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UNITUNIT -IV

•Value stream and process mapping:
- Overview - Where to use - Step by step approach – How to use – Reduce stream mapping – Present and future states - VSM symbols

• Process mapping

- Detailed instructions - limits - facilitation

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OVERVIEW
Value Stream Mapping Definition:  – Special type of flow chart that uses symbols known as "the language of Lean" to depict and improve the flow of inventory and information.  Value stream mapping is also known as “material and information flow mapping.”

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This mapping tool uses the techniques of lean manufacturing to analyze and evaluate certain work processes in a manufacturing operation.  This tool is used primarily to identify, demonstrate and decrease waste, as well as create flow in the manufacturing process.

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Purpose of VSM  Provide optimum value to the customer through a complete value creation process with minimum waste in: – – Design (concept to customer) – – Build (order to delivery) – – Sustain (in (in-use through life cycle to service) 5 .

identify problem areas. Create a future state VSM.  Value Stream Mapping can be a communication tool. The creation of a VSM is divided into five basic steps: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Identify the product. a businessbusiness-planning tool. and a tool to manage change in production processes. Evaluate the current map. Create a current VSM. 6 . Implement the final plan.

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– Value stream Mapping is most commonly used in organizations which are looking to make improvements in lead times. software development and product development. logisitics & many service organizations.Where to use VSM  Value Stream Mapping has its origins in automotive manufacturing but as a method of capturing processes it can be used in many different environments. – Value stream mapping is most commonly associated with manufacturing. 8 . healthcare. however it can be used to great effect in areas such as supply chain.

it captures the current issues and presents a realistic picture. 9 . .Step by step approach to VSM  Value stream mapping is a tool commonly used in lean continuous improvement programmes to help understand and improve the material and information flow within organizations organizations.  Stream Mapping born out of lean ideology captures and presents the whole process from end to end in a method that is easy to understand by those working the process .

Customers Material Transport IT System Information Flow 10 . You need to ensure you consider including the following: * * * * * * * Material Flow Inventory Buffer stock Suppliers.

Select your sponsor and set – As with any project.  Arbitrate solutions  And plan the project. it is important that a sponsor or champion is appointed – This needs to be someone who can  Make decisions. 11 . – The sponsor will usually select the processes that will be mapped – He will usually have a firm grasp of what achievement is being targeted. Step 1 expectations .

g. 12 . Purchasing.   Step 3 -Select process to be mapped Value Stream Mapping is suitable for most businesses and can be used in Manufacturing. Supply Chain and some Service orientated Organisations Organisations. – You should ensure that each area of the process is represented e. . Warehouse etc. Sales. Logistics. Step Step-2 :Select :Select your team – The make up of the VSM team is crucial and it is imperative that you adopt a team approach.

Critique Current state  challenge the current thinking. encourage  your team to make suggestions. the future state maps will be developed using information captured here so it’s imperative you have a correct understanding of the business. inventory or materials information. Step 5 .Collect data and produce current state map  process times. look for  areas of waste.Step 4 . customer (or demand) requirements. 13 .

14 .Step 6 .Create Action Plan and deploy  taking the Future State map consider an action plan that could be implemented to change the current process to the future state.Map Future State  compile a future state map based on the  current state map and the critiques Step 7 .

Measure benefits  check to ensure that the benefits expected have been obtained – review each change made and analyze benefits   Some Mapping Tips Always collect currentcurrent-state information while walking the actual pathways of material and information flows yourself  Begin with a quick walk along the entire doordoor -to todoor value stream  Begin at the shipping end and work upstream 15 .Step 8 .

