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Dr. K. Devendranath Ramkumar School of Mechanical & Building Sciences

 Examples are turbine rotors in jet engines and steam generators that experience centrifugal stresses and high pressure steam lines. permanent deformation of the material when subjected to a constant load or stress and temperature.  2 .Introduction Creep is time dependent.  It may also be defined as continuous slow plastic deformation of metals under constant load & temperature  Creep is always associated with a time rate of deformation continuing under stresses well below the yield strength for the particular temperature to which the metal is subjected  Materials are often placed in service at elevated temperatures and exposed to static mechanical stresses.


i.  Greater mobility of dislocations (climb).  precipitation.  Increased amount of vacancies.Problems associated with High Temperature Atoms move faster .This affects mechanical properties of materials. recrystallisation  . oxidation.e.  Metallurgical changes..  Deformation at grain boundaries. phase transformation.

The rupture test measures the effect of temperature on the long time load bearing characteristics Stress rupture testing is similar to creep testing except that the stresses are higher than those used in a creep testing.Time involved 10 . the loads are high enough to cause relatively rapid fracture . In the stress rupture tests. Stress rupture tests are used to determine the time necessary to produce failure so stress rupture testing is always done until failure.Creep Vs Stress Rupture      The creep test measures the dimensional changes which occur when subjected to high temperature.1000 h .

temperature and strain  Concise Information . stress or strain level. measurement of load.This stress rupture information is highly beneficial for the materials survive for short span .testing time. booster rockets. Principal difference between creep and stress rupture tests . Guided Missiles  .Cont.. piping.Superheater tubes.. boilers. nozzle guide vanes.

Creep Test Furnace .


• • • • • Creep strain vs time at constant load and constant elevated temperature. The resulting creep curve consists of 3 regions: primary or transient creep adjusts to the creep level (creep rate may decrease). there is accelerated rate of strain until rupture (grain boundary separation. .Creep • A typical creep test consists of subjecting a specimen to a constant load or stress while maintaining constant temperature. Rupture lifetime tr is the total time to rupture. is the slope of the linear segment in the secondary region. fairly linear region (strain hardening and recovery stage). Minimum creep rate (steadystate creep rate).steady stateconstant creep rate. Upon loading. there is instant elastic deformation. secondary creep. internal crack formation. cavities and voids). tertiary creep.

.Creep Sample deformation at a constant stress (s) vs.increases with time.e.e s 0 t Primary Creep: slope (creep rate) . 10 . Secondary Creep: steady-state .e.i.decreases with time. time s. Tertiary Creep: slope (creep rate) . constant slope. acceleration of rate. i.

.creep proceeds at a constant rate because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes.the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress. Secondary Creep .Stages in Creep    Primary Creep -creep proceeds at a diminishing rate due to work hardening of the metal. Failure occurs at point 4. Tertiary Creep .

Creep Failure .

stress versus rupture lifetime for a low carbon-nickel alloy at 3 temperatures.Creep Dependence of creep strain rate on stress. .

Stress and temperature effects on Creep 14 .

Structural Changes .3 Stages .Structural changes during creep Creep .

etc.Ta)  “Superalloys” (Co. Mo.Alloys for High-Temperatures (turbines in jet engines. nuclear reactors. hypersonic airplanes.) Creep minimized in materials with  High melting temperature  High elastic modulus  Large grain sizes (inhibits grain boundary sliding) Following materials are especially resilient to creep:  Stainless steels  Refractory metals (containing elements of high melting point. like Nb. W. Ni based: solid solution hardening and secondary phases) .


Qc. Grain boundary diffusion Dislocation glide and climb 18 .Mechanisms of Creep Different mechanisms act in different materials and under different loading and temperature conditions:  Stress-assisted vacancy diffusion  Grain boundary diffusion  Grain boundary sliding  Dislocation motion Different mechanisms  different n.