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Corrosion and Degradation of Materials

What is the….

Cost of

Corrosion?

The Cost of Corrosion 3 .

Significance of Corrosion on Infrastructure .

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Engineer finds corrosion in collapsed bridge at North Carolina speedway (2000) .

.Corrosion & Catastrophic Failure.

A Concrete bridge failure .

 9 .g.Fundamental Components Corrosion can be defined as the deterioration of material by reaction to its environment. 4) An electrical connection between the anode and cathode for the flow of electron current. 3) A conducting environment for ionic movement (electrolyte). 2) A cathode. iron in the presence of moist air will revert to its natural state..  Corrosion occurs because of the natural tendency for most metals to return to their natural state. iron oxide.  4 required components in an electrochemical corrosion cell: 1) An anode. e. the electrochemical corrosion process will be stopped.  If any of the above components is missing or disabled.

oxidation reaction: -.Electrochemical Corrosion Corrosion of zinc in an acid solution • Two reactions are necessary: Zn Zn 2 -.reduction reaction: flow of ein the metal 2H 2e 2e H2 (gas) H+ Oxidation reaction Zn Zn2+ H+ H+ + H H+ H2(gas) H+ reduction reaction H+ Zinc 2e- Acid solution • Other reduction reactions in solutions with dissolved oxygen: -.acidic solution -.neutral or basic solution O2 4H 4e 2H2O O2 2H2O 4e 4(OH) 10 .

Types of Corrosion Uniform Attack – General Corrosion  Galvanic Corrosion  Crevice Corrosion  Pitting  Intergranular Corrosion  Selective Leaching  Erosion Corrosion  Stress Corrosion  .

Uniform Corrosion Formerly a ship 12 .

Galvanic Corrosion  Dissimilar metals are physically joined in the presence of an electrolyte. .  The more anodic metal corrodes. Bilge pump Magnesium shell cast around a steel core.

The high performance aircraft designed since 1945 have made extensive use of skin structures machined from thick plates and extrusions. As aircraft structures became more complex.Aluminum Alloys    Traditionally. . The residual stresses induced by heat treatment in conjunction with those from machining made these materials sensitive to SCC. structural aluminum alloys in aircraft have been 2024-T3 in damage critical areas and 7075-T6 in strength critical areas. skin materials became an integral part of the structure and SCC became more prevalent.

fine cracks can penetrate deeply into the part. making it difficult to detect or prevent. SCC A structure that has SCC sensitivity.  . may initiate cracks and crack growth well below the yield strength of the metal.  Consequently. if subjected to stresses and then exposed to a corrosive environment.Stress Corrosion Cracking. no corrosion products are visible.

.Crevice Corrosion Narrow and confined spaces.

Pitting Pitting is a localized form of corrosive attack. as measured by weight loss. Pitting corrosion is typified by the formation of holes or pits on the metal surface. yet the total corrosion. 304 stainless steel / acid chloride solution 5th Century sword Boiler tube . Pitting can cause failure. may be minimal.

Intergranular Corrosion along grain boundaries. often where precipitate particles form. .

Erosion-corrosion Combined chemical attack and mechanical wear (e. pipe elbows). Brass water pump .g..

g. Zn from brass (Cu-Zn)]. . Dezincification.Selective Leaching Preferred corrosion of one element/constituent [e..

block 786. Texaco's choice was Galvotec-CW-III Aluminum Sacrificial Anodes for their Petronius cathodic protection system. It lies in water depths of approximately 1754 feet (535 meters). http://www.galvotec. Petronius is the largest free-standing structure in the world. southeast of New Orleans.Sacrificial Anodes This field is located in Viosca Knoll.jpg 21 .com/img/texaco.

• Temperature and solution composition affect corrosion rates.adding inhibitors -.materials selection -. Increasing T. • Forms of corrosion are classified according to mechanism • Corrosion may be prevented or controlled by: -.these electrons are consumed in a reduction reaction • Metals and alloys are ranked according to their corrosiveness in standard emf and galvanic series. speeds up oxidation/reduction reactions.reducing the temperature -.electrons are given up by metals in an oxidation reaction -.cathodic protection • using metals that form a protective oxide layer • Painting/coating 22 .Summary • Metallic corrosion involves electrochemical reactions -.applying physical barriers -.