Bring your stopwatch and do not rely on standard times or information that you do not personally obtain  Map the whole value stream yourself  Always draw by hand in pencil  16 .

purchasing etc Physical transformation e.the 'as is' map of the process Future state . It typically contains: Information management e.g.g.How to use VSM        Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is a common tool used by Lean Practitioners to identify waste within a value stream. Order processing. Improvement ideas.the vision for the future including all the Lean Improvements A value stream map contains all flows of information and materials utilised within an enterprise from raw material right through to the customer. It is usually carried out in two stages: Current state . designs.g. 17 project management etc . Materials. logistics and production Intellectual property e.

if carried out at a high level (typically at a business unit or for a product group). can prove to be a valuable tool to identify Lean Six Sigma projects.Whenever there is a product.  18 . service or process for a customer there is a value stream in operation and lean practitioners can work on it to take out waste and improve effectiveness and efficiency.  What's not commonly understood however. is that Value Stream Mapping.

It is particularly useful because it helps provide Lean projects which are:  Strategically Aligned  Focused on the key blockages (Theory of Constraints)  Grouped into Powerful Clusters  With a good balance between Lean and Six Sigma events  19 .

technical and process level participation. With good preparation it can usually be carried out in three or four days and provides a project blue print which can keep a project deployment going for six months or more. The event is usually facilitated by a champion or sponsor and involves a mixture of line management. 20 .

The high level process begins with a review of high level business strategy.  This activity is followed by the actual value stream mapping event (current state and future state). revenues and profit information together with market and strategic inputs.  21 .  This is done by looking at volumes. It then involves the executive team identifying and prioritizing the value or revenue streams within the organisation. the output of which is a detailed list of projects and events.

VSM symbols Process Symbols: Supplier/ Customer Dedicated Process When placed on upper left When placed on upper right is a process. a process operation. machine or department. department or work center that other value stream families share This icon goes under other icons that have significant information /data required for analyzing and observing the system. Shared Process Data Box 22 . through which material flows. operation.

 Typical information in a Data Box underneath MANUFACTURING PROCESS icons: C/T (Cycle Time) C/O (Changeover Time) UptimeUptime. demand quantity per period. transfer batch size.percentage time that the machine is available etc  23 . etc. material handling information.Typical information placed in a Data Box underneath FACTORY icons is the frequency of shipping during any shift.

24 Push arrow .Workcell indicates that multiple processes are integrated in a manufacturing work cell VSM MATERIAL SYMBOLS: Inventory inventory between two processes Shipments movement of raw materials from suppliers to the Receiving dock. Or finished goods from the Shipping dock to the customers pushing" of material from one process to the next process.

Supermarkets connect to downstream processes indicating physical removal. A system that limits input. Shipments from suppliers or to customers using external transport 25 Material pull FIFO lane Safety stock External shipment . to protect the system against sudden fluctuations in customer orders or system failures. First-In-First-Out inventory. an inventory "hedge" (or safety stock) against problems such as downtime. The upstream workcenter then replenishes stocks as required. Temporary in nature.Supermarket / kanban stockpoint A small inventory is available and one or more downstream customers come to the supermarket to pick out what they need.

the Internet. Triggers production of a pre-defined number of parts. LANs. Intranets. or conversation Represents electronic flow such as electronic data interchange (EDI). General flow of information from memos.VSM Information Symbols Production control Manual Information Central production scheduling or control department. Represents a card or device that instructs a material handler to transfer parts from a supermarket to the receiving process Electronic info Production kanban Withdrawal Kanban 26 . It signals a supplying process to provide parts to a downstream process. reports. person or operation.

This icon represents verbal or personal information flow. without using a supermarket. instruction to subassembly processes to produce a predetermined type and quantity of product. tool to batch kanbans in order to level the production volume and mix over a period of time Scheduling using MRP/ERP or other centralized systems.Signal kanban Kanban post on-hand inventory levels in the supermarket between two processes drops to a trigger or minimum point A location where kanban signals reside for pickup. 27 Sequenced pull Load levelling MRP / ERP Go see Verbal info . typically one unit. Gathering of information through visual means.

VSM General Symbols used to highlight improvement needs and plan kaizen workshops Kaizen burst Operator It shows the number of operators required to process the VSM family at a particular workstation Other useful or potentially useful information. shows value added times (Cycle Times) and non-value added (wait) times. 28 Others timeline .

