all CD work. without requiring means or needs testing.        . and that services are directed by the individual receiving them. Universality: Services are available to everyone. assess options and arrive at their own conclusions. Additional information on these terms is available in the glossary section of this course.   Democratic: The will of the majority must be carried out. Service Integration: Often services provided to persons in need are fragmented. Enhance natural capacities and networks: There are sources of strength in every community. for example. A healthy community embraces diversity and recognizes that all community members have a right to be heard and participate in processes that affect their lives. A community developer identifies these existing community assets and works with them. The most significant feature that distinguishes community development from other community work is its values and principles. resulting in gaps. to the extent possible. or certain individuals that have particular talents or are able to help others in need. but also when they "own" their problems and issues. that they enhance and strengthen natural community and family supports. race and ethnicity are some other characteristics that often marginalize people. informal networks and social support systems. with all participants being seen as equally important and having equal input. and the solution will be better than one provided solely by an external "expert". then they are more likely to work together to develop a solution. They may seek advice from "experts". poverty. Below are a list and a brief definition of the values and principles that are typically embodied in community development programs. When communities accept that it is "their" problem. so that one service provider doesn't know what other services are available or being used. Community self determination: Community members come together to discuss their concerns. It is important not to duplicate existing structures and functions as that may weaken rather than strengthen the community.

respecting local intellectual and analytical capabilities. poetry and songs. deriving principally from South Asia. Respect. it will affect the quality of the water in the river for everyone living downstream. Enjoyment. The PRA process transforms the researchers into learners and listeners. is. and should Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) More an eclectic situational style (the humble. and relates to the point of intervention. Thus the professional monopoly of information. New local confidence is generated. Emerging in the 1980s. http://en. "External" knowledge can be locally assimilated. The approach aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of development projects and programmes. Researchers must avoid at all costs an attitude of patronizing surprise that local people are so clever they can make their own bar charts etc. Researchers have to learn a new "style". or reinforced. the Participatory Rural Appraisal is distinguished at its best by the use of local graphic representations created by the community that legitimize local knowledge and promote empowerment. then you may feel you are starting to understand the people's culture. Upstream: The distinction between upstream vs. if there is a toxic spill upstream. You can focus either on dealing with the illnesses that are experiences by the downstream people (downstream approach) or you can stop the spill and prevent others from happening in the future (upstream approach). is broken. For example. Knowledge arises from the process and results of the research that. Its five central additional concepts are:  Empowerment. A good rule of thumb is that when you can really understand the local jokes. PRA. The emphasis is no longer on "rapid" but on the process. PRA "proper" builds on RRA but goes much further. regarding the validity of their knowledge. come to be shared with and owned by local people. well done. fun.wikipedia. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is an approach used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other agencies involved in international development. Knowledge is power. To RRA it adds some more radical activist perspectives. used for planning and management decisions. downstream approaches uses a river as a metaphor for the increasing impact of conditions and events which affect health over time and space. The "ooh-aah" school of PRA works against its own principles of empowerment and indicates shallow naivete on the part of the researcher. through participation. learning outsider) than a method. Localization.    . The extensive and creative use of local materials and representations encourages visual sharing and avoids imposing external representational conventions.

Cubao Commercial District. and destitute http://www. Inclusiveness. Quezon City was the planned city of President Manuel L. Poor scope control One of the major aspects of defining a project is defining the high-level scope. the project team starts off with inadequate resources and time—and you don’t realize it until the project is already in progress. Other times. Many projects that could be successful are viewed as failures because they overshot their budgets and deadlines.htm a) Over budgeted b) Poor quality . even the sponsor may not have a complete picture of what needs to happen for the project to be successful. Diliman Estate (includes the University of the Philippines). you will find it very difficult to manage scope effectively throughout the project. if the definition and planning is not done ahead of time. 2 & 3 (Quirino District). As a project gets larger. 4. based on a lack of up-front planning. He proposed a new city to be built northeast of Manila. but there are other visions that may be better or more viable. South Triangle. children.iisd. include marginal and vulnerable groups. Poor estimates Usually a project needs to have a budget and deadline before the business requirements are completed. These competing ideas end up surfacing later in the project.Customer dissatisfaction c) Schedule failure d) Lost business e) Low team morale The results of poor planning Poor up-front definition and planning can cause serious problems in many areas later in the project. Enhanced sensitivity. the sponsor has a vision. Carefully planned districts include the Santa Mesa Heights (part of the original Burnham plan). through attention to process. aged. This situation is often caused by the project manager committing to numbers that are too low. These problems include: Lack of business support If you don't define the major characteristics of a project up front. causing confusion and rework. women. 5 . Housing Projects 1 (Roxas district). Quezon. If you do not define and gain agreement on scope. This is true even if you take all of your initial direction from the sponsor. it's very common to have differences in expectations among the major stakeholders. In many cases. New

Community Development seeks to enable individuals and communities to grow and change according to their own needs and priorities. as well as equality of power. The first priority of the Community Development process is the empowering and enabling of those who are traditionally deprived of power and control over their common affairs. Community Development is about developing the power. 7. for each individual who is involved. The Community Development process is collective. skills. Community Development is about the active involvement of people in the issues which affect their lives. provided this does not oppress other groups and communities. Community Development takes place both in neighbourhoods and within communities of interest. people with disabilities and different abilities. President Elpidio Quirino proclaimed Quezon City as capital of the Philippines on July 17. there are certain principles central to it. Where Community Development takes place. It claims as important the ability of people to act together to influence the social. knowledge and experience of people as individuals and in groups. skills. elderly people. knowledge and experience. and other groups who are disadvantaged by society. It also must take a        .  Community Development is crucially concerned with the issues of powerlessness and disadvantage: as such it should involve all members of society. as people identify what is relevant to them. 1976.(Kamias-Kamuning District). economic. it is a process based on the sharing of power. or damage the environment. Community Development aims to encourage sharing. but the experience of the process enhances the integrity. 1948. and 8. Due to the failed plan execution. thus enabling them to undertake initiatives of their own to combat social. women. knowledge and experience. President Ferdinand Marcos restored Manila as capital on June 24. Metro Manila remains congested. economic. He then created a metropolitan area called Metro Manila. and at their own pace. and to create structures which give genuine participation and involvement. 6. religious groups. and offers a practice that is part of a process of social change. lesbians and gay men. political and environmental problems. and enabling them to fully participate in a truly democratic process. political and environmental issues which affect them. Community Development must take the a lead in confronting the attitudes of individuals and the practices of institutions and society as a whole which discriminates unfairly against black people. skills.

lead in countering the destruction of the natural environment on which we all . Concepts: http://www. and in particular people from Black and Minority Ethnic groups. Community Development is well placed to involve people equally on these issues which affect all of us.slideshare.  Community Development should seek to develop structures which enable the active involvement of people from disadvantaged groups.