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Everybody should be able to see from the chart what their job is and how their work fits in with the work of others in the process.Detailed instructions  Processes are simply sequences of actions designed to transform inputs into outputs Process maps show people what their jobs are and how they should interact with one another as part of process.   30 .

 Process mapping is an exercise to identify all the steps and decisions in a process in diagrammatic form which –  Describes the flow of materials.  Displays the various tasks contained within the process. information and documents.  Shows that the tasks transform inputs into outputs.  Indicates the decisions that need to be made along the chain. and reminds us that the strength of a chain depends upon its weakest link.  Demonstrates the essential interinter-relationships and interdependence between the process steps. 31 .

so that the process under review can be readily understood and improvements identified by almost anyone. 32 . Make the charts work for you and keep them as simple as you possibly can.which not only provide the basic overview above but also indicate where or by whom the actions are performed   The primary objective is to make the chart as clear as possible.which provides a basic 'birds eye' view of all the actions undertaken. even someone unfamiliar with the process. There are many different types of charts  Outline Process Map . and  Deployment Charts .

and why. 33   . you will not be able to manage it effectively and if you cannot manage a process. delays or waste. capacity issues.Why process maps?  Making system changes without truly understanding how the process is working today. can lead to costly mistakes If you do not measure a process. Process mapping enables us to clearly define the current processes . identify bottlenecks. you cannot improve it.

34 .  Measure how efficiently the process is working. how predictably and why.  Develop new improved processes to reduce or eliminate inefficiency. Process mapping enables an organisation to:  Establish what is currently happening.  Gather information to understand where waste and inefficiency exist and their impact on the customer or partners.

Construction of Process Maps  Basic flowcharting symbols – A rectangle. representing a decision: – Delay – Transport/ Movement – Storage/ Filling 35 . representing an activity or task – A diamond.

 If necessary "sell" the benefits of the process mapping exercise to the staff.  36 .Preparation for process mapping  Involve those who work IN and AROUND the process. All the following need to be involved: – – – – Those who DO the work The SUPPLIERS to the process The CUSTOMERS of the process The SUPERVISORS / MANAGERSS of the process It is essential to involve operational staff in any process mapping exercise  Assemble a small team ideally comprising representatives from ALL agencies or sections .

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Select and define the limits of the study All parties should be clear and agree on what they wish to achieve through a process mapping exercise Observe the Process in Operation and talk to the staff involved. Walk through the process in sequence, asking how the work gets done. Try to obtain a clear overview without too much fine detail at this stage Roughly and simply sketch the Process (without too much detail) describing the sequence of tasks and decision points as they actually happen. 37

The sketch should indicate:
– – – – WHO does WHAT (Job title/Function e.g. Level A1) WHAT is done and WHEN What DECISIONS have to be taken and What possible paths follow from each decision

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Draw the flowchart initially on a board to represent the operation, as it actually happens Keep it simple to facilitate broad understanding of the OVERALL process Leave the flowchart on the board / wall if possible. This enables reflection and rere-thinking between meetings. Continue until consensus is reached. Rarely is the flowchart complete without rere-work.
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When you have an agreed final product it is time to document your work.

Example

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Benefits of Process Mapping
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Puts a spotlight on waste Streamlines work processes Defines and standardizes the steps and sequence Promotes deep understanding Builds consensus Key tool for workcell design
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Process mapping can help teams to: develop a complete. determine if the current process is the best it can be highlight areas for improvement.7. 41 . shared understanding of a ‘process’ document. as simply as possible. the steps or actions involved in the process (process map) 8.

helping explore the interinter-relationships of the process and those within it  helping the team to understand what is actually happening.Particular benefits of process mapping include:  helping to focus on how the end customer (patient/user) views the process. rather than what individuals thought was happening  42 . the patient's/user’s perspective  taking a holistic approach.

who may not normally have an opportunity. 43 . to express their views highlighting departments or specialists needed to complete key tasks assisting staff to understand how they contribute.      providing an opportunity for staff. which can instill pride and highlight areas for improvement assisting to identify how resources are used assisting to identify inefficiencies and how to eliminate them providing baseline data for measuring how well any changes implemented have worked.

not involving key staff members.  selecting too large or too small a process.Limits The limitations of process mapping generally relate to project implementation.  selecting a process that is not a priority to most of the team.  44 .  poor planning or failure to evaluate the impact of process changes.

 Those creating the map must clearly outline their objectives to management.Facilitation Participation from employees and management is necessary to compile accurate data to create a process map.  Without clear communication between those creating the process map and management.  Management needs to encourage employees to provide useful information based on the objectives. the data collected may not be as accurate or useful as it could be.   45 .

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Unit Unit-3 & UnitUnit-4 47 .  QuizQuiz -II SyllabusSyllabus.Unit Unit-3 CATCAT -II SyllabusSyllabus.

Uses .Kaizen – Kanban .Automation .Limitations planning tools. technology coding classification Improvement Aids •Productivity .V •Cellular •Takt • •Facilities •Group manufacturing time – Definition .Failure modes and effects.5S .UNIT .Benefits .TPM . .Mistake proofing (Yoko poko) Design •Root cause analysis .Jidoka .

is an important ingredient of lean manufacturing. while incurring minimal transport or waiting time. or any delay.  Cellular Manufacturing (CM) refers to a manufacturing system wherein the equipment and workstations are arranged in an efficient sequence that allows a continuous and smooth movement of inventories and materials to produce products from start to finish in a single process flow. manufacturing.Cellular manufacturing: Cellular Mfg.  49 .

it is necessary to locate all the different equipment needed to manufacture the product together in the same production area.Workcell  A work cell is defined as a collection of equipment and workstations arranged in a single area that allows a product or group of similar products to be processed completely from start to finish. 50  . In order to set up a single process flow (or single product flow) line.

The single process flow setset-up described above is an example of a 'work cell'. Under a 'batch and queue' setset-up. In a single process flow setset-up. 51   . the products simply transfer from one equipment to the next along the same production line in a freefree -flowing manner. products that need to undergo processing need to be transported to the area where the equipment are located. avoiding transport and batching delays. There they are queued for processing in batches resulting in transport and batching delays.

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53  . a large company with diversified products needs to build several. Given enough volume of products to work with. different work cells if single process flows are desired. work cells have been proven by experience to be faster and more efficient in manufacturing than 'batch and queue' systems. Since differentlydifferently-processed products need different work cells.

 Because of the free flow of materials in cellular manufacturing. usually by balancing the equipment capacities with each other. really work. One technique that cellular manufacturing can use to achieve 'just'just-in in-time' production is the 'pull system‘. it has the ability to produce products just in time. Bottlenecks along the single process flow must be eliminated. 54   . It is not enough to simply arrange different equipment in sequence to make cellular mfg. time.

and 7) improved customer response time. 6) higher effective manufacturing capacity. Balancing equipment capacities may mean: 1) choosing 'right'right -sized' equipment that match each other. 4) optimized use of floor space. 2) elimination of waste. 5) shorter production cycle times. BENEFITS    If properly implemented. the benefits of cellular manufacturing include: 1) higher production efficiency. and/or 2) combining two or more smaller capacity equipment to match one largerlarger-capacity equipment. the overover-all production cost becomes lower and profits become greater 55 . 3) reduced inventory levels. As a result.

4. Orient the project Classify the parts Analyze the process Couple into cell plans Select the best plan Detail and implement the plan 56 . 2.Workcell Design  Most cells can be planned using a simple sixsix -step approach: 1. 6. 3. 5.

Which material flow pattern should be used within the cell? • • • • StraightStraight -through U-shaped UL-shaped LComb or spine 57 .WORKCELL DESIGN Questions to be asked to design a Work cell  Layout and Flow Patterns 1.

 Handling and Storage What are the groups or classes of material to be moved? General categories to be examined include: • Incoming parts and materials to the cell • Work in process between workstations within the cell • Outgoing parts and materials leaving the cell What handling equipment should be used for each class of material? What containers or transport units will be used? 58 .

Where and how will materials be stored or staged? What equipment will be used? How much material will be staged or stored? How much staging or storage space will be required? And where should it be placed in the layout? Supporting Services and Utilities: What processprocess-related supporting services are required? What personnelpersonnel-related supporting services are required? What special utilities are required? Water and drains? Special electrification? Special ventilation or exhausts? Lighting? 59 .

This rhythm is known as the TAKT time of the system. Whole organization works on the rhythm provided by the customer.Takt time   Lean manufacturing systems work on a rhythm. The TAKT Time can be calculated using simple formula TAKT time = Net Time Available for production / Customer Demand 60  . or Takt time is the pace of production needed to meet customer demand.

For an example think you work 8 hrs a day for 5 days a week. 61 . For a week you have a demand of 100Pcs.  Takt = 8 x 5 x 60 minutes / 100 Pcs = 24 minutes. Then your calculation will be as follows.   What is the meaning of this? This means that you have to produce a finished product in every 24th minute.

the cell cannot produce at the necessary rate. 5. they all require the same time to execute and that time equals the Takt time.Benefits 1. it stabilizes the system and prevents buildups of inventory and the subsequent stops and starts. 7. 62 . 9. It will give you the rhythm in which the system should operate Production is smoothly planned and operations will be carried out without interruptions The system is in synchronization with customer requirement Pull scheduling is enabled No over production No rush hours in work WIP reduced and problems in the system will be reveled By limiting overproduction. 3. 6. 10. . 4. 2. In an ideal workcell workcell. Takt time helps cell designers. 8. If any operation requires more than the Takt time. all tasks are balanced.

6. Takt . Ensures all production activity will be synchronized from 1st process to final assembly process. It helps Driving out waste within our business 63 . The pulse of the Production System 3. Takt acts as an Enabler for Work Balance 7. and hence the buffer stocks and Work In Progress that populate the ‘Push’ Process Chain. 1. Takt Time acts as an enabler for Flow :If work balance is set to Takt. the process closest to the customer can pull production through the system at the right pace. – FLOW 5. This includes material delivery. Pace of sales 2. Links production activity to actual customer demand 4.Uses Takt Time determines. This pull removes the requirement for scheduling at each stage.

Takt time is useful for only simple cells Identical Work Times are needed for All Products Takt time has little relevance for jobjob-shops and other lowlow-volume. 2. 3. Can lead to unsuitable process designs 64 . 5. highhigh-variety operations Problems can result from an unjustified preoccupation with Takt time.Limitations 1. Designers who think only of Takt time may conclude that certain products cannot use Cellular Manufacturing and their companies lose the many benefits. 6. 4.

GROUP TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYCODING CLASSIFICATION  GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts (arranged into part families) are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in manufacturing and design. There are at least three basic methods that can be used to form part families: – 1. Classification and coding  65 . Manual visual search – 2. Production flow analysis – 3.

 These symbols should have meanings that reflect the attributes of the part.  66 . sometimes called families.  The objectives are to group together similar parts and to differentiate among dissimilar parts.Classification and Coding Classification of parts is the process of categorizing parts into groups.  Coding of a part is the process of assigning symbols to the part. thereby facilitating analysis (information processing). according to a set of rules or principles.

One reason that a design engineer classifies and codes parts is to reduce design effort by identifying similar parts that already exist.  Some of the most significant attributes on which identification can be made are shape.  67 . material and size.

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Kaizen: Kaizen literally means improvement –  When a company adopts the Kaizen model. it strives to improve its processes in small but meaningful ways. Just the opposite is true. but a commitment to excellence by constantly testing and improving the work flow. 69 . And not just a one time improvement. day in and day out.   But the best thing about kaizen – and the biggest reason that every company should adopt it – is that it does not rely on expensive innovative solutions.

a higher degree of safety. greater profits  70 .  Looking for ways to make small improvements should be part of everyone’s job. every day of the week. all of these small improvement will add up to better working conditions. And after a period of time. immediate improvements in the processes and standards of the workplace. But not just one improvement. more efficiency and ultimately.The core principal of kaizen is to make small.

So Kanban refers to "visual cards". when they need it. where they need it.  71 .  The word Kan means "visual" in Japanese and the word "ban" means "card". such that workers have what they need. parts and supplies.Kanban: Kanban : A system of continuous supply of components.

Kanban benefits Reduce inventory and product obsolescence.  Reduces waste and scrap  Provides flexibility in production  Increases Output  Reduces Total Cost  72 .

 The 5Ss are:  Sort (Seiri (Seiri) ) – The first step in 5S is to eliminate all the things in the workspace that are not being used and store them away.  It is systematic approach to workplace organization and cleaning that will transform a disorganized workplace into an efficient running machine.5S The heart and soul of visual management is 5S. 73 .

you want to create a culture that will follow the steps on a daily basis  74 . setting and shining.  Standardize (Seiketsu (Seiketsu) ) – The fourth step is to develop a routine for sorting.Set in Order (Seiton (Seiton) ) – The second step is to arrange the items used on a daily basis so that they can be easily accessed and quickly stored.  Shine (Seiso (Seiso) ) – Next is to get everything cleaned and functioning properly.  Sustain (Shitsuke (Shitsuke) ) – In the last step.

increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.  Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment.  The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while. at the same time.  75 .TPM It can be considered as the medical science of machines.

 76 .  The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business.

 77 .  Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.  Producing goods without reducing product quality.  Goods send to the customers must be non defective.  Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment. The important ones are listed below.  Reduce cost.TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives.

5 or 2 times. )  Reduce accidents.Benefits of TPM  Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1.  Satisfy the customers needs by 100 % ( Delivering the right quantity at the right time.  Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.  Follow pollution control measures.  Rectify customer complaints. 78 . in the required quality.

79 . Automation means performing a particular task with the help of machines.Automation  The term automation refers to the phenomenon where a job is performed without the help of any human interference.

FMEA is used to identify potential failure modes. thereby enhancing reliability through design. determine their effect on the operation of the product. and identify actions to mitigate the failures.  80 .Failure Modes and Effects  Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is methodology for analyzing potential reliability problems early in the development cycle where it is easier to take actions to overcome these issues.

safe. While anticipating every failure mode is not possible. The early and consistent use of FMEAs in the design process allows the engineer to design out failures and produce reliable. the development team should formulate as extensive a list of potential failure modes as possible. A crucial step is anticipating what might go wrong with a product. and customer pleasing products  81 .

focuses on global system functions  Design .The types of FMEA are: System .focuses on components and subsystems  Process .focuses on service functions  Software .focuses on software functions  82 .focuses on manufacturing and assembly processes  Service .

Benefits of FMEA           Improve product/process reliability and quality Increase customer satisfaction Early identification and elimination of potential product/process failure modes Prioritize product/process deficiencies Capture engineering/organization knowledge Emphasizes problem prevention Documents risk and actions taken to reduce risk Provide focus for improved testing and development Minimizes late changes and associated cost Catalyst for teamwork and idea exchange between functions 83 .

FMEA Procedure Describe the product/process and its function  Create a Block Diagram of the product or process  Begin listing items or functions  Identify Failure Modes.  Describe the effects of those failure modes.  Establish a numerical ranking for the severity of the effect  84 .

Identify the causes for each failure mode  Enter the Probability factor (probability of the cause occuring occuring) )  Identify Current Controls (design or process).  Review Risk Priority Numbers (RPN).  RPN = (Severity) x (Probability) x (Detection) 85 . Current Controls (design or process) are the mechanisms that prevent the cause of the failure mode from occurring  Determine the likelihood of Detection.

 Assign Responsibility and a Target Completion Date for these actions.Determine Recommended Action(s) to address potential failures that have a high RPN.  86 .  Indicate Actions Taken  Update the FMEA as the design or process changes.

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88 . Name three basic methods that can be used to form part families 4.QuizQuiz -3 1. Give the 5Ss (Japanese terms) . Give the expansion of TPM and Name any two goals of TPM program. What is a collection of equipment and workstations arranged in a single area called? 2. Give the formula for TAKT time 3. 